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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.

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FUNDAMENTOSDA
TRADUOEM
LNGUAINGLESA

Autora

ELAINECHRISTINAMOTA

1edio
SESES
Riodejaneiro2016

Conselhoeditorialluisclaudiodalliersaldanha;Robertopaes;Gladis
linhares;Karenbortoloti;Marildafrancodemoura
AutoradooriginalelainechristinamotaProjeto
editorialrobertopaesCoordenaodeproduo
gladislinharesCoordenaodeproduoEaDkaren
fernandabortolotiProjetogrficopaulovitor
bastos
Diagramaobfsmedia
Revisolingusticabfsmedia
Imagemdecapamarciosilva||

Todososdireitosreservados.Nenhumapartedestaobrapodeserreproduzida
outransmitida
Porrecursosmeios(eletrnicooumecnico,incluindofotocpiaegravao)
ouarquivadaem
Qualquersistemaoubancodedadossempermissoescritada
Editora.Copyrightseses,2016.

DadosInternacionaisdeCatalogaonaPublicao
(cip)M917fMota,ElaineChristina
Fundamentosdatraduoemportugus/ElaineChristinaMota
RiodeJaneiro:SESES,2016.
152p.Il
Isbn:9788555481895
1. Traduo.2.Teoria.3.Problemas.4.Solues.I.
SESES.II.Estcio.Cdd420
DiretoriadeEnsinoFbricade
ConhecimentoRuadoBispo,83,blocoF,
CampusJooUcha
RioCompridoRiodeJaneirorjcep20261063

Sumrio

Prefcio5
Pgina1

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

1. IntroduoaoMundodaTraduo,
MercadodeTrabalhoeTiposdeTraduo7

1.1 HistriadaTraduo11

1.2 Mitossobreatraduo14
1.3 Mercadodetrabalho17

1.4 Tiposemtodosdetraduo21

2.A traduoeosramosdalingustica31

2.1 LingusticaeTraduo34

2.2 PsicolingusticaeTraduo40

2.3 SociolingsticaeTraduo43

2.4 Os3CsdeTraduoeunidadesdetraduo47

2.5 MtodosdeTraduo55

3. QuestesPrticasdeTraduo61

3.1 Artigos65

3.2 Gerundvs.Infinitive68

3.3 Discursoindirecto74

3.4 Formulrioscausais77

3.5 Aspectosprogressivos80

4. QuestesMaisPrticasdeTraduo
4.1Opresenteperfeito94

4.2Opresenteperfeitocontnuo101

4.3Confusodeverbos103

4.4Phrasalverbs105

4.5Falsocognatos109
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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

5. DesafioseRegistroCultural:
SignificadoeImportncia119

5.1 Expressescoloquiaisversusexpressesidiomticas124

5.2 Termosdagria128
5.3 Provrbios132

5.4 Tiposderegisto135
Prefcio

Caroestudante,

Bemvindoaomundomaravilhosodatraduoeseulabirintocheiode
surpresasemcadaesquina!

Afundaodolivroresidenoprincpiodequealgumascoisasefatossodignos
desuaatenoantesdequalquertentativadeumatraduoreal.Obviamente,
vocvaipraticarpoucoapoucoatopontode
Textomaislongo.Estecuidadoacontecedevidoaalgunsmitoseuso
excessivodetecnologiaemumareaquesempredependiaecontinuar
dependendodehumanos
Mentesparanenhumcomputadorcapazdefazeroqueaspessoasfazemmelhor:
culturaleassociaeslingusticasemumabasemuitoregulardeacordocomas
necessidadesdeumclienteouoprpriotradutor.

Noprimeirocaptulo,vocvaiencontrarumpoucodahistriada
traduo,
Comoomercadofuncionaparaaquelesqueestodispostosaseaventurar
Estemundoeostiposemtodosdetraduo.OCaptulo2mostrarcomoa
LingusticaeseusramosSociolingusticaePsicolingsticaso
essenciaisaotraduzir.Oterceirocaptulooajudaralidarcom
Estruturaiselexicaisdaslnguasenvolvidas.Captulo4vaiassustaro
fantasmadetpicostraumticosdagramtica,comoopresenteperfeitoe
algunsfrasalverbos.Nocaptulo5,vocsergentilmenterecebidopor
estruturaslexicais
Eoregistrocorretoparacadasituao.

Vamoscomearanossaaventura?

1Introduo
aoMundode

Pgina3

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Traduo,Trabalho
MercadoeTipos
DaTraduo

Antesdecomearmos,imperativoquedefinamosatraduo.Emprimeiro
lugar,apalavra
"Traduo"significaliteralmente"carregartransversalmente","trazer
transversalmente","conduzirtransversalmente".Sevocpensarnisso,
traduziralgonodizrespeitoapenasalnguas;sobreacompreensode
algoecolocloempalavrassomentedepoisdetersidotransformadoem
idias.Pormaisbvioquepossaparecer,nemtodosconcordamemcomodefinir
"traduo".
Oquetraduoparavoc?Oqueistorealmentesignifica?Antesde
continuarlendo,
Algumtempoparapensarsobreisso.

EmsuaTheInvisibilitydotradutor,LawrenceVenuttidizque

Atraduo,naturalmente,umareescritadeumtextooriginal.Todasas
reescritas,independentemente
Refletemumacertaideologiaeumapoticae,comotal,manipulama
literatura
Parafuncionarnumadeterminadasociedadedeumadeterminada
forma.Reescrevermanipulao,realizadaem
Oserviodopoder,eemseuaspectopositivopodeajudarnaevoluodeuma
literatura
Eumasociedade.Asreescritaspodemintroduzirnovosconceitos,novosgneros,novos

Ahistriadatraduoahistriatambmdainovaoliterria,dopoder
deformao
Deumaculturasobreoutra.Masreescrevertambmpodereprimirainovao,
distorcere
E,emumapocademanipulaocadavezmaiordetodosostipos,oestudodo
Manipulativosdaliteratura,comoexemplificadopelatraduo,podemnos
ajudara
Maiorconscinciadomundoemquevivemos.(1995,vii).
WhileVenuttithinksofitasarewriting,Nida(2003)thinksofitasa
reproductionofthesourcelanguagemessageinthereceptorlanguagethe
closestnaturalequivalent,takingrespectivelyintoaccountbothmeaning
andstyle.MildredLarson(1997),ontheotherhand,isconcernedabout
thetransferringofmeaningfromapassageinalanguagetoanother
language
andonitgoes:theideaandthedefinitionoftranslationvaryfromatheoristto

anotheralongwiththeviewtheyhaveabouthowtodoa
translation.Pgina4

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

Asonecanclearlysee,thereareseveraldefinitionsoftranslationandeven
ahighernumberofdisagreementsonhowitshouldbedone.Wewillgooverthe
detailsonwhyinthesecondchapter,though.Fornow,itisonlyimportant
that

werealizethereisnosuchathingastheonlyandperfectdefinitionof
whattranslatingactuallymeansandthereisnoperfectmethod.

Youjusthavetokeepanopenmindtowardsthewholeprocessandthe
focusontheresult,ignoringallthemythsthatsurroundit.Thewholepoint
oftranslatingsomethingissendingamessageacrossanaudienceinawayit
isnotmisunderstood.Furthermore,youshouldrememberthatanytranslation
comesfromasourcelanguage,whichtransmitsanidea,whichcomesfroma
certainculture,whichwascreatedbyelementsfoundintheuniverse.When
thetranslationisfinallydone,itbecomesanotherlanguagethetarget
language,whichhastotransmitthesameideaeventhoughitiswithinin
anotherculturethatmayormaynotusedifferentelementsfromtheverysame
universe,asyoucanseeinthediagrambelow:
Universe
Culture
CultureIdea
Idea
Language1Language2
Thatiswherethebeautyoftranslationlies:inthemagicalmomentwhen
differentcultureshavegottencloserduetothecorrectusageofalanguage
totransmitanideathatcomesfromandgoesbacktoourvastuniverse,
makingtheprocessendlesslyamazing.
GOALSTOBEREACHED
Bytheendofthischapter,youshouldbeableto:

definewhatatranslationisandidentifythemythsthatsurroundit;
understandandvisualizethetrajectoryandthehistoryoftranslation;

haveanideawhatthejobmarketislikenowadays,
identifythebestmethodtotranslateatextaccordingtoeachand
everysituationyouface.

1.1TheHistoryofTranslation

Odesenvolvimentodaculturamundialdevemuitotraduo.Suanecessidade
sempreexistiuedifcilimaginarqueacabareventualmente.Asculturas
precisamencontrarumamaneiradesecomunicarementresi,eaponteparaesta
reunio,emprimeirolugar
Pgina5

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Construdoporumtradutor.Paraseremassimiladas,asidiasdeumacultura
especficatmsemovidoconstantementeeforamassimiladasemoutrasculturas
atravsde
trabalhodeles.Mesmoqueestetrabalhopossatertodosostiposde
desacordosentreostericos,elesnuncatomaramasuaimportnciacomo
garantida.

CONEXO
AHistriadaTraduoempoucaspalavrasemhttp://www.languagerealm.com/articles/

Histriadetraduo.php

Confira!

Ahistriadatraduorelacionasehistriadasinteraestofrequentemente
invisveiseraramentesentidasmassemprepresentesinterculturaisdo
mundo.Desdea
JnosculoVIaCquandoandiaeospasesmediterrnicosestabeleceram
seuslaoscomerciaisidiaseconceitosdoOriente,nomeadamenteandia,a
ChinaeoIraque,influenciaramaculturaocidental.Asteoriasmdicasde
PlatoeGalenoacabaraminfluenciandofortementeasdandia.Muitasdas
obrasfilosficasecientficasdaGrciaantigaforamtraduzidasparaorabe
jnosculoIXdCAEspanha,queerapredominantementeumpasmuulmano
ento,foipositivamenteinvadidaporesseconhecimento,quetambmcomeoua
seespalharparaaEuropaatravsdaescoladetradutoresdeToledo.O
responsvelportaisfeitosfoiAlfonsoVIdeCastelaeLeo.Em1085AD,ele
foiencarregadodetraduesdorabeparaolatim,edepoisparao
espanhol.Estestrabalhoscientficosetecnolgicosconduziramao
renascimentoeuropeu.

TradutoresantigosMuitasvezespermaneceramdesconhecido ou nofundo.

Seucrdito Nuncafoireconhecidoapesarde deles chave Contribuies


ParaomundonsSaberhoje.Hojeemdia,podemos Admitem Eperceber deles quase
Esforodesumanoepenosoparafazlos bem dentroumamundode Conflitos Ebatalhas
Contudo, noSempreaconteceu.

OstradutorespermitiramqueasEscriturasSagradas(aBbliasendooexemplo
maisimportante)escritasemlnguasobscuras,comoolatim,fossem
compreendidasporpessoascomuns,traduzindoasemlnguasmaiscomuns.Ao
fazlo,essaspessoasnodependeminteiramentedealgunssacerdotesdeelite
oumembrosdocleroparaexplicaroqueelescontinham.Aaodetornaras
escriturasmaisacessveis,tornandoaspessoasmenosdependentesdoclero,foi
umaespciederebelio,echegouaopontodeserpunidocomamorte.Em1536,
WilliamTyndalefoipresoeexecutadonaHolandaportraduziraBbliadesuas
lnguasoriginaisparaovernculocomumdoingls.

AWCNZ62|DREAMSTIME.COM
Aediode1538deWilliamTyndaledoNovoTestamentoIngls,quemostrou
otextoemIngls
EotextolatinodeErasmus.DaColeoReedRareBooksemDunedin,Nova
Pgina6
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Zelndia.

MULTIMDIA
Vocquersabermaissobreahistriadatraduo?Vocpodeconferirum
vdeoem
Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GEAebRESLew
Poroutrolado,amaioriadostradutoresrealizadacomreconhecimentoehonra
Porseutrabalhoduroeesforo.Xuanzang,ummongechinsqueditoter
traduzidoparaochinsmaisde70volumesdasescriturasbudistas
originriosdandiaem645dC.Depoisderetornardesuasviagensnabusca
demaisdocumentosparatraduziretornaracessvel,elefoisaudadocom
honrasporseubrilhantetrabalho.Recusousuashonras,econtinuoufazendo
suastraduesatsuamorte,em664AD.
FSGHHC|DREAMSTIME.COM
UmaesttuadeXuanzang,budistachinsfamoso.

Acomunidadedetraduoestavaorgulhosadasbrilhantestraduesfeitas
pelabritnicaConstanceGarnett.Osclssicosrussos,incluindoosde
Turgenev,Gogol,Tolstoy,ChekhoveDostoyevski,vieramvidaemingls
atravsdesuasmosnofinaldosculoXIX.FrancisWranghampublicou
traduesdogregoantigo,latino,francseitalianoqueincluemalguns
sonetostentadosdePetrarcanoinciodavida(1817);AsLetrasdeHorace
(1821)entreoutros.OutrotradutoraclamadomaisrecenteGladysYang,que
traduziumuitosclssicoschinesesparaoinglsnosltimos50anos,eo
nossoMachadodeAssis,quetemamelhoremaisbelatraduodoPoe'sThe
Raven,deacordocomamaioriadoscrticosliterrios.
CONEXO
ParasuaapreciaodatraduodeMachado,vocpodeusareste
link:http://www.jornaldepoesia.jor.br/poemachado.html

Noentanto,sevocquisercompararmaistraduesincluindoadeFernando
Pessoae
Verificarporsimesmoessasobrasigualmentebonitas,useolink
abaixo:
http://seer.ufrgs.br/index.php/translatio/article/view/36692/23759

Portanto,ssepodeperceberqueostradutoresfizeram
Contribuiesaolongodossculosnadisseminaodeidiaseinformaes
para um pblico maior. Eles ajudaram a moldar e desenvolver culturas, de
umaformaquedefinitivamenteajudouauniromundocomosabemos.

1.2Mitossobreatraduo

Tantoquantosepodeentenderclaramenteopapeldatraduoaolongodo
tempo.

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Ouaimportnciadecomofeito,existemalgunsmitosquesodifceisde
morrer.Talvezporserumacinciacomalgumdesacordocomoqualqueroutro
tipodecinciaeporenvolvertarefaslingusticas,atraduosempre
levantoualgumasdvidaseinferncias,erroneamentedespertadas,devemos
acrescentar.

Antes de cavar em mais algum, por favor, tome algum tempo para marcar a
caixa abaixo. Faa como seu corao diz, e no pense muito sobre cada
item.Bastairemfrenteeverificaroqueprimeirovemsuamente.
CONEXO
Paramaismitosdetraduo,leiaestesartigos.Oprimeirocentrase
natraduo
Venda,masvocpodefacilmentetransferirsuasinformaesparaqualqueroutro
contexto.Osegundo
Mostramais5mitossobreatraduo:
Http://www.huffingtonpost.com/natalykelly/tencommonmythsabout
tr_b_3599644.html
http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/translation/articles/translationmyths.html

CONCORDAR
NEM
ACORDO
NEM
DISCRETO
DESACTIVADO
1
Traduoumacinciaquepodeserpraticadapor
qualquerpessoa,desdequeelestmumagrande
quantidadedeconhecimentolexical.
Atraduospodeserfeitaporaquelesqueviajaram
parapasesondealnguadeorigemfalada.Traduo
umdom,etentaraprendertcnicassobrecomoele
poderiaserumdesperdciodetempo.
Otradutordeveserbilingueouviveremumpas
ondealnguadeorigemfalada.
Traduotudosobrealinguagemequasenada
sobreacultura.
2
3
4
5

Quantas"caixasdeconcordncia"vocmarcou?Sevocmarcouqualquerumdeles,
Vocacreditaqueomito.Issomesmo:ummito.Mesmoquehajaumaexplicao
paracadamito,elesnosonadaalmdisso.Vamosexaminarcadaumdeles,
no?

1.A TRADUOUMACINCIAQUEPODESERPRATICADA
PORPgina8

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
QUALQUERUMMESMOQUETENHAUMGRANDENEGCIODE
CONHECIMENTOSLEXICOS.ERRADO!

Oconhecimentolexicalcrucialparaqualquertradutor.Noentanto,no
nemdeveser
Anicacoisaqueumtradutortemquesepreocupar.Oconhecimentolexical
aumentacomotempo
Eprtica.Bonsdicionriospodemserencontradosnomercadofsicoe
virtual.Contexto,
Culturaepedaodepalavras(unidadesdetraduo,quemaistardesero
vistas)soabase
Paraqualquerboatraduo.Chegaremosaelesnosegundocaptulodestelivro.

2. TRADUOspodeserfeitoporaquelesqueviajaram
parapasesondeoidiomadeorigemfalado.ERRADO!

Emborasejaaltamenterecomendvelterpassadopelomenosalgumtempoimersono
mundoculturaldequevocesttraduzindoumalngua,muitosbonstradutores
tm
Nuncafezisso.Paratraduzirbemecompreciso,elesusarammtodose
Almdeseguirosconceitosdesociolingstica.

3. TRADUOUMPRESENTEETENTARAPRENDERTCNICAS

Comopoderiaserumdesperdciodetempo.ERRADO!

Astcnicasdetraduosoessenciaisparaqualquertradutor,no
importaquotalentoso
Etalentosospodemser.Melhorarastcnicaseaprendernovassoasprimeiras
etapasparaumtrabalhomelhor.

4. Otradutordeveserbilngeouviveremumpas
ondeoidiomadeorigemfalado.ERRADO!

Exatamentecomonoitemnmero2,altamenterecomendvelqueumtradutortenha
vividodentro
Aculturaqueelesestotraduzindodeoupara.Contudo,viverno
estrangeirono
Algumumtradutornaturalequedeveserclaro.

5. AtraduoTUDOSOBRELNGUAEquasenadasobre
cultura.ERRADO!

Pgina9

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Sehouvervriosdiscursosediscursosdentrodeumpas,elesdevem
Sertomadasemconsideraoaoestabeleceracomunicao,porqueumtradutor

Ignoraraspectosculturaisenquantofazemoseutrabalho?Traduzir"culturas"
umagrandeparte
traduo.

Estessoapenasalgunsdosmitosqueostradutorestmdelidar.svezes,
seutrabalhonoapreciadocomodeveserdevidoaessesmitos.Hojeemdia,
elestambmenfrentamumproblemamuitocomum:excessoeexcessodeconfiana
datecnologia.

medidaqueonmerodesitesdetraduoaumentoueadependnciadaspessoas
Nainternettambmtemcrescido,elespodemerroneamenteterumtexto
traduzidobemnasuapontodevistaporcausadosimplesfatodequeeles
confiaminternetsuficiente
Paraacreditar.Almdisso,oqueosajudaapensarqueumaboatraduo
oprimeiro
Itemdanossalistademitos:ovocabulriotudooquenecessriopara
traduzir.Noe
neverwillbe!Alaypersonmaynotknowthat,though.Itisthetranslators
dutynevertodiminishtheirworkandimportancesinceitwouldhelpfeedthese
myths.Thereisnowaytodeny,though,thattechnologyalsoaidstranslators
ifwellused.Oneofthebestexamplesaretheprogramsthatmakeuseof
corpora
(acollectionofsamplesofcorpus),whichisavalidasset.Oneof
thedifferences
betweenagoodtranslatorandanybodywhotriestodoatranslationishow
theyusetheresourcestheyhaveathand.

1.3Jobmarket
Beforewegoanyfurtherintothejobmarketoftranslation,itisextremely
necessarytoanalyzewhatittakestobeatranslator.Inthefirstpartof
thischapter,youcameacrosssomedefinitionsoftranslationandthe
disagreementssomeauthorshaveuponit.Definingwhatatranslatorneeds
wouldnotorcouldnotbeanydifferent,then.Whoelse,ratherthan
translatorsthemselves,wouldbebetteratgivingasayaboutwhatittakesto
dothisjob?
MULTIMEDIA
ListentoatranslatorgiveaninterviewonjobmarkettoRede
Globo:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEywpzGbFs4

Soastoclearsomequestions,IvoneC.BenedettiandAdailSobrailhavemade
acompilationofinterviewsofseveralrenownedBraziliantranslators:
ConversascomTradutoresBalanosePerspectivasdaTraduo.Inthe
preface,IvoneBenedetticlaimsthat,eventhoughitisnotsaidoutloudby
all
Pgina10

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
thetranslators,thetranslationmarketiscovertlydividedintotwoverydistinct

areas:technicalandliterary.

Stillaccordingtoher,literarytranslationisthekingdomofadjectives,
verbs,metaphorsandtransgressivesyntacticconstructionswhilea
technicaltranslationiseverythingbutthat(p.22).Shesaysthisisthe
foundationfortheothersubdivisionofthemarket:translationasameans
andtranslationasanend.Inotherwords,thetranslationasameansdeals
withtextsthatare
Novistocomooprodutofinal,comoummanualouasinstruesparamontar
umdispositivo.Elessomerosacessriosparaoprodutofinal,quepode
variardeummedicamentoparaumcaminho,porexemplo.Poroutrolado,a
traduocomoumfim
oprprioprodutofinal,quedepende,senoapenaspelomenosprincipalmente,
datraduoaservendida.Osexemplosclssicossolivrosoualegendagemde
umprogramadeTV.

Tireatraduodaequaoeoprodutotambmdesaparecer.

Oautorafirmatimidamentequeessadivisopodeserofatorchaveparaa
remuneraodeumtradutor.Umavezqueatraduocomoummeiopodetermuito
poucainfluncia
Sobreopreofinaldoprodutofinal,acobranaporelepodenoser
tofinanceiramente
Gratificantecomocobrarporumatraduocomoumfim.Da,ocontrrio
acontececomatraduocomoumfim:elepesasobreopreofinaldoproduto
finalpara
arazoprincipal,talveznica,queoprodutofinalpodeservendido.

Benedetticoncluiquetantoostradutorestcnicoseliterrios
Soautorizadosatrabalharemqualquersetor,desdequetenhamashabilidades
parafazlo.Noentanto,elaadmitequeelespodemsedestacaremum,masno
nooutro.Cabeaelesdecidirsepodemedevemfazlo.Almdisso,elafaz
Umpontoforteevlidodizendoqueoqueinfluenciaaremunerao
Noareaqueestotraduzindo;adivisodomundodatraduoem
Tcnicoeliterrio.

CONEXO
Sevocestiverinteressadoemsaberdetalhesdasentrevistas,umaboaidia
darumaolhadano
Sitedepublicaodolivro.Nela,vocencontralinksparatodosostradutores
queforamsolicitadosadar
Suaopinioevejaporsimesmoquaisasreasaquepertence,decidindoquais
Atenomais.Aquiolinkvai:
http://parabolaeditorial.com.br/releaseconversast.htm

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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Ditoisto,vamospassarparaoquecolegastradutoresdediferentesreas
admitemserobsicoecaractersticaschaveparaalgumparasetornarum
bomtradutor.Acimadetudo,elesprecisam:

1. terticaacimadetudo;
2.a traduoderostocomoumtrabalhoreal,noumtrabalhodeluar;
3. compreenderamplamenteomundoeteramenteabertaparatentarfazlootempotodo;
4. Sejacurioso;

5. semprepesquisaresabercomofazlo;
6. bemeticulousandperfectionist;
7. knowhowtomakedecisions;
8. allowthemselvestothinkoutsidethebox,meaningthatthey
cannothaveastrictandrigidmindunderanycircumstance;
9. adequatetheirworktotheclientsorreadersneedsandprofile,
10. followtheirintuitionmostofthetimes.

Apartfromthesebasiccharacteristics,mostofthempointoutatranslator
shouldtakeacourseonTranslation.Iftheywererareanddifficulttofind
inthe
past,nowadays,ithasbecomequitesimplertofindagoodcourseon
Translation.Anyonewhochoosestotakethispathshouldbeawarethat
specializingintheareaisfundamentaltobuildacareer.Translatingisa
seriousjob,andassuch,soitshouldbetaken.
Inanetalk,FranciscoGilbertoLabaceclaimsitisessentialthatthe
translatormaketheirworkworthyofrecognitionintwomeanings:by
doing
itwelland,especially,bynotallowinganybodytodepreciateitorits
doing.Accordingtohim,mostpeopledonotknow,donotrealizeordonot
wanttounderstandthattranslatingisajoblikeanyother,anditrequires
studyandtime,anditshouldnotbetakenanylessseriouslyor
respectfully.
CONNECTION
ReadLabacesfulletalkusingthislink:
http://www.sbs.com.br/etalks/traducaoemercadodetrabalho/

Quantoremunerao,todoselesdizemquemuitodifcilsaberoquantoum
tradutorganhaexatamente.Dependedevriosfatores,eodebate"tcnicovs
literrio"traduovoltavida.Algunsdelesdizemqueumtradutorquelevao
trabalhoasriopodeganharosuficienteparaviver.Outrosdizemque
impossvelsaberseumtradutorpodeviverunicamentecomosseus

estetrabalho.Oquemaisconcorda,noentanto,queumtradutorganhamenos
doquedeveria,dadaanaturezadoseutrabalho:elesdevemterumgrande
conhecimentodeumarea(oureas,paraesseassunto)enemsempre
reconhecidoporaquelesque
Pgina12
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtcontratamosseusservios.

Almdessestradutores,houtro:otradutorjuramentado.Ostradutores
juramentadossoaquelesquetraduzemparaequivalncialegaledevemfazerum
concursopblicodivulgadopelaJuntadeComrciodeumestadoparaadquirir
estettulo.Eles,aocontrriodosoutrostiposdetradutores,devemseguiro
PelaCmaradeComrciodeseuestado.Elescobramportraduzidalauda(cerca
de25linhas,quetambmpodemvariardeestadoparaestado)esogeralmente
contratadosparaexecutar
Traduesde:

certidesdenascimento,casamento,divrcioebito;

sentenasjudiciaiseoutrosdocumentosdeprocessojudicial,
taiscomopetiesiniciais,cartasrogatriasentreoutras;
proxies;
acordos;
documentosderegistrodaempresa;
documentosdetransporteinternacional;
registosediplomasescolares(ouqualqueroutrocertificadodeeducao);
relatriosdesade;
algunsrelatriostcnicosespecficos,

quaisqueroutrosdocumentosquedevamserlegalmenteapresentadose
reconhecidosnoBrasil.

CONEXO
AquiestolinkparaatabeladepreosdoSindicatoNacionaldos
Tradutores:http://
Www.sintra.org.br/site/?p=c&pag=precos

Last,butnotleast,itisimportanttosaythattranslatorswillalwaysbe
necessaryinaworldwheredifferentculturesneedtofindawayto
communicate.Asonecouldsee,necessityandpricesvaryfromstatetostate,
fromneedtoneed,frompurposetopurpose,andgoodtranslatorsarealways
busydoingservices.Thepointis:whatkindoftranslatorwouldyouliketo
become?

1.4Typesandmethodsoftranslation

Whenitcomesdowntotranslating,thereismorethanonetypeofit.In
thebeginningofthechapter,whenyouansweredthequestionaboutwhat
you
Pgina13

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
thinkwhenyouhearabouttranslation,didyouthinktherewouldbemore
thanonetype?Didyouthinkonlyaboutwrittentranslation?Howaboutan
oralone?

Infact,thereareonly2typesoftranslation:

Translation
Generalorspecialized
HomemauxiliarHuman
Estes2tipospodemserdivididosemsubtiposcomomostradoabaixo:
Escritoporhumanos
Noliterrio(tcnico)
TraduodoSight
Simultneo
Consecutivo
Oral
Literrio
MachineaidedCAT/MATMTHAMT
Algunsdostipossoautoexplicativosouforamdiscutidosanteriormente,
Comoescrita,literria,noliterria(tcnica).Noentanto,osoutrosso
umpoucofoggy.Aquiumabreveexplicaovai:

Humano

Escrito:astraduesnoliterrias(tcnicas)englobamdocumentos
legais,religiosos,mdicos,regulamentares,financeiroseeconmicos
entreoutroscamposereas,quenosoliterriospornatureza.

Oral:comoosnomesdizem,estetipodetraduofeitaoralmente.O
simultneocomoaquelequevocpodeassistirquandoaCerimniados
scares(Oscar)naTV:ointrpreteesperaumpedaododiscursoquefaz
todoosentidoetraduzissoenquantoofalantecontinuafalando.Omesmo
processorepetidoquantasvezesfornecessrio.Elegeralmenteaconteceem
umestandeparatotalepuraatenonecessria.
VSEGDA222|DREAMSTIME.COM
Tradutornotrabalho.Assentoemumacabinenosauscultadorescomummicrofone.
Adiferenaentretraduosimultneae
Atraduoqueoltimonorequertantaateno:ooradorfazumapausaaps
algunsminutosousentenasparaqueointrpretepossa

Traduziroqueelesdisseram.Umexemplotpicoementrevistascomoaabaixo:

PAPARAZZOFAMILY|DREAMSTIME.COM
Pgina14

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Nodia8deabril,ocentrodeimprensadaArenaDonbasshospedouoencontro
entreosfseo
JogadoresdoShakhtarDarijoSrna,DouglasCostaeoartilheirodahistriade
Donetsk
BaseadoAndreiVorobei.

Umatraduodavistaocorrequandoointrprete/tradutorlemvozalta
umdocumentoescritonalnguadeorigemdiretamentenalnguaalvo.O
intrpretedevesercapazdesedestacarnashabilidadesdeleituraefala
nalnguadeorigemededestino.Geralmenteaconteceemsituaesmais
formais,comoconfernciasouentrevistascoletivasquandoooradororiginal
noestpresente.

Ajudadomquina

Estetipodetraduonosupostoserconfundidocomumatraduofeita
inteiramenteporumamquina.Comoonomediz,a"mquina"ajudaotradutor
humanoafazeroseutrabalhoparaumprocessodetraduohumanapodeser
descritocomoadecodificaodosignificadodeumtextofontemaisasuare
codificaonoalvo

lngua.umaoperaomuitocomplexa,quenopodeserrealizadaapenaspor
umamquina,porquedependedainterpretaoeanlisedotexto,espode
serfeitocomsucessoporumserhumano.Afinal,requerumprofundo
conhecimentodasemntica,sintaxe,expressesidiomticas,figurasde
linguagem,funodalinguagemeumainfinidadedeoutrosfatoresdequea
culturaumadasmaisimportantes.
Odesafiodeprogramarumcomputadorqueirexecutartodasessastarefas
Ecompreenderumtextocomoumserhumanoaindanofoicumprida.Na
verdade,talveznuncaseja.Noentanto,osprogramasquefornecemuma
aproximaogeral
Dotextooriginalpormaisimperfeitosquesejamsvezes
razoavelmenterazovelparasituaesemqueaprecisonouma
demanda.Esteprocesso,
Chamado"gisting",reservadosomenteparacasoscomoeste,erealizauma
simplessubstituiodepalavrasemumalnguaparapalavrasemoutra,no
produzindoumaboatraduo.IssooqueconhecidocomoMT:traduo
automtica.

Ogrficoabaixomostracomooprogramafunciona.Interlinguaalinguagem
geradapelaMT.Oprocessopodeacontecerporumatraduodireta,geralmente
palavraporpalavra,outransferncia,geralmentepedaoporpedao.

Interlngua

GenerationAnalysisTransfer
Fontedetraduodirecta

Texto
Texto
de
destino
Pgina15

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
BernardVauquois'pyramidshowingcomparativedepthsof
intermediaryrepresentation,interlingual
machinetranslationatthepeak,followedbytransferbased,then
directtranslation.
Fonte:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Machine_translation#/media/File:Direct_translation_
and_transfer_translation_pyramind.svg
AstoCAT,itstandsforComputerAssistedTranslationwhileMATstandsfor
MachineAssistedTranslation.Theyarethesamething.Youmayfind
referencestooneattimesandtotheotheratothertimes.UnlikeMT,they
are
aseriesofprogramsthathelpthetranslatormakeabetteruseoftheirtime
bysupportingandfacilitatingthetranslatingprocess.Theyvaryfromspell
andgrammarcheckerstotranslationmemory,whichisadatabaseof
translations
inseverallanguages.

WIKIPEDIA
LogoforWordfast,atranslationmemorydatabase

Last,butnotleast,comestheHAMT.ItistheoppositeofMT:ahuman
translatormodifiesthesourcelanguagetexteitherbefore,during,orafterit
istranslatedbythecomputer.Humaninterventioncanalsomeanpreeditingthe
sourcelanguagetextbysomeoneskilledatusingthemachinetranslationsystem
inordertomakethesourcelanguageeasierforthecomputertounderstand.
Besides,itcanmeaninteractiveinterventionaswell:thetranslatormaybe
askedquestionsaboutthemeaningofthesourcelanguagetextbythecomputer
inordertoavoidfuturemistakesandfeeditsdatabase.Inadditiontoit,
humaninterventionmayalsomeanposteditingtocheckthetranslationandfix
mistakesmadebythecomputer.Inthiscase,itisadvisablethatthefixer
beatrainedlinguistsoastofixmostlysyntaxmistakesandparsetheminthe
system.

Regardlessifthetranslationiswrittenororal,humanormachineaided,
generalorspecialized,onemustalwaysbearinmindthatatranslatorsjobis
endless.Itdoesnotendwhentheyhandtheirservicetotheclient.Itdoes
notendwhenitreachesitsfinalclient:thereader.Itdoesnotendwhenthe
translatorreceivesfeedback.Itdoesnotendatthemomenttheytypetheir
finalpunctuationmark.Itdoesnotendevenwhenthetranslatordies.Onceit
isdoneandpassedon,itwillliveforeverinwhosevermind,lipsoreyesit
goes
through.Itwillliveforever,andthatisoneofthereasonsatranslator
shouldbeverycarefulandthoughtfulabouttheirpieceofart;theirpieceof
bridgecrossing;
theirpieceofculturalaccessaid.

MULTIMEDIA
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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
ListentoProfessorJeremyMundaygivehisopiniononatranslatorsjob.
Itencompasses
everythingwehaveseenandthoughtaboutso
far:https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=iffkVwa9lno

ACTIVITIES
Whatdoyouthinkaboutrefreshingyourmemoryandcheckingifyoureallygot
theideaof
thechapter?Youwillfind5exercisestohelpyoudecidewhichtopicsyou
shouldreview,if
any.Dothemwithattention,tryingnottogobacktothechapter.

01.Readthestatementsbelowanddecidewhethertheyaretrue(T)orfalse(F):

a)
Translationisaprocesswhichhastobedonebothbyahumanandamachine.(
)b)
Translationisaprocesswhichconsistsoftakingintoaccountnotonly
languageitself,
butalsotheculturewhichitcomesfrom.(
)c)
Translationshouldbeconsideredascienceforitmaynotbeonlyanatural
gift,buta
Complexasriedeteoriasquedevemserestudadasecolocadasem
prtica.()D)
Excelleremumalnguaanicacaractersticanecessriaqueumtradutor
deveter.()
E)
Paraqueumatraduosejaconsideradaboa,umtradutorjuramentadoou
literriodeve
faa.()
F)
Omercadodatraduoestdivididodeformaclaraelegalemdoistipos:literrioe

tcnico.()
G)
Tradutoresnoganhammuitodinheiroporquesitespodemfazerumatraduo,
bemcomoelespodem.()
H)
Existemdoistiposdetraduo(humanaeauxiliadapormquina)e
suasubdiviso.()
Eu)
Podesedizerqueatraduotemajudadoomundoaseromundoque
conhecemoseondevivemos.()
J)
Atraduofundamentalparaadivulgaoecompreensodasculturas.()

Pgina17

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txt02.Emqueconsisteatraduo?
03. Quaissoascaractersticasqueumtradutordeveter?Marqueos.Oque
maiscompletaria
Alistacom?

.
Menteaberta
.
Rigoroso

.Umbom
viajante.Meticuloso
.Prontopara
pesquisar.tico
.
Curioso.Humilde
.
Preso
.Capazdetomarumconcurso04.Corresponderasdefiniesparaoitemcorreto:

a)
Umaespciedetraduohumanaeoralquerequeratenototalegrande
escuta
fluncia.
B)
Umaespciedetraduoquenecessitadeumhumano,deprefernciaumlinguista
treinado,paraverificarecorrigir
Errosparaosimpedirnofuturo.C)
Umaespciedetraduoquepertenceaomundodosadjetivosefigurasde
linguagem.
D)
Umaespciedetraduoquefeitaoralmentedepoisqueumorador(nativo)faz
umapausaparadaraotradutor
Algumtempoparatraduziroquefoi
dito.E)
Umaespciedetraduoqueauxiliaumserhumanoatornaroseutempo
maisvalioso.F)
Umaespciedetraduoquepertenceaumareamaisespecficaeque
noliterria.

()Traduoliterria()
Traduotcnica
Pgina18
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txt()Traduosimultnea
()Traduoconsecutiva
()HAMT(traduoautomticaassistida
porhumanos)()CAT(traduoassistida
porcomputador)

05. Vocvailertrssituaesagora.Identificarqualtipodetraduomais
adequadopara
cadaumdeles.Digasedevemseroraisouescritas,humanasou
auxiliadaspormquinase
Decidirsobreamelhorsubdivisoparaeles:

a)
Vocestemumaconfernciaemqueooradornopodepausaracadacinco
Opblicoprecisaseguiroqueestsendo
dito.B)
VocprecisareinstalaroseuCDplayerdecarroevoctemomanual
mo.Vocno
Entendercomofazlocorretamente,masvoctemumaidiageraldoquefazer.

C)
Vocvaiseroeditordeumlivrochinsquetemumgrandepotencialpara
alcanar
SeumercadointernonoBrasil.

06. Humatcnicaqueajudaaativaranossamemria.Consisteem
Fazerumalistadetudooquepodemoslembrarsobrealgo.Depoisdealguma
prtica,o
Tempoparaumcaptulode30segundos.Umavezqueasuaprimeiravez
fazlonestelivro,use1minuto

nomaisdoqueissoparafazerumalistadostpicosmais
importantesdestecaptulo.Certificarsedeque
Paraescreverapenastpicos.Aordemdeimportncianoimportarealmente
nesteexerccio.Vocest
pronto?Tempovocmesmo,ento,eem3,2,1...Escrevao!

ALIMENTOPARAOPENSAMENTO
Comeamosadiscutirumpoucosobreatraduo,suahistria,algunsdos
mitosque
Cercloealgunstiposdetraduo.Umavezqueatraduoumacinciaou
umaarte,
Quedevemosteremmentequehaversempredesacordose
emformao.
Pgina19

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

Umtradutornuncadeveserestreitodementeparaoseutrabalhodependeda
formacomoelesvem
omundo.Quantomaisabertasforem,maischancesterodefazerumtrabalho
melhore
essencialparaasuareputao.Areputaodeumtradutorresponsvel
pelamaioriadosclientes
Elestm,oquelhespermiteterseutrabalhoreconhecidoemelhorpago.

Independentementedoquevocescolherparatraduzir,issonosignifica
quevocdeverestringir
Vocpode,sevocquiser,seespecializaremsuareadeespecializaoou
vocpodetentar
Maisreas,desdequeaqualidadedoseutrabalhonuncadiminui.
Nonossomundoatual,encontrarumempregocomotradutornodeveserto
difcilporqueasculturas
Precisamsereseespalhar,comotmsido,especialmentecomousode
novastecnologias.este
maisumarazoparafazerumexcelentetrabalhosemprequelheforpedido
um:oseunomee
Suareputaojuntamentecomela,podeestaremtodoomundo,eissorequer
algumacoragem
Deixeoemumamaneiranegativa.Umaboaobranopodeserreconhecidaou
reconhecidaimediatamente,
Maseventualmenteir.Pensenisso!
LEITURARECOMENDADA
BENEDETTI,IvoneC.;SOBRAL,Adail(orgs).Conversascomtradutores:balanose
Perspectivasdatraduo.SoPaulo:ParbolaEditorial,2003.
MILTON,John.Traduo:teoriaeprtica.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.2010.p.11
39.
<Http://www.proftemrevista.com/DOCS/V1/AnaJuliaPerrottiGarcia.pdf>(ltimo
acesso:Julho
02,2015)
<http://revista.penseempregos.com.br/noticia/2011/11/tradutoreinterprete
mercadoepromissor
paraosproximosanos3579711.html>(lastaccess:July05,2015)

REFERENCES
BENEDETTI,IvoneC.;SOBRAL,Adail(orgs).Conversascomtradutores:balanos
eperspectivasda
traduo.SoPaulo:ParbolaEditorial,2003.
LARSON,Mildred.Aguidetocrosslanguageequivalence.USA:UniversityPress
ofAmerica,1997.
MILTON,John.Traduo:teoriaeprtica.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.2010.p.11
Pgina20

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
39.
NIDA,EugeneA.;TABER,CharlesR..Thetheoryandpracticeof
translation.Netherlands:Brill
AcademicPublishing,2003.
OTTONI,Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editorada
Unicamp,2005.
<http://www.letras.ufscar.br/linguasagem/edicao10/trad_miguez.php>(lastaccess:
June16,2015)<https://www.onehourtranslation.com/translation/blog/history
translation#sthash.EcwVKFRp.dpuf>
(lastaccess:June20,2015)
<http://www.sbs.com.br/etalks/traducaoemercadodetrabalho/>(lastaccess:
June16,2015)
<http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/sworntranslatorinbrazil>(last
access:June21,2015)

30captulo1
2
Translation
and the
Branches of
Linguistics

TraduoeLingusticatmumrelacionamentomuitontimo.Poderamos
metaforicamentechamarseurelacionamentodeumbelocasamentoentreduas
pessoasqueestavamdestinadasaserumcomooutrodesdeonascimentoe
sempresouberamtudosobreele.Afinal,alingusticadesempenhaumpapel
importantenatraduodeumalnguaparaoutra.Traduzirmuitomaisdoque
apenasmudarumapalavradodocumentooriginalparaoutrodocumentoemum
segundoidioma.Envolvedecodificao,decifrao,recodificao.Envolvea
manutenodasfacetaseasfunesdeumalnguaemoutralngua.Esseo
papeldaLingusticanaTraduo:trazlavida.

OqueLingustica?Quaissoseusramos?

Paraquevocpossacompreendlomaisclaramente,vocprecisaconhecera
definiodeLingusticaeosramosdaLingusticaqueusaremosnestelivro:
Psicolingustica
Esociolingstica.Oslingistassobasicamentedivididosemduascategorias:
osquetrabalhamcomaestruturadalinguagemeosquetrabalhamcomousoda
linguagem.Ospsicolinguistaseossociolingistaspertencemaestesltimos.

Comosabemos,cadalinguagemhumanaumcomplexodeconhecimentosehabilidades
Quepermitequeofalantedessalnguasecomuniqueentresi,expressando
seatravsdeidias,sentimentos,desejos,hipteses,dvidas,
Pgina21

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Emoesequalqueroutracoisaquepreciseexpressar.Alingsticaoestudo
destessistemasdeconhecimentoemtodososseusaspectos:suaestrutura,sua
aquisio,seuusoparaproduzirecompreendermensagensecomoelamudouao
longodotempo.

Alingustica,portanto,ocampoquelidacomaspropriedadesformaisde
umalinguagem:morfologia(estruturadepalavras),sintaxe(estruturade
orao),fontica(fonemas),fonologia(regrasepadresentresonsde
fala),semntica)Epragmtica(usodalinguagem).Enquantoa
PsicolingusticaenglobaosvriosaspectosdaLingustica,incluindoa
aquisiodalinguagem,aSociolingusticaestudaosefeitosquea
sociedadetemnalinguagem.Elesestotodosligadosdealgumaforma.
Estassoapenasalgumasdasvriasdefiniesparaquevoctenhaumaidia
geraldoqueestecaptulovaisersobre.Vamosverosdetalhespertinentesde
cadaumdessescamposereaserelacionloscomatraduoeosmtodosde
traduo.Humgrficoabaixoparavoccomearavisualizaraimportncia
destaconexomelhor:
LingusticaTraduoOquedizemas
pessoas?
SociolingusticaQuem
fala?Sobreoqu?Aquem?
Quando?Onde?Por
qu?PsicolingusticaComoas
pessoasaprendemumalngua?Como
Elesentendem
isso?Comoeles
produzemisso?
,novamente,fundamentalquevocnosefecharcontranovasidiase
discusses,eserimperativoquevocsejaflexvelosuficienteparamudar
suamentedevezemquandosobrealgoquepodeserarraigado
emvoc.Estecaptulosignificabem.Tenhaissoemmenteetentepraticaralguns
Ascaractersticasqueumtradutordeveter(aquelasquevocleunocaptulo1).

OBJECTIVOSALCANADOS
Aofinaldestecaptulo,vocdevesercapazde:

definircadaumdostrsramosdaLingustica;
compreenderevisualizarosmtodosdetraduonosramosda
Lingustica,
identificarospedaostraduzveisdeumtexto.

2.1LingusticaeTraduo

Pgina22

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
KolawoledizemseutrabalhoInterdisciplinaridadeemLngua,Lingustica
eTraduoque

ArelevnciadaLingusticanocampodaTraduobvia.tambmumtrusmo
que
Traduonopodesersemlinguagemequenosepodetraduzirsemsaber
Sobreoidiomadeorigemeoidiomadedestino.Nomundodehoje,traduo

Osestudosvmdesfrutandodeumsucessosemprecedentesporquesetornouuma
metforafrtilefreqenteparaomundointerculturalcontemporneo.(...)
tambmrelevante
Entenderque"saber"umalnguanoomesmoque"sabersobre"uma
lngua.
Issosignificaquesercapazdefalarumalnguafluentementenogarantia
dequealgumcapaz
Paraexplicareapresentaressalinguagemaoutraspessoasemoutralngua.O
conhecimentode
Alingustica,portanto,umamaneirasegurademelhoraraqualidadeda
traduo.(2013,p.7)

Comojfoiditoantes,aLingusticanooestudodaslnguas:oestudo
cientficodeumalngua.Podeseencontrartrsaspectosparaesteestudo
(forma,significadoecontexto)ecinconveisdeumalngua,comomostraa
imagem.
Nveisdelinguagem
Morfologia
SemnticaFormase
palavras
Significadosde
vriostipos
Todosossons,
sonsdosistema
Clusulase
frasesUsoda
linguagem
Fontica,
Fonologia
Sintaxe
Pragmtica
WIKIPEDIA.

Comoalinguagemumacaractersticacentraldeumserhumano,aLingusticatem

Conexesintelectuaiscommuitasoutrascinciassociaisenaturaise

Conseqnciasprticaseusosneles,comoFilosofia,Literatura,Biologia,

CinciadaComputao,Psicologiaparanomencionarmais.
Pgina23
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtALingusticapercorreuumlongocaminhodesdea
sua
Primeirouso,nosculoIVaC.Ferdinandde
Saussureoseumaisproeminenteeimportante
representante.Segundoele(2006),todasas
lnguastmumconceitorelacionaldeseus
elementos,easpalavraseseusignificadodevem
serdefinidoscomparandoosecontrastandoosuns
comosoutros.Eletambmafirmouqueos
elementoslingusticossodefinidosporsua
funoenoporsuascaractersticas
inerentes.Oquerealmentecuriososobresuas
idias,porm,anaturezasocialqueeledefine
alinguagem:ocontextolinguagemaplicada
determinaaanlise,determinaoerealizaes
desuaestrutura.

OlingistasuoFerdinand
deSaussure(18571913)

MULTIMDIA
Watchthisfantastic5minutevideoaboutSaussureandLinguistics.It
isenlighteningand
reallyworthyourtime:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5vhq3aRNjE

Heistheonethatcameupwiththeconceptsoflangueandparoleinthe
early20thcenturythathavebeenuseduntilnow.Whilelangueispre
existentandindependent,beingtheabstractphenomenonthatdefinesthe
principlesandsystembywhichalanguageiscommanded,paroleisthespeech
itself
withinthatlanguage;itisindividualandreferstotheconcreteinstancesofthe

useofalanguage.AccordingtoSaussure,thestructureoflangueis
definedandrevealedthroughthestudyofparole.

ThistheoryresonatesinlinguistNoamChomskysdefinitionofcompetence
andperformance.AfterSaussure,NoamChomskyisagreatnametothis
fieldandhasbroughttoitsomeenlighteningandimplementstowhatmay
have
beenobscuretosome.Forthatmatter,heisconsideredbymanythefather
ofmodernLinguistics.
Chomkysdefinitionofcompetenceistheknowledgesomeonehasofany
givenlanguage,andperformanceistheusethepersonmakesofsuchknowledge

Saussureslangueandparole.Heproposedthatalllanguagessharecommon
underlyingprinciplesthatvaryinsystematicwaysfromalanguageto
another.Heclaimsthehumanbrainisawareoftheseunderlyingprinciples,
andthatlearningalanguagemeanslearninghowthatlanguageimplementsthe
underlyingprinciplesofalllanguages.
Pgina24

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

WIKIPEDIA
ChomskynoFrumSocialMundial(PortoAlegre)em2003

AUTOR
SaibamaissobreChomskyem
Http://www.chomsky.info/
OutrograndeestudiosodaLingustica
queprecisasermencionadoelevadoem
consideraoRomanJakobson.Jakobson
nofazusodeinformaesisoladas
Paratransmitirsignificado.Emvezdisso,ele
usasinaisinterconectadosculturalmentepara
reconstruirsistemasderelaes.Asseis
funesdalinguagem,explicadasemostradas
abaixo,umateoriacriadaporele.
WIKIMEDIA
OlinguistarussoRoman
Jakobson(18961982)
AUTOR
SaibamaissobreJakobsonat:
Http://www.signosemio.com/jakobson/indexpt.asp

SituationContext(referencial)
Cdigo(metalingual)
Contato(phatic)
Mensagem(potica)
Destinatrio(conativo)
Endereador(emotivo)
assimqueateoriafunciona:oorador/autor(endereador)enviaum
Acto(mensagem)paraoouvinte/leitor(destinatrio)atravsdeumalinguagem
parcialoutotalmentepartilhada(cdigo).Afimdeobteratravsdoreceptor
damensagem,ele
Precisadeumreferente(contexto)eumcanalfsicooupsicolgico
(contato).Tudoissoocorreemumasituaoquedevesercompartilhadatanto
peloendereadorquantopelodestinatrio.Afirmaquecadaumdestesseis
factoresdeterminauma

Funodalinguagem,eumdelessempreofatordominante,portanto,
determinarquetipodetextoquevocvaiencontrar.Resumidamente,osfatores
efunespodemserassimrelacionados:

Afunoderefernciaestorientadaparaocontexto.
A funoemotivaestorientadaparaoendereador(expressivo).
Afunoconativaestorientadaparaodestinatrio(indutordeao).
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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Funometalingualorientadaparaocdigo(linguagemfalando
sobreoidioma).
A funopoticaorientadaparaamensagem(porsimesma).
Afunopticaorientadaparaaaberturadocanal
decomunicao.

Comovocpodever,aLingusticaumacinciaqueestudanosas
diferenassemnticas,sintticaseestilsticasentrelnguas,mastambm
asrelaesentrelinguagemecultura.Podesechegaraopontodedizerque
tambmestrelacionadaaocontextoessituaes.Essesconhecimentose
reconhecimentoscertamenteajudamumtradutoraentenderoemitidoenvolvido
em(tentar)expressarsignificadosequivalentesemduaslnguasdiferentes.
Emoutraspalavras,paratraduzircomprecisodeumalnguaparaoutra,
otradutordeveabordartodasasfunesdalingustica:agramtica
sendousada,osignificadodaspalavrascomocomponentesindividuais,
frases/frasescriadaspelofalante/escritor,ocontextoeSituaes
emqueasfrases/sentenassocolocadaseassimpordiante.
Umatraduoprecisadeterminaondeassimilaridadesediferenasdeuma
linguagemseencontramporquecadalinguagemtemsubjacentescomuns,
independentementedaformacomodiferememsuasfunes
lingsticas.Baseandoseemapenasuma
Alinguagemcertamentenoproduzirumaboatraduo,umavezqueesta
traduopodefaltartodasasoutraspartesvitaisdeinformaocomas
outrasfunesfornecerodiscursocom.

EmseuensaioOnaLinguisticsAspectsofTranslation(1959),
Jakobsonmencionaedefinetrstiposdetraduo:
Interpretaodesinaisverbaispormeiodeoutros
sinaisverbaisdamesmalngua.Emoutraspalavras,
referesedefiniodeumapalavraousinnimo
dela.Ex.:vendedordequeijo:algumquevendequeijo
ouqualqueroutro
Produtolcteo.

1.INTRALINGUAL
(REWORDING)

ALEXDANS|DREAMSTIME.COM

Outroexemplodetraduointralingual

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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
2. INTERLINGUAL
(TRADUO
APROPRIADA)
Umainterpretaodesinaisverbaispormeiodealguma
outralinguagem.Emoutraspalavras,aprpria
traduo.Exemplo:studentaluno
3.INTERSEMTICO
(TRANSMUTAO)
Umainterpretaodesinaisverbaispormeiode
sinaisdesistemadesignosnoverbais.Emoutras
palavras,amudanadeumtextoescritoemoutra
forma,comoarteoudana.

Apesardetodasessastraduesseremvlidaseimportantesportodosos
meios,nossoprincipalinteresseatraduointerlingstica.Para
Jakobson,quesignifica
Eequivalnciaestoligadosaestetipodetraduoporqueenvolveduas
mensagensequivalentesemdoiscdigosdiferentes.Eleusacomobaseateoria
deSaussuredosignificante(nome)esignificado(objetoouconceito)ecomo
aequivalnciapodesertransferidaentreduaslnguasdiferentes.Alm
disso,expandeasidiasdeSaussure,acrescentandoaocampodasemnticao
conceitodediferenasgramaticaiselxicas.
MULTIMDIA
Assistaaestevdeode2minutossobreumabreveexplicaosobre
Psicolingusticaparaterum
Vista.

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qWVkJPsykU

Alongthechapter,youwillbeabletostudysometheoriesonTranslation
anddeterminewhetherornottheycanandshouldbeapplied.Somethingyou
mightwanttobearinmindisthattranslationisonlypossiblewhenyou
thinkofdifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweentwo(ormore)languages,which
onlyexistifinacontextorsituation.Translatingalanguagewithout
consideringwhateversurroundsitmeansdoinganincompletejob,like
Saussure,ChomskyandJakobsonallsaidusingdifferentwords.

2.2PsycholinguisticsandTranslation
PsycholinguisticsisthebranchofLinguisticsresponsibleforstudyingthe
cognitiveprocessesthatmakelanguagepossible.Itstudiestheoperations
thatleadthegenerationofmeaningfulsentencescontaininggrammaticaland
lexicalstructures.JustlikeLinguistics,itisaninterdisciplinaryfield
bynature
andisstudiedbypeopleinavarietyofareas,suchasPsychology,
CognitiveScienceandLinguisticsitself.

Psycholinguisticsspecificallyexploresthecognitiveprocessesthat
underliePgina27

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
theacquisition,storageanduseoflanguageconcerningaboutaffective
andcontextualfactorsonlyiftheycauseanimpactuponlanguage.Its
maingoal
istoidentifypatternsofbehavioracrossuserseventhoughtherecertainlyis
avariablerangeofindividuallinguisticrepertoire.

UnlikeLinguistics,Psycholinguisticshasarecenthistory.Itbecamea
subjectonitsownonlyinthe60seventhoughitistracedbackto
studiesconductedbyWilhelmWundtinhislaboratoryin1879.
WIKIPEDIA
WilhelmWundt(18321920)
Apsicolingusticapodeserdivididaemtrscamposdiferentes:
processamentodelinguagem,armazenamentodelinguagemeaquisiode
linguagem.Estelivronovisadesvendartodososdetalhesdessescampos.No
entanto,pretendeexporestes
Camposemlinhasgeraisparafacilitaroprocessodeassociaode
PsicolingusticaTraduo:
1.O processamentodalinguagemrefereseidentificaodosprocessos
Subjazemescritaeaofalarhabilidadesprodutivasconsideradase
escutaeleiturahabilidadesconsideradasreceptivas.Estashabilidades
costumamacontecerautomaticamente,
Eosrelatosderecepodalinguagemreconhecemduasfases/
estgiosparaqueelesocorram:decodificaoeinterpretao.

DecodificaoEnvolveambos Lexicale Estruturasgramaticaisdentrodeumcontexto


para Darsignificado ao Discurso/discurso.Noincio Estudos,pistasexternas,tai
Como mundo Conhecimento,usadopara Sejao maisimportante Factorparaisso.Hojeemdia
Contudo, istotem Provado queum Desempenhoqualificadodependedeuma
DecodificaoparaDaratenoaumsignificadodenvelsuperior.

Aconstruodosignificadodependetambmdoprocessodeinterpretao,
exigindoqueoleitor/ouvinteexpandaosignificadoliteraldoqueestsendo
dito,acrescentandooquedeixaramnodito.Almdisso,ousuriotemque
decidirseanovainformaoimportanteouno,seelaacrescentaao
significadocriadoatagora,verificandosuaconsistncia.
2.Armazenamentodelinguagemrefereseacomosonsegramticasorepresentados
Earmazenadonamentedousurio.Convencionalmente,ossonsso
armazenadoscomomodelosquepodemsercombinadoscomvariaes,enquantoa
gramticaassumeaforma
Deregrasinternalizadas,pormabstratas.Estepodeserumcampodeenorme
interessenaPsicolingustica,eatecnologiavemajudandoonosltimos
anos.Apsicolingusticademonstrouecomprovouqueacapacidadedereconhecer
sonsegramticaderivadosmilhesdeexemplosaosquaisousurioest
expostoaolongodesuavida,emvezdeumageneralizaofeitaparareter
regrasdelinguagem.Portanto,aexposioofatorchaveparaarmazenar
regrasdelinguagemesons.
Pgina28

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
3.A aquisiodalnguarefereseaolongodebatesobrese
Alinguageminataouadquirida.Umavisonativistavalinguagem
comoalgogeneticamente
Transmitidaenquantoumavisoempiristavtotalouprincipalmenteadquirida
Atravs da exposio ao idioma adulto cuidadores usar para conversar com a
criana. Muitos pesquisadores de linguagem infantil optaram por escolher um
pontodevistaneutroaoinvsdedebaterteoriasinatasversusadquiridas.

Estareapodeserbasicamentedivididaemduastradies(categorias).Uma
baseadanateoriaeacredita,comoChomsky,queagramticaumprocesso
mental.Asegunda,baseadaemdados,aindainconclusivaquantorelao
Entreaaudioeaproduodepalavrasfaladasrealmentefuncionaparacrianasapenas
Comoaconstruodecategoriasconceituaisapartirdeexemplosdiscretos
damesmacategoria.

CONEXO
SevocestiverinteressadoemconhecerumpoucomaissobrePsicolingustica,
vocpodeacessarhttps://
En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics

Humaterceirareadeaquisiodelinguagemquedizrespeitoaprendizagem
Edomniodeumalnguaestrangeira.Ateoriadapsicolingusticaestudaos
processoscognitivosquelevamexcelnciaemumalinguagemalvo(L2)eas
demandascognitivasadicionaisqueessaaprendizagemrequer:fonologia,lexis
esintaxedesconhecidos.Osconceitosdeateno,memriadetrabalhoe
automaticidadesoteisquandosetratadisso,eaformacomoodiscurso
montadonalinguagemdeorigem(L1)ajudaospsicolinguistasaentendercomoa
flunciacriadanalinguagemalvo(L2).
Comosepodeperceber,aPsicolingusticalidacomaformacomoalinguagem
adquirida,produzidaearmazenada,tornandosedegrandeimportnciaparao
estudoedesenvolvimentodemtodosdetraduo,queservistomaisadiante
nestecaptulo.Aodescobrircomonossamentefuncionaaousareproduzira
linguagem,
Tambmsercapazdemelhorarnossastcnicasaomanusearumasegunda
lngua.Assim,mesmoquenosejatovisvel,aPsicolingusticaumgrande
trunfoparaoestudo
DaTraduocomocincia.

Almdisso,podeseafirmarqueumtradutorrecebeotextodemaneirasemelhante
Aqueumreceptorordinriofaria.Adiferena,porm,queseupapel

Pararecriarotextoemumaltonveldeestabilidadedesentido,
recriandoomaior
Possvelpartedabasecognitivadoendereador.Dequeoutraformaumtradutor
ofaria,seno,acessandoostrscamposdaPsicolingustica,mesmoqueeles
sejam
Pgina29
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
no
Plenamentecientedisso?Apsicolingsticanousouparaterseuvalor
reconhecidoatalgumasdcadasatrs,masestudoseprticasprovarama
sortedotradutorqueaestuda.

2.3SociolinguisticsandTranslation

Sociolinguisticsisthedescriptivestudyoftheeffectofalltheaspects
societyhas
uponlanguage,includingculturalnormsandcontext.Itisaboutthe
relationshipbetweenlanguageandsociety.Itcanhelpusunderstandwhywe
speakdifferentlyinvarioussocialcontexts.Actually,itshareselementswith
Pragmatics,afieldofLinguisticsthatstudiesthewaysinwhichcontext
contributestomeaning.Sociolinguisticsalsostudieshowlanguagevaries
regardingsomevariables(age,ethnicity,status,gender,socialgroup,
religiontomentionjustafew)andhowindividualscreateandadheretothe
rulesusedaccordingly.
RAWPIXELIMAGES|DREAMSTIME.COM
ArepresentationofhowSociolinguisticsandTranslationwork.

Asociolingsticapodeserconfundida,porvezes,comaSociologiada
Lngua,queseconcentraemquestestrazidaspelalinguagemnasociedade,
taiscomocomoosgrupossociaispodemsermelhorcompreendidosatravsda
linguagemouasatitudesportrsdousoedistribuiodeformasdefala
nasociedade.
MULTIMDIA
Vocquersaberporqueasociolingsticatoimportante?Confiraem
https://www.
Youtube.com/watch?v=2uIWabYJYA
Paraossociolingistas,hmaisnoprocessodeaquisiodeuma
Oprprioprocessocognitivo.Paraalmdaactivaodeumapredisposio

Ocrebro,htambmumprocessosocial,eofocodesseprocessoresideno
Acompreensodousodalinguagemdentrodeumasociedadeeasdiversas
situaesecontextoscomosquaiscertamenteseraplicado.Issoimplica
possveisrelaesentreitenseconceitoslingusticos,variandodoscitados
acimaaopoderesolidariedade.

Ossociolingistassoosquedeterminamseumapalavraapropriadaouno
paraumasituaoestudandoeanalisandoatitudesecontextossociais.Eles
tambmestudamfontica,gramticaequalqueroutroaspectoquepossater
qualquerefeitosobreavariaodalinguagem,quedeterminaalinguagemem
seuambientecontextual,estandopreocupadocomrestriessociais.Ousode
diferentesvariedadesdelinguagememdiferentessituaessociaischamado
demudanadecdigo,
Pgina30

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtexplicadonoCaptulo5.

Osdoispioneirosquetrouxeramasociolingsticaparaasculturasocidentais
foramWilliamLaboveBasilBernstein.EnquantoLabovconsideradocomoo
fundadordasocioligsticanoOcidentecomsuateoriavariacionalista,
Bernsteinocriador
Docdigoelaboradoeteoriasdecdigosrestritos,queserodefinidas
Maisadiantenestecaptulo.Igualmenteimportantes,especialmenteem
Traduo,soWilliamStewarteHeinzKloss,queestudaramcomovariedadesde
linguagempadrodiferemdenaoparanao.

AlgunsconceitossofundamentaisnaSociolingstica,equalquercampo
ouramodaSociolingsticadependedeles:

COMUNIDADE
DEFALA
Halgumdebatesobresuadefinio,masamaioriados
sociolingistasconcordaqueumgrupodepessoasquecompartilham
idias,usosenormassemelhantesdeumalngua,sendo(quase)
completamentehomognea.
PRESTGIO
Quando comparado com outra lngua ou dialeto, o nvel de
respeito concedido a uma lngua. Pode ser alto (positivo) ou
baixo(negativo).
SOCIAL
REDE
Aestruturadeumacomunidadedefala,quepodeser
apertadoousolto,epodevariardependendodotipode
conexesquecadaindivduotem.
LNGUA
VARIEDADE
Osfalantesdediferenatmaousaralinguagemem
qualquercontextodado,desencadeadoporfatoressociais.
DIALECTumavariedadedelnguasfaladaporumacomunidadedefalainteira.
PADRO
LNGUA
INTERNO
VS.
EXTERNO
LNGUA
Uma variedade de lnguas falada por um grupo de pessoas em
seu discurso pblico. Em algumas culturas, quanto maior o
prestgio,alinguagemmaissofisticadaconsiderada.

Enquantoalinguageminternaserefereaoconceitoabstrato
delinguagem(semelhantelangue),alinguagemexternao
usodalinguagememumcontextosocial(semelhante
liberdadecondicional).

Pgina31

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txtApart
fromthesesevenfundamentalconcepts,onemustknowtherearemacroand
microapproachestofullyunderstandhowSociolinguisticsworks.Even
thoughtheywillnotbestudiedinthisbook,heretheyareforyour
knowledge:
InteractionalSociolinguistics
VariationistSociolinguistics
HistoricalSociolinguistics
Dialectology
DiscourseAnalysis
ConversationAnalysis
Languageplanningandpolicy

Last,butnotleast,comesBernsteinstheoryonrestrictedcodevs.elaborated
code.Contrarytowhatitmaysound,therestrictedcodedoesnotlackquality
invocabularyorwhatsoever.Itjustreferstothekindofdiscourseusedwhen
thereisasharedunderstandingofasituationorcommonknowledgeamongst
thoseinvolvedinthataudience.Itiscommonlyusedingroupsoffriendsor
family.
Ontheotherhand,theelaboratedcodeisusedwhennoteverybodyshares
thesameknowledgeofthecircumstances,anditisnecessarythatthe
audienceunderstandwhatisbeingsaid.
WhenSociolinguisticsandTranslationarefinallyunited,allthe
aspects,elementsandtheoriesfrombothfitperfectly,andtheprocess
becomesmuchclearer.Asithasbeensaidbefore,thetranslatorintends
torecreatethelargest
possiblepartofthecognitivebaseofthesender.Inordertodo
this,translators
haveto:

1. basethemselvesontheknowledgeofothertextsandthecultureof
thetargetlanguage.Inordertodoit,theyhavetoknowfactsand
variouscommunicative
strategies;
2. estimatethereceiverscapabilityofunderstandingthetext;

3. compareandcontrastthepositionofthesourcetextinthelanguage
oftargetfinaltext;
4. imaginefuturereaders,sotheycanimaginethetextintheirmarket
andvisualizeitsaccuracy,
5. gobacktocomparingandcontrastingbothtextswithintheir
targetcontextinmind.

Ingenerallines,atranslatorshouldworryaboutthetransition
andPgina32

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transmissionofthetopicsthatareseenbelow:

OriginalworkTranslatedwork
Creationofmeaging
Creationofmeagingin
thetargetlanguage
Identificationofa
targetaudience
Restorationoftheimpact,
thepurposeandthemeaning
Backgroundculturevs.
ownculture
Purpose
Culture
Targetaudience
Thisprocessisthecreationofamodeloftranslationthatcanbeusedat
differentstagesofthetranslationprocess.Itisneedlesstosayitisnot
alinear
process,anditcanvarydependingonthenumberofvariablesthat
specifictranslationprocessmighthave.

InherarticleTranslatorsfaithfulnessinthe21stcentury:A
sociolinguisticview(2007),JanisSilisclaimsthat
Translationandinterpretingisincreasinglycapturingtheattention
ofsociolinguists,
fornotonlylinguists,butalsorepresentativesofotherdisciplinesmore
andmore
oftenviewtheprocessoftranslationasacommunicativeactina
specificsituational
context.Theproblembecomesespeciallytopicalwhenthetargetlanguagetext
readersareperceivedasdefinitesocial,professionalorculturespecific
groups:here
theconcreteparametersoftheaddresseewillundoubtedlypatternthe
perceptionofthetranslatedorinterpretedversion.Beingawareofthe
problemsimportancea
professionalinterpreterandtranslatorwillstrivetokeepoptimal
functionaladequacy
ofthesourcelanguage(SL)andtargetlanguage(TL)texts,simultaneously
doingthe
utmosttomodifythetargettextaccordingtothespecificcharacterof
thereaders
circle.

Emsuma,Silisdizqueatraduonossetornouumaquestode
Sociolingstica,mascomeouaservistacomotal,poisimpossvele
incorretonegarqueculturaecontextonotmqualquerinfluncianaleitura
e
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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Escritadeumtexto.Sehouvertalinfluncianoprocessodeescritaeleitura,
devehavertambmnoprocessodetraduo,quepodeservistocomoareescrita
erecreaodoprocessoanterior.Dealgumaforma,novagaria
Longedarealidadeeseriaatirresponsveldizerqueumatraduopodeser
feitasemlevaraSociolingusticamuitoasrio.

2.4 Os3CsdeTraduoeunidadesde
traduo

ReunindooqueaLingustica,PsicolingusticaeSociolingsticatmem
comumecomodevemserutilizadosnoprocessodetraduo,podese
concluirquetodooprocessopodeserresumidoem3Cs:

UltureContext
hunk of
words
Traduo
Emprimeirolugar,aculturaomaiorfatoraserconsiderado
Englobatodososoutroselementosdeumtexto,comofoidito.fundamental
queostradutoresnoignorlo,afimdecompreenderplenamenteoprimrio,o
textodeorigem
Etransformloemoutrotexto,outracriaoque,eventualmente,precisaobtero

Mesmamensagem.

Emsegundolugar,ostradutoresnopodemesquecerocontextoquefoiusado
notexto.Porcontexto,entendemososelementosemquesebaseouotexto:
situao,linguagem,funodalinguagem,grupoalvo,idade,entreoutros.

Finalmente,chegamosaumpedaodepalavras.Pedaodepalavrasrefereseao
"grupo"depalavrasquepodemserunidasdemodoafazersentidosuficiente
parasertraduzidocomprecisodentrodocontextoedacultura.Podevariar
deapenasumapalavraparaumafrasecompleta,eotradutorpodedividilo,bem
comoconvmloseseutrabalho,desdequenoalterarosignificadodetodoo
pedao.O"quadrogeral"vaialmdoquecadaelementopodefornecersozinho.
MULTIMDIA
Vocpodeconferirasletrasinteirasdamsicaem
http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/meghantrainor/allaboutthatbass.html
ouem
Https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HAlz5TiKOCM

Umexemplomuitobomquenosepodeignoraras3Csdatraduoo
TudosobreessebaixoporMeghanTrainor.Podeserapenasumamoda,quepodeou
noterpassadonomomentoemquevocestlendoestafrase,masmostra
explicitamentecomocadaCdesempenhaseupapelnosnatraduo,mas
especialmenteno

Compreensodasletras.Vamosanalisarumapartedela,no
?Pgina34

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

Primeirodetudo,precisamossaberoquesograveseagudos.Usandoo
sistemaintralingualdeJakobson,podemosreformular,portanto,traduzir,
baixo,dandolhedois,entremuitasdefinies:umtombaixoouum
instrumentomusicaldebaixotom.Almdisso,podemosusarseusistema
intersemiticoetransmutloparaumsistemadesinaisnoverbaleusar
umquadroparadescreverumadessasdefinies:
ANDIBERGER
|DREAMSTIME.COMUmaguitarra
baixa
Treble,poroutrolado,ooposto:umavozaguda,tomousomouum
instrumentocomsomagudo.Novamente,usandoosistemaintersemitico
deJakobson,aquiestumaimagemparatransmutlo:

BATUQUE
|DREAMSTIME.COMUm
clarinete

Agora,podesepensarquetodomundoestprontoparatraduziraparte"Eu
soutudosobreessebaixo/'Boutquebaixo,semagudos".Noentanto,isso
nototalmentecerto.Algunselementosmaisdevemserlevadosem
conta.Porexemplo:qualafuno
Dalnguanestecaso?Qualoseucontexto?Qualamensagemqueprecisa
encontraroleitor/ouvinte?

Considerandoquealetradeumacano,ocontextopodeserbastante
simblico.Da,afunopoticaaproeminente,tornandoamensagemseu
interesseprimrio.Ocontextoseria,ento,nodenotativo,eas
palavras

Adquiririaumnovosignificado;Umquenonecessariamenteoque
definieseimagensprovamser.

MULTIMDIA
Vocpodeconferirtodaatraduodamsicaaqui:https://www.youtube.Com
/watch?V=TzPGvjx1wMk
Paraalgumtraduzircomprecisooqueelaqueriadizercomafrase,eles
devemanalisarasletrasinteiraseatmesmoanalisarocontextoexterno
dasletras,ouseja,asituaooqueaSociolingusticairia
Chamarinteraesexternascomoidioma.

MeghanTrainoreKevinKadishusamosinstrumentosmusicaiscomofigura
Defalaparadescreverarelaoquealgumtemcomasuaimagem
corporal.Comoeladizque"tudosobreessebaixo",elaquerdizerque
elaestcontentecomascurvasqueseucorpofemininoegordinhotem;Ela
noiriatrocloporumagudoagudos
corpo.

Pgina35

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Contudo,essaconclusonofcil.Todososaspectosdasletrasdevemser
analisados
comotodososaspectoseelementosdequalquertexto

deve.Poderseiadizerqueelaprefereinstrumentosdebaixopara
agudos?Arespostanegativasevocanalisarasletrasinteiras.No
entanto,seisolada,asentena
"Eusoutodosobreessebaixo,nenhumtriplo"poderiaserinterpretadocomotal.

Portanto,reconhecendoasobservaesacima,nosepodedizerqueuma
traduosejacompletasetodootextoforconsiderado
Igualmenteimportantenoprocesso.Ocontextoeaculturatambminfluenciama
suacompreensoetraduo.NoBrasil,porexemplo,oinstrumentomusicalque
representaumcorpofemininocurvoumaguitarraacsticaenoumbaixo.A
traduodeve,ento,seguirnossaculturaemvezdadeles.Afinal,opblico
alvoopovobrasileiroseconectavamaisfacilmenteesemproblemas
intenodoautordotextofonte.
DoisdostrsCssoclaros.Quantoaoterceiro,opedaodepalavras,
precisodefinirprimeirounidadesdetraduo.Quandovocpensaemuma
unidadedetraduo,
oquevocdeveteremmente,comovistoemAlves,MagalhesePagano
(2000):umsegmentodeumtextoqueotradutorvetratacomoumnico
cognitivo
Deformaaestabelecerumaequivalncia.opontodepartidapara
qualquertraduo,

Emudaevariadeacordocomasnecessidadesdotradutor.AUTpodeseruma
nica palavra, uma frase, uma ou mais sentenas ou mesmo uma unidade
maior.Quanto maior a unidade, maiores so as chances de uma traduo mais
precisa.

NoquintocaptulodobrilhantelivrodeAlves,MagalhesePaganoTraduzircom
autonomia(2000),humtextoqueextraramdaanlisedoDiscursodeBrowne
Yule(1979)equeilustraperfeitamentecomoumpedaodepalavrapodeser
analisadoeTraduzido.Parafinsdidticos,otextoserreproduzidoaquisem
ttulo:

Rockylevantousedotapete,planejandosuafuga.Elehesitouummomentoe
pensou.Ascoisasnoestavamindobem.Oquemaisoincomodavaeraestar
detido,especialmenteporqueocharecontraeletinhasidofraco.Ele
considerousuasituaoatual.Afechaduraqueoseguravaeraforte,masele
pensouquepoderiaquebrlo

Antesdepensaremumapossveltraduo,respondamentalmentes
seguintesperguntas:

1. Rockyestsozinho?
2. Ondeeleest?
3. Oqueaconteceucomele?
Pgina36

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Tendosuasrespostasemmente,respondaasduasvezesnovamente.Essestempos,
Porm,haverumttuloquedeveserincorporadonotextoeemsuas
respostas.

TEXTO1

Lutador,tighr,canto

Rockygotupfromthemat,planninghisscape.Hehesitatedamomentand
thought.Thingswerenotgoingwell.Whatbotheredhimmostwasbeingheld,
especiallysince
thechargeagainsthimhadbeenweak.Heconsideredhispresentsituation.
Thelock
thatheldhimwasstrong,buthetroughthecouldbreakit.
Youranswermayhavebeenthesamebecauseyoumusthavethoughtof
SylvesterStalloneasRocky,andoneoftheimagesyoumayhaveinyourmind
is probably one of Rocky Balboa fighting in a boxing ring. What helped you
picturethetext,henceunderstandit,istheknowledgeyouhavebuiltalong
theyears.
QUESTION
Whichwordswouldyouusetotranslatelock?Thinkaboutit!

Herecomesthesametextwithadifferenttitlenow.Answerthe
questionsagain:

TEXT2

Aprisonerplanshisescape

Rocky levantou o tapete, planejando sua fuga. Ele hesitou um momento e


pensou.Ascoisasnoestavamindobem.O que mais o incomodava era estar
detido,
Aacusaocontraeletinhasidofraca.Eleconsiderousuasituaoatual.A
fechadura
Queeraforte,masopensamentoqueelepoderiaquebrlo.

Asrespostasquevocpropssodiferentesdasdo
Mesmotextoacima.Oquemudaento?Oquefazvocpensardiferente?O
textonoomesmo?

Tecnicamente,arespostano.Umtextocomeaantesdoprimeiropargrafo.Comea

Comoconhecimentoprvioquevoctemsobrequalquerassunto.porisso
quevocpodeterconectadoRockyaocinemaeaocontextoesportivo.O
segundo,
Pgina37

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Embora,tragaumcenriodiferente:ottulofazvocmudaraimagemquevoc
tinhacriado,ereorganizaaidiaepensamentosquevoctinhafeitoto
claramente.

Combasenoqueacabadeacontecer,podesedizerqueoquemudoufoi
Aprimeiraunidadedetraduoemcadatexto:ottulo.Aoalterlo,otexto
inteirotambmmudou,eatraduoseguiuasunidadesdetraduoqueocorreram
juntocomocontexto.
Comomostraafiguraabaixo,asunidadesdetraduonoprecisamser
Diferenteparaotextoserdiferente,tambm.Umtradutorpodedividirumtexto
em
Unidadesqueconsideremadequadasenecessrias.Oquecertamenteedefinitivamente
necessidades
Acontecerdividilosdeumaformaquefazemsentidocomoatraduoest
emandamento.Porexemplo,sea"acusao"tivessesidodivididacomouma
UT,nopoderia,sobnenhumacircunstncia,tersidotraduzidacomo"uma
acusao"emambos.Otradutorprecisariaterbomsensoparatraduzilocomo
"ogolpe"
EmUmlutadoremumcantoapertado.OmesmoacontececomoltimoUT(masele
pensouquepoderiaquebrlo):noprimeirotexto,poderiasertraduzidocomo
"maselepensouquepudesseselivrar",e,nosegundo,"maselepensouque
pudesseQuebrlo".

UmlutadoremumcantodotighrUmprisioneiroplaneiasuafuga

Rockylevantousedaesteira|Planejandosuafuga|Elehesitouummomento|E
pensamento|Ascoisasnoestavamindobem.|Oquemaisoincomodava|Estava
sendorealizada,|

Especialmentedesdeaacusaocontraele|Tinhasidofraco.|Ele
considerouseupresente
situao.|Afechaduraqueoseguravaeraforte|Masopensamentoqueele
poderiaquebrlo.

Unidadesdetraduo(UTs)notexto
Pensandocomcuidadosobreisso,qualquerUTexigeatenoespecialparaa
formacomoeletraduzido,poisnoonicoelementoaseranalisado.AUT
altimadas3Csdetradues:umpedaodepalavras.Podeseroltimo,mas
noomnimo
importante.Quandosetratadetraduo,cadacoisapoucoimporta.

Outroexemploclssicodecomoo3Cstrabalhoumcertificadodecasamento:

NATALIABRATSLAVSKY|DREAMSTIME.COM
Aprimeirapartedacertidodecasamentodiz"Istoparacertificarque...",que,

Aprimeiravistaepensamento,algunssetraduziriamcomo"Istopara
certificarPgina38

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
That".SeLingustica,PsicolingusticaeSociolingsticaforemtodas
aplicadasnestamesmafrase,umatraduomuitomelhorserpossvel.Umavez
quedevesertraduzidoparaoportugus,noBrasil,apartirdeumcontextoe
culturaqueconhecemos,essepedaodepalavrasseriamaisapropriadamentee
commaisprecisotraduzido
Como"Certificoque...".
Portanto,nuncasedevenegligenciarosdetalhesquandosetratade
traduo.Cadacoisapequenaimporta,eumdeveusaroconhecimentoeotempoa
nossobenefcio.Umafrmulasimplesquepodeajudaroprocessodetraduoa
tornarsemaisfluidoapartirdotextoreflexivamente.Umavezqueosistema
automticonossosprojetosmentenaturalmentevmemprimeirolugar,vaiexigir
algumaprticaparapensarreflexivamente.Emseguida,useoUTjuntocomo
3Cs.Otradutorterumaversoinacabadaapsestaspartesdoprocessoe
certamenteterdepoliratqueaversofinalestejapronta.Umconselhotil
permitirqueo
Traduoesuamenteparadescansarunsdosoutrosporalgumtempo.Fornecer
oselementosnecessriospararevisitaroqueestsendofeitoeparaestar
maiscrticodepossveistraduesimprecisas.Aimagemabaixomostracomoo
processofunciona:
Verso
temporria
Polimento
Verso
final
Dica:deixeaversofinaldesua
traduoprofundaporumduplode
Diasantesdevocirsobreele
novamente.Blocoreflexivo
Bloqueio
automtico
doponto
de
UTStarting
TEXTO
Esteoprimeiropassoparainiciarumatraduo,epodesermelhorado
pelosvriosmtodosdetraduoqueexistem.Vocveralgunsdosmtodos
maiscomunsagora.

2.5MtodosdeTraduo
PeterNewmarkisoneofthemainfoundersofTranslationStudiesinthe
Englishspeakingworld,andheproposesthattherebeeightmethodsof
translationinhisThetextbookoftranslation(1988).Eventhoughhemay
havecreatedsomepolemicwithhisaffirmations,theyarewideworldlyused,
and
heisthesourcemosttranslatorstrust.Heclassifiestextsinthree
categories:scientifictechnological,institutionalculturalandliterary
texts.Basedonthese
Pgina39

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
categories,hecreatedtheeightmethodsbrieflydescribed
below:

1.
WORDFORWORD
itisamethodthatdoesnotmakeuseofcontextor
whatsoever.Actually,thenameisselfexplanatory,
anditisalexicalbasedmethod.
2. LITERAL
TRANSLATION
alike the first method presented, it lacks
context analysis. However, it is grammarbased
ratherthanlexicalbased.
3. FAITHFUL
TRANSLATION
unlikethemethodsabove,itrespectsthecontext
withinit.Itrespectsgrammaralthoughitisnot
itsprimarygoal.
4. SEMANTIC
TRANSLATION
itis,again,contextbased,andhighlyregards
thesemanticvalueofthesourcelanguage.
5. ADAPTATION
6. FREE
TRANSLATION
itisalsocontextbased,anditsprimaryobjectiveis
toconvertthecultureembeddedinsourcelanguageinto
thecultureoftargetlanguage.
thetargetlanguageistheprimaryfocus,anditis
ideabased.Theideamustgetacrossthereaderevenif
thereareconsiderablechangesinsemantics.
7. IDIOMATIC
TRANSLATION
sinceitismessagebased,theremaybelosses
ofnuancesofmeaning,distortingthembutnot
themessageitself.
8. COMMUNICATIVE
TRANSLATION
accuracyandbalancebased,ittriestokeepa
balancebetweencontextandlanguage.Probably,one
ofthemostusedmethodsinliterarytranslations.

ForNewmark(1988),onlysemanticandcommunicativetranslationfulfill
thetwomainaimsoftranslation,whicharefirstaccuracy,and,second,
economy(p.41).Also,heclaimsthattranslationtheoryshouldbeconcerned
abouthow
todetermineappropriatetranslationmethodsforthewidestpossiblerange
ofPgina40

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
textsortextcategories.Thatisexactlywhathedid:heprovidedaframework
ofprinciplesfortranslatingtextsaccordingtotheneedsoftranslatorsbased
onthetextstheyhave.

ACTIVITIES
01. ArethesentencesbelowaboutTranslation,Linguistics,
PsycholinguisticsorSociolinguistics?

a) Theareathatstudiestherelationshipbetweenlanguageandsociety.
b) Theareathatstudieshowasourcelanguagecanbeturnedintoa
targetlanguage.
c) Theareathatstudieshowlanguageiscreatedandproducedinourbrain
d) Theareathatstudiesalanguagescientifically.

02. Tickwhatiscorrect.ConsiderLforLinguistics;P,forPsycholinguistics;
S,forSociolinguistics;
T,forTranslation:

LPST
Newmarkbrings8methodstodoitaccordinglytotheneedsofthe
professional.However,heisnottheonlytheoristtoproposemethods.
Languageprocessing,storageandacquisitionareitsfundamental
branchesofstudy.
Itrequiresmethodsandcommonsensetobeofhigh
quality.Thesixfunctionsofthelanguagearestudiedby
this.
Itisresponsibleforstudyingthecognitiveprocessesthatmake
languagepossible
Byanalyzingthediscourse,contextandculturealongwithotherelements,
ithelpstranslatorsfindtherightmeanstodotheirjobaccurately.

LPST
AccordingtoJakobson,therearethreetypesofit:intralingual,
interlingualandintersemiotic.
SaussureandChomskyaregreatrepresentativesofthisfield.
03. Inyourownwordsorchart,describehowtheprocessoftranslation
canhappen.
04. PeterNewmarkcreated8methodstotranslatetextsthatvaryaccordingto
theneedsof
thetranslatorandthenatureofthetext.Gobackinthechapterifnecessary
andcomplete
thechartbelowaboutsomeofthem:
05. Whatisaunitoftranslation(UT)andhowdoesitwork?
06. Whatarethe3Csoftranslationandhowdotheywork?
07. Letstrysomethingmorechallenging,shallwe?Readthisextractfrom
amagazine.After
that,divideitintoUTsandtranslateit.Youcanfindthewholetextat
Pgina41

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
http://www.newsweek.com/surprisingwaysstressaffectsyourhealth82675(last
access:July9,2015).

IDEABASEDGRAMMARBASEDCONTEXTBASEDBALANCEDMESSAGEBASED
TheSurprisingWaysStressAffectsYourHealth

()

Likeourancestors,wealloccasionallyfacethesingle,suddenand
extremestressors
thatthestressresponseevolvedtoprotectusfrom.()Ourresponseto
suchsuddenand
extremestressorscanprotectus,butitalsocanhavedireconsequencesif
wealreadyhave
heartdisease.

()
FOODFORTHOUGHT
WehaveseenthewayTranslation,asascience,andtranslation,asa
practice,dependon
severalelementsandstudies.Evenwhenwearenotfullyawareofall
thecognitiveprocesses
involvedintranslation,weuseallthemechanismsweareprovidedwithorcan
andwilltake
advantagefrom.

Whenitgetstoyourturntodoatranslation,youmustbeawarethatthemore
youknow
abouthowlanguageworksandhowitcanbeinfluencedbyexternalfactors,
themoreopen
youwillbetotheprocessasawhole.Themoreopenyouare,thebetteryour
workwillbe.

Astothebestmethodandhowlanguageisdivided,oneshouldacceptthere
willalways
becontroversies.Eventually,youwillfindwhatsuitsyoubest,andyou
maydevelopyourown
mixtureoftechniques.Whoknows?Youmayevenrealizethereismuchmore
totranslation
thanthe3Cs.Youwillfindyourownvoiceasatranslator.Youwillfind
andfollowyourown
path.Allitrequiresispractice,anopenmindandstudy.

RECOMMENDEDREADING
ALVES,Fbio,MAGALHES,Clia,PAGANO,Adriana,Traduzircom
autonomia:Pgina42
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txtestratgias
paraotradutoremformao.SoPaulo:EditoraContexto.2000.OTTONI,
Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editorada
Unicamp,

2005.p.241256

REFERENCES
ALVES,Fbio,MAGALHES,Clia,PAGANO,Adriana,Traduzircom
autonomia:estratgiasparao
tradutoremformao.SoPaulo:EditoraContexto.2000.
BROWER,ReubenA.(org).Ontranslation:OnaLinguisticsAspectsof
Translation.Cambridge:
HarvardUniversityPress.1959.p.232239
KOLAWOLE,S.O..InterdisciplinarityinLanguage,LinguisticsandTranslation.
In:International
JournalofHumanitiesandSocialScienceInvention,volume2,issue9,p.7
12,2013.
NEWARK,Peter.Thetextbookoftranslation.NewYork:PrenticeHall.
1988.NIDA,EugeneA.;TABER,CharlesR..Thetheoryandpracticeof
translation.Netherlands:Brill
AcademicPublishing,2003.

SAUSSURE,Ferdinand.CursodeLingusticaGeral.SoPaulo:Cultrix.2006.
<http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic84298.files/Supplementary_readings/JAK
OBSON.PDF>
(lastaccess:July1,2015)

< http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Roman_Jakobson>(lastaccess:July
1,2015)
< http://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/psycholinguistics.htm>(lastaccess:July
10,2015)
< http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/psycholinguistics.aspx>(lastaccess:July
5,2015)<https://euresearchprojects.eu/time/images/2012sociolinguisticsand
translation.pdf>(last
access:July10,2015)
<http://www.academia.edu/8507959/The_position_of_psycholinguistics_and_cognitive_s
cience_in_
translation_and_interpreting_An_introduction<(lastaccess:July09,2015)
< http://docencia.udea.edu.co/TeoriaTraduccion/comunicativo/peter_eng.htm>
(lastaccess:July1,
2015)
60captulo2

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3
PracticalIssues
ofTranslation

Translation,likeanyotherscience,hasitsissuesandsomedetailstowhich
onehastobealwaysattentiveandobservant.Assaidinchapters1and2,
thereismoretotranslatingthansimplyexchangingwordsfromsourcelanguage
totargetlanguage(orLanguage1L1toLanguage2L2).Accordingto
Milton,thetranslatorsvoiceechoesthroughouttheirwork(2010,p.155),
anditis
a processthatrequirespracticeandflexibility;studyandopen
mindedness;senseandsensibility(nopunintended).
Whenatranslatorisdoingtheirwork,notonlydotheyhavetoaccessthe
3Cs(culture,context,chunkofwords),butalltheotherelementsconcerning
bothlanguages,suchassemantics,semiotics,syntaxtomentionjustafewof
themasthepicturesoclearlyshows.Itmayhappennaturallytothosewho
havepracticedenougheventhoughnopracticeisevertoomuch.However,to
those
whohaveonlyrecentlyventuredintothisterritory,theprocessmaytakea
whilelongertobecomenaturalandfluid.

BARBORARIEGELOV|DREAMSTIME.COM
Isthathowtheaccesstosomeofthenecessaryelementswhiletranslatingor
evenspeaking
alanguagehappen?Shallwecheckit?

TheimportanceoftheexplanationonLinguisticsanditsbranchescan
befeltinthesethreenextchapters.Fromnowon,wewilldealwithsome
grammaticalandlexicalissuesfromL1toL2ortheopposite.When
accessing

ourowncognitivedevicestotranslate,ourbrainautomaticallytriestofindsome

meaningfulconnectionbetweenlanguages,mayitbegrammatical,lexicalor
message/ideabased.Thesecrettoareasonabletranslationistoalways
keep
the3Csinmind.Thesecrettoanexcellenttranslation,though,istobeawareof

whatyouaredoingasmuchastohowyouaredoingit.

Inshort,youhavetoaskyourselfthequestionsbelowwhileyouaredoing
atranslationandafteryouhavedoneit:

1. Whatdoestheoriginalauthormeanbyit?
2. Whatistheoriginalcontext?
3. Whatkindoftextisit?
4. Whoistheauthorssourceaudience?
5. Whoismytargetaudience?
Pgina44

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
6. Musttherebeanychangesregardingculturalaspects?
7. Musttherebeanychangesregardinggrammar?
8. Musttherebeanychangesregardinglexicon?
9. Howdoesitsoundinthetargetlanguage?
10. Isthereadingofthetranslatedtextfluidandflowing?

Infact,ifyoulookbackinchapter2,youwillcomeacrossthesummaryof
theprocessoftranslationafteryouhavedonethefirstreadingoftheworktobe

translated.Theformulaworksasdescribed:youshouldstartfromthe
originaltext,findingUTsandtranslatingthemfromanautomaticblockuntil
youcanturnthemintoareflexiveblocksoitcanmakecompletesenseand
notloseitsessence.

Inotherwords,afteryou have graspedtheintentionandthe idea/message


(thegist)of the originalwork,youhavetothinkofhowto make L2asieveto
thatrewriting, and not anobstacletothereader.Thatis oneofthereasons
youshouldbe fullyaware that anautomaticblockmay notalwayssoundfluidto
thereadersears.Inaddition toit,theprocessmay evenpreventthereaderfrom
understanding the new text.

Thatiswhere the initial problemlies:translatingautomaticallydoesnot


meantranslatingwell.Inordertoavoidit,theonly solutionis totakeyour
time

andthinkcarefullyaboutwhat canbechanged.Afterfinding theUTs,check


iftheautomaticblockissuitableandfluid.Ifitisnot,thinkaboutitasmany

timesandforaslongasnecessary,allowittorestforsometimesoyourideas

canalsohaveabreakfromtheconnectionwiththetext,andclearlydigest
itbettertoidentifypossiblechanges.

ReflexiveblockAutomaticblockUTStartingpointTEXT
BEWARE!!!
Take
your
time!
Firstthings
first:identify
it!!!
Thatbeingsaid,itiscrucialthatsomeofthemaintranslatingissuesbe
treatedinthefollowingchapters.Inthisparticularchapter,someissues,
whichareunfairlyoverlookedattimesfortheyarethoughtastooeasyor
toosimple,willbeanalyzed.

Inthischapter,youwillnotstudyarticles,gerund,infinitive,
indirectspeech,causativeformsandprogressiveaspectsorthewaythey
areusedin
Pgina45

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
communication.Rather,youwillanalyzetheirpossibletranslationsandthe
differencesbetweenL1(English)andL2(Portuguese)indoingit,which
mustweaddarenotfew.
GOALSTOBEREACHED
Bytheendofthischapter,youshouldbeableto:

understandandvisualizehowsomechunksofwordsaretobetranslated
intoBrazilian
cultureandcontext;
correctlytranslatearticles,gerund,infinitive,indirectspeech,
causativeformsand
progressiveaspects;
identifyculturaldifferencesanddoamorefluidandfluenttranslationof
somechunks
ofwords.

3.1Articles

Asoneofthefirstgrammartopicskidslearnatschoolsthatworkwitheither
EFL(EnglishasaForeignLanguage)orESL(EnglishasaSecondLanguage),it
seemstobeoneoftheeasiestthingstotranslate,andthatisquitedeceiving
to

sayso.Whydoesthathappen?Youmaybewonderingthat.Theansweris
simple:gobacktotheformulapresentedinthepreviouspage.Doyou
remembertheautomaticblock?Well,thatistheblocktowhicharticles
belong.Theyseemtobesosimplethattheycandeceiveanaspiring
translator.
MULTIMDIA
Torefreshyourmemoryonarticlesandtheirusage,go
to:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PTpnC376IRQ?

Bysayingarticles,whatprobablyfirstcomestoyourmindisthedifference
betweendefinite(the)andindefinite(a/an)articles.Whentranslating,
thesearenottheonlydifferencesthatshouldbetakenintoaccount,
though.

Onecertainlyneedstounderstandthatthesubtledifferencesbetween
sourcelanguage(language1)andtargetlanguage(language2)arenotlimited
tothosedifferencesbelongingtoeachlanguagegrammarcore.Theyareall
basedonacontextwithinbothlanguages.Takethesentencebelow,for
instance:
AYDINDURDU|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thelackofthearticlethebeforepainmakesperfectlinguisticsensein
Englishsincehopeisageneralnounhere.However,whenyoutranslateit
intoPortuguese,youneedtoincludeanarticle;otherwiseitwillnotbe
fluid.The

Pgina46

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
captulo365

translationwouldbeAguentefirme!Adoracaba!Thisisoneofthe
subtletiesoftranslationinvolvingarticles.
Anotheroneiswhentheoppositehappens:whenthereisanarticlein
EnglishthatmustbeomittedinPortuguese.ThesentenceMr.Daneisa
doctor,forinstance,isaclassicexampleofanarticlethatshouldnot
beincorporatedinthetranslation:Sr.DanemdicoinsteadofSr.
Dane
ummdico.IfthearticleisindispensablebeforeanoccupationinEnglish,
inPortuguesewhathappensisexactlytheopposite.Theuseofthearticle
wouldchangethemeaningofthesentence,makingitsoundincomplete.

Inorderforyoutovisualizeitbetter,usethistableasareferenceof
thesesubtleties,andanalyzethelackoruseofthesearticles:

WITHANARTICLEENGLISHNOARTICLE
PORTUGUESEAnysortofclassification
(occupation,religion,
group,position,)
Hesapolice
officer.Shesa
capitalist.
I really want to become a
mother. A doctor has to respect
patients.Elepolicial.
Elacapitalista.
Euqueromesmometornarme.
Mdicostmquerespeitar
pacientes.Beforewordsthatseem
tobeadjectives,butare
nounsinstead:millionaire,
billionaire,member,
optimist,pessimist,
AngelaisamemberofTAFM.
Rachelisamillionaireand
wontspendhermoneyon
trivialities.ngelasciada
TAFM.
Rachelmilionriaenogasta
seudinheiro(ouodinheiro)
comtrivialidades.
Beforeachesandpains:
cold,fever,headache,Flu
isprecededbythe,
though.Ihadafeverall
nightlong.Mydaughterhas
theflu.Poorlittlething!
Pgina47

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtFiqueicomfebreanoitetoda.
Minhafilhaestcom
gripe.Coitadinhadela!
After as in some cases.
E.g. As a child, as a
teacher,asanathlete,...
Asateacher,Ifind
educationessentialtothe
humanbeing.Comoprofessora,
achoeducaoessencialao
serhumano.Beforesuch,
quiteandwhat(asan
exclamative)
Itssuchabeautifulday!
Wow!Thatsquitea
computer!Whatacoolbook!
Estumdiatobonito!
Uau!umcomputadore
tanto!Quelivrolegal!
Afterhalf,beforeanoun:
halfanhour,halfaday,
Itsbeenhalfanhoursince
weleft.

Jsepassoumeiahoradesde
quesamos.
WITHAORANENGLISHWITHADIFFERENTWORD
PORTUGUESE
Beforeperiodsoftime:
year,month,week,day,
Hetravelsabroadtwiceayear.
Eleviajaparaforadopas
duasvezesporano.
WITHNOARTICLEENGLISHWITHANARTICLE
(USUALLY)PORTUGUESE
Beforepropernames
Mysongavehisnewtoy
toArthur,hisclassmate.
IlovePeter.
Meu filho deu o brinquedo
nove dele para o Arthur, seu
colegadeclasse.
EuamooPedro.
Beforenounsthatshowa
generalidea:children,
hope,love,fire
Loveisblind.
Outofcontrol,fire
kills.Oamorcego.
Foradecontrole,ofogomata.
Pgina48

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
BALASOIUCLAUDIA|DREAMSTIME.COM
Retroposterofaninspirationalsentencewithanexampleofanounthatshows
ageneral
idea(life).

Asyoucansee,translatingarticlesrequiresattentiontodetails.Sincewe
areinit,itisimportanttorememberthatindefinitearticlesareusedonly
beforesingularnouns.Theymeanone,and,assuch,cannotbeusedinthe
pluralform.However,whenpluralisusedwithoutthedefinitearticle,an
articlemaybeincludedinPortuguese.Forinstance,lookatthesentence
below:
TUPUNGATO|DREAMSTIME.COM
ThemostusualtranslationforitwouldbeVocsabia?Naverdade,as
zebrassopretascomlistrasbrancas;nobrancascomlistraspretas.The
inclusionofthedefinitearticleinPortuguesemakesthesentencesound
more
naturalandfluidwhereasinEnglishitwouldbecompletelywrongbecause
thesentenceisaboutzebrasingeneral,andnotaboutspecificones.

Nevertheless,inthisotherexample,wecanfindbothcases:theuseof
thetoexpresssomethingspecific,andthelackofit,togeneralize.
Again,thereshouldbetheinclusionofanarticleinPortuguese,becoming
Ocomeooquebarraamaioriadaspessoas.Ocomeohasaliteral
translation,butamaioriadaspessoasrequiredtheinclusionofthe
article.

RUSLANAVASIUKOVA|
DREAMSTIME.COM3.2Gerundvs.
Infinitive

Gerundandinfinitiveareanotherexamplethatbelonginthecategory
deceivingtotheeyesandmind.Generally,itwouldbeeasytothinkthat
verbsendinginINGcanbetranslatedasgerundandthatTObeforeaverb
automaticallybecomesaninfinitiveorthewordpara.Toprovethiscanbea
genuineandmorecommonthandesirablemistake,lookatthepictures
below:

HARISFADILLAH|DREAMSTIME.COM
Inthiscase,INGcouldnotbetranslatedasgerundunderanycircumstance.The
translationParedesenhar.Comeceafazerbringsprepositionsandthe
infinitive,whicharenotphysicallywrittenintheoriginalsentence.Gerund
andinfinitivehavethesamefunctionasprepositionsdoinPortuguese,
concerningtheverbtransitivityorlackthereof.Hence,verbalcomplements
shouldhavespecialattentionwhentranslatedsincetheymightbefollowedby
theinfinitiveorthegerundasthetablebelowshows:
VERBSFOLLOWEDBYINGVERBSFOLLOWEDBYTOVERBSFOLLOWEDBY
EITHERadmitaffordbegin
Pgina49
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtavoidagreedislike
canthelparrange
forgetcantstandask
hateconsiderattempt
likediscussbeginlove
enjoycareprefer
feellikechoose
rememberfinishdare
start
giveupdecide
tryimagine
expectkeepon
failmindforget
misshelp
practicehope
putoff
intendrisk
learnsuggest
needneglect
offer
plan
prefer
pretend
promise
refuse
teach
want
wish
CONNECTION
Foramorecompletelistandtocheckthedifferencesbetweensomeverbs
followedbyeither
INGorTO,goto:
http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/britishgrammar/verb
patternsverbinfinitiveorverbing
Stillcomparingtheuseoftheinfinitiveandthegerund,anaspiringtranslator
shouldbecarefulenoughnottocommitsomeslipswhileinterpretingand
translatingtheiruse.Forinstance,takethesentenceItsnicetobenice
from

thecomicstripbelow:

IGORZAKOWSKI|
DREAMSTIME.COMDIDYOUKNOW?
TheadjectiveniceisamongthemostusedadjectivesinEnglish?For
moreadjectives,gotohttp://www.talkenglish.com/vocabulary/top500
adjectives.aspx

ThesamesentencecouldberewrittenasBeingniceisniceand
thePgina50

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txttranslation
wouldstillcontainthesamemessage:legalserbom(forthecomicstrip)
andSerlegalbomforallthatmatters.Thedifferenceliesinthefact
thattheuseofgerundinthebeginningofasentencemakestheverbbe
translateasthoughitwereintheinfinitive.Itdoesnotmeanyoucannot
startasentencewithaninfinitive.Ifyoudo,however,themeaningchanges.
For
instance:Tobenice,youdontneedmuch,whichcouldbetranslatedas
Paraserbom,vocnoprecisademuito.
Whileweareatit,itisworthwhiletomentionthedifferenttranslationsof
TO.Inthesentencebelow,therearetwowaysoftranslatingTOqueand
para:Vocnotemquesertimoparacomear,masvoctemquecomearpara
sertimo.Notethattherewouldbeanotherpossibletranslation,whichhas
toberefutedbythecontextsinceitisaninspirationalsentence:Vocno
temquesertimoparacomear,masvoctemquecomearasertimo.The
3Csare
ofgreatimportancehereforitisthetranslatorsjobtoanalyzethecontext
toproperlytransfertheideaandthemessagetoL2.

MAXMITZU|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thereisaverbthatneedsanddeservesmoreattentionthanothers:stop.
Theruleisclear,butcontexthelpsalotthosewhoarestillindoubtabout
thedifferencebetweenstoptodosomethingandstopdoingsomething.Inthe
signsbelow,therewillbetheuseofstopwiththegerund,andtheywillallmean

DE:NuncapareDEexplorar,NuncapareDEsonhar,NuncapareDE
crescer,NuncapareDEmelhorar,NuncapareDEaprender,Nunca
pareDEtentar.
ALAINLACROIX|DREAMSTIME.COM
Hadthegerundbeenchangedtoinfinitiveorhadsomeonenotpaidenough
attention,allthoseinspirationalsentenceswouldhavetheopposite
meaning
oftheintendedone.Inorderforyoutovisualizeit,thisiswhattheywould
belike:NuncaparePARAexplorar,NuncaparePARAsonhar,Nuncapare
PARAcrescer,NuncaparePARAmelhorar,NuncaparePARAaprender,
NuncaparePARAtentar.Oneslipandtheinspirationwouldstopexisting.
Tomakemattersworse,itwoulddemotivatethereader.

Anotheruseforthegerundisasanoun.However,itcanbetranslatedasa
verborasanounasshownbelow.Avidacomopintarumquadro,nocomo
fazerumresumo.Inthiscase,paintinganddoing,whichwere
originallynouns,havebecomeverbssothatthesentencemadesense.
However,intheothersentencebelow,Frenchkissingwhichisanoun,
continuesanoun.Thetranslation,though,hastobefluidandwithinour
culture.ItturnsFrenchkissingintobeijodelngua,andthewhole
sentencewouldbeVocsabia?Umbeijodelnguaenvolvetodosos34
msculosdaface.

Pgina51

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
SCOTER754|DREAMSTIME.COM
TUPUNGATO|DREAMSTIME.COM
Finally,agerundusedafteraprepositionmustbetranslatedasaverbora
nounifthatisthecase.Onceagain,thebetterchoiceismadebythe
translatorafteranalyzingthe3Cs.Actually,itdoesnotreallymatterifthe
gerundisgoing
tobeturnedintoanounoraverb.Thewholepointhereistobefullyaware
ofthe3Csandtotranslateitproperly,fluidlyandaccurately.Thecomic
stripbelowshowsanexampleofaverbingerund(noun)afterapreposition
thatbecomesaverb:Comovocpodemeacusardevirarascostasparaa
inovao?

ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Asitcanbeseen,commonsenseplaysahugeroleintranslatinggerundsand
infinitives.Aslongasthesentencemakessense,iscontextualizedand
withinthecultureofthetargetlanguageaudience,translatingthemboth
shouldntbetoohard.

captulo373

3.3Indirectspeech

Indirectspeechisalsocalledreportedspeech,anditexpressesthemeaningand
contentofquestionsandsentencesnegativeoraffirmativewithoutquoting
theoriginalsentenceorquestion.Itissafetosayindirectspeechrequiresa
greatdealofattentioninanylanguagesinceitisquiteeasytocommita
mistake

whileusingit.

CONNECTION
ItiscrucialthatyouremembertherulesofindirectspeechinPortuguese.
Incaseyouneed
somehelp,youcanusethissite:
http://www.normaculta.com.br/discursodiretoe
indireto/

Asamatteroffact,thebiggestissueconcerningindirectspeechdoes
notlieinthesourcelanguage;itliesalmostentirelyinthetarget
language.Interpretingitandtranslatingitcorrectlywilldependonthe
gooduseofthemothertongueoftheBrazilianaspiringtranslator:
Portuguese.Asweknow,thisisoneofthemostmisusedgrammartopicsin
Portuguese,anditiscrucialthateverytranslatorreviewtherulesofits
usagewhenevertheyfeeltheneedto.
OnehastobeattentivetohowitisgoingtobetranslatedintoPortuguese
fortworeasons:

Pgina52

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
1. makethingscleartothereaderinordertoavoidany
kindofmisunderstanding,
2. useindirectspeechcorrectlyinPortugueseinordertoshowrespectto
themothertongueandthereaderthemselves.Afterall,agooduseofthelanguage

meansyoudonotunderestimateyourreader.

Intheexamplebelow,therehavenotbeenanydrasticchangesfromthe
originalsentencetothereportedoneapartfromthepronoun.Translating
itshouldntbringanyproblemorwhatsoeversincethechangeswerekept
toaminimum.Translationisasfollows:Masvocdissequeeudeveria
tornaromaterialdocursomaisdivertidoparaosalunos.
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thesentencebelowshowsaverycommonexampleofacorrectuseof
indirectspeechwithsomeminorchanges,butwhichisnothardto
translate:Deusnuncadissequeseriafcil,apenasquevaleriaapena.

BECAREFUL!
Makesuretoincludewordswhenitisnecessary.Dontbeafraidnottouse
thembecause
theyarenotintheoriginalsentence.

RHBABIAK13|DREAMSTIME.COM
However,thesentencebelowbringsafewchallenges.Apartfromthetranslation
offullbodied,just(whichhasanotherconnotationinthesentence;one
thatreprimands)andmesswithit,anaspiringtranslatorwhodoesnot
remembertherulesinPortuguesemaydoapoorjobtranslatingtheindirect
speechfromthesentence,andusingtheincorrecttense.Thecorrect
translationshouldbe:Eudisseavoc(orEufalei)queeraumvinho
encorpado,masvoctinhaquemexercomele,n?Eventhoughitmayseemquite
unlikelythatsomeonewouldtranslateitincorrectly,itispossibleduetothe
misuseBraziliansmakeofPortuguese.Incaseithappened,theymighttranslate
wasas,anditisnottheaccuratetranslation.

ANDREWGENN|
DREAMSTIME.COMBECAREFUL!
TheexpressionthatsrightshouldbetranslatedasIssomesmomostof
thetimes.Dontlet
theautomaticblockfoolyou!

Itisworthittomentionthattheindirectspeechisnotonlyappliedwiththe
verbssay,tellandask.Thesearethemostusedones,buttherearemany
otherslikeclaim,order,yell,apologize,replytosayjustafew.Itisalso
importantto
Pgina53

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

76
captulo3
saythattherulesapplytothemaswell,andthatthemajorconcernisabout
theirusewhileinpast.Insimplepresent,therearenotchangesandthe
tensesstaythesame.Hence,thereisnothingmuchtoworryaboutasthe
example
fromapassagetakenfromCliffsNoteaboutthebookThesecretlifeofbees
shows:Augustrepliesthatthereareallkindsofpeoplewholoveher,
includingJune.[...]AugustsaysshelovesLily.Thetranslationwouldbeas
simpleastheindirectspeechintheoriginalsentence:Augustrespondequeh
todos
ostiposdepessoasqueaamam,inclusiveJune.[...]Augustdizqueelaama
Lily.Simplepresentwaskeptassimplepresentandtherewasnotanyneed
forchangingtherestofthetenses.

Anyaspiringtranslatorshouldneverstopstudyingtheirownlanguagebefore
theydecidetoventureintotheAmazingWorldofTranslation.Itdenotes
respectandconcerntowardstheirlanguageandclients/readers,whichare
goingtobecomeclearlyvisibleandpalpableintheirwork.

3.4Causativeforms

Therearetwoformsofcausative:passiveandactive.Ineitherform,
thecausative
isusedtodescribeanactionthatwasnotperformedbythepersonwho
receivedtheaction;rather,itwasdoneorcausedbysomeoneorsomething
else.

Culturally,speaking,causativenotthepassiveoneiseasierto
translateintoPortuguesesincethemeaningofthefourmostcommonverbs
dont
changealot,ifatall.Thetablebelowbringsthemosttraditionalmeaning
(notdefinition)oftheseverbsfollowedbysimpleexamples:

CAUSATIVEVERBSMEANINGEXAMPLE
TRANSLATIONMAKEforce
allow
convinceask
orgive
someonethe
responsibility
todo
something.
Ourmomalwaysmakesusdo
thedishesafterweeat.
Dontletyourdoggothere.
Itsdangerous!
Igotmyfriendtocometothe
showwithme.Thatwasquitehard!
Pgina54

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtIhadthemechanicfixmycar
yesterdayanditsbroken
again!Nossamesemprenosfaz
lavaralouadepois
quecomemos.
Nodeixeseucachorro
irl.perigoso!
Euconvencimeuamigoa
iraoespetculocomigo.
Foimuitodifcil!
Omecnicoconsertou
meucarroontem,mas
jquebroudenovo!
LET
GET
HAVE
Theonlyissueoneneedstoconsideris,again,thecontextalongwiththe
intentionofthechunktranslated.Forinstance,makedoesnotalwaysmean
force.IfinthesentenceThismoviealwaysmakesmecry,onetranslates
makesasforces,itwillbeunbearablywrong.Shallwecheckthe
difference?EstefilmesempremeforaachorarandEstefilmesempremefaz
chorar
areingrainedwithtotallydifferentmeaningseventhoughthetranslation
isliterallycorrect.Contextandcultureareonceagainimportantpartsof
thetranslationprocessandcannotbeignoredorsimplyoverlooked.Theyare
basicrequirementsforamistakenottohappen.

Asanexample,analyzetheproverb,withacausative,representedby
thepicturebelow:

LEREMY|DREAMSTIME.COM
Atafirstglance,itwouldbequiteeasytocommitamistaketranslating
lethimhave.Usingthe3Cs,afinalgoodtranslationmaybe:Omelhor
jeitodeconvencerumidiotadeixlofazerdoseujeito.Althoughthe
causativeisstillpresentinthesentence,therecertainlyhavebeen
adjustmentssothetranslationcanfitacontext.

Astothepassivecausative,theprocessrequiresalittlemoreattention
andcare.SincethisgrammartopicisnotfamiliartoBrazilians,somemajor
adjustmentsmustbemade.Takethesituationsbelow,forinstance,andthink
ofasentenceinPortuguesetodescribewhatishappeningineachoneof
them:
DISCOVOD|DREAMSTIME.COM
LARSZAHNER|
DREAMSTIME.COMSituation1
Situation2

Pgina55

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
MULTIMEDIA
Refreshyourmemory!Passivecausativeat:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=j_6m3YQ8udc
YoumusthaveprobablythoughtofElaestcortandoocabelofor
situationnumber1,andElamesmaestcortandoocabeloforthesecond
situation.Concerningculture,bothsentencesareusualandcorrect.
However,theywould
becompletelydifferenthadtheybeenwritteninEnglish.Forthefirstsituation,

thesentencewouldbeSheishavingherhaircut,andSheiscuttingher
hair(herselfoptional)wouldproperlydescribethesecondsituation.

Asitispossibletorealize,thepassivecausativeneedstohavesomemajor
adjustments.Whendealingwithit,thebiggestconcernmustbethesemantics
(messageortheidea)andnotthesyntax(structure).Aliteraltranslation,
asstudiedinthesecondchapter,wouldbreakthereadingflowing,providing
itwiththeawkwardnessandthefeelingofnotfittingalanguageinthe
targetculture.Asanotherexample,thesentencebelowcanbetranslatedas
Omelhorjeitodesefazeralgocomeando.
MAXMITZU|DREAMSTIME.COM
Inthiscase,thepassivecausativewasexchangedbythepassivevoice,
whichcreatedculturalmeaningwithinsemanticalconcern.Thesyntaxwas
notthekeypointinthiscaseforthe3Csarebiggerthanit.

Whenfacingthecausative,usetheflowinglogics:ifitflows,letitgo!
If,however,syntaxandsemanticsfittogether,thereisnoneedtodoit.
Theimportantistokeepthebalance.

MULTIMEDIA
Refreshyourmemory!Checkthecontinuous/progressiveaspect
athttps://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=ixMkyRi9hUU

3.5Progressiveaspects

Progressiveorcontinuousaspectsaregrammaticalstructuresthatexpress
anunfinishedaction,processesanddurationratherthanstatesand
completion
oftheaction.Aprogressivedoesnotsimplyshowthetimeofanevent.Italso

Mostracomoooradorvoeventogeralmentecomocontnuoe
temporrio,aoinvsdeconcludooupermanente."(SWAN,1997,p.464)

MULTIMDIA
Verifiqueamsicaem:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=FYGNWig7Vyw
Pgina56
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Aolidarcomosaspectosprogressistas,deveseteremmentequeacultura
afetaseuuso.Oquepodeedeveserusadoemumaspectocontnuoem
portuguspodenoteromesmousoemingls.Aotraduzilos,esteumponto
deateno.Algunsdosverbosaseremtratadoscomextremaateno
Soaquelesquesosobreestadosmentaisouemocionais(como,desagrado,dio,amor,

Lembrar,entender,quererentreoutros),sentidos(ouvir,ver,cheirar,sons,
provarentreoutros)eoutrossentimentos(dependem,precisam,prpriosentre
outros).Oconselhoparasempreestudaralnguaalvoeverificarseuuso
corretocontinuasendoumpontochave,emboradevamosrespeitarocontexto
socialtambm.Quandoumaempresadefastfoodmuitofamosadiz"euestou
amandoisso",podeserbemtraduzidocomo"Amomuitotudoisso"paraofoco
aindaestnaaodoamor.Tambmimportanteafirmarqueaempresafazuso
incorretodagramticaparaenfatizaromomento,comosefosseumalicena
potica.
HumacanodeSuzanneVega(Tom'sdiner)emqueeladescreveoque
Elavemumjantar.Amaioriadasletrasfoiescritausandoopresente
contnuoparadescreveroqueaspessoaspassandooustandersbyesto
fazendo.Umadasestrofes"Humamulher/Noexterior/Olhandoparadentro
/Elamev?",Eestapartepodeilustrarclaramenteocontrasteentreoidioma
deorigemeoidiomadedestino.Notequeeladizoqueamulherestfazendo,
masperguntaseamulherav,enose"elaestvendo"ela.Noentanto,ao
traduzilo,oresultadoquevimoscom"Humamulher/Lfora/Olhandopara
dentro/Elaestmevendo?".Alinguagemdesempenhouumgrandepapelna
traduo,masculturaecontextojogouummaior.

Deveselembrarqueosaspectosprogressivosdosverbossoformadospelouso
obrigatriodesereing,eesteaspectoprogressivopodeserusadono
presente,passadooufuturonosnopresentecomopresumidoporalguns.A
ltimalinhadabandadesenhadaabaixomostraseuusonopassado,epodeser
literalmentee

Culturalmentetraduzidoparaoportugussemmaisdelongas:"Sobreoqueeu
estavafalando?":

IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
Noentanto,valeapenachamarsuaatenoparaaintenodoverbo.Como
ditonocomeo,oaspectoprogressivoexpressaumaaodeprocessamento
contnua,inacabada.Omerousodesereingnofazdotempoumaspecto
progressivodalinguagem.Devemoslembrarqueofuturotambmpodesercriado
pelousodesereing.Assim,atraduodeveserfeitacomotal.Altima
caixadatiramostraclaramentequandoelediz"EstouvoandoparaoMxico.
Voc est vindo comigo?". Considerando que a primeira parte um aspecto
progressivo (Estou voando para o Mxico), a segunda representa uma ao
futura, que pode ser traduzida usando o presente como futuro: "Vocs vm
comigo?"

Pgina57

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
Below,thereisatableforyoutovisualizetheprogressiveaspectsin
Englishandanexampleofapossibletranslationofafewoptions:

PROGRESSIVE
ASPECTSSTRUCTUREEXAMPLE
TRANSLATIONPresent
continuous
am/is/are
+
ING
Icantanswerthephone
rightnow.Immakinglunch.
Nopossoatendero
telephoneagora.
Estoufazendoalmoo.
Past
continuous
was/were
+
ING
Iwasgoinghomewhen
Icrashedmycar.
Euestavaindopara
casaquandobati
meucarro.
Present
perfect
continuous
have/hasbeen
+
ING
Newtonhasbeen
smokingsincehewas20.
Itsbeenalifetime!
Newtonfumadesde
quetinha20anos.
umavida!
Past
perfect
continuous
hadbeen
+
ING
Shehadbeencryingfor
hourswhenhermompicked
herupfromschool.
Elaestavachorando
haviahorasquando
amefoibuscla
na
Pgina58

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
escola.
Future
continuouswill
be
+
ING
Willyoubestudying
tonight?Vocvaiestudar
hoje
noite?
Future
perfect
continuous
willhave
been
+
ING
Bytheendoftheyear,
Andrewwillhavebeenliving
inParisfor6months.
Nofimdoano,far
6mesesqueAndr
moraemParis.
Itisworthittoemphasizetwopoints:

1.Whentranslatingtheperfectcontinuoustenses,becarefulnottodo
itliterallyratherthancontextually.Nextchapterwillbringthepresentperfect
continuousbackandmorecompletely,butitisimportanttomakesomething
clearinthischapter:thepresentperfectcontinuousisusuallytranslated
asthoughitwerethesimplepresentorthepresentcontinuous.Astothe
pastperfect
continuous,itistranslatedasthoughitwerethepastcontinuous.
2. SomeBrazilianssufferfromgerundismo(aviceofstylesthatconsistsof
thesystematicandcontextuallywronguseofthegerund),especiallywhen
translatingoradaptingthefuturecontinuous.Itisimperativetosaytheuse
ofthetranslationforthefuturecontinuousisnotalwayswrong,dependingon
thecontexttoandinwhichitisapplied.E.g.:Illbetakingashowerwhen
youcome
here.Inthiscase,itmeansthat,bythetimeyougethere,Illbein
theprocess
oftakingashower,whichcanandmustbetranslatedasEuestareitomando
banhoquandovocchegaraqui.However,ifyoutranslateIllbewaiting
foryouasEstareiesperandovocwithoutacontextorwhatsoever,itis
clearlymistranslated.

Inshort,whentranslatinganyprogressiveaspect,youcanfollowthesesteps:

1. Recognizetheintentionoftheoriginalauthor;
2. Culturallytransfertheintentiontotargetlanguage;
Pgina59

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

3. Analyzethecontextandverifywhethertheremustbedrastic
changesornot;
4. Dontprioritizesyntaxorsemanticsforthatmatter,

5. Findbalancebetweenthemessage(semantics)andthestructures
(syntax),keepingthe3Csinmind.

Afterallisdone,thetranslatormustremembertogivetheirworksomerest
forareevaluationandverificationofwhatitisandsoundslike.Balanceiswhat

mattersthemostwhenthebattlebetweensyntaxandsemanticsisbeingfought.

ACTIVITIES
01. Analyzethesentencesbelow,andtranslatethemmakingproperuseof
thearticlesor
decidingiftheyshouldntbeused:

a)
AYSEEZGIICMELI|
DREAMSTIME.COMb)
PIMMIMEMOM|
DREAMSTIME.COMc)
LeonTolstoysquote:Thetwomostpowerfulwarriorsarepatienceand
timed)
Tylenol(acetaminophen)isapainrelieverandafeverreducer.()Aska
doctororpharmacist
beforeusinganyothercold,allergy,pain,orsleepmedication.(at
http://www.drugs.com/tylenol.htmllastaccessonJuly16)

02. Analyzethesentencesbelow,payingspecialattentiontotheuseof
gerundsandinfinitives.
Translatethemproperly:

a)
MAXMITZU|DREAMSTIME.COM
b)
ZERBOR|
DREAMSTIME.COMc)
IGORZAKOWSKI|
DREAMSTIME.COMd)

Pgina60

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
BLUELELA|
DREAMSTIME.COM86
captulo3
e)
Havingcancerisnotafightorabattle(thewholearticleisat
http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/apr/25/havingcancernotfightor
battlelastaccessonJuly16)
03. Analyzethesentencesbelow,payingspecialattentiontotheuseof
indirectspeech.
Translatethemproperlyandaccordingly:

a)
Shetoldeveryoneshehadthesmartesthamsterever.Noonebelieved
her.b)
Stevensaidhewouldneverstealagain,buthefailedmiserablyat
that.c)
Hellensaysshecantdothatbyherself.Shecertainlyneeds
help.d)
Katehasconfirmedtherumorsaboutherpregnancyandsayssheisreally
gladshell
haveanotherchild.

04. Analyzethesentencesbelow,andtranslatethecausativeformsasyou
findbest:
a)

BILDERPOOL|
DREAMSTIME.COMb)
MAXMITZU|
DREAMSTIME.COMc)
KIANLIN|DREAMSTIME.COM
d)
Marciaiscertainlynotdoingthis.Shesgoingtohaveherhusbandmowthe
grassforher.
e)
Barbaraishavinghernailsdonerightnow.Shecantanswerthephone.

05. Analyzethesentencesbelow,andtranslatetheprogressiveformsasyou
findbest:

a)
Pgina61

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Imsittinghereintheboringroom/ItsjustanotherrainySunday
afternoon/Imwasting
mytime(partofthesongbyFoolsGarden.Readthefulllyrics
athttp://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/foolsgarden/lemontree.html)

b)

c)
Haveyoubeensmokingagain,Lisa?Icansmellitin
you.d)
Itwasamistake!Ipromise!Iwasjusttryingtoseewhatwashappening.Iwasnt

eavesdropping.
e)
WillyoustillbelivinginJapanbythetimeIgetthere?

MAREKULIASZ|
DREAMSTIME.COMFOODFOR
THOUGHT
Asseenthroughoutthechapter,syntaxisasimportantassemantics.What
oneshouldalways
beawareofisthatthe3Csplayagreaterrolethansimplysyntaxor
simplysemantics.There
mustbebalanceandthetranslatormustrecognizethenatureoftheintention
inthesource
languagetextsoastodoagoodjob.

Constantlystudyingbothlanguagesiscrucialforsomeonetobecomea
bettertranslator,
respectingbothlanguagesandbothcultures.Thisisarequirementof
whomeverwishesto
bethebridgebetweentwoculturesandlanguages.
RECOMMENDEDREADING
ALVES,Fbio,MAGALHES,Clia,PAGANO,Adriana,Traduzircomautonomia:
estratgiasparaotradutoremformao.SoPaulo:Editoracontexto.2000.
OTTONI,Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editora
daUnicamp,
2005.p.2158
SWAN,Michael.PracticalEnglishUsage.Oxford:Oxford.1995.

REFERENCES
MILTON,John.Traduo:teoriaeprtica.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.2010.p.155
176.
OTTONI,Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editora
daPgina62
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Unicamp,2005.
SANTOS,Diana.TranslationbasedCorpusStudies:ContrastingEnglish
andPortugueseTenseand
AspectSystems.NewYork:Rodopi.2004.
SWAN,Michael.PracticalEnglishUsage.Oxford:Oxford.1995.
<http://www.letras.ufscar.br/linguasagem/edicao10/trad_miguez.php>(lastaccess:
June16,2015)<http://www.cliffsnotes.com/literature/s/thesecretlifeof
bees/summaryandanalysis/chapter12>
(lastaccess:July16,2015)

90captulo3
4
More
Practical
Issuesof
Translation

Lastchapterwasfilledwithsomeissuesthatderivefromsimple,yet
confusing,structures.Thischapterwillbring,however,someofthemost
confusinggrammaticalandlexicalstructuresforaPortuguesespeaker.

Haveyoubeenconsideringhowthe3Csareabletoaffectanytranslation?Haveyou

thoughtofanymoregrammaticalstructuresthatcouldalsobeorbecomeanissue?

Consideringthetranslatoralwayshastomakeachoicefacinganygiven
situation,andthischoiceneedstobebasedonthe3CsofTranslation,it
iscrucialtoconsidersyntax(structures)andsemantics(message/idea)as
partoftheprocess,asthediagramshows:
SyntaxSemanticsCulture
Situation
Choice
Context
Chunkof
words
Final
text
Eachlanguageisveryparticularandnoneofthemsimplyexists.Apartfrom
allthelinguisticprocessestheyarebuiltupon,theyareusedwithinacontext

mayitbefromanysource:social,cultural,contextualoranyotherthat
mustby
allmeansbetakenintoaccountwheninterpretinganygiventext(oral
orPgina63

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
written).

Itmightbealittlefrustratingtotryandtranslatesomestructuresthat
arenotcompletelyimprintedinourbrain.However,practicemakesperfect,
and
thebestwaytoimprovetheflowingofanytranslationisbyalwaysdoingit.
Themoreattempts,themorefluidthetranslationwillbecome.

AccordingtoAdailSobral(2003),atranslatorhastogothroughtwokinds
ofprocesses:onewhilereadingandanotheronewhiletranslating.Forhim,
itisimperativethatatranslatorshowthefollowingskillsinthefirst
process:
1. understandthecreationofmeaning;
2. realizethetargetaudiencetheauthoristryingtoreach;
3. realizetheimpactthetargetaudienceandtheauthorspurpose
haveuponthecreationofmeaning;
4. realizeandjudgehowtheauthorhascreatedthewholeworkinorder
toreachtheiraudience;
5. exotopicallyperceivetheculturefromwhichtheworkcomesinorder
toanalyzeitthoroughlyandmeaningfully.

Astothesecondprocess,thetranslatorneedstorepeatthesteps
focusing,though,onthetargetlanguageandtargetaudience,recreating
meaning
withincontextandthetargetculture,beingcarefulenoughtokeepthe
balancebetweensyntaxandsemanticswithoutmissinganypoint.

Itdoesnotsoundeasy,anditisnotatfirst.Practicehelpsalot,and
themorecontactatranslatorhaswithanythingthatmighthelpthem
understandandrecreateculturalmeaningwithoutmissingthebalanceis
positivefortheirformation.
ForBrazilianswhoarespeakersofEnglish,somestructuresareharderand
toughertotranslatethanothersforseveralreasons:somedonotliterally
existinPortuguese,makingitnecessarytofindanequivalentform,whichmay
bedifficultattimes.Somearedeceivingforbeingsosimilarandyetmeaning
somethingcompletelydifferentorsimplyunthinkable,andsomearesupposed
tobeusedaccompaniedbyaparticlethatrequirestobeanalyzedwith
thepreviousornextwordstomakesense.

Thischapterwillfocusonthesestructures:thepresentperfect,the
presentperfectcontinuous(orprogressive),phrasalverbs,confusingverbs
andfalsecognates.Translatorsshouldnotbeashamedofadmittingand
confessingtheyarenotcompletelysurewhenthathappens.Agoodand
responsibletranslatorisagreatresearcher,andbeingsuchmakesallthe
differenceinanywork.
GOALSTOBEREACHED
Bytheendofthischapter,youshouldbeableto:
Pgina64

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understandandvisualizehowtotranslatethepresentperfectandthe
presentperfectcontinuous;
correctlytranslateconfusingverbsandphrasalverbs,
identifyandtranslateaccuratelythefalsecognates.

4.1Thepresentperfect

AnyperfecttensemaybealittlescaryforBraziliansinthebeginning.
However,thepresentperfecthasabadreputationamongus.Itisfearedby
BrazilianstudentsofEnglish,andmeetingsomeonewhohasnevermisuseditor
mistranslatedishighlyunlikely.
CONNECTION
Refreshyourmemory!Presentperfectat:
http://www.englishpage.com/verbpage/presentperfect.html

Firstofall,itisnecessarytoreviewthepresentperfectandcontrastit
withitsarchrivals:thesimplepresentandthesimplepast.Whencoming
acrossitsuse,analyzingthecontextisinevitablyusefulandnecessary,and
shouldnotbeignoredunderanycircumstance.

Theeasiestuseofthepresentperfecttotranslatereferstoitsmeaningin
thepast:whenusedwithwordsthatrepresentpastactions(already,before,
never,ever,yet,amongothers)orjustbyitself,withoutmentioningthe
exactdateofthehappening,thetranslationisasthoughthesimplepasthad
beenusedinstead.

Analyzethecomicstripbelow:

IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
ThesentenceIvereallyputonsomeweightcanbeeasilytranslated
asEurealmenteengordei.ThemostcommonmistakeBrazilianscommit
is
tryingtotranslatethepresentperfectliterallyorespeciallywordforword.
Ifthatwerethecase,thetranslationwouldbetotallyinaccurate,especially
inthissentence,whichbringsaphrasalverb(laterinthischapter,therewill
bea

sectionaboutthem).

Analyzingthesentencebelow,andtranslatingitliterally,theresult
wouldbeVoctemsidodeletadodaminhalistadecontatoswhilethe
correcttranslationisVocfoideletadodaminhalistadecontatos.

THINGLASS|DREAMSTIME.COM
ThephraseYouhavebeendeletedfrommylistofcontactstypedonapapernoteon
Pgina65

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
awood
background.Awayoftellingsomeoneyourpersonalorbusinessrelationship
isover.
This grammatical structure requires a lot of attention for it does not
onlyrepresentthepast:italsorepresentsanactionthatsomehowhasan
effect upon the present thus the name present perfect. The example
belowshows
thiseffectinaveryclearway:Agoraquecontratamosvoc,nsgostaramos
dereestruturarseulugar.Eventhoughtheactionofhiringhappenedinthe
past,thepresentisaffectedbyitbyrestructuringherpositionand
functionsinthecompany.Therefore,thetranslationshouldbeasshown.
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thisgrammaticalstructurerequiresalotofattentionforitdoesnotonly
representthepast:italsorepresentsaneventthatisrelevantnow
regardlessthetimeithappened.Intheexamplebelow,thesentencerepresents
itveryclearly.Hiscareerbuildingisnotinhibernationonlyatthepresent
moment;itstartedsometimeago,buttheeffectisstrongernow.Astothe
translation,oneofthepossibilitiesisEusintoque(ocrescimento)daminha
carreiraesthibernando.
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Incontrast,thesameexpressionhas/havebeencanandshouldbe
translatedasapastactioninsomecasesfor,eventhoughitseffectis
stillfelt
andsensedinthepresent,themainactionstartsinthepast,suchasin
thestrip
below,withthefollowingtranslation:Vocfoivitalaonossograndeano.
Seubnustudoaquiloquevocconseguirlevaratmeianoite.
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Twowordsmustbetakenveryseriouslyintoaccountwhenusedwiththe
presentperfectfortheyneedtobetranslatedaccurately:sinceandfor.Byusing

themandautomaticallytranslatingthem,somelessexperiencedtranslator
mightpredictablyusedesdeandpor.However,ifyoulookcloselyatthe
sentencesbelowandmakeamorefluidmentaltranslation,youwillrealize
thereisabetteroptioninsomecases.Besides,the3Csneedtobeanalyzed.
:
EXAMPLETRANSLATION
ThesistershavebeeninItalyforaweek.AsirmsestonaItliahumasemana.

IveknownPaulamywholelife.Shewouldnt
beabletodothat.
EuconheoaPaulaaminhavidainteira.Ela
noseriacapazdefazeraquilo.
Pgina66

FUNDAMENTOS DA TRADUO DA LINGUA


INGLESA.txt How long has Andrea been here? H quanto tempo
Andraestaqui?Iveknownmyhusbandforaverylongtime,
but
wevebeenmarriedforonly2years.
Euconheomeumaridohmuitotempo,
masnsestamoscasadoshapenasdois
anos.
EXAMPLETRANSLATION
Mycomputerhasntworkedproperlysince
Iboughtit.
Meucomputadornofuncionadireitodesde
queeuocomprei.
Davidhasntlefthishouseforyearsdueto
aseriousdepression.
Davidnosaidecasahanosdevidoa
umadepressosria.
Sincetheyhadtheirbaby,theyhaventbeen
abletoleadaregularlifeanymore.*
Desdequeelestiveramumbeb(filho),eles
notmmaisconseguidolevarumavidanormal.
*Thisexamplewillbelaterexplained.
Asseenintheexamples,theverbhsoundsmorenaturalanditreplacesthe
prepositionpor,whichindicatesthevividuseofthe3Cs:culturally
speaking,withinthosecontextsandchunksofwords,itwasmoreappropriateto
usethewordhor,forthatmatter,simplyomititasinthesecondexample.
IfitsusecanbeomittedinPortuguese,thesamehappenstoEnglishinsome
cases.Analyzingthestripbelow,itispossibletorealizethelackofthe
prepositionfor.It,however,doesnotmeanthetranslationwilllackitas
well:Estouneste
ramohmuitotempoeeudigoavocquenobrincadeira.Onceagain,it
issafetosaythe3Cshavedoneagoodjob.

DIDYOUKNOW?
PropernamesmayormaynotbetranslatedintoL2.Itdependsonthe
translatorsinterpretation
oftheauthorsintentions.Ifthenamedoesntrepresentanything
culturallyspecific,thereis
noproblemtranslatingit.Ifitdoes,allattentionisnecessary.

ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thereisanothersimpleyetpossiblyconfusingaspectofthepresentperfect
involvingthewordever.Braziliansusuallyhavetheirautomaticblockdothe
bestofthejobswhentheycomeacrossthisword.However,reflexively,it
becomeseasiertounderstandwhyitshouldbetranslatedasapastaction,
andnotliterally.Inthecomicstripbelow,whentheducksaysHaveyou
everseensuckwithtooth?,therealandaccuratetranslationisVocjviu
patocomdente?.Anyotherattemptatanothertranslationwouldbreak
communication,
Pgina67

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtandthatiswhatatranslatorshouldavoidatall
costs.

IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
Specialattentionisnecessarywhenthepresentperfectisaccompanied
bythewordjust.EventhoughsomeAmericanswouldratheruseitwiththe
simplepast,therulestillexits:whensomethinghashappenedreallyrecently,
theparticlejustaccompaniesthepresentperfect.Forinstance,Ivejust
hadlunchandImalreadyhungryshowsthatthepersonhasrecentlyeaten.As
tothetranslation,theregularwayistomakeuseoftheverbacabar:
Acabeidealmoarejestoucomfome.
DIDYOUKNOW?
ThesongHaveyoueverseentherainisusuallywronginterpreted.The
fullquestionis
Haveyoueverseentheraincomingdownonasunnyday?,whichmakesmore
sensethan
ifcutinhalf.Afterall,rainisnotsomethingasuncommonforpeopleto
haveneverseenit.
Itisalsoimportanttomentionthat,attimes,thepresentperfectis
impliedinsomecolloquialandinformalsentences,whichmayconfusean
aspiringtranslator.Inthesentencebelow,onlythepastparticiplehasbeen
used.However,therestofthesentence(Ive)ispresentintheideait
shows.Thus,the
translationisSaparaalmoar/Saparaoalmoo.

BARTPEEREBOOM |DREAMSTIME.COM

Goneforlunchwrittenonachalkboardat the office.

Before wemove forward to ournexttopic, contrasting theuseofthepresent


perfectandthe presentperfect continuous,a safesummaryforthetranslation
ofthe present perfect is right below:

Noindicating
wordPresentor
pastyet
ever
already
sofar
recently
before
never
just*
Past
since
for
Present
3Cs

Pgina68
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Present
Perfect
*just=pastwiththeinclusionofatimeexpressionandanotherverb

4.2Thepresentperfectcontinuous

Assaidbefore,progressiveorcontinuousaspectsaregrammatical
structuresthatexpressandemphasizeprocessesanddurationratherthan
statesandcompletionofanaction.Itwouldnotbeanydifferentwiththe
presentperfectcontinuous.
Thedifferencebetweenthepresentperfectanditscontinuousformisthat
thelatter,besidesstillbeinginprocess,emphasizesthedurationofthe
eventratherthantheeventitself.Lookatthepicturebelowandthinkifthe
threesentencesareappropriatetodescribeitinPortuguese.Afterthat,think
iftheyhavedifferentintentions.
FABIOLAMANNA|DREAMSTIME.COM
MotionblurabstractofbikeriderinthemainmarketofMaeSod,
NorthernThailand,under
torrentialraininmonsoontime.

Estchovendomuito.
Estchovendomuitoodiatodo.
Temchovidomuito.

Thethreeofthemdescribethescenewellwhiletheydoshowdifferent
intentions.Thefirstoneemphasizestheactionwhilethesecondoneemphasizes
thedurationoftheaction.Thethirdonerepresentsarepeatedactionand,
while
itisunlikelyforthereadertoguesswhenthepouringrainstarted,they
canstill
grasptheideaofcontinuation.InEnglish,theywouldbeasfollows:

Itisrainingalot.
Ithasbeenrainingalotalldaylong.
Itsbeenrainingalot/Ithasrainedalot.

MULTIMEDIA
Ifyouhavethetime,takealookatthis5minutevideowithasimple
explanationonthe
differencebetweenthepresentperfectandthepresentperfect
continuous:https://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=YZdGECBwvCA
Pgina69

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

Asitcanbeseen,thethreesentenceshavedifferentintentionsandthelast
onecanbewrittenintwodifferentways,withthepresentperfectorthe
continuousform.Thedifferenceintranslationisnotasvisibleasinthe
intentionoftheoriginallanguage.WhileIthasrainedalotdenotesthe
importanceoftheaction,itsbeenrainingalotrepresentstheimportance
oftheduration.Howwouldthetranslationshowitsoaccurately?Bychoosing
thebestwayaccordingtothecontextsincealoosesentenceisrarelya
translatorsjob.
Ontheotherhand,ifitdoeshappen,senseandsensibility(again,nopun
intended)arerequiredallthetime.Takethesentencebelowforinstance
andthinkofatranslationforit.

IQONCEPT|DREAMSTIME.COM
ThewordsWhatYou'veBeenWaitingForburstingoutofanopenenvelope
toillustrateanticipation,
excitementandgoodfeelingsfromreceivingimportantpositiveinformation.

102
captulo4

IsyourtranslationOquevocestavaesperando!orOquevocest
esperando!?Eitheronewillbecorrect.However,ifyouchoosetheformer,
yourdecisionwastoemphasizethedurationoftheaction,whichmayhavean
endreallysoon.Ifyouchoosethelatter,youremphasiswasintheaction
itselfanditsprocess.Thepresentperfectcontinuouscanbeseenasboth,but
contextwilldeterminethebestpathtotake.
Anotherpointtowhichattentionshouldbedrawnisthetranslationofsentences
withindicationwordsorexpressionslikelately,forthepastweeksandso
forth.

Asfrases"Eufizisso","Eufizissoultimamente"e"Eutenhofeitoisso"so
Respectivamentetraduzidascomo"Eufizisso","Eutenhofeitoisso
ultimamente"e"Eu
Tenhoporqueisso".Anicadiferenaentreasegundaeaterceirafrasesa
palavra"ultimamente",masosignificadoeaintenosoosmesmos.

Portanto,osegredoparaumaboatraduoparaopresenteperfeitocontnuo
analisarcadapedaodecontexto,culturaeintenodoautororiginal

Assimqueoleitordoalvopodecomearamesmaimagem.

4.3Confundindoverbos

Algunsverboseminglssofacilmenteconfundidosporqueelestmomesmo
significado,eaindasousados
paramostrardireesdiferentesoumesmo

opostas.Omaiscomum
Pgina70

Osverbosconfusossocome/goebring/
take.

Emlinhasmuitogerais,usando"vir"mostraomovimentoparaoalto
falanteenquantousando"go"mostraomovimentolongedoalto
falante.Olhandoparaafiguraabaixo,vocachaqueestcertoou
errado,ento?
SERGECRANE|DREAMSTIME.COM
O"novmacima"assinanasrunasantigas.
CONEXO
Sevocquiserlermaissobreatraduodopresenteperfeito,vocpode
visitar
Http://www.sk.com.br/skperf.html

JosRicardo(2006)dedicaumaparteinteiradeseusegundocaptulopara
limparasdiferenasentre"descer/subir"e"entrar/sair",poissempre
dependemdalocalizaodooradoredoouvinte.Aregraaseguinte:

FROMWHOMEVERIS...TOWHOMEVERIS...VERBOSIGNIFICADO
/TRADUOEmcimaNofundoVenha
Subir
NofundoNotopoVem
cimaNotopoNofundo
VparabaixoDescer
NofundoEmcimaDesce
DentroDentroEntreem
Entrar
ForaDentroV
dentroDentroFora
VparaforaSair
ForadedentroSaia
Agoraquevocsabequalaposioelocalizaoimportantes,vocacha
Osinalestcertoouerrado?Sevocdisseerrado,issoimplicaquevoc
acreditaquenohningumlemcima.Sevocdissecerto,issoimplicao
oposto:halgumlemcima.

Outrocasaldeverbosqueapresentamomesmoproblemapegaretrazer.
Arefernciasersempreapistaparausarqualquerum,easregrassoas
mesmasqueasusadasemirevir,comonasfrasesabaixo:

MACROVECTOR
|DREAMSTIME.COMKCHUNGTW
|DREAMSTIME.COM
AprimeirafrasemostraqueapessoaestpedindoaalgumparalevlosparaParis,que

Significaqueelesestolongedoouvinte.Atraduo,portanto,"Leve
meaParis!".Como
Pgina71

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Paraasegundafrase,elesestopedindospessoasparatrazerseuprprio
dispositivo,quemostra
thelistenershavetogoclosertothespeakers:Tragao
seuprpriodispositivo.In
otherwords,youtakesomethingthereandyoubringsomethinghere.

Asamatteroffact,therealproblemwithsomeconfusingverbsisthefactthat
theyhaveameaningoforiginthatmayormaynotbechangedaccordingtothe
contextandtoaparticlethataccompaniesit.Thesearecalledphrasalverbs,

andtheyarereallyconfusingifyoudonotusethe3Cs.Shallweseethem?

4.4Phrasalverbs

Phrasalverbsareidiomaticexpressionscreatedbythecombinationofa
verbandanotherparticlethatcanbeaprepositionoranadverboreven
both.Bycombiningtheseelements,thephrasalverbacquiresanother
meaning,completelydifferentfromtheoriginalone.
Sealgumtentarfazerumatraduoliteralouumatraduopalavrapor
palavra,podecausarvriosproblemasdevidoaummalentendido
Seusignificado,umavezqueumverbodeduasoutrspalavrasoutraentidadeem
si.Para

Exemplo,analisaroverbo"stand".Suadefiniotosimplesquanto
"terum
Posioouposioespecfica".Astraduesmaiscomuns(especialmente
aquelasdatofamosalistadeverbosentreguesnaescola)so"levantar,ficar
emp,encontrarse".Agora,observemuitoatentamenteosexemplosabaixo:

RIXIE|DREAMSTIME.COM
BAZ777|DREAMSTIME.COM
LESTER69|DREAMSTIME.COM
Comovistonasimagens,overboquetmemcomum"stand".Noentanto,
contrariamentedefinioacima,notemnenhumdessessignificadosem
nenhumadestassentenas.Issoaconteceporque"stand"adquiriuumnovo
significado
Devidospreposiesouaomodal"nopode"antesdele.Suastraduessoas
seguintes:

1. "Destaquesedamultido",oquesignificaquevocdevemostrar
suasboasqualidades,afimdefazerumaboaimpresso.
2. "Rosassovermelhas/Violetassoazuis/Eunosuportovoc",queuma
pardiaparaosversosromnticosfamosos"Rosassovermelhas/Violetas
soazuis/Sugardoce/Evoctambm.Mesmoqueoverbo"stand"tambm
significatolerar,reforadopelousode"nopode".improvvel
encontrlo
Semomodalassociadoaele.
Pgina72

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
3. "Mantenhadistncia",quetambmconhecidocomo"manteroff"quandoo
contextopermitequeeleseja.Nestecaso,afrase"Standback"referese
linhaamarelaaoladodetrilhasdometr,queavisaospassageirosparaficar
atrsdele,afimdeevitaracidentes.

AcanofeitamundialmentefamosanavozdeGloriaGaynor,"Euvou
sobreviver",umexemplovvidoeanimadodecomoosverbosphrasalsomais
comunsdoquepodemosimaginar.Emumdosversos,elacanta:"Levoutodaa
foraqueeunotiveparacair
Apart",significandoqueelatinhaqueserforteosuficienteparanoirparabaixo.A
traduo
Dophrasalverbis"desmoronar",fazendocomqueasentenaseja"Hmais
exemplosnestacano,assimcomoemmuitosoutros.Nossaintenoapenas
ilustrarsuapresena
vidascotidianas.Emumanotalateral,overbo"tomar"adquireumnovo
significadodiferentedodaseoanterior,oquesreforaousodocontexto
paracriarsignificado.

CONEXO
Encontremaisverbosphrasalem:
Http://www.learnenglishtoday.com/phrasalverbs/phrasalverblist.htm

Estessoexemplossimplesparamostrarcomoumverbopodemudardependendode
Aspartculasqueosseguem."Getup,Standup"deBobMarleytrazumjogo
curiososobreosverbosphrasalbemnoinciodasletrasquandoelecanta
"Levantese,levantese,defendaseusdireitos".Enquantostandupsignifica
quaseomesmoquelevantarse,standupsignificaalgocompletamentediferente
comovistonatraduo:"Levantese,fiqueemp,lautepelosseusdireitos".Uma
palavramudouosignificadodeumverbo,quehaviasidopreviamentealterado
pelousoanteriordeumapreposio.Ojogodepalavrasperdidonatraduo,
masaidiano.
Phrasalverbosnosofceisdememorizar,eamelhormaneiradelidarcomeles
prestaratenoaocontextoemqueestosendousados.Emboraalgunssejam
maiscomumenteefacilmenteencontrados,outrosno.

Aquiestumatabelacomalgunsverbosphrasal,seusignificadoesuatraduo.
Itisnotourintentiontoincludeacompletelisthereforits
impossibilities.For
this,therearegreatsourcesontheinternetandbrilliantdictionaries.
VERBPREPOSITIONMEANINGEXAMPLE
TRANSLATIONBREAK
down
into
Pgina73

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
up
lose
emotional
controlenter
byforce
endarelationship
Annabrokedownwhen
sherealizeda
burglarhadbroken
intoherhouse.
Annabrokeupwithher
fianclastnight.Anna
teveumcolapsonervoso
quandoelapercebeuque
umladrotinha
invadidosuacasa.Anna
terminoucomo
seunoivoontemnoite.
VERBPREPOSITIONMEANINGEXAMPLE
TRANSLATIONCOME
across
down
withup
with
over
without
up
out
away
(with)
downto
on
with
over
up
back
through
up
upfor
findby
chancebecome
sickhavean
ideado
something
again
managewithout
haveasa
result
understand
escape
start
somethingmake
progress
Pgina74

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
overcome
quit
return
experience
invent
compensate
Youllcomeacrossa
lotofuseful
informationhere.
Juliahascomedown
withtheflu.Poor
thing!Haveyoucomeup
withthisprojectall
byyourself?
Oh,no!Valwillhaveto
doallthisover.Its
allruined!
Nobody can do
without water for
morethan3days.
Weendedupgoingto
thepartyeven
withoutaride.
Iveneverfiguredout
howtousethisdevice.
Thekiddidntgetaway
withthewallpainting
hedidwhilehismomwas
away.
Letsgetdownto
itrightnow!
Wecantgetonwith
itwithoutan
approval.Brendanever
gotoverhermoms
death.
Iwontgiveupon
us!Gobacktothe
placeyouvecome
from,Daniel!
Ivenevergonethrough
thisbefore,butIm
sureImgoingtoget
overit.Monicamadeup
aterriblestoryabout
beingkidnappedonce.
Illmakeupfor
breakingyourcar.I
promise!
Vocencontrar
Pgina75

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtinformaesmuitoteis
aqui.
Jliapegou
gripe.
Coitadinha!
Vocpensouneste
projeto
sozinho/sozinha?Ah,
no!AValter
querefazertudo
isso.Esttodo
estragado/destrudo!
Ningumconsegue
vivermaisde3dias
semgua.
Nsacabamosindo
festamesmo
semcarona.
Eununcaentendi
comousareste
aparelho
(dispositivo).
Omeninonoescapou
dapunio(docastigo)
porterpintadoa
paredeenquantosuame
estavafora.
Vamoscomear
agoramesmo!
Nsnopodemos
continuarsem
umaaprovao.
Brendanuncasuperou
amortedesuame.
Eunovoudesistir
dens!
Volteaolugarde
ondevocveio,
Daniel!
Eununcapasseipor
isso,mastenho
certezaquevou
superar.
AMnicainventouuma
histriaterrvelsobre
tersidosequestradauma
vez.
Euvoucompensarvoc
poreuterquebrado
seucarro.Prometo!
DO
END
FIGURE

Pgina76

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
GET
GIVE
GO
MAKE
VERBPREPOSITIONMEANINGEXAMPLE
TRANSLATIONPASSaway
outupoff
aftercare
ofdiefaint
appear/arrive
brag
resemble
lookafter

Hedidntpassaway.
Hesonlypassed
out!Henevershowed
upfirstplace.
Stopshowingoff!
Itookaftermymom.
Canyoupleasetake
careofthebaby
today?Elenomorreu.
Elesdesmaiou!
Antesdemaisnada,
elenemveio.
Paredesegabar!
Eumepareocom
aminhame.
Vocpodecuidardo
bebhoje,por
favor?
SHOW
TAKE

Thisisjustadropintheoceanoftheexistingphrasalverbsthereareand
thosethatareinthemaking.Itissafetosaytheremaybeyetsomeoneon
Earthwhoisabletoknowallofthembyheart.Reliabledictionariesorother
sourcesareofgreatvaluealongthecontextwhenthisisthesubject.Theymay
beoneofthemostpleasantthingstotranslateasmuchastheyareeasyto
findandhardtoknowwithoutacontext.

4.5Falsecognates

Pgina77

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Falsecognates,alsoknownasfalsefriends(eventhoughsomegrammariansdo
notconsiderthemtobethesame),arepairswordswhichhavethesameform,
butdifferentmeanings.Falsecognatesvaryaccordingtothetargetlanguage,
andwhatisafalsecognateinalanguagemaynotbeinanotherone.Bylooking
atthepicturesbelow,someonewhoisnotsofamiliarwiththeexistenceof
falsefriendsmightconfusebothwords.Wouldyou?Letstakethetest.Which
picturedoyouthinkmeansfantasy?
GOW927|DREAMSTIME.COM
ASAKALASKAS|
DREAMSTIME.COMPicture1
Picture2
Ifyousaidpicture2,yourewrong!Thatsacostume,whichdoesnot
mean"costume",bytheway.Thelatteriscustom.
Itmightsoundconfusingatfirst,butitisnot.Thelistoffalse
cognatesfromEnglishtoPortugueseandtheotherwayroundisnotasbig
asonemightthink.However,theyareallimportant,andshouldntbe
ignoredorelsethetranslationwillcertainlyshowwronginformationasin
theexamplebelow,turningamotivationalsentence(Naverdade,voc
consegue)intosomethingtemporary(Atualmente,vocconsegue).
YURYZ|
DREAMSTIME.COM
CONNECTION
Formorefalsecognates,access:
http://www.englishexperts.com.br/2010/09/22/90falsoscognatose
palavrasinteressantes/?
lang=en

Withoutfurtherado,herecomesalistofsomeofthemostcommonfalse
cognatesyoushouldbewareof,andthewordsthatmeanwhatthefalse
cognatesseemtomean:
FALSECOGNATETRANSLATIONALLEGEDMEANING
TRANSLATIONactualreal/verdadeiroatualcurrent
Atualmentenaverdadeatualmente/hojeagenda
pautadodiaagendadirio/organizadorapparel
vesturioaparelho
Dispositivo/
equipamento/
aparelhos
(ortodntico)
FALSOCOGNATETRADUOALEGADASIGNIFICADOTRADUO
application inscrio aplicao (dinheiro)
investmentassistirparticipar/assistir
Atender(porta/
telefone)
resposta
Pgina78

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtbalcosacadabalcocounter
Barracascasernabarraca
tendacarnebovinabife
steakbondelobondecabo
marcamarcabrandoconcurso
Candorfranquezacanduracaramelo
caixadepapelocartocarto
chefedecozinhachefecharuto
charutocharutocigarrofaculdade
faculdadecolgioescolafantasia
trajecostumecursepragacurso
curso
Enganoenganodecepodesviar
divertirsedivertireducaoformao
escolar
Educao
(boas
maneiras)
boasmaneiras
Tecidotecidofbricafigura
figurafigurafigura
Arquivoarquivo/lixafilalinha/fila
(BrE)grandgrandiosograndebig
Idiomasexpressesidiomticasidiomas
lnguasengenhosoengenhosoingnuoingnuo/
ingnuolesoferimentoinjriaofensa
Pretenderentenderentenderjar
potejarrajarro
Lmpadaluminria/abajurlmpada
legendadalmpadalendalegenda
legendas/legendasmotolemamotomoto
Romancenovelanovelanovelaparticular
particularparticularparticularmassas
massapastapasta
Cachimbocano/cachimbopipakite
Polticanorma/aplicepolcia
polciapreconceitoprejuzoperda
fingirfingirpretenderempurrar
empurrarpuxarpuxar
Realizarperceberrealizarexecutar,fazer,
executarretomarresumirsensatosensvel
sensvelsensvel
shootatirarchutarkick
sorttiposortefortune/luck
supportapoiarsuportarputupwith/
standsympatheticcompreensivosimptico
nicetaximpostotaxafee/rate
Asyoucouldrealize,whenbadlyandincorrectlytranslated,false
cognatesPgina79

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
canruinanywork,createmisconceptionsandmisunderstandings,andbreak
thecommunication.Inordertoavoidthesemistakesandslips,always
check
forcontextfirstsoyoucananalyzeifthetranslationmakessense.After
that,it
isessentialthatagoodsourcebeusedasatoolinthetranslationprocess,
mayitbeadictionaryorareliablesiteamongseveralyoucanfindonthe
internet.

ACTIVITIES
01. Circlethebesttranslationfortheuseofthepresentperfectin
eachsentence:

a)
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
a) temosvindo
b) vimos
c) viemos

b) Weveneverhadthisproblem
before.a.Nuncativemos
b.Nuncativemos
tidoc.Nunca
teramos
c) Haveyoubeenherebefore?
a.Vocteve
b.Voc
estevec.
Vocestava

d)
BENGUHAN|DREAMSTIME.COM
a.quetmregistrado
queixab.quetem
registradoqueixac.que
registraramqueixa

02.Translatethesentencesbelow:

a) Wevebeenstudyingheresincewewerechildren.
b) Ihaventseenmyhusbandforawholemonth.Hesbeentravelingonbusiness.
c) IvejusttalkedtoJeff.Hewasfine.Whathappened?
d) Howlonghaveyoubeencookingthisbeef?Youllburnit!
e) Idontthinkwevemetbefore.Haveyoualwayscomehereforshopping?

03.Analyzethesentencesbelowandtranslatethem:

a)
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
Pgina80

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
b)
CONSTANTINSTANCIU|DREAMSTIME.COM
c)
ERICKN|
DREAMSTIME.COMd)
ANDREWGENN|
DREAMSTIME.COMe)
IGORZAKOWSKI|
DREAMSTIME.COM114
captulo4
captulo4115

f)
ALANCROSTHWAITE|
DREAMSTIME.COMg)
ANDREWGENN|
DREAMSTIME.COMh)
GAJUS|DREAMSTIME.COM
i)
ANDREWGENN|DREAMSTIME.COM
04. Identifythefalsecognatesinthesentencesbelow,circlethemandtranslate
the
sentences:

a)
ThatFrenchfabricisthebestinthe
world.b)
IpretendtobeSantaClausevery
Christmas.c)
Hesaverysympatheticneighbor.Idontthinktherellbeaproblembecause
ofthe
broken
pipe.d)
Actually,kidscanbequite
noisy.e)
Canyoupleasehandmethecookie
jar?f)
Dontyoulikecollege?Itsthebesttimeofoneslife!
FOODFORTHOUGHT
Asseenthroughoutthechapters,butespeciallythisonesofar,thereis
muchmoreto
Pgina81

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
translationthansimplytransferringwordsfromalanguagetoanother.Asmuch
assyntax
isthebasisforanylanguage,thisisnottheonlyelementthatshouldbe
takenintoaccount.
Translatinggrammaticalstructureswithoutanyattentionorcareis
irresponsibleand
unprofessional.Beforeanalyzinganychunkgrammatically,theidealactionis
toanalyzeit
bothculturallyandcontextually.Onlyafterathoroughanalyses,canapiece
betranslated.

Thesameistobesaidaboutwordsthatdonotseemtofitinagivensentence
orthat
donotsoundplausible.Ifyousensesomethingisstrange,weird,unsuitable,
itmaymeanthere
issomethingtobechanged.Neverfeartousetheresourcesyouhave.
Beforebecominga
goodtranslator,becomeagreatresearcher.
RECOMMENDEDREADING
ALVES,Fbio,MAGALHES,Clia,PAGANO,Adriana,Traduzircomautonomia:
estratgiasparaotradutoremformao.SoPaulo:Editoracontexto.2000.
HOUSE,Christine;STEVENS,John.GramticaPrticadeIngls:Grammarno
problem.SoPaulo:Disal.2012.
CENEVIVA,ClariceM.;NIGRO,CludiaM.C.Xeretandoalinguagem:ingls.
SoPaulo:
Disal.2010.p.4357.
RICARDO,Jos.InglsPortugus:semelhanasecontrastes.SoPaulo:
Disal.2006.

REFERENCES
BENEDETTI,IvoneC.;SOBRAL,Adail(orgs).Conversascomtradutores:balanos
eperspectivasda
traduo.SoPaulo:ParbolaEditorial,2003.
CENEVIVA,ClariceM.;NIGRO,CludiaM.C.Xeretandoalinguagem:ingls.So
Paulo:Disal.2010.
HOUSE,Christine;STEVENS,John.GramticaPrticadeIngls:Grammarno
problem.SoPaulo:
Disal.2012.
LANDO,IsaMara.Vocabulando:vocabulrioprticoinglsportugus.So
Paulo:Disal.2006.
MILTON,John.Traduo:teoriaeprtica.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.2010.p.155
176.
OTTONI,Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editora
daUnicamp,2005.
RICARDO,Jos.InglsPortugus:semelhanasecontrastes.SoPaulo:
Disal.Pgina82

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
2006.
SANTOS,Diana.TranslationbasedCorpusStudies:ContrastingEnglish
andPortugueseTenseand
AspectSystems.NewYork:Rodopi.2004.
SIQUEIRA,ValterLelis(trad.).Errosfrequenteemingls:umguiapara
aprimorarseuingls.2011.
SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.
SIQUEIRA,ValterLelis(trad.).Gramticaprticadoingls:umguiaparaquem
temmedoda
gramticainglesa.2011.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.
SWAN,Michael.PracticalEnglishUsage.Oxford:Oxford.1995.
<http://www.solinguainglesa.com.br/conteudo/falsos_cognatos4.php>(last
access:July21,2015)

118captulo4
5Cultural
Challengesand
Register:
Meaningand
Importance

Whatchasaying?Igottachillout?Howcome?Thischapteraintanylemon,
aintit?
Well,ifyoudontunderstandit,youareintherightchapter!Haveyouever
usedslang
termsorcolloquialexpressionstotalktosomeoneinEnglish?Whatkind
oflanguage
areyoumoreusedto:formalorinformal?

Aspreviouslyseen,cultureplaysagreatroleintranslationjustlikethe
othertwoCs:contextandchunkofwords.However,culturebecomespartially
moreimportantinsomecasesduetothefactthatatextneedsittoevenexist.
Letstakeatest.Therewillbetwopairsofpictureswhichyoushouldmentally
matchtoacolloquialexpression,anoldsayingoraproverb.Thefirstset
shouldntbe

hard.Itisasfollows:

ARTISTASHMITA|DREAMSTIME.COM
JULIENTROMEUR|DREAMSTIME.COM
YoumayhavethoughtofNeverlookagifthorseinthemouth,which
canbetranslatedasDecavalodadonoseolhamosdentes.Inbothcases,
themeaningiskept,andwhoeverreadsthesentenceineitherlanguagewill
havetheirmessagetransmitted:dontquestionagiftgiventoyou.
Culturallyspeaking,thetranslationhasnotbeenaffectedbyanything,and
nothing
Pgina83

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
ismissing.Theideaispresent,themessageispassedonappropriatelyand
withoutanychangeinmeaning.Thetranslation,thoughnotliteral,iseasy
todoforthenecessarychangesinsyntaxdonotaffectthesemanticsinany
way.

Thesecondset,though,maybringalittlediscomforttothosewhoknow
thedifferencefromEnglishtoPortuguese.Fordidacticaleffects,thinkof
thiscolloquialexpressioninPortuguese:
LESTERTAIRPOLLING|DANNYPHOTO80|DREAMSTIME.COM
Ifyouthoughtoftheexpressionchutarobalde,yougotitright!However,if
youthinkoftheliteraltranslationforthesentence(kickthebucket),and
useit
intendingtoshowthesamemeaning,youmayshockEnglishspeakersinavery
negativeway.WhileinPortuguesechutarobaldemeanstolosecontrolor
togiveup,inEnglishitmeanstodie.Amuchmoreappropriate
illustrationforthecolloquialexpressioninEnglishistheonebelow,which
couldcausesomeconfusiontoaBrazilianPortuguesespeaker:
JOHNTAKAI|DREAMSTIME.COM
Thistestintendedtoprovetheroleofcultureintranslation.Insomecases,
themeaningwillnotbeaffected;insomeothers,itmaycausesucha
disastrousmisunderstandingthatitmighttakequitealongtimetobe
explained.Forinstance,aBrazilianmanangrilytellshismotherinlawthat
hisAmerican

captulo5121

wife(herdaughter)kickedthebucketanddecidedtoleavehimalonewith
thekids.Thepoorladywontunderstandathing,andmightevenhaveaheart
attackwhilehersoninlawkeepsoffendingthedeadwife.Cultureistobe
takenseriouslyandresponsibly.Thepictureontheleftshowshowthetripod
works.Cutcultureout,andthebasisislostasthepictureontheright
shows.
Chunk
of
words
Context
Culture
Chunk
of
words
Context
Inourdesperatemanssituation,contextandchunkofwordswouldhavebeen
enoughtocreateplentyofmisunderstandingtobreakamothersheart.Would
thetranslationbewrong?Absolutely!Asithasbeensaidsincethevery
beginningofthisbook,culturecannotbeignoredunderanycircumstance,
whichtakesustoanotherseriousmatter:register.

Pgina84

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Asitwasstudiedinthesecondchapterofthisbook,Sociolinguistics
explainsandstudiesthechoiceconcerningtheregisterofaspeechora
text.Whatmaybeappropriateforagroupofpeoplemightbeevenoffensive
toanotherone.
IfadoctorsaysImsorry,maam.Youdaughterhasjustkickedthebucket,
notonlywoulditbeoffensive,butalsoandespeciallyinsensitiveand
extremelyinappropriate.Adeathcertificatecouldnotbeemittedwiththis
sentenceeither.Atranslationmustfollowthepatternusedbytheoriginal
author,butmustbecarefulwhiledoingit,nottostepoverthethinlines
commonsensesometimesdraws.
Thechosenregisterdictatesthepatternofthetranslationalongwiththe
targetaudienceandthe3Cs.Itisunlikelythatanyoriginalauthorofany
sortof
textwouldchoosethewrongregister.Attentionisessentialinthiscase.

Thus,thischapterisaboutcolloquialexpressions,idioms,slang
terms,proverbsand,obviously,typesofregister.
GOALSTOBEREACHED
Bytheendofthischapter,youshouldbeableto:
translateaccuratelycolloquialexpressions,idiomsandslangterms;
translateproverbsproperly,
knowthedifferencebetweenthetypesofregister,identifyingitscorrectuse.

5.1 Colloquialexpressionsvs.
idiomaticexpressions
Colloquialexpressionsareusuallygeographicinnature,belongingtoa
regionoragroupofpeopleorevenadialect.Somearemoreknownthan
othersare,andsomeareusedonlyinsomepartsofacountry.Ithappens
universally,notonlytoEnglishspeakers.Nativespeakersofanylanguage
mayusethemwithoutrealizingwhattheyaredoingwhilenonnativespeakers
mightfindthemhard
totranslate.Thereisalsothefactthatnativespeakersfromthesame
languagemaymisunderstandsomethingbecausetheymightnotknowanexpression
fromacertainregionorstate.Cultureplaysabigroleinthiscase,asseen.

Idiomaticexpressionsarepartofcolloquialism,andwhilecolloquial
expressionsaremorecommoninanoraltradition,onecanfindidiomatic
expressionsinbothoralandwrittentraditions.PatriciaT.OConner(2010,
p.

23) saysthatanidiomcanbeconsideredanexpressionorsome
characteristicofspeechthatispeculiartoalanguage,aregion,adialect,
oragroupofpeople.Besides,shealsosayswhatmostgrammariansdo:an
idiomcannotbeinterpretedliterallyorgrammatically,foritsstructuremay
beunusual,maybe
Pgina85

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
notevenparsing.

MULTIMEDIA
Hereisthesongwithlyrics:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=_r3k1bgFXdk
Trytotranslatesomepartsofittorealizehowitisnotaboutreligion.

R.E.M.ssongLosingmy religion isan exampleofhowanidiomcanbe

easilymisunderstoodeven byEnglishspeakers.Even thoughit is used inthe


USA,thisexpressionis commonly heard inthesouthern part,and not in others.
Theusetheymakeofthis idiom/ expression had manypeoplethinking it was
areligioussongyet,itisromantic,andthe man is pining forhis belovedone,

andislosinghistemperfornothavingher.Theexpressionfromthetitle,hence,

meanslosingmytemper.
Colloquialexpressionsandidiomsdependonthecommonsenseof
thetranslatorandtheirneedtoconstantlyresearchiftheyevercomeacross
somethingthatappearsnottobefittinginthecontext.Someoftheexpressions
maybefamiliartotheaspiringtranslatorfor,themorecontactonehaswith
anykindofculture,thebettertheycanunderstanditandmakecorrect
assumptionsandassociations.Asanexercisetotryandcheckhowcultureplays
thishugerole,lookatthesethreerepresentationsofthreedifferent
expressionswithget.
Afteranalyzingthem,saywhatexpressionstheyareabout.

GLENDAPOWERS|
DREAMSTIME.COMDPIMBOROUGH|
DREAMSTIME.COMIdiom1:Idiom
2:

IGORZAKOWSKI|
DREAMSTIME.COMIdiom3
CONNECTION
Ifyouhavethetime,takealookatthissiteformoreidiomsand
expressions:http://www.smartwords.org/quotessayings/idiomsmeaning.html

Howmanycouldyoucomeupwith?Whatif,insteadofseeingthe
representation,youactuallyreadtheexpressionsgettheballrolling,
getyourducksinarowandgetthemonkeyoffmyback?Doyouknow
them?
Canyouimaginewhattheycanpossiblymean?Fromnowon,someidiomsand
expressionswillbetranslated.Trytomakeanyconnectionbetweenthem
andthementalimagerytheycreatesomemorizationcanbecomeeasier.

EXPRESSION/IDIOMMEANINGTRANSLATION
Pgina86

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
acouchpotatosedentarysedentrio,preguioso
ahotpotatoadifficultproblemtobesolvedabacaxi,
pepinoappleoftheeye
someonewhois
cherishedaboveall
others
meninadosolhos(favorita)
ascoolasacucumberuntroubledtotranquilo,muito
calmobadhairdaybaddaydiadeco,diaruim
bestthingsinceslicedbread
anexcellentideaorinvention
orinnovation
amelhor
coisalast
straw
thelastoftheproblems
nomatterhowbigitis
atlimagota
nostringsattachednoconditionssem
compromissonobrainer
somethingthatinvolves
nomentaleffort
semprecisarpensar
onceinabluemoonveryrarelyumaveznavida,outrana
mortepieceofcakeveryeasy
melzinhonachupeta,
mamocomacar
speakofthedevil!
mentionsomeonewho
showsuprightafterit
falandonodiabo
tobeaplague
tobeofbadbehavior
usuallyusedformisbehaving
childrenserumapraga,uma
peste
tobebetweenthedeviland
thedeepbluesea
tohavetomakeachoice
betweentwovery
unpleasantthings
estarentreacruzeaespada
tobethedevilsadvocatetopresentacounterargumentseroadvogadodo
diabotobiteoffmorethanonecan
chew
totakeonmorethanone
candeal
quererabraaromundo
toblowonesmindsurpriseormakeoneinsaneenlouquecer
toburnthemidnightoiltoworklateintonightfazer
sero
tocostanarmandalegtobeveryexpensivecustarosolhosda
caraPgina87

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
EXPRESSION/IDIOMMEANINGTRANSLATION
tocryoneseyesoutweepuncontrollablychorarhorrores
todrivesomeoneupthewallmakesomeoneinfuriatedenlouquecer
algumtogivesomeonesomesugartokisssomeonedarumbeijinho
togoballistictobecomeirrationallyenragedficardoidode
raivatohaveaonenightstand
asexualrelationshipthat
lastonlyonenight
ficar
tohavebutterfliesin
thestomach
tofeelanxiousabout
somethingterfrionabarriga
(deansiedade)
tohaveitcoming
todeservesomething
andknowit
merecer
tohavetheredcarpet
treatmenttobetreated
differentfromregularpeople
recebertratamentoVIP
to keep ones fingers
crossedwishsomeoneluckby
crossingtwofingers
fazerfiga
topiletheworkon
someonetogivealotof
workforsomeonetodo
encher"fulano"de
trabalhotoplayhardball
toactstrongand
aggressivewithsomeone
overanissuenodar
moleza
tositonthefence
tonotmakeaclear
choiceaboutsomething
ficaremcimadomuro
tospillthebeanstogiveawayasecretdeixarumsegredo
escapartothrowatantrumtodisplayachildishbehaviorfazer
birra
toturnablindeyetorefusetoseefazervista
grossawetblanket
someonewhospoils
thepleasureof
othersestraga
prazeres
Howdiditworkforyou?Didcreatinganimagemakeyourjobeasier?You
maytryandcreateyourowntypeofassociationbetweentheexpressions
and
Pgina88

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
theirmeaningandtranslation,butrememberthatthesearejustafewofthe
mostcommonandmostusedexpressions.Therearemillionsofthose,and,
sinceEnglishisalanguagethatisinconstantmovementandrenovation,
moreexpressionsmaybecreateddaily.Italsohappensbecause
colloquialismscanberegionalandvaryfromplacetoplace.Theadviceof
neverbeingafraidtolook
themupinareliablesourceisstrongerthaneverwhenitcomesto
expressionsandidioms.

Astothethreeidiomswithfromthebeginningofthissection,
theirmeaningsare:

1. gettheballrolling:togetaprocessstarted(comearlogo)
2. getyourducksinarow:becomeefficientandwellorganizedinorder
tostartaproject(organizerse)
3. getthemonkeyoff:togetridofaburden(tirarumpesodosombros)

5.2Slangterms
Unlikeidiomaticandcolloquialexpressions,slangtermsareusuallyused
byaspecificgroupofpeopleeventhoughmanyothergroupsmayknowtheir
meaning.Whileinanidiomorinanexpressionthewordsarelargelyused,
thesamedoesnothappentoslangtermsfortheymayrepresentthevalues
andperspectiveofagivengroup.Itmaybeusefultoaddthatslangtermsare
usedratherinoralspeechesthaninwrittenpieces,andthattheyare
extremelyinformal.Sincetheybelongtospecificgroupsofpeople,itis
uncommonto
see other groups using them for a matter of lack of context.
Sociolinguistics explains it as a belonging factor: if you belong to a
certain group, you will follow the semantics and syntax rules that group
approvesandmakesuseof.
Expressionsandslangterms,hence,aredifferentelementsofLinguistics.

MULTIMEDIA
LearnnewslangtermsinAmericanEnglishandBritishEnglishwithHughLaurie
andEllen
Degeneresat:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XxnlQEDgVI

Anotherdifferencewhichisclearbetweenexpressionsandslangtermsis
thefactthatexpressionsareanalyzedbytheirchunks,andslangterms
becomechunksinthemselvesfortheyhavetheirmeaningchangedaccordingto
thegroupwhichtheybelongto.Forinstance,someteenagersusetheword
unrealmeaningfantastic,digmeaningenjoyandsoforth.

Theseareveryseriousreasonswhyoneneedstoresearchslangtermsand
checkwhethertheyareoffensiveornot.Whentranslatingthem,being
careful
Pgina89
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
withtheirmeaningandintentionisthefirststep.Afterall,atranslators
jobis
touseasmuchaccuracyaspossible,andnotoffendinganyonewouldbe
partofitaswell.
YoucanfindsomeAmericanslangtermsinthetablebelow,butremember
theymayvaryfromregiontoregion,andfromEnglishspeakingcountryto
Englishspeakingcountry.Itfeelsimportanttomentionyouwillnotfind
any
swearwordinthislist.Youcanalwayslookitupontheinternetifyouwishso,

though.
SLANGTERMTRANSLATIONace
gabaritarumaprovaB.O.
(bodyodor)cec(CC)bimbo
burra(loiraburra)biteme!
vparaoinferno!comparing
nutstrocandoideiasdouche
bag*arrogante
dude,brocara
freakshow
aberrao
freeriderfolgado
friendswithbenefitsamizade
coloridagivepropselogiar
gonermorto
hunkpedaodemaucaminho,
gatokudoselogios,ponto
positivo
leadonenrolar(darfalsas
esperanas)losethevcardperdera
virgindademoron*burro(a)
partycrasherpenetra
sixpackbarrigatanquinho
*pejorativewordsbe
careful!
Below,youcanfindsomemoreslangterms,butdoanexercisebeforechecking
theirmeaning:takealookatthemandtrytorememberorimaginewhatthey
mean.Onlyafteryouhavedoneit,moveontothetablewiththeir
translation.Justbearinmindtheirtranslationcanchange,dependingonthe
regionyouare.
ARENACREATIVE|DREAMSTIME.COM
SLANGTERMTRANSLATION
awesomeanimal,irado,
massacoollegal
crazyda
horadope
idiota
funkydahora,legal
hotgostoso,gostosa(para
pessoas)illdoido,insano(legal)
Pgina90

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtkillermuitolegal,muitodoido
neatlegal
phat(prettyhotandtasty)
gostosonaradradical
sickinsano(legal)
superflyintelectuale
charmososweetmaneiro,massa
tight
estiloso
wicked
muito(comoadvrbioantesdeumadjetivo)
oudahora
wildlouco,dahora,maneiro
CONNECTION
DoyouknowUrbanDictionary?Itsasitewhichisfrequentlyupdatedwith
slangterms,
expressionsandidiomsfromseveralplacesandfromallkindsofgroupsof
people.Checkit
outifyoucan:

http://www.urbandictionary.com

Howdiditgo?Didyouguessthemall?Youmayhaveoryoumaynot,butthe
pointisonlyone:slangtermscanchangealot,varyfromgrouptogroupand
fromregiontoregion.Neverstopresearchingthem,andifyoufindit
necessary,talktosomeonefromthatspecificgrouptoverifytheirmeaningand
usage.
Anothertypeofslangtermthathasbecomeimportantnowadaysisthe
oneusedontheinternet:internetslangwords.Theyareusuallycomposedof
abbreviationsandneedsomepracticeinordertobememorized.Itisusefulto
mentionthatthiskindoflanguagehasspreadoverotherkindsoftext,
especially
theinformalones.Whentranslatinginternetslangwords,oneshouldbe
carefulenoughtoanalyzethecontextfirst,anddecideontheaccuracyofitsuse

andtranslation.Somearepejorativeoroffensive,andrequireamore
thoroughanalysis.Youwillfindsomeofthemostusedonesonthetable
below.
CONNECTION
Foramorecompletelistofinternetslangwords,goto:
http://www.noslang.com/dictionary/

ERIKAMIHALJEV|
DREAMSTIME.COMSLANGTERM
MEANINGTRANSLATION
2topara
4forpara/por
ASAPassoonaspossibleassimque
possvelBRBberightbackjvolto
Pgina91

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtBTWbythewayapropsito
CU
seeyouatmais!
CYA
EOMendofmessagefimdamessagem
FAQfrequentlyaskedquestionsperguntas
frequentesFUf***youf***se/vsef****
GR8greattimo
GRATZcongratulations!parabns!
HANDhaveaniceday!tenhaumbom
dia!IRLinreallifenavidareal
JKjustkidding
brincadeiraKKokayok
L8Rlatermaistarde/atmais
tardeLOLlaughingoutloudrindo
alto
M8mate/friendamigo
NPnoproblemsem
problemaOKokayok
OMGOh,myGod!Meu
Deus!PPLpeoplegente/
pessoas
SLANGTERMMEANING
TRANSLATIONRLreallifevida
real
ROFLrollingonthefloorlaughingrolandonochodetanto
rirTYthankyouobrigado(a)
W8waitespere
WBwelcomebackbemvindo(a)devolta
YOLOyouonlyliveoncesseviveuma
vezYWyourewelcomedenada
*OkayismorecommonlyspelledOKevenifitisnotontheinternet.However,
itcannotbeusedinformalcontexts.

5.3Proverbs
AccordingtotheonlineCambridgeDictionary,aproverbisashort
statement,usuallyknownbymanypeopleforalongtime,thatgivesadvice
orexpressessomecommontruth.NigroandCeneviva(2010)affirmthata
proverbshowsapeopleswisdomandisalwaysusedbothinspeechesandin
writtentexts,eventhoughtheyaremorecommonlyspokenthatwritten.Still
accordingtothem,proverbsrepresentculturalpatrimonyandprovideuswith
richmeaningsandmessages,projectingthemintoauniversalhistorical
dimension.Theyare
abletoleadusalltoreflection,guidingusthroughthechallengeseverydaylife

makessurewehave.

Assaid,proverbsareverypeculiarculturallyspeaking.Thus,translating
themmusttakealittlelongerthanexpectedforcultureplaysahugerole
again.Translatingthemliterally,worryingonlyaboutsyntax,wouldbean
enormous
Pgina92

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txtmistake.
Foreducationalpurposes,youwillnowfindsomeproverbsandoldsayings
withoutanydistinctionbetweenthemtranslated.Justdothat
exerciseabouttryingtofigureoutwhichproverbs/oldsayingsthese
threepicturesbelowrepresent:
DEJANSAVIC|
DREAMSTIME.COMMKOUDIS|
DREAMSTIME.COM
12
BRADCOLLETT|
DREAMSTIME.COM3

Howdiditwork?Couldguessthem?Ifnot,attheendofthissection,you
willfindtheanswer.Fornow,lookatthetablebelowwithsomeoldsayings
andproverbsandtheirtranslations.Notethatmostofthemdonothavea
literaltranslation.Doingitwhentranslatingwouldpreventaccurate
communicationfromhappening,andthatisthetranslatorsjobtoavoiditat
anycosts.
PROVERB/OLDSAYINGTRANSLATION
Absencemakestheheartgrowfonder.Longedoolhos,pertodo
corao.Aclosedmouthcatchesnoflies.Embocafechada,noentra
mosquito.Afriendinneedisafriendindeed.
Nanecessidade,seconheceumamigo
deverdade.
Allgoodthingscometothosewhowait.Quemesperasempre
alcana.Allgoodthingsmustcometoanend.Tudoquebomdura
pouco.
Allthatglittersisnotgold.Nemtudoquereluzouro.
Aleopardcannotchangeitsspots.Pauquenascetortomorretorto.
Apicturepaintsathousandwords.Umaimagemvalemaisquemil
palavras.Badnewstravelsfast.Notciaruimchegalogo.
Beautyisintheeyeofthebeholder.
Ofeio,bonitolheparece./Abelezaest
nosolhosdequemv.
Betterlatethannever.Antestardedoquenunca.
Businessisbusiness.Amigos,amigos;negcios
parte.Clothesdonotmaketheman.Ohbitonofaz
omonge.Curiositykilledthecat.Acuriosidade
matouogato
DoasIsay,notasIdo.Faaoquedigo,masnofaaoquefao.
Dontputofffortomorrowwhatwecandotoday.Nodeixeparaamanhoque
sepodefazerhoje.
Dontputthecartbeforethehorse.Nocoloqueacarroanafrentedos
bois.Everydarkcloudhasasilverlining.Depoisdatempestade,vema
bonana.Goodthingscomeinsmallpackages.
Osmelhoresperfumesvmnos
melhoresfrascos.
Hastemakeswaste.Apressainimigadaperfeio.
Hewholaughslastlaughsbest.Quemriportlimo,ri
melhor.Pgina93

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
Ifyoucantbeatthem,jointhem.Senopodecomeles,junteseaeles.
Iflifegivesyoulemons,makealemonade.Seavidatederlimes,faa
umalimonada.
PROVERB/OLDSAYINGTRANSLATION
Itstheearlybirdthatcatchestheworm.Deusajudaquemcedo
madruga.Likefather,likeson.
Filhodepeixe,peixinho./Talpai,tal
filho.Theappledoesntfallfarfromthe
tree.
Mandoesnotlivebybreadalone.Nemsdepoviveo
homem.Nopain,nogain.Semesforo,nohresultado.
nothingventured,nothinggained.
Quemnoarriscanopetisca./Quemno
chora,nomama.
Practicemakesperfect.Aprticafazaperfeio.
Sparetherod,spoilthechild.depequenoquesetorceopepino.
Thatwhichdoesntkillus,makesusstronger.Oquenomata,
engorda.Thegrassisalwaysgreenerontheothersideof
thefence.
Agalinhadovizinhosempremaisgorda.
Theroadtohellispavedwithgoodintentions.Deboasintenes,oinferno
estcheio.
Toomanychiefs,notenoughIndians.muitocaciqueparapoucondio.
Twoscompany,butthreesacrowd.Umpouco,doisbom,trs
demais.
Whenthecatsaway,themicewillplay.Quandoosgatossaem,osratosfazem
afesta.
Wheretheresawill,theresaway.Quererpoder.
Wheretheressmoke,theresfire.Ondehfumaa,h
fogo.Youreapwhatyousow.Quemsemeiavento,colhe
tempestade.
CONNECTION
Formoreproverbsandtheirtranslation,access:
http://www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br/2014/07/listadeproverbiosem
ingles.html

andhttp://molhoingles.com/proverbiosemingleseseusequivalentesemportugues/

Thislistofproverbsandoldsayingsisjustanexampleofhowtranslation
workswhenitcomestoculturalknowledgeandpatrimony.Lookingclosely,you
willrealizeyourecognizemostoftheminPortuguese,andmayevenhavetried
totranslatethemintoEnglishortheopposite.Ifyouhavetriedtodoit
literally,itmaynothaveworkedasbeautifullyasyouwouldhavethought.As
tothethreeoldsayingsandproverbsfromthebeginningofthissection,here
theyare.
MULTIMEDIA
Doyouknowwhentouseformalandinformalwritingstyles?Incaseyou
dont,accessthe
linkbelow.Incaseyoudo,itsworthit!Youmightconsider
clicking:Pgina94

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txthttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdDBY2Wmis

1. Loveisblind:Oamorcego.
2. Abirdinthehandisworthtwointhebush:Melhorumpssarona
modoquedoisvoando.
3. Dontcryoverspiltmilk:Noadiantachorarsobreoleitederramado.

Realizingculturaldifferencesisamazing.Respectingthemisevenbetter!

5.4Typesofregister

In Linguistics, the variety a language has according to any particular


purposeoranyparticularsocialsettingiscalledregister.Ingeneral,it
isdividedinto
formalandinformalstyles,andsomeauthorsclaimthereistheneutral
styleaswell.

LinguisticsandSociolinguisticsaffirmthatthechoiceofregisteris
determinedbymanyfactors;socialoccasion,purposeandaudiencearejusta
fewofthem.Forinstance,thelanguageyouusewithyourfamilyandfriends
isnotthesamelanguageyouuseinyourjoborwhilegivingaspeech.In
sum,registeristhedegreeofformalityintheuseoflanguage.
Manygrammariansandsociolinguistshavelargelydiscussedaboutthe
typesofregisterstheremaybeandtheirfunction.Foreducational
purposes,onewillshowhowMartinJoosexposedhisthoughtsonthem.
Actually,Joosdefinitionsofregistersisthebasisforanyfurther
discussion.
Joosdividestheregistersintofivetypes:static,formal,consultative,
casualandintimate.Ifoneanalyzesthefivetypesstartingfrom
consultative,itisgoing
tobeeasiertounderstandalltheothers.
Theconsultativetypeisastandardformofcommunication.Usersofthis
speechmeetsocietalandformalexpectationswhentheyuseit.Itcanbeused
inprofessionaldiscourse,whenstrangersmeet,betweenateacheranda
student

andsoforth.Thewordchoiceiscarefulandthesentencestructureiscomplete;
yet,thisisaconversationalstyleinwhichthespeakerconstantlypays
attention

tothelistenersverbalandnonverbalresponsetodecideiftheinformation
isbeingpassedonaccurately.Thistypewillprovidethenormsfortheother
types.

Themoreformaltypesarestaticandformal.Theformerisalsocalled
frozenstyleduetoitsunchangeablenessintimeandcontent.ThePledgeof
AllegianceandtheLordsprayeraretypicalexamplesofthistypeof
register.
Pgina95

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txtRegardless
oftheplaceandtimeitisbeingused,nochangeswillhappentothose
chunksofwordsmadebyrigidsyntaxandrigidsemantics.
Thelattertheformaltypeusesacommonlyacceptedformat,whichis
impersonalandformal.Thesentencesarecarefullyshapedintounified
andcoherentparagraphsbeingproperlylinkedandthoughtof.Aformal
textisplannedinadvance,usuallycarryingallthebackgroundthe
speakerthinks
thelistenerneeds.Abigaudiencewouldbetterprofitfromthistypeofregister,

whichcanbecommonlyfoundinannouncements,sermonsandsoon.

Ontheotherside,theinformalone,wehavethecasualandtheintimate
types.Themaindifferencebetweentheformerandthelatteristhat,while
thecasualtypeisconversational,impliesapermanentrelationshipbetween
thosewhoareusingitandevenadmitstheusageofslangtermsand
colloquialisms,theintimatetypeseemstobesurroundedbythefullcommon
knowledgeofitsbackground,acceptinglackoffullsentencesattimes
becausethespeakerandthelistener(s)knoweachotherprofoundly.
CONNECTION
Thispageshowsaveryinterestingandentertainingarticleaboutthe
differencesofregisters
andtheiruse:
https://drsaraheaton.wordpress.com/2012/05/22/languageregisterandwhy
itmattersorwhyyoucantwriteanacademicpaperingangstaslang/

Thecausaltypestillrequiresfullsentencespermeatedbysyntaxand
semantics.Theintimatetype,ontheotherhand,ismoreworriedabout
semanticsthanaboutsyntaxwhilesendingamessagetothelistener.The
casualtypeistheinformallanguageusedbyabroaderandwelldefined
groupofpeopletowhichonemustbelongtocommunicate.Theintimatetype
ishighlyinformalandthegroupisalmostprivate,makingnonverbalcues
bean

essentialpartofcommunication.Theformercanhappenbetweenfriendsand
familyjustlikethelatter.However,thelatterprovestobeinvolvedbya
moreintimaterelationshipandclosercontact.

Thepicturebelowshowshowthefivetypesofregisterwork,andthe
boxbringsanexample:
ntext
Consultative
Staticformal+

Casualintimate
Asseen,thefivetypeshighlydependonthecontexttheyarebeing
usedin,whichiswithinsomekindofcultureandareconstructedbased
onthe
Pgina96

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
chunkofwordssemanticschosenbythespeaker.Itisverysafetoassume
thatpeopleusemorethantwotypesofregisterperdayfortheiraudience
maychangeaccordingtothesituation.Infact,dependingontheperson,it
ispossibletousethefivetypes.Whatreallymattersistimingand
situation:weshouldallknowwhattypeofregisterandthesocialcontextin
whichitshouldbeused.Inadditiontoit,skippinglevelsanddegreesof
formalitywouldseeminappropriate.Thesamehappenstotranslatingthem:
analyzingtheregisters
isthefirststeptoreachaccuracy.Justremembertobecarefulwhenusingthem.

EXAMPLE
Static:Allvisitorsareinvitedtoproceedupstairs.
Formal:Wouldeveryonekindlyproceedupstairs?
Consultative:Wouldyouallpleasegoupstairs?
Casual:Comeonupstairs!
Intimate:Comeonup!

ACTIVITIES
01. Whyarethe3Cssoimportantwhentranslatingexpressions,slangterms
andproverbs?
02. Whattypeofregisterdoyouthinkwouldbeappropriatewhen
translatingexpressions,
slangtermsandproverbs?Why?
03. Matchtheslangterms,expressionsorproverbstotheirtranslation:
1. Laughteristhebestmedicine.()
2. Hopeforthebest,preparefortheworst.()
3. Youarewhatyoueat.()
4. Savethebestforlast.()
5. YOLO()
6. BTW()
7. ASAP()
8. Tositonthefence()
9. Wheretheressmoke,theresfire.()
10. Afriendinneedisafriendindeed.()
11. Sixpack()
12. Killer()

a) Barrigatanquinho
b) Riromelhorremdio.
c) Muitodoido
d) Vocoquevoccome.
e) Guardeomelhorparaofim.
f) Sseviveumavez.
g) Nanecessidade,seconheceumamigodeverdade.
h) Apropsito
i) Esperepelomelhor,prepareseparaopior.
Pgina97
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
j) Assimquepossvel
k) Ondehfumaa,hfogo.
l) Ficaremcimadomuro.

04. Relatetheexpressionsorproverbsbelowaccordingtothesetof
picturesrepresenting
them.Afterthat,translatethemintoPortugueseorexplaintheirmeaning
inEnglishorin
Portuguese.Youwillneedsomeresearch.Usethesitesmentionedinthebook
oranyother
youfindappropriate.Ifyouhaveagooddictionary,itisalsorecommended.
Thisisaresearch
exerciseanditisfundamentalforaspiringtranslatorstostartdoingit.

1. Tohavetheheadintheclouds
2. Whenpigsfly
3. Likeabullinachinashop
4. Likewateroffaducksback
5. Wolfinsheepsclothing
6. Pieinthesky
7. Cashcow
8. Fatcat
9. Zipitup!
10. Needleinahaystack

IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
05. Herearefiveproverbsforyoutotranslate.Ifyoudontknowthem,use
thepicturesas
cuestotryandremember.Checkyourtranslationinagooddictionaryincase
ofdoubt.

a)
LEREMY|DREAMSTIME.COMb)
LEREMY|DREAMSTIME.COM
c)
LEREMY|DREAMSTIME.COMd)
LEREMY|
DREAMSTIME.COMe)
Pgina98

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
LEREMY|DREAMSTIME.COM
06.Identifywhattypeofregistereachpieceuses:

a)
OurFather,Whoartin
heavenHallowedbeThyname;
Thykingdom
come,Thywill
bedone,
onearthasitisin
heaven.b)
Hey,bro!Whats
up?c)
Idontthinkyoushoulddothat.Itsdangerous,expensiveandreally
stupid.d)
Keratoconuscancauseseveralkindsofvisualdistortions.Themostcommon
onesare
ghosting,multipleimages,glareandhalos.

FOODFORTHOUGHT
Allthathasbeensaidabouttheimportanceofthe3Csthroughoutthebook
hasbeen
emphasizedinthischapter.Onecanconcludethattherespecttowards
culturalaspectsand
thecontextthetextiswithinareprimaltoagoodtranslation.Inthis
chapter,especiallyinthe
sectionsthatdealtwiththemeaningoftheexpressionsandtheproverbs,it
wasmadequite
clearthataliteraltranslationdoesnotalwayswork:chunksofwordswithin
acontextthatis
alsobasedonbothculturessourceandtargetmustbeanalyzedandtaken
veryseriously.
Foratranslationtobewelldone,itisuptothetranslatortobecome
anexcellentresearcher
aswell.

Inadditiontoit,onecanneverforgettoconsidertheregisterthetext
waswrittenin.
Theregisterplaysagreatroleintranslation.Ifthetranslator
researcheralwaysrespectsthe
chosenregisteralongwiththe3Cs,itisveryunlikelythattheywouldhavea
badresult.The
opposite,thoughisexpected:thetranslatorresearcherwillreachtheir
targetaudienceand,
aboveall,theywillbeabletobuildbridgesforculturestomeetand
forreliablecommunication
toexist.
Pgina99

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

RECOMMENDEDREADING
ALVES,Fbio,MAGALHES,Clia,PAGANO,Adriana,Traduzircomautonomia:
estratgiasparaotradutoremformao.SoPaulo:EditoraContexto.
2000.

CENEVIVA,ClariceM.;NIGRO,CludiaM.C.Xeretandoalinguagem:ingls.
SoPaulo:
Disal.2010.p.4357.

LANDO,IsaMara.Vocabulando:vocabulrioprticoinglsportugus.So
Paulo:Disal.
2006.

RICARDO,Jos.InglsPortugus:semelhanasecontrastes.SoPaulo:
Disal.2006.

RICARDO,Jos.Pitfalls:500armadilhasdalnguainglesa.SoPaulo:Disal.2004.

SCHOLES,Jack.Easyway:modernslang.SoPaulo:Disal.2005.
REFERENCES
BENEDETTI,IvoneC.;SOBRAL,Adail(orgs).Conversascomtradutores:balanos
eperspectivasda
traduo.SoPaulo:ParbolaEditorial,2003.
CENEVIVA,ClariceM.;NIGRO,CludiaM.C.Xeretandoalinguagem:ingls.So
Paulo:Disal.2010.
LANDO,IsaMara.Vocabulando:vocabulrioprticoinglsportugus.So
Paulo:Disal.2006.
LEANEY,Cindy.Intheknow:understandingandusingidioms.NewYork:
Cambridge.2005.
MILTON,John.Traduo:teoriaeprtica.SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.2010.p.155
176.
OTTONI,Paulo(org).Traduo:aprticadasdiferenas.Campinas:Editora
daUnicamp,2005.
RICARDO,Jos.Pitfalls:500armadilhasdalnguainglesa.SoPaulo:Disal.2004.

RICARDO,Jos.InglsPortugus:semelhanasecontrastes.SoPaulo:
Disal.2006.
SCHOLES,Jack.Slang:griasatuaisdoingls.SoPaulo:Disal.2004.
SCHOLES,Jack.Easyway:modernslang.SoPaulo:Disal.2005.
SIQUEIRA,ValterLelis(trad.).Errosfrequentesemingls:umguiapara
aprimorarseuingls.2011.
SoPaulo:MartinsFontes.
<http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/>(lastaccess:July27,2015)
<http://ww2.odu.edu/al/jpbroder/jpb_on_joos_1976.pdf>(lastaccess:July25,2015)

Pgina100

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

ANSWERKEY
Chapter1

01.

a) F
b) T
c) T
d) F
e) F
f) F
g) F
h) T
i) T
j) T

02.

Answersmayvary.Thisisonlyasuggestion:

Translatingconsistsoftransmittingamessageoranideafromsourcelanguage
to target language. This should be done as close as possible from source
languagetotarget
language,takingintoaccountculture,contextandchunkofwords.Itcouldbe
atransferring,
arewritingorareproductionofamessage/idea,butthetranslatormustbear
inmindthat
communicationmustbeasaccurateaspossible.

03.

Openminded
.Readytoresearch

Curious

Meticulous

Ethical

Humble

Pgina101

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
04.

(C)Literarytranslation
(F)Technical
translation
(A)Simultaneous
translation(D)Consecutive
translation
(B)HAMT(humanaidedmachine
translation)(E)CAT(computeraided
translation)

05.

a) Humanoralsimultaneous
b) MachineaidedCATtechnical
c) Humanwrittenliterary

06.

Respostapessoal.Oestudantepodeterincludoalgosobreadefiniode

Traduo,comofuncionaomercadodetrabalhoeostiposdetraduodequalquer
formaqueacharadequado.

Captulo2

01.

A) Sociolingstica
B) Lingustica,Psicolingustica,Sociolingstica
C) Psicolingustica
D) Lingustica

02.

LPST
Newmarktraz8mtodosparafazlodeacordocomasnecessidadesdo
profissional.Noentanto,elenoonicotericoapropor
mtodos.
.
Oprocessamento,armazenamentoeaquisiodalinguagemsoseusramos
fundamentaisdeestudo.
.
Exigemtodosesensocomumparaserdealta
qualidade..Asseisfunesdalinguagemsoestudadaspor
isso..
responsvelpeloestudodosprocessoscognitivosquetornama
linguagempossvel
Pgina102

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
.
Aoanalisarodiscurso,contextoecultura,juntamentecomoutros
elementos,ajudatradutoresencontrarosmeiosadequadosparafazeroseu
trabalhocompreciso.
.
DeacordocomJakobson,htrstiposdele:intralingual,interlinguale
intersemiotic.
.
SaussureeChomskysograndesrepresentantesdeste
campo..03.

Asrespostaspodemvariar,mastodasdevemmencionarosblocosautomticoe
reflexivo,
Unidadesdetraduoeoprocessodedeixlo"repouso"poralgumtempoantes
derevislo.

04.

BaseadoemIDEABASADOEMGRAMTICABASEADOEMCONTEXTO
BALANCEADOBASEADOEMMENSAGENSTraduolivreTraduo
literal
Traduo
semnticae
adaptao
Traduo
comunicativa
Traduo
idiomtica05.

Umaunidadedetraduoapartemnimadequalquertexto(partedepalavras)
quecausa
Perfeitacompreensodaintenoprimriadoautor.responsvelpelacriao
de
Significadoemumatraduoequantomaiorela,menoschancesdecometerum
erroum
Tradutorter.
06.

Os3Cssocultura,contextoechuckdepalavras.Todoselessoimportantes

Compreensodotextooriginale,sobretudo,narealizaoda
traduo.Aculturaa
Baseparaumacompreensogeral;Contextoasituaoque,aoabrigodotexto,
foicriada;
Umpedaodepalavrassoasunidadesde
traduo.07.
Pgina103
FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

Asmaneirassurpreendentes|Oestresseafetasuasade

(...)

Comonossosantepassados,|Todosnsocasionalmenteenfrentamosos
estressoresnicos,sbitoseextremos|
Quearespostaaoestresseevoluiuparanosproteger.(...)Nossarespostaa
tais
Estressoresextremos|Podenosproteger,mastambmpodeter|Conseqncias
terrveis|Sejtivermos
doenacardaca.

(...)

Comoosprodutossoparaasade

Assimcomonossosancestrais,todosnsocasionalmenteenfrentamososfatores
detensosingulares,repentinoseextremosdosquaisaevoluodoestresse
nosprotegeu.
Nossarespostaataisfatoresrepentinoseextremospodenosproteger,mas
tambmpode
terconsequnciasdesastrosassensjtivermosalgumadoenacardaca.

Chapter3

01.

a)
Avidacomeanofimdasuazonade
conforto.b)
Nadanomundomaisperigosodoqueignornciasinceraeburrice
consciente.c)
CitaodeLenTostoy:Osdoisguerreirosmaispoderosossopacinciaetempo.

d)
Tylenol(acetaminofenoouparacetamol)umanalgsicoeantitrmico.Consulteo
mdicoouofarmacuticoantesdeusarqualqueroutromedicamentopara
resfriado,alergia,dorouparadormir.

02.

a)
Fazeroquegostaliberdade.Gostardoquefaz
felicidade.b)
Paredesonhar.Comeceafazer.
c) Homem:Lembremse:depoisdepular,contematdeze,depois,puxemacorda
Pgina104

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtPato:Temcertezaqueminhavezagora?

Homem:Definitivamente!
Pato:Uau!
Pato:Dez...DEZ!Oqueestacontecendo?
Pato:Oqueestacontecendo?
PLOFT!

d)
Coragemsaberquenotemer.
(Plato)e)
(Ter)Cncernoumalutaouumabatalha.

03.

a)
Elacontouatodosqueelatinhaohamstermaisespertodetodos.
Ningumacreditou
nela.
b)
Stevendissequeelenuncaroubarianovamente,maselefalhou
lastimosamente.c)
Hellendizqueelanoconseguefazeraquilosozinha.Elacertamenteprecisa
deajuda.
d)
Kateconfirmouosboatossobreagravidezdelaeeladizqueestfelizcomofato

delateroutrofilho.

04.

a)
Faa
acontecer!b)
Lideranaaartedeconvenceralgumafazeroquevocquerqueseja
feitoporque
eletambmquerfazer
isso.c)
Deixenostrabalharpara
voc.d)
AMrciacertamentenofarisso.Elavaipediraomaridoparacortara
gramaparaela.
e)
Pgina105

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
ABrbaraestfazendoasunhas.Elanopodeatenderaotelefoneagora

05.

a)
Estousentadoaqui,nestasalachata/smaisumatardechuvosade
domingo/Estouperdendo(desperdiando)meutempo.
b)
Vocestfazendooquevocrealmentequer
fazer?c)
Vocandoufumandodenovo,Lisa?Estousentidoocheiroem
voc.d)
Foiumerro!Euprometo(juro)!Eusestavatentandoveroque
estavaacontecendo.
Eunoestava
bisbilhotando.e)
VocaindavaiestarmorandonoJapoquandoeuchegarl(a)?

Chapter4

01.
a)
C. viemos
b)
A. Nuncativemos
c)
B. Vocesteve
d)
D. queregistraram

02.

a)
Nsestudamosaquidesdequeramos
crianas.b)
Eunovejomeumaridohummsinteiro.Eleestviajandoa
negcios.c)
EuacabeidefalarcomoJeff.Eleestavabem.Oque
aconteceu?d)
Hquantotempovocestcozinhandoestacarne?Vocvaiqueim
la!e)
Eunoachoquejtenhamosnosencontrado.Vocsempreveioaquipara
fazercompras?
Pgina106

FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt

03.

a)
Nsqueremosalgumqueestejadispostoacorrer
riscos.b)
Notragaumafacanumabrigacomarmasde
fogo.c)
Porfavor,tireseussapatosforado
templo.d)
Jogueestaporcariaforaevolteparapegarovinho.
e) Pato:Nohnadacomoumacadeirade
balano.Pato:E...Parafrente!
Pato:Uau!
Pato:Tiremmedaquidecima!

Nspastoreamosovelhas,nsconduzimosogado,nslideramospessoas.
Guieme,sigameousaiadomeucaminho.

Nosepreocupem.Nsvoltaremosparaasegundametade.

Nodesistademim.

Eusdeiumapassadinhaparafalarsobreoseguro.

04.

a)
Essetecidofrancsomelhordo
mundo.Aqueletecidofrancsomelhordo
mundo.B)
EufinjoserPapaiNoeltodoNatal.Eu
finjoserPapaiNoeltodoNatal.
C)
Eleumvizinhomuitosimptico.Eunoachoquehaverumproblemaporcausa
do
canoquebrado.

D)Naverdade,ascrianaspodemserbastantebarulhento.
Eleumvizinhomuitocompreensivo.Eunoachoquehaverumproblemapor
causadeumcanoquebrado.

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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUA
INGLESA.txtNaverdade,ascrianaspodemserbastante
barulhentas.

E)
Podemedarofrascodebiscoitos?
Vocpodemepassar/entregaropotede
biscoitos?F)
Vocnogostadefaculdade?omelhormomentodesuavida!
Vocnogostadafaculdadeumadasmelhoresopesdevidadeumapessoa!

captulo5

01.

Sugesto:

Os3Cssorealmenteimportantesporquesoabasedequalquer
traduo.Quando
Vemaessasestruturaslexicais,elassetornamaindamaisimportantes
porqueatraduo
Nopodeserfeitopalavraporpalavraouliteralmente.Dependeminteiramenteda
cultura,docontextoedopedao
Depalavras.

02.

Consultivooucasual.Alinguagemutilizadanessasestruturasnoformal.
conversador.

03.

1.
B7.J

2.
I8.L

3.
D9.K

4.
E 10.G
5.
F 11.A
6.
H 12.C
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FUNDAMENTOSDATRADUODALINGUAINGLESA.txt
04.

IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
ADAPTADO1986510IGORZAKOWSKI|DREAMSTIME.COM
ADAPTADO3274
1. Estarcomumacabeanasnuvens.
2. Nemqueavacatussa
3. Perigosamentedesastrado(avanandocomoumefelfante)
4. Entrarporumouvidoesairpelooutro
5. Loboempeledecordeiro
6. Sonhoimpossvel
7. Vacaleiteira(nomundodosnegcios)
8. Ricoparaburro
9. Fiquequieto(a)!
10. (Encontraruma)Agulhanumpalheiro

05.
A) Nenhumhomemumailha.
B) Umamaquinariaparaodiaadiaouparaasade

C) Digamecomquemeasquedireiquemtus.
D) Umerronojustificaooutro.
E) Asparedestmouvidos.
06.
A) Esttico(congelado)
B) ntimo
C) Casual
D) Formal

ANOTAES

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