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Article No : o18_o08

Paints and Coatings, 9. Application

ALFRED BRANDT, ICI Lacke Farben GmbH, Hilden, Germany
ALEX MILNE, Courtaulds Coatings Ltd., Felling, Gateshead NE 10 0JY,
United Kingdom
HELMUT WEYERS, ICI Lacke Farben GmbH, Hilden, Germany

1. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 5.1. Substrate, Surface Preparation, and

2. Coating Systems for Corrosion Protection of Priming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Large Steel Constructions (Heavy-Duty 5.2. Ship Paint Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Coatings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 5.3. Fouling and Antifouling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
3. Automotive Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 6. Coil Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
3.1. Car Body Paints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 7. Coatings for Domestic Appliances . . . . . . 116
3.2. Other Automotive Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 8. Coatings for Packaging (Can Coatings) . . 117
4. Paints Used for Commercial Transport 9. Furniture Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 10. Coatings for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.1. Railroad Rolling Stock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 10.1. Exterior-Use Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2. Freight Containers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 10.2. Interior-Use Coatings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.3. Road Transport Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.4. Aircraft Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
5. Marine Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

1. Introduction uses of powder coatings are described in !

Paints and Coatings, 3. Paint Systems, Chap.
The application of paints to various substrates 4.. Once applied, the wet paint film must dry to
(e.g., metals, wood, plastics, and concrete) is the a hard solid film. Paints that dry at ambient
most widely used method of protecting materi- temperature (air-drying paints) may be force-
als against corrosion and degradation. It is also dried at temperatures up to 100  C. Other
used to obtain properties that include gloss, types of paints require higher temperatures
color, completely smooth or textured surfaces, (120220  C) for film formation that involves
abrasion resistance, mar resistance, chemical reaction of two and more binder components.
resistance, and weather resistance. Normally, Thus, the paint formulator has to consider both
a combination of properties is required. Paint the properties of the liquid film and those of
systems are therefore applied that generally the final dry film. Liquid film properties have
consist of a primer, an intermediate coat, and to be considered during storage, application,
a topcoat. These coats of paint together with the and curing.
substrate surface and surface layers resulting To obtain a properly formulated paint, test-
from substrate preparation and pretreatment ing has to be carried out in different stages
form the coating system. Only this complete (! Paints and Coatings, 8. Properties, Test-
coating system can provide the combination of ing, and Analysis, Chap. 1. and ! Paints and
properties required for the wide range of uses of Coatings, 8. Properties, Testing, and Analysis,
organic coatings. Chap. 2.): weathering and corrosion tests,
Most paints are supplied as liquids that are application tests, field trials that test in-use
applied by different methods, using various behavior, and durability. The paints can only
types of equipment (see ! Paints and Coat- be used commercially when they have passed
ings, 7. Paint Application). The properties and these tests.

 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

DOI: 10.1002/14356007.o18_o08
106 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

2. Coating Systems for Corrosion Heavy-metal pigments (mainly lead pig-

Protection of Large Steel Constructions ments) and zinc chromates were used succesfully
in earlier decades. These pigments are now being
(Heavy-Duty Coatings) [1, 2] replaced by nontoxic pigments (see Section 4.1,
and ! Pigments, Inorganic, 1. General).
Large steel constructions have vast metal sur-
The first and second topcoats build up the
faces which must be protected against corrosion
necessary dry film thickness and protect the
to maintain their proper function. Such construc-
entire coated construction against the adverse
tions include road and railroad bridges, electric
influence of the atmosphere.
pylon lines, radio and radar antennae, gas tanks,
Binders based on linseed oil and other oils
storage tanks (e.g., for oils, chemicals, cement,
have been used for many years in anticorrosive
and grain), loading equipment (e.g., cranes, con-
primers. Alkyd binders, especially those with
veyors), mining and drilling constructions, as
high fatty acid contents, perform similarly. The
well as steelworks and chemical plants. Although
main disadvantages of these binders is their lim-
these constructions are sometimes protected by
ited chemical resistance and their slow drying.
inorganic coatings, about 90% are coated with
Chlorinated rubber and poly(vinyl chloride)
paints based on organic binders.
(PVC) resins allow the formulation of coatings
Appropriate surface preparation is of utmost
with good chemical resistance. They are there-
importance for a long service life. Best results are
fore used for steel constructions in chemical
achieved by blasting, using grade 2 1/2 or 3
plants. Since they are not resistant to many
according to the Swedish Standard SIS 055 900
organic solvents, they should not be used in oil
(equivalent to DIN 55 928, part 4, FRG;
refineries or plants handling solvents. The unde-
BS 7079, part A 1, 1989, UK; SSPC-SP 5-SP 6,
sirable fact that these binders contain halogens in
ASTM, USA; ISO 8501 8503). Although mill
high amounts is responsible for their decreasing
scale and old paint are sometimes removed by
use. Overspray of chlorinated rubber and PVC
flame descaling, this method is less effective.
paints and contaminated blasting materials pro-
Residues of rust and corrosion-promoting che-
duced after removing old paint cause severe
micals (e.g., salts) on the prepared surface lead to
problems in waste incineration plants (genera-
early rusting under the new paint and must
tion of hydrochloric acid), as well as in waste
therefore be removed completely.
disposal areas (pollution of soil and water).
In galvanized steel constructions, blasting is
Epoxy resins cured with aminoamide resins or
also necessary to provide a coatable surface. The
amine adducts are often used for large metal
sweep-blasting method is used in which the zinc
constructions. Paints based on these resins are
surface is roughened without removing a signifi-
normally applied in four layers. Epoxy coatings
cant amount of the zinc layer. When construc-
form films that are resistant to organic solvents
tions made of aluminum alloys are coated, their
and a wide range of chemicals. Epoxy coatings
surfaces must be blasted with iron-free blasting
are used for the majority of steel and aluminum
constructions, but are also suitable for use on
Heavy-duty coating systems generally com-
other construction materials (e.g., concrete).
prise two primer coats and two topcoats, modern
They can protect buildings in chemical plants
system sometimes consist of one primer coat and
and nuclear power plants. Epoxy coatings are less
two topcoats. The total dry film thickness (DFT)
susceptible to deterioration by radiation than
of such anticorrosive paint systems is 150
other organic films, and are also resistant to
200 mm, each layer has a minimum DFT of
decontaminating chemicals (usually aqueous de-
4050 mm. Due to their excellent adhesion, the
tergent solutions) used to remove radioactive
first and second primers prevent corrosion of the
dust from walls and other surfaces in nuclear
metal surface. The pigments and extenders allow
power plants.
the primers to react with ions (Cl and SO24 ) that Heat-resistant coatings have silicone-resin
diffuse into the film from the atmosphere. The
binders. Pigments for such paints are zinc dust,
pigmented organic film also forms a barrier
flakes of aluminum or stainless steel, titanium
against humidity that may otherwise initiate a
dioxide, or silicon carbide. Such paints can with-
corrosive process.
stand temperatures up to 600  C.
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 107

Paints with inorganic binders are also used for coats (also called fillers or surfacers), and top-
corrosion protection of steel constructions. These coats (or finish). The primers and fillers are
paints are based on organic silicates which are designated as the undercoating system.
soluble in mixtures of alcohols or other water- Car paints are cured with heat in special oven
miscible solvents (see ! Paints and Coatings, 2. lines. Electrodeposition coatings (used as anti-
Types, Section 15.2.). Ethyl silicate is often used corrosive primers) contain only small amounts of
and mostly pigmented with zinc dust. Zinc-rich volatile organic compounds (VOC), whereas
primers and single coats are available as one- or intermediate and topcoats release considerable
two-pack products. Zinc-rich ethyl silicate paints amounts of VOCs. Intermediate coats based on
dry to form inorganic films that are very durable waterborne resins have been developed to de-
even under adverse atmospheric conditions, crease VOC emission and are already being used
(e.g., on shore and at sea). These coatings have in some automotive plants. Basecoats, as part of
excellent resistance to oil, solvents, and mechan- baseclear topcoat systems, contain very high
ical impact, and are therefore used on drilling amounts of volatile organic solvents. Waterborne
stations, oil rigs, and ships. Since zinc-rich sili- basecoats were developed more recently to lower
cate coatings are heat resistant, they are also used this source of solvent emission. Some car man-
in hot areas of iron works, coal mines, and coking ufacturers are operating pilot lines with the aim
plants. of introducing waterborne basecoats into their
Heavy-duty coatings are often still applied production processes. Many car producers in the
manually with brushes or rollers that completely United States and Europe have already switched
wet the metal surface; holes and pores are filled their topcoat lines over to waterborne basecoats
with paint. This is especially important when old, [3].
partially rusted constructions are repainted after
sanding. Brushing and rolling, however, only Pretreatment. Various metals are used for
allow a slow working speed. Larger surface areas manufacturing car body shells: steel, galvanized
must be painted with airless spraying equipment. steel, aluminum alloys, and zinc-rich precoated
steel. The surfaces of these metals are routinely
contaminated with oils, drawing lubricants, dirt,
3. Automotive Paints and assembly residues (e.g., welding fumes). The
body shells are pretreated to remove these con-
3.1. Car Body Paints taminants and to obtain a well-defined, homoge-
neous surface that has the necessary properties
Cars are coated to achieve maximum, long-last- for adhesion of primers. Pretreatment includes
ing corrosion resistance. Cars must also be given surface cleaning and formation of a phosphate
an optimum appearance that lasts for many years. conversion coat on the shell surface (see !
Long-lasting color and gloss retention as well as Paints and Coatings, 7. Paint Application, Sec-
resistance against cracking (especially in clear- tion 2.1.); six to nine discrete steps are involved
coats of two-coat metallics) are therefore neces- using either spraying devices or baths. Continu-
sary. Topcoats of automobiles must withstand ous control of phosphating solutions ensures
solar radiation and atmospheric pollution (e.g., good results [1, 4].
acid rain and soot from oil combustion). Aggres-
sive chemicals (e.g., road salts and cleaning Anticorrosive Primers. Anticorrosive pri-
agents containing detergents) can damage the mers are applied in dip tanks so that they reach all
coating if they come into contact with the car parts of the car body; dipping is a fast method of
surface. Furthermore, small stones cause heavy application. The standard method for application
impact on automobile surfaces and corrosion via of primers is electrodeposition. Anodic electro-
chipping. deposition paints were used when the electro-
Large numbers of cars are manufactured on coating technique was first applied, but cathodic
fast-running assembly lines. The paints must electrodeposition is now predominant because it
therefore be applied with highly efficient equip- provides better corrosion protection.
ment, and must dry very quickly. The paint The binders for cathodic electrodeposition are
products are classified as primers, intermediate epoxy resin combinations dispersed in water (see
108 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

! Paints and Coatings, 3. Paint Systems, Chap. 3. Long-lasting resistance against weather and
8.). Advantages of anticorrosive electrocoatings chemical influences
include excellent corrosion resistance at a dry film 4. Easy to polish and repair
thickness of ca. 2030 mm. Electrocoats are
stoved at 165185  C to obtain films with the Topcoats based on nitrocellulose combina-
desired properties. The paint industry is now tions with plasticizers and alkyd resins were used
developing electrocoats that can be cured at lower in the first decades of industrial car manufactur-
temperatures (140150  C). Electrocoating pro- ing. These were followed by thermosetting
duces a homogeneous film that covers the entire alkydmelamine combinations, and later by ther-
car body surface, including recesses and cavities. mosetting acrylics. The use of stoving enamels as
Although the dry film thickness on the metal thermosetting paints also accelerated production
edges is somewhat lower, these areas are still significantly. Although the properties of these
efficiently protected against corrosion. The ul- coatings during application and in use were very
trafiltration technique results in a very high good, their high content of volatile organic sol-
transfer effect and a uniform coating: paint solids vents had to be lowered to comply with legal
from the bath are deposited on the metal surface restrictions.
without loss. Since electrodeposition paints have The basecoatclearcoat system is presently
a low organic solvent content, air pollution is the most commonly used type of topcoat for cars
low. The dip tank contents are not flammable, because it is the standard application system for
which reduces insurance costs [5]. metallic colors. Today, about 70% of all cars
have metallic topcoats. The basecoatclearcoat
Intermediate Coats. Intermediate coats (fil- system consists of a colored layer (basecoat)
lers) are applied between the anticorrosive pri- which is overcoated after a short flash-off time
mers and the topcoat systems. They provide good with a protective layer of clearcoat. Both coats
filling and flowing layers which are normally are cured together at 120140  C. The basecoat
smoothed by sanding. Oil-free polyesters are used contains pigments which provide two types of
as binders for fillers. They react with blocked finish: solid (straight) colors or metallic.
isocyanates in 20 min at 165  C. Their high Solventborne metallic basecoats contain ca.
flexibility gives the whole coating system a highly 15% solids and ca. 85% volatile organic solvents.
effective mechanical (stone chip) resistance. These solvents are not released into the atmo-
Fillers are applied with electrostatic spraying sphere, but are converted to combustion gases in
devices (fast-rotating bells) to give dry film afterburners. To reduce emission of organic sol-
thicknesses of about 40 mm. Waterborne fillers vents from this source, waterborne basecoats
with polyestermelamine binders (primer surfa- have been developed.
cers) have been developed to reduce the volatile Waterborne basecoats with higher solids con-
organic content. They yield a film thickness of tents are now available: metallic basecoats con-
30 mm after a prereaction time of 10 min at tain about 18 wt% solids and solid (straight)
100  C and a reaction time of 20 min at 165  C. color basecoats 2540 wt%. The solvent in wa-
The properties of the films are similar to those terborne paints is not pure water; about 15% of
formed by solventborne paints. More recently, organic solvents is still needed as a cosolvent for
waterborne fillers based on blocked isocyanates proper film formation. Metallic basecoats are
have been developed. Field trials have shown that applied at a DFT of 15 mm, solid color basecoats
their mechanical resistance is very good. at a DFT of 2025 mm.
Basecoats are sprayed in two layers. The first
Topcoat Systems. Topcoats form an impor- layer is sprayed electrostatically with high-speed
tant part of the protection system of the car body rotation bells, the second layer is sprayed with
surface, but are much more important for deco- compressed air to achieve proper orientation of
ration. The basic requirements for a car topcoat the aluminum particles in metallic paints. The
are: basecoat is then dried for 35 min in a warm air
zone at 4060  C.
1. Full, deep gloss (wet-look) A final layer of clearcoat is applied with
2. Highly brilliant metallic effects electrostatic high-speed rotation bells [3, 7] to
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 109

protect the system against atmospheric influ- 4. Paints Used for Commercial
ences, including wear and tear during use. Transport Vehicles
Alkydmelamine clearcoats with an approxi-
mate solids content of 50% contain UVabsorbing 4.1. Railroad Rolling Stock
agents to prevent deterioration in extreme
climates. Large numbers of railroad electric and diesel en-
Some car manufacturers use clearcoats with gines, passenger cars, and freight cars are in ser-
acrylic binders that are cured with aliphatic iso- vice. They are designed to function for at least 30
cyanates. Their chemical and mechanical prop- years with minimum maintenance of their coatings.
erties are better than those of alkydmelamine Coating systems for railroad rolling stock are
clearcoats. Solid contents are as high as 58%. used under severe working conditions. Engines
and passenger cars are run at high speeds in many
Car Repair Paints [1]. Repair paints are types of climates. They are frequently cleaned
used in considerable amounts for refinishing cars. with strong chemical solutions to remove the
Since repair shops cannot provide the same heavy dirt adhering to the coating. Freight cars
facilities as those of car manufacturers, repair are also exposed to additional stress as a result of
paints are dried at ambient temperature or ele- impact from mechanical handling during loading
vated temperature up to 80  C (metal tempera- and unloading. Many transported goods (chemi-
ture). Alkyd repair paints and nitrocellulose cals, fuels) attack the coating of freight cars.
paints were standard materials, but two-pack Coating systems for railroad rolling stock must
acrylateisocyanate refinish paints are now more be highly resistant in all respects. This is
common. Their properties are similar to those of achieved by using two-pack coating systems
the original car coatings (long-lasting gloss and (mainly epoxy but also polyurethane) and, more
color, mechanical and fuel resistance). Car refin- recently, coatings of acrylic resins which are
ish paints are available in a wide range of colors, applied as one-pack, waterborne dispersions.
solids as well as metallics. They are often sup- Before applying the coatings, surfaces are
plied to shops and retailers as mixing schemes. pretreated by blasting. Longlife coatings require
Paint systems for car repair comprise anticor- surface pretreatment according to Swedish Stan-
rosive primers, putties, intermediate coats, and dard SIS 055 900, grade 21/2 (equivalent to
topcoats; repair coatings applied to refinished DIN 55 928, part 4, FRG; BS 7079, part A 1,
cars have similar durabilities to those of the 1989, UK; SSPC-SP 5-SP 6, ASTM, USA;
originally manufactured coating systems. ISO 85018503).
Engines and Passenger Cars. The exteriors
3.2. Other Automotive Coatings of engines, passenger cars, and similar vehicles
(subway coaches) are normally painted in a
The properties of coating systems used for car three-coat system. An anticorrosive, two-pack
components differ considerably from those of epoxy primer is applied at a DFT of 80 mm. The
systems used for exterior car surfaces. Color is curing agent is either an amine adduct or an
not important (and is mainly black or gray), but aminoamide resin. Zinc chromate was used for
anticorrosive properties similar to those of car many years as an effective anticorrosive pigment
body coatings are required. Since car compo- but has now been replaced by chromate-free
nents are produced in large numbers, coatings are pigments (e.g., zinc phosphates, barium metabo-
commonly baked at high temperature to ensure a rate, calcium borosilicates, and zinc phosphomo-
high reaction rate and rapid film formation. lybdates) to avoid the risk of carcinogenicity.
Wheels are electrocoated; engine blocks are Anticorrosive primers are followed by a 40
coated with heat-resistant, usually waterborne 50 mm intermediate coat, based on two-pack
materials. Other parts (e.g., steering equipment polyurethane resins. This coat is sanded to yield
and shock absorbers) are painted with two-pack, a smooth surface.
one-coat epoxy systems that are usually solvent- Sometimes, the intermediate coat is over-
borne; use of waterborne systems is, however, coated with the topcoat in a wet-in-wet system.
increasing. Normally, however, two-pack polyurethane
110 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

topcoats are applied to the dried filler. These pigments that are not affected by the transported
topcoats with aliphatic isocyanate hardeners goods; the available color range is therefore
have excellent gloss and color retention. The limited.
DFT of topcoats is 4080 mm, depending on the Although epoxy topcoats show chalking and
hiding power of the topcoat. loss of gloss after a short period of outdoor use,
Red, orange, and yellow pigments used in this does not affect their chemical resistance.
topcoats are now free of toxic lead and heavy Chalking does not cause a significant reduction
metals to protect workers and the environment. of film thickness.
Railroad companies expect a service life of When goods such as salts or fertilizers are
15 years before the topcoat has to be replaced transported, the interior coatings must be chemi-
(provided that spot repair is carried out when cally resistant. Chemical resistance is obtained
necessary). The whole coating system should not by using the same system that is used for exterior
need to be renewed before a minimum service coating. In the case of food transport (e.g., flour,
life of 30 years. sugar, or grain) the coating must also comply
Although two-pack epoxy primers and poly- with relevant legal regulations; thresholds are
urethane intermediate coats have high solids stipulated to limit migration of coating ingredi-
contents, they still contain significant amounts ents into the transported goods. The same resin
(2030 wt%) of organic solvents. In polyure- system as for the exterior coating may be used,
thane topcoats, the VOC is even higher. Anticor- but there are strong limitations for the use of
rosive, waterborne primers based on aqueous pigments, plasticizers, and additives.
dispersions of two-pack epoxy resins and one- In the case of abrasive freight goods, the
pack acrylic resins have been developed to de- interior of the car must be lined with a thick coat
crease solvent emission. Waterborne, one-pack system consisting of solvent-free two-pack poly-
acrylic topcoats are also used. All of these wa- urethane or epoxy material. Toughness com-
terborne paints contain 25% organic cosolvents bined with flexibility results in a film that is
that are required for film formation. highly resistant to abrasion.
Field trials have shown that the expected
durability of the new waterborne coating systems Application. The standard application
is equal to that of conventional solventborne method for most paints used on railroad vehicles
paints. As a further advantage, the number of is airless spraying. A combination of airless and
single coats can be reduced from three to two. compressed air spraying has been recently intro-
Standard freight cars are painted with a three- duced, it is mainly used for applying waterborne
coat alkyd system consisting of an anticorrosive topcoats.
primer, an intermediate coat, and a topcoat, total
DFT is ca. 150 mm. Such systems are being
replaced by single-coat systems of waterborne 4.2. Freight Containers
acrylic resins and acrylic copolymers to reduce
solvent emission. Hundreds of thousands of freight containers have
been built worldwide since the early 1960s. They
Freight Cars. Special freight cars transport are exposed to many types of climate and are
dry and liquid goods that can contain aggressive heavily stressed by wear and tear. Freight con-
chemicals which would destroy alkyd coatings. tainers consist of steel or aluminum alloy frames,
An exterior coating system based on two-pack clad with sidewalls and roofs made of steel,
epoxy resins is therefore used. It consists of the stainless steel, or aluminum alloys. The walls
same anticorrosive primer employed for engines and roofs may be coil-coated. Container frames
and passenger cars. This two-pack epoxy primer are usually blasted to grade 21/2 of the Swedish
is applied to blasted steel, sometimes also stain- Standard SIS 055 900.
less steel. The next layer is a two-pack interme- Prime coating is either a two-pack, zinc-rich
diate epoxy coating with chemically inert pig- epoxy primer with a DFT of ca. 3040 mm, or a
mentation, DFT 4060 mm. chromate-free, two-pack epoxy primer. Topcoats
Topcoats are also based on epoxy resins, their based on PVC copolymerisates, chlorinated rub-
DFT is 4050 mm. Chemical resistance requires ber, silicone-reinforced epoxy esters, or alkyds
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 111

were used for many years. Now, the standard neously form the anticorrosive primer and a
European topcoat is based on acrylic resins with sandable filler. They can protect the metal sub-
terminal epoxy groups that are cross-linked with strates against corrosion.
amine adducts or aminoamide resins. The metals are joined by spot welds and
rivets that may cause electric currents in the
joining areas. Specially designed epoxy primers
4.3. Road Transport Vehicles prevent corrosion in these areas. At ambient
temperature epoxy primer fillers dry thoroughly
Coatings on road transport vehicles are expected in about 16 h. Since this is too long for assembly
to have a minimum service life of ten years. Paint lines, they are normally cured in ovens (80  C
systems must therefore be of high quality. metal temperature).
Bus topcoats are mainly two-pack acrylic
Trucks. Drivers cabins are coated in the isocyanate paints which dry very rapidly at am-
same way as cars (see Section 3.1). Truck chassis bient temperature or under low baking condi-
are especially prone to corrosion caused by stone tions. This is important because many buses,
impact and road salts. Chassis parts are supplied especially luxury coaches, are painted in multi-
by special manufacturers who normally provide stripe color designs. The resulting coatings have
an anticorrosive prime coating. excellent color and gloss retention under service
Side and cross members are pretreated by conditions. This is not only important for long-
blasting and phosphating. An electrodeposited lasting corrosion protection, but also for the
primer coating follows and is sometimes imme- image desired by the owners.
diately overcoated with a topcoat based on an air-
drying alkyd or epoxy ester, or on an oven-drying
alkydmelamine resin combination. After as- 4.4. Aircraft Coatings
sembly of the truck, a third layer (i.e., a second
topcoat) is applied that serves as a supply finish. Aircraft coating systems have an extremely high
These finishes are mostly two-pack acrylicali- quality. Corrosion must be prevented to guaran-
phatic isocyanate topcoats. tee safe functioning of the aircraft. Aircraft man-
ufacturers issue very comprehensive specifica-
Trailers. Trailer chassis are generally coat- tions to ensure the required coating properties.
ed in the same way as truck chassis but with a This demands extensive development work and
two-coat system. The primer is either a one-pack careful paint formulation, because the coating
alkyd paint or a two-pack epoxy paint that are properties must be obtained with a minimum dry
cured at ambient temperature with amine adducts film thickness to minimize weight. Aircraft coat-
or isocyanates. ing systems must also be resistant to hot hydrau-
Truck bodies are often constructed of steel lic fluids.
frames with aluminum side walls. The aluminum The aluminum alloys used for aircraft con-
alloys are pretreated by application of 58 mm of struction are pretreated by anodizing, chromat-
a chromate-containing wash primer. The topcoat ing, application of wash primer (68 mm), or
is a two-pack acrylic resin bearing hydroxyl pickling.
groups and is cross-linked with aliphatic Anticorrosive primer formulations are based
isocyanates. on epoxy resins that react at ambient temperature
with amine adducts, aminoamide resins, or iso-
Buses have a profiled steel framework that is cyanates (two-pack primers). Zinc or strontium
clad on the sidewalls and roof with steel, galva- chromates are used as anticorrosive pigments.
nized steel, and aluminum alloys. The anticorro- These electrolytically active pigments prevent
sive primer must therefore adhere well to all of dangerous filiform corrosion. Extensive devel-
these metals, and to glass-fiber-reinforced opment work is being carried out on chromate-
plastics. free aircraft primers [8, 9].
Two-pack epoxy primers with chromate-free Aircraft coatings normally consist of two
pigments show the best performance. They are coats. The topcoat used for civil aircraft is a
applied with a DFT of ca. 80 mm, and simulta- high-gloss two-pack polyurethane product, cured
112 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

with aliphatic isocyanates. Single-coat systems 5.1. Substrate, Surface Preparation,

based on thermoplastic acrylic resins have been and Priming
used for military aircraft, but are being replaced
by polyurethane topcoats [10]. Substrate. In marine construction the sub-
strate is generally hot-rolled mild steel, with
some high-tensile steel in highly stressed areas
5. Marine Coatings [1113] (apertures in container ships), and aluminum
where there are weight penalties (e.g., topsides
The requirements of any coating system are of passenger liners, ferries, and naval vessels).
determined by its in-use environment (service,
construction, or maintenance). The sea is wet, Surface Preparation. Steel hot rolled at
salty, usually oxygenated, sometimes anaero- 800900  C acquires a tenacious oxide layer
bic, and full of living organisms which may (mill scale) that is cathodic with respect to the
colonize the surface of a vessel or platform steel to the extent of about 300 mV. In the
[11]. presence of an electrolyte (seawater containing
During construction and maintenance cycles, 3.5% salts, mainly sodium chloride) the steel
coatings have to adapt to the environment with- would corrode and pit and roughen severely. The
out disrupting time schedules and productivity. first process in new construction and refurbish-
They must also conform to increasingly strin- ment is therefore the complete removal of mill
gent considerations of occupational safety and scale. A small amount of very light-gauge steel is
health, and to environmental constraints. While prepared by acid pickling, but most steel for ship
construction to the block-stage (stage at and offshore construction is centrifugally or
which the prefabricated block is transferred to pneumatically blasted with steel shot that can be
the building dock) frequently takes place under recycled or with expendable abrasive grit. Free-
cover, final assembly and painting take place dom from scale and soluble salt contamination
under ambient conditions (10 40  C, and are the main requirements, texture and profile are
40100% relative humidity). Marine paints less important [13].
must be able to tolerate this range of climate
as well as application methods and skills. For Priming. In new construction the freshly
maintenance, the advent of larger vessels, smal- blasted steel surface is highly reactive and re-
ler and more specialized crews, and increased quires corrosion protection during construction.
vessel activity, means fewer or no opportunities It immediately passes through an automatic shop
for in-service maintenance. Improved plant re- or blast priming plant. The design criteria for
liability means longer intervals between shop primers are set principally by the ship-
drydocking. builder, with the consequence that their fitness
The requirements of marine coatings may for purpose is compromised. The main criteria
therefore be considered under the following are:
1. Speed of Drying. The primer is applied to the
1. Substrate: usually hot-rolled mild steel, high- substrate on a horizontal moving conveyor;
tensile steel, or aluminum the plate must dry quickly to allow handling
2. Surface preparation: usually centrifugal or and stacking within a few minutes
pneumatic blasting with recycled shot or ex- 2. Speed and Quality of Welding. The primed
pendable grit blasting media plates are cut and welded by a number of
3. Priming: the dominant consideration is the techniques (plasma, submerged arc, inert gas,
effect on the efficiency and quality of new manual metal arc, laser). The primers must not
construction interfere with the speed and quality of weld-
4. Design requirements: examples are anticor- ing. The principal defects of the previous
rosive, antifouling, chemical resistance, im- generation of materials was their high organic
pact and abrasion resistance, cosmetic quali- content, which yielded porous welds
ties, friction and camouflage at various acous- 3. Occupational Safety and Health. Emission of
tic and electromagnetic wavelengths toxic vapors must be minimized; hence, shop
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 113

primers that form inorganic films (zinc sili- and industrial pollution, thorough washing and/
cate) are now mainly used or grit sweeping is necessary to remove water-
4. Lifetime. Ship construction times have soluble corrosion products of zinc (sulfate, chlo-
dropped and much prefabrication is done ride, and ammonium salts) before overcoating.
undercover, so that anticorrosive protection Performance is also reduced if the complete paint
(weathering) during construction may only be system requires chemical or impact and abrasion
required for 39 months resistance. In such cases reblasting is necessary
5. Burning and Weld Spatter. Limiting degrada- (particularly in chemical tanks, but also in ballast
tion of the primer in the heated zone and spaces and on the external hull) to completely
nonadhesion of weld spatter are important remove the shop primer. Grit sweeping may also
considerations for subsequent coating be used but is not as efficient. Maximum primer
operations thickness must be strictly controlled to about
25 mm.
The above constraints mean that only a limited
range of coating materials is suitable for marine
construction: 5.2. Ship Paint Systems

1. Wash or etch primers based on poly(vinyl The painting areas of a ship are shown in Figure 1.
butyral) and phenolic resins pigmented with The main requirement of marine coating systems
zinc tetroxychromate is corrosion prevention. Detailed requirements
2. Epoxy primers cured with amine adducts or vary with the particular internal or external area
polyamides, pigmented with zinc, zinc chro- (e.g., chemical resistance in cargo tanks; resis-
mate and potassium chromate, strontium tance to seawater in ballast spaces; heat resistance
chromate, or, more recently zinc phosphate in engine rooms; impact and abrasion resistance
and calcium phosphate on boottoppings, external hulls, and decks; cos-
3. Epoxy primers cured with amine adducts, metic qualities on superstructure and topsides).
containing inert pigments (usually iron oxide) Although still referred to as anticorrosives,
4. Epoxy primers, zinc-rich, cured with polya- marine coatings are technically barrier coatings
mines or polyamides that depend on ohmic resistance for their protec-
5. Epoxy primers cured with amine adducts, con- tive qualities. The ohmic resistance is maintained
taining leafing aluminum flake pigmentation by impermeability to water and hydroxyl ions.
The use of toxic anticorrosive pigments such as
These organic primers have, however, largely been red lead, white lead, lead silicochromate, and
discarded in favor of the organic zinc silicate zinc chromate has declined for safety and health
shop primers (see also ! Paints and Coatings, 2.
Types, Section 15.2.). These are low-zinc versions
of zinc silicate anticorrosive primers. Low zinc
concentrations are used to minimize volatilization
of zinc metal and formation of zinc oxide aerosols
at welding temperatures.
Dilution of the zinc with other pigments (ex-
tenders) requires careful compromise: the pro-
tective qualities of a conductive zinc film with
continuous contact should be retained without
increasing the emission of toxic vapors. Diluent
pigments are therefore chosen for their heat
resistance and contribution to the impermeability
of the films; they include titanium dioxide, iron
(III) oxide, talc, mica, and china clay. Figure 1. End-on view of a ships hull showing painting
areas a) Topsides; b) Boottopping or wind and water line
Limitations in performance are several. Zinc (may be exposed or immersed); c) Lower sides (always
is volatilized at weld lines and cut edges, reduc- immersed); d) Superstructure; e) Decks; f) Bottom; g) Water
ing anticorrosive protection. In areas of marine level (heavy load); h) Water level (light load)
114 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

reasons. Zinc (or calcium) phosphate is one of the rinated polymers as one-pack, nonconvertible
few anticorrosive pigments still in common use. coatings, or by combination with epoxy or poly-
There has also been a move away from medium urethanes in high-performance two-pack con-
oil alkyds and tung oil/phenolic drying oils for vertible coatings. Similar materials are preferred
primers and undercoats, and long oil alkyds for for coating ballast spaces and double bottoms in
finishing. They are convenient maintenance ma- vessels, where economical systems are required
terials, but reduced maintenance requirements that do not have to be attended throughout the
have meant a move towards nonconvertible lifetime of the vessel (1525 years). Multiple
(chemically drying) epoxy and polyurethane coats with a total thickness of 250400 mm are
coatings, and a decline in the use of convertible usually employed.
(physically drying) acrylic, vinyl, or chlorinated The environment in chemical tanks is
rubber coatings for topsides and boottoppings. amongst the severest to which marine coatings
Retention of color and gloss have been improved are subjected. Each tank may have to transport
with rust-hiding, antistaining additives (e.g., cal- some 1500 bulk, liquid cargoes that include crude
cium etidronate or other iron(III) sequestering oil, refined gasoline, aviation spirit, diesel oil,
agents). solvents, vegetable oils, or wine. Inorganic car-
For similar reasons in the boottopping area goes are also carried in solution (e.g., alkalis and
and on decks, where the most severe mechanical acids). New demands also appear such as meth-
and corrosive problems occur, traditional drying anol as a fuel and feedstock, and methyl tert-
oilred lead compositions are being replaced by butyl ether as an additive for lead-free petrol.
solvent-free or high-solids, impact- and abra- No single type of coating is universally appli-
sion-resistant epoxies with outstanding mechan- cable, and nonpaint alternatives may also be used
ical properties. External underwater hull coatings (e.g., rubber linings and stainless steel). Vessels
have changed more slowly. They originally con- that are not dedicated to a single type of cargo
sisted of mixtures of coal tar pitch, modified with (parcel tankers) usually have a number of coating
natural bituminous materials (e.g., asphaltums systems.
and gilsonite) by cooking with lead and drying The tank coating has three purposes:
oils, pigmented with leafing aluminum flake.
They had a high water and oxygen impermeabil- 1. To prevent corrosion of the steel
ity but deficient mechanical properties. Further- 2. To prevent contamination of the cargo
more they are not resistant to cathodic protection, 3. To facilitate cleaning and avoid cross-con-
either by impressed current or sacrificial zinc or tamination of one cargo by another
aluminum anodes.
Coal tar pitches are less readily avialable than Variants of six main paint systems are used
they used to be; their content of polynuclear (Table 1).
aromatic hydrocarbons makes their safe use sus- Zinc silicates are outstanding for nonreactive
pect. They have been replaced to some extent by hydrocarbon cargoes. The remaining systems are
the less effective petroleum bitumens whose all highly cross-linked and their advantages are
mechanical properties are improved by combi- generally a function of the cross-linking density
nation with poly(vinyl chloride) and other chlo- and their specific chemical stability. Heat is of

Table 1. The most important paint systems for marine tank coatings

Paint system Advantages Limitations

Zinc silicate outstanding neutral solvent resistance poor acid and alkali resistance
poor film formation at low humidity
Epoxy cured with polyamide tolerant to application conditions poor resistance to polar solvents
Epoxy cured with amine adduct wide range of solvent resistance minimum application temperature 5 C
Epoxy cured with isocyanate low temperature, elastic and adhesive poor alkali resistance dangerous to human health
Epoxyphenolic resin outstanding overall resistance, requires heat for ultimate cure
including methanol
Polyurethane excellent low-temperature curing poor methanol alkali resistance and
dangerous to human health
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 115

great advantage in achieving adequate cross- pends on size and frequency of occurrence;
linking density. Some systems require the car- severity of settlement depends on geography and
riage of heated cargo (e.g., palm oil) for up to six vessel itinerary. Because of the wide range of
months after application. Heating, ventilation, organisms (e.g., bacteria, diatoms, algae, barna-
and film thickness all need to be closely con- cles, hydroids, mollusks, ascidians, and sponges)
trolled during application. The steel surface tem- methods of prevention have to be extremely gen-
perature has to be maintained at a constant level. eral. All antifoulings have so far depended on a
In Northern latitudes the outside of the vessel small range of organic, metallic, or organometallic
may be lagged with polyurethane foam and the biocides. They include copper, water-soluble
tanks are ventilated with hot dehumidified air. or water-reactive compounds, organoarsenical,
Certain sequences of cargo have to be avoided organomercurial, organolead, and organotin com-
since the coating systems swell and are stressed; pounds. The biocides function by slowly dissol-
for example, permeability to water (from damp ving (leaching) in the seawater adjacent to the hull
cargo or steam cleaning) may increase following and killing the organism in question. There is a
carriage of methanol or contact with tank-clean- critical leaching rate for each biocide and for each
ning chemicals. Chemical tank coating is thus organism. The objective of antifouling design is to
one of the most critical coating processes requir- select an optimum biocide or mixture of biocides
ing careful coordination of coating formulation, and to control the release rate at just above the
testing, manufacture, surface preparation, and critical leaching rate for macrofouling (i.e., fouling
control and inspection of application. The paints that affects ship performance). Ideally the leaching
are generally applied by airless spraying. Diffi- rate should be linear or zero order. Because leach-
cult geometrically complex areas and welds are ing has to continue for 35 years under adverse
usually cleaned, smoothed by mechanical abra- environments only the most potent biocides have
sion, and coated with a brush [1417]. been found useful (LD50 against target organisms
may be 3 ng/mL). Control of release was at first
poor because the choice of matrix or vehicle was
5.3. Fouling and Antifouling limited to a small number of natural oils and resins
with the appropriate permeability. Controlled-
Fouling and antifouling are unique to the marine release media have, however, since been devel-
industry. In contrast to other coatings whose oped. Stable film-forming resins composed of
primary function is structural, preservation, the trialkyl- and triaryltin esters of acrylic copolymers
outer hull surface of a ship also has to be smooth are used [2022]. When exposed to water the
to maximize ship speed and reduce fuel con- film dissolves with zero-order kinetics and the
sumption [18]. Fouling with marine organisms, surface becomes smoother in turbulent flow [23].
considered as biological roughness, can be im- Self-polishing or ablating antifoulings based on
mediate and drastically increase fuel consump- tributyltin and copper(I) oxide can have antifouling
tion or reduce speed. Some 630106 deadweight lives of five years or more. Trade names include
(tonnes) of marine transport burns 184106 t of Intersmooth (International Paint, United King-
fuel at a cost of $ 18.4109/a. Physical rough- dom); Nautic (Hempel, Denmark); Seaflo (Chugo-
ness would increase this by 10%, fouling by 30 ku, Japan); and Seamate (Jotun, Norway).
40%. The improvement in fouling control and For reasons of safety, health, and environmen-
roughness of ships made since 1974 has been tal protection, organolead, -arsenic, and -mercu-
calculated to have led to worldwide annual fuel ry compounds are no longer used [24]. Use of
savings of $ 720106; the extension of drydock- organotin compounds is restricted to commercial
ing from 2128 months has been calculated to vessels. Although nontoxic, nonpolluting, and
have saved $ 800106. nonhazardous solutions to the fouling problem
Much effort has been directed to the preven- are needed, alternative compounds to the tribu-
tion of fouling [12, 19]. The major concern on tyltin acrylates have proved extremely difficult
wooden ships was the attack of wood-boring to find. However, apart from their susceptibility
mollusks (Teredo and Martesia) or crustacea. to biocides one of the common features of all
Almost any sessile marine organism may be fouling organisms is adhesion. Prevention of
found as a fouling organism. Seriousness de- adhesion with antiadhesive coatings has been
116 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

successful [2527]. This approach requires an with a primer (DFT ca. 5 mm) and a topcoat (DFT
understanding of the physics and chemistry of 2022 mm). Zinc-rich coil coatings are applied
bioadhesion. Hydrophobic fluoropolymers have with a DFT of 520 mm, plastisol films have a
proved ineffective as marine antiadhesive coat- DFT of 80400 mm. The reverse side of the coils
ings. Silicone elastomers are adequate for most is coated with backing coats based on binders,
release purposes and physiologically benign, such as alkyd, polyester, and epoxy resins (DFT
they have shown the most promise. Claims have 810 mm).
also been made for nonadhesion with hydrophilic After a very short flash-off time (310 s), the
agents, but much work remains to be done in this coated metal passes through a drying oven, which
area [28]. can be up to 50 m long. Drying time is 2060 s at
180260  C, depending on the coating type.
Epoxy primers are used as general-purpose
6. Coil Coating [1, 2] primers on steel, galvanized steel, and aluminum,
and under all types of finishes. These primers
Coil coating is a special application method in give excellent corrosion resistance on steel.
which coiled metal strips are unwound and then Acrylic primers have a corrosion resistance sim-
passed through pretreating, coating, and drying ilar to that of epoxy primers, and are used pri-
equipment before being finally rewound (see marily under fluorocarbon finishes because of
! Paints and Coatings, 7. Paint Application, their superior intercoat adhesion.
Section 3.4.). The coated metal strips (0.2 Polyester primers are widely used in Western
2 mm thick) are supplied as coils, and are used Europe. Although their corrosion resistance (salt
to manufacture a wide variety of metal con- spray test) is not as good as that of the other
structions, ranging from flat panels to complex primer types, their mechanical properties are
geometrical forms. The organic coating film superior.
must have a high elasticity to allow the metal The choice of binders for the topcoat depends
to be shaped without damaging the film at the on the end use of the coil-coated metals. Acrylic
edges. topcoats were developed earliest, and are widely
Coil coating allows very efficient coating of used indoors for surfaces that are not exposed to
large surface areas in a short time, the coated water, chemicals, or mechanical stress. Polyester
surfaces have a very high quality. The metal coil coatings provide a good general-purpose
sheets are shaped to the required form after finish, and can be used for a wide range of
coating. applications (e.g., car interiors and accessories,
Coating coils of strips in a large coating caravan exteriors, domestic appliances). Tough,
facility instead of in many small ones results in abrasion-resistant, and durable general-purpose
optimization of the coating process and reduces finishes can be formulated with polyurethane or
pollution of the environment (lower emission of polyester resins.
volatile organic solvents) [1]. Topcoats based on fluorocarbon resins [poly
Prior to coating, the metal surfaces must be (vinylidene fluoride)] produce extremely durable
cleaned and pretreated with aqueous solutions to coatings (life to first maintenance > 20 years
form conversion coatings. The following metal under most climatic conditions) with excellent
surfaces can be coil-coated: color and gloss retention. Like silicone-modified
resins they are used for applications where
1. Steel strips with a width up to 1850 mm weather resistance is required (e.g., exterior pa-
2. Electrolytically galvanized metal bands nels on buildings).
3. Hot-dipped galvanized steel bands (using the
Sendzimir method)
4. Strips from aluminum alloys with a width up 7. Coatings for Domestic
to 1650 mm Appliances [1]
Coil coatings are normally applied by roller Domestic appliances (e.g., refrigerators, deep-
coating machines, but are sometimes sprayed. freezers, dishwashers, washing machines, and
The topside of the metal band is normally painted laundry dryers) are mainly made from blank
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 117

sheet iron, or electrolytically or hot dip galva- combinations are applied with a solids content of
nized steel. Coatings must protect these construc- 3343% and cured at 200  C in 80 s. Epoxy
tion materials against corrosion caused by food phenolic resin lacquers are used in high amounts
ingredients, household chemicals, and the humid for can coating.
atmosphere in a kitchen or laundry. Interior can coatings based on PVC organo-
Domestic appliances are manufactured in sols are highly flexible and resistant. They are
large numbers necessitating adequate application used mainly for cans which are heavily shaped
and drying facilities and fast production lines. during the manufacturing process.
Stoving materials are used that cure in a short Three-piece (body and two lids) cans are now
time at comparatively high temperatures (10 min welded instead of soldered. The welding seam is
at 160  C or 30 min at 120  C). Binders for these coated separately with epoxyphenolic resins or
stoving paints are mainly self-cross-linking PVC organosols that are cured at 260  C for 10
acrylic resins that cure by polycondensation to 20 s. The PVC organosols result in higher dry film
give a smooth homogeneous film with excellent thicknesses, whereas the epoxyphenolic welding
mechanical and chemical resistance. seam coatings have better chemical resistance.
Stoved acrylic resin films are generally ap- Special filling goods and a long shelf life
plied as single coats which requires careful pre- sometimes require an extremely high dry film
treatment of the metal surfaces by cleaning and thickness for the welding seam coating. Powder
phosphating. The paints are applied by electro- paints are then applied electrostatically to give a
static spraying using rotating bells or disks. dry film thickness of ca. 50 mm.
Certain components of domestic appliances are Beverage cans are two-piece (body and lid)
also coated with electrodeposition paints. Two- cans produced by the drawn and wall ironing
pack polyurethanes are applied if the dimensions of (DWI) process. They require highly flexible coat-
the parts are too large for the electrodeposition ings based on epoxy resins cross-linked with
bath. These paints dry at ambient temperature to aminoplast resins.
give films with similar properties to stoving acrylic For many years, paints used to coat cans
enamels. Solvent-free powder coatings are also contained considerable amounts of volatile or-
used to coat domestic appliances. ganic solvents. Waterborne can coatings were
developed to reduce solvent emissions and are
used worldwide. Binders used in waterborne can
8. Coatings for Packaging (Can coatings are modified epoxy resins (see ! Paints
Coatings) [1] and Coatings, 2. Types, Chap. 10.). Acidic acry-
late chains are grafted onto an epoxy molecule.
About 100109 cans are produced annually After partially neutralizing with amines, the re-
worldwide for packing perishable food (! sins can be dispersed in water.
Foods, 2. Food Technology, Section 4.3.). Cans Both waterborne and solventborne can coat-
can be considered as a single material, consisting ings must not affect the can contents, especially
of a metal substrate with an organic lacquer. their taste. Components of coating films are not
The interior coating of cans is very important allowed to migrate into food, beverages, or other
because it prevents the metal from reacting with filling goods. In most countries, food packaging
the ingredients of the filling goods. The can is subjected to legal regulations. The raw materi-
exterior is painted to prevent corrosion, but also als used to produce can coatings and the coatings
for decorative reasons. Coatings based on com- themselves are strictly limited.
binations of polyester or acrylic resins with mel-
amine resins are used for can exteriors. Lacquers
based on phenolic resins are especially resistant 9. Furniture Coatings [1]
against aggressive can contents. Curing at 200  C
produces densely cross-linked films with high See also ! Wood, ! Wood, Surface Treat-
chemical resistance, but poor flexibility. ment, and ! Wood, Preservation
Combining phenolic resins with epoxy resins The long-term value of furniture depends to a
results in films with good chemical resistance and high degree on its surface characteristics. Un-
flexibility. Interior coatings based on these resin treated or uncoated surfaces very quickly lose
118 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

their good appearance and deteriorate under chemicals or mechanical stress, dried film is
conditions of use. Different forms of wood are soluble in organic solvents
used for furniture (e.g., solid wood, veneer, 2. Polyester Paints. Binder based on unsaturated
plywood, particle board, and chipboard). Solid polyester resins (copolymerized with sty-
wood and veneer may originate from different rene), low emission of organic solvents, cata-
types of trees with a wide range of properties lytic curing by organic peroxides or UV radi-
partly due to their contents of resins and essential ation, highly resistant to abrasion, alcohols,
oils. and other chemicals (cleaning agents)
The natural humidity content of fresh wood 3. Polyurethane Paints. Polyester, polyether, or
has to be lowered to a maximum level of 1015% acrylic resins containing hydroxyl groups are
before it is coated. Continuously varying atmo- cured with isocyanate hardeners, medium to
spheric humidity in air leads to changes in the high solids contents, best overall properties in
volume of the furniture wood. Furniture coatings terms of mechanical and chemical resistance
must therefore have excellent film flexibility as [32]
well as film hardness, and resistance to abrasion
and fluids (e.g., alcohols). Prior to coating, wood
surfaces usually have to be smoothed by sanding, 10. Coatings for Buildings
using putty, patinating, staining, or pore filling.
Resins and essential oils are often extracted Coatings for buildings are solvent- or water-
with organic solvents to prevent the coating from borne. They include coatings that can protect all
cracking, discoloring, and developing other materials used in building and construction work
faults. (e.g., wood, steel, light metals and alloys, plas-
Automatic spraying, machine roller coating, tics, concrete, plaster) against corrosion and de-
and curtain coating are used for industrial appli- composition; they can also give a decorative
cation of furniture coatings. Drying is accelerat- appearance.
ed by air circulation and/or increased tempera- Solventborne paints are mainly alkyd paints
ture up to 80  C. IR drying ovens and tunnels are with mineral spirit as solvent. Paints based on
also used. synthetic resins and two-pack paints with hydro-
Furniture coatings can be clear or pigmented carbon, ester, or ketone solvents are, however,
with many different color shades. The surface also used. Gloss ranges from silk-matt to high
can be high gloss, semigloss, matt, or textured. gloss.
Some coatings leave the wood pores open to give Waterborne systems are formulated with pure
the wood surface a more natural appearance; the acrylates and have a solvent content below 10%,
bottom of the pores must, however, be coated preferably glycols. The gloss is between silk-
evenly to protect the wood surface completely. matt and full gloss.
Application of a film that fills the wood pores Emulsion paints (see also ! Paints and Coat-
results in a completely smooth surface coating. ings, 3. Paint Systems, Chap. 5.) with a solvent
For many years, nitrocellulose coating sys- content below 4% are based on vinyl or acrylic
tems were preferred for indoor furniture and polymers and copolymers (e.g., with styrene).
other wood parts. These systems are still used Gloss is between matt and silk-glossy.
on low-price furniture, but are gradually being Architectural paints are applied in situ with
replaced by coatings based on polyurethanes and brushes or rollers in Europe, but spray applica-
unsaturated polyesters. Most modern wood and tion is widely used in the United States on
furniture coatings are based on special acrylic concrete and wooden buildings. Paints on win-
resins and unsaturated polyester resins, cured by dows and doors are brush applied. Structural
UV or electron-beam radiation [30, 31]. components (e.g., doors, windows, radiators) that
The properties of furniture coatings can be receive primers or complete coating systems
summarized as follows: during production or in the workshop are dipped
or sprayed.
1. Nitrocellulose Paints. Cheap, high content of Since the decorative effect is a very important
organic solvents, low solids content, dry at factor in architectural paints a large number of
ambient temperature, not very resistant to shades in various gloss gradations are available.
Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 119

Manufacturers color cards, the German RAL- to protect dimensionally stable structural parts
register (Deutsches Institut f
ur G
utesicherung against direct weathering [36].
und Kennzeichnung), and the Swedish NCS
(Natural Color System) shade charts provide a Coating for Metals. Steel, zinc, and light
survey of available shades. metals are largely topcoated with alkyd resin
systems. Choice of an appropriate surface treat-
ment and a suitable primer are important, partic-
10.1. Exterior-Use Coatings ularly with galvanized surfaces and light metals,
because adhesion to these substrates presents
Exterior-use coatings must be weather-resistant: difficulties [37].
they must adhere to a wide range of substrates Primers based on modified alkyd resins or
and retain their gloss and shade fastness for a two-pack epoxy resins for derusted ferrous me-
number of years. Suitable binders and pigments tals mainly contain zinc phosphate and zinc oxide
must therefore be chosen [33]. as a corrosion protection pigment. Nonferrous
metals are first washed with an ammoniacal
Coatings for Mineral Substrates. The bin- wetting agent before applying the primer that
ders must be particularly resistant to alkali be- contains a binder based on synthetic resins (e.g.,
cause otherwise hydrolysis can occur in the PVC copolymers, chlorinated rubber) which en-
presence of moisture due to the high pH of the sure good adhesion to the substrate. The same
substrate. Aqueous systems such as silicate primers must be used on zinc or galvanized
paints and vinyl or acrylic emulsion paints with surfaces because the use of alkyd resins causes
silicone resin additives are suitable for opaque embrittlement [38].
and semitransparent coatings. Solventborne sys-
tems are based on synthetic resins (e.g., styrene Coatings for Plastics. The use of plastics in
acrylate polymers). Two-pack polyurethane building and construction (e.g., glass-fiber-rein-
coating materials with an aliphatic isocyanate as forced resins, rigid PVC) is constantly increas-
hardener can also be used. Colorless, water-re- ing, as is the trend towards renovating such
pellent impregnations are obtained with silicone surfaces. The surface is first cleaned and, if
resins or siloxanes in solvent and silicates in necessary, roughened. A one-pack primer based
water [34]. on chlorinated rubber or chlorosulfonated poly-
ethylene (as is conventional with galvanized
Coatings for Wood. Wooden structures can surfaces) or a two-pack epoxy primer is then
receive colorless, semitransparent, or opaque applied. The primer can then be coated with a
coatings. The binder and pigment of the systems topcoat system that is usually formulated with
must be formulated such that a sufficient film medium or long oil alkyd resins [39].
thickness reduces exchange of moisture and thus
swelling and shrinkage of the wood.
The UV transparency of the coating has to be 10.2. Interior-Use Coatings
low to prevent depolymerization of the wood
lignin. This is achieved by using UV absorbers Wall Coatings for mineral substrates are
in varnishes and transparent iron oxides in stains largely formulated as dispersions. Cleanability
[35]. (wipefastness, washfastness, abrasion resistance)
Long oil alkyd resins are used as binders for rather than weather resistance is, however, the
solventborne products; acrylic resin dispersions prime concern (DIN 53 778). Fungal contami-
alone or mixed with alkyd resin emulsions are nation can easily occur in damp, moist areas and
used for waterborne products. Stains may be of is prevented by adding fungicides (e.g., carba-
the impregnating or coating type. Low-build mates or imidazoles).
stains (solids content < 30%) are used on non- Various surface effects can be produced by
dimensionally stable wooden surfaces and on varying the viscosity and adding coarse, possibly
dimensionally stable structural parts as priming colored extenders or fibers. Two-pack systems
coats only. High-build stains (solids content based on polyurethane resins or epoxy resins
> 40%) are used as intermediate- and topcoats are used for wall coatings that require a good
120 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application Vol. 26

resistance to agents used for chemical cleaning good that ignition can be delayed by at least
and decontamination. 10 min.

Floor Coatings. Concrete floors are coated

with low-solvent or solvent-free epoxy or acrylic References
resin materials that may be applied in any desired
thickness. They are extremely resistant to abra- 1 Glasurit Handbuch, 11th ed., Curt R. Vincentz Verlag,
sion, can be made slip resistant with sand, silicon Hannover 1984.
carbide, or high-grade steel granulate, and are 2 K. A. van Oeteren: Korrosionsschutz durch Beschich-
also resistant to mineral or vegetable oils and tungsstoffe, vols. 1 and 2, Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen
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205 207.
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floors are coated with one- or two-pack polyure- no. 3, 97 ff.
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brushing. Acrylate-based waterborne parquet (1989) no. 4, 23 27.
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7 J. Goebbels: Bedingungen fur die Anwendung von
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Primers based on special alkyd resins are gen- 1821 March 1991, pp. 242 249.
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the usual requirements for preventing radiator fahrtLuftfahrtspezifischen Anforderungen an das Kor-
corrosion during transportation and at the build- rosionsschutzvermogen und an die Mediumbestandig-
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21 March 1991, pp. 251 ff.
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the soil. The interior of these premises must be 12 Marine Fouling and Its Prevention, Woods Hole Ocean-
painted with an officially approved coating ma- ographic Institute & United States Naval Academy, An-
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terial that is not dissolved or penetrated by heat- 13 R. Lambourne: The Painting of Ships, chapter 13 in
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15 D. Banks: The Effects of Low Molecular Weight Car-
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bon-forming agent (e.g., pentaerythritol) are suit- Power and Roughness; The Economics of Outer Bottom
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Vol. 26 Paints and Coatings, 9. Application 121

19 J. D. Castlow, R. C. Tipper: Marine Biodeterioration, and 33 H. Kittel: Lehrbuch der Lacke und Beschichtungen,
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21 A. Deeks, D. Hudson, D. James, B. W. Sparrow: Tribu- 36 Bundesausschu Farbe und Sachwertschutz, Beschich-
tyltin Methacrylate Copolymers in Antifouling Paints, tungen auf nichtmahaltigen Bauteilen aus Holz, Data
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22 D. James, GB 1 124 297, 1968. 37 H. Kittel: Lehrbuch der Lacke und Beschichtungen,
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25 A. Milne, M. E. Callow, R. Pitchers: Control of Fouling 39 Bundesausschu Farbe und Sachwertschutz, Beschich-
by Non-Biocidal Systems, in Evans & Hoagland (eds.): tungen auf Kunststoff im Hochbau, Data sheet no. 22,
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26 A. Milne, GB 1 470 465, 1989.
27 R. R. Brooks, EP 329 375, 1989.
28 A. Milne, I. S. Millichamp, GB 2 218 708 A, 1989. Further Reading
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ECCA Congress Brussels, Nov. 1985. P. A. Schweitzer: Paint and coatings, CRC Taylor & Francis,
30 S. Fabriz: Neue Lacksysteme im systematischen Ver- Boca Raton, Fla. 2006.
gleich der Einsatzchancen unter heutiger Gesetzgebung, H.-J. Streitberger K.-F. Dossel: Automotive paints and coat-
Ind. Lackierbetr. 57 (1989) no. 4, 177 ff. ings, 2., completely rev. and extended ed., Wiley-VCH-
31 W. Baulmann: Durchbruch fur die Elektronenstrahlhar- Verl., Weinheim 2008.
tung von M obeloberflachen, Ind. Lackierbetr. 57 (1989) R. Talbert: Paint technology handbook, CRC Press Taylor &
no. 6, 208 ff. Francis, Boca Raton, Fla. 2008.
32 B. Riberi: Polyurethanlacke fur die Mobelindustrie,, Z. W. Wicks: Organic coatings, 3rd ed., Wiley-Interscience,
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