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Volume 18, Number 4, 2005
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Pp. 460473

Experimental Measurements of Particle Deposition in

Three Proximal Lung Bifurcation Models with an
Idealized Mouth-Throat



In this paper, particle deposition in three idealized proximal lung bifurcation models with
an idealized mouth-throat were investigated experimentally. These bifurcation models in-
cluded (1) a small symmetric bifurcation, (2) an intermediate asymmetric bifurcation, and (3)
a large symmetric bifurcation. An idealized mouth-throat geometry (the Alberta geometry)
was used as the inlet to these bifurcation models. Monodisperse aerosol particles of DEHS
(di-2-ethylhexyl-sebecate) oil with mass median diameters in the range of 2.57.5 m were
employed at steady flow rates of 3090 L/min. Particle deposition measurements were con-
ducted by gravimetry. The results show that particle deposition in the mouth-throat and tra-
chea accounts for the major portion of total deposition in the entire models used, and parti-
cle deposition fraction in the proximal lung bifurcations is lower compared with that
deposited in the regions upstream (the mouth-throat and the trachea). Total particle deposi-
tion efficiency increases with increasing either inertial parameter or Stokes number. Total
particle deposition varies appreciably from model to model. The laryngeal jet is the key fac-
tor dominating particle deposition within the trachea. An effect of Reynolds number on par-
ticle deposition efficiency in the trachea is observed. In addition, particle deposition in the
bifurcation region is influenced little by the upstream flow condition, and therefore the ef-
fect of the laryngeal jet on deposition seemingly does not propagate to the bifurcations down-

Key words: particle deposition, mouth-throat, trachea, proximal lung bifurcation,

laryngeal jet

INTRODUCTION monodisperse aerosols deposited in the tracheo-

bronchial (TB) tree have been performed with


human respiratory tract is an important
in the

topic related to the effects of pollutant aerosols

iron oxide particles(2,3) and polystyrene parti-
cles.(4,5) The mouthpieces used in these studies
were straight tubes with diameters of 1025 mm.
on the human body and the delivery efficiency Significant variation of particle deposition effi-
of pharmaceutical agents for treating lung dis- ciency in the tracheobronchial (TB) tree was ob-
eases.(1) In vivo experimental measurements of served in these studies. However, in vivo experi-

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2G8.

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ments are not always practical due to cost and ra- particle deposition in the different generations of
diological exposure concerns. At present, since the lung have been performed, for example, by
the resolution of radionuclide imaging method Oldham et al.,(21) in generations G3G5 of the
does not allow accurate discrimination of indi- lung; Comer et al.(22) in double bifurcating airway
vidual generations of the entire TB tree, in vivo models for both in-plane and 90 out-of-plane
experimental data cannot be mapped onto the configurations; Zhang et al.(23) for the effects of
generational level throughout the entire lung.(6) curved inlet tubes; Zhang and Kleinstreuer(24)
As an alternative, in vitro experiments in physi- for the effect of particle inlet distributions; and
cal models of human airways are often used to Zhang et al.(25) for the effect of particle release po-
obtain further information relating to particle de- sition. These theoretical and numerical studies in-
position. The in vitro experimental studies on par- dicated that many factors, including branching
ticle deposition in single bifurcation models,(7,8) angle, branching geometry, inlet velocity profile,
multiple generation airways,(911) and human air- secondary flow, and even inlet particle distribu-
way casts(2,1216) have demonstrated that aerosol tion, are important for predicting particle depo-
deposition occurs mainly near the bifurcation re- sition. However, the experimental results have
gion and particle deposition fraction increases shown that deposition efficiency is solely depen-
with increasing Stokes number. Inertial im- dent on Stokes number even in a wide variation
paction is the dominant deposition mechanism of branching angle and diameter ratio of daugh-
for particles a few microns in diameter at typical ter airway to parent airway.(7,8,14,26) It is not clear
inhalation flow rates. The effects of branching an- what causes these differences between experi-
gle, the branching pattern (symmetry or asym- mental and theoretical results. Even within
metry) and the ratio of the daughter to parent the experimental studies, discrepancies are also
tube are minor. found, possibly due to differences in methods
However, most existing in vitro experimental used to produce the models,(1) test aerosols and
studies mentioned above were conducted in iso- procedures to determine particle deposition.
lated segments of bifurcation models or human Therefore, our understanding of aerosol deposi-
airway casts with an idealized inlet condition that tion in the human respiratory tract is far from
does not typically include a mouth-throat geom- complete.
etry. In reality, the complicated inlet velocity pro- In the present work, we investigated particle
file and turbulent flow produced by regions up- deposition within several different idealized
stream will propagate into the TB tree. The effect proximal lung bifurcation geometries using iden-
of the laryngeal jet on intra-tracheal particle de- tical measurement and model fabrication tech-
position has been studied experimentally and nu- niques, so that it is possible to minimize the ef-
merically by several researchers.(2,1719) These fects of these factors on the experimental results.
studies showed that neglecting upstream condi- Monodisperse particles deposited in three ideal-
tions would underestimate the particle deposi- ized proximal lung bifurcation models contain-
tion in the upper region of the trachea. Further- ing an idealized mouth-throat geometry were
more, Stapleton et al.(20) found that at moderate measured for a range of particle sizes and steady
to high inhalation rates, the flow in the larynx and flow rates. The major factors that influence par-
downstream was turbulent, which could be ex- ticle deposition efficiency in bifurcating airways
pected to cause complex aerosol transport and were determined. The goal of this study is to ex-
particle deposition within the trachea and se- amine the effect of upstream flow (mouth-throat)
quentially bifurcating airways. Therefore, the up- on particle deposition in the proximal lung bi-
stream flow characteristics of the trachea (i.e. the furcations and variation of particle deposition
mouth-throat) should not be ignored in experi- with different configurations of the bifurcations.
ments relating to fluid flow patterns and aerosol In addition, a relatively higher flow rate of 90
deposition within the human proximal lung bi- L/min is included, which is seldom used in pre-
furcations (defined as the conducting airways vious studies. Information from this study will be
from the lower trachea to the end of the first sev- useful for understanding of aerosol deposition
eral generations of the lung). mechanism within bifurcation regions and de-
Following advances in computational fluid dy- veloping physical models for particle deposition
namics (CFD), many numerical simulations of prediction.
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MATERIALS AND METHODS sists of symmetric bifurcations with a branching

angle of 70. The second model, called IB, uses
Physical models and manufacture the same asymmetrically branching patterns as
the Horsfields model,(28,29) except for some mod-
Following advances in measuring techniques, ifications on the branching angle and outlet di-
more and more details of the human airways ameters based on our direct observations from
have been discriminated. As a result, a number of CT scans. The third model, FB, completely fol-
human lung models have been proposed by dif- lows the dimensions proposed by Finlay et al.(30)
ferent researchers. The symmetric lung model with the branching angle of 70. The primary geo-
(Weibel A) proposed by Weibel(27) has been used metric dimensions of all three models are sum-
widely in experiments and numerical modeling. marized in Table 1. A front view of the three
According to this model, the human lung is as- bifurcation models including an idealized mouth-
sumed to be a dichotomous branching system throat is shown in Figure 1. Each airway model
with 24 generations (G0G23). The conductive is divided into four sub-regions: the mouth-throat
airways include generations G0G16, while gen- (including the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx),
erations G17G19 (respiratory bronchioles) and the trachea, the lung bifurcations (representing
generations G20G23 (alveolar) belong to the tran- the next two generations of the human lung, that
sitory zone and alveoli zone. Horsfield et al.(28,29) is, G1 and G2), and the distal bifurcation (G3) and
proposed another asymmetric model for the tra- filter adapters. Airways beyond the generation
cheobronchial tree, which adopts an asymmetric G3 have diameter less than 5 mm so that it is
branching pattern and so gives a more realistic re- difficult to produce solid wall pieces within this
semblance to actual human airways. Recently, size range accurately using our stereo-lithogra-
based on the analysis of morphometric data avail- phy machine. In order to generate an outlet ve-
able from the literature, Finlay et al.(30) proposed locity profile for each branch similar to that seen
a new lung geometric model with relatively larger in an actual lung bifurcation, distal bifurcations
diameter for the tracheo-bronchial generations. are fabricated following the configuration of the
This model was created using the airway data of corresponding generation G3.
Phillips et al.(31) and the alveolar data given by An idealized biological mouth-throat geometry
Haefeli-Bleuer and Weibel.(32) A symmetrically (the Alberta geometry) originally developed by
branching pattern of lung is used, denoting the Stapleton et al.(20) is adopted here, and a detailed
trachea as generation G0, the conducting airways description of the design of this geometry can be
as generations G0G14, and the alveolar airways found in several previous studies.(20,33,34) For sim-
as generations G15G23. The major differences be- plicity, a fixed dimensional larynx is used for this
tween the WB and FB model lie in the different mouth-throat. The cross-section of the larynx is
diameter and lengths of the TB generations. assumed to be an ellipse with a major axis of 1.2
In this study, we chose to create three idealized cm and a minor axis of 1.0 cm (with cross-sec-
proximal lung bifurcation models based on the tional area of 95 mm2), which is about half-way
data proposed in these papers and some direct ob- between the maximum openings seen during in-
servations of computed tomography (CT) scans halation and exhalation.(20) This idealized bio-
of human subjects. The first model, namely, logical mouth-throat geometry has been verified
WB, conforms quite closely to Weibels model to be a good representation of realistic human
(Weibel A),(27) and the basic configuration con- mouth throats.(3537) A straight tube with inner



Generation Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Diameter (mm) Length (mm) Diameter (mm)

0 120 16 120 16 124.56 18.1

1 47.6 12.2 36 (right), 48 (left) 12 36.14 14.14
2 19 8.3 20, 25 7.5, 5.5, 8, 8, 7.5 28.62 11.15
3 7.6 5.6 10 5, 5.5 22.81 8.85
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FIG. 1. Schematics of the three proximal lung bifurcation models with an idealized mouth-throat.

diameter of 17.3 mm and length of 1000 mm is Aerosol generation and particle deposition
used as the inlet to the oral cavity. Due to the measurements
highly curved three-dimensional surfaces of the
Monodisperse aerosol particles of DEHS (di-2-
airway geometries, the proximal lung bifurcation
ethylhexyl sebacate) oil were generated using a
and the idealized mouth-throat geometry used
controlled heterogeneous condensation Aerosol
here were designed using a CAD software pack-
Generator (CMAG, model 3475, Topas, Ger-
age Pro/Engineer (PTC, Needham, MA). The
many). Particle sizes with mass median diame-
model was designed to consist of several com-
ters of 2.57.5 m (SD  1.1) were used in this
ponents (i.e., the mouth-throat, the trachea, the
study. The size and dispersity of aerosol particles
proximal lung bifurcations and the distal bifur-
were monitored using a Mach II Aerosizer (TSI,
cation). Each component is made in two halves
St. Paul, MN). In order to acquire data rapidly, a
split along the central plane for each sub-region.
gravimetric method was used to determine total
In order to mimic a realistic shape of the carina,
and regional deposition. In this method, each
the sharp carinal ridges were rounded smoothly
component and filter was simply weighed before
with curved surfaces.
and after aerosol testing and the collected mass
The solid hollow models were produced using
was determined as the net mass of particle de-
Stereo-Lithography (model FDM 8000, Stratasys,
position within the specific part. This methodol-
Eden Prairie, MN), a three-dimensional printing
ogy was cross-checked with data obtained by
process that produces solid models in acryloni-
gamma scintigraphy and indicated good agree-
trilebutadiene styrene (ABS) plastic. The resultant
models surfaces were coated with an airtight
epoxy layer, which was found to have high chem-
Experimental procedure
ical and physical resistivity.(38) The fluorocarbon
coating EGC-1700 (3M, St. Paul, MN) was applied A schematic of the experimental setup is shown
on the inner walls of the entire models to increase in Figure 2. The experimental system consists of
liquid surface contact angle in order to reduce the aerosol generator, the mixing chamber, the
surface wetting, which otherwise can decrease airway model, the filters, flow-meters with ad-
the accuracy of deposition measurements.(37) justment valves and a vacuum pump. To avoid
Since DEHS oil particles are liquid, no additional undesired effects of dense aerosol on particle de-
liquid coating is necessary to prevent bounce on position,(6) the original aerosol produced by the
the inner surface of model. aerosol generator is diluted by extra ambient air
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FIG. 2. Experimental setup.

in the mixing chamber. The connections of dif- by the Reynolds number (Re), which is usually
ferent components are wrapped with parafilm to defined as(39):
create an airtight seal. Particles passing through
the airway models are collected by Marquest Re     (1)
Respirgard filters (Marquest Medical Products,
Inc., Boulder, CO). Two filters are connected se- where U is a flow velocity, Q is the flow rate, 
rially at each outlet of the bifurcations to avoid is the fluid dynamic viscosity, and D is a char-
possible leakage of the oil deposited on the filter acteristic length representing the geometry of
film. Three steady flow rates of 30, 60, and 90 the flow (typically the diameter of the internal
L/min are used in the present study. For the sym- channel). For flow through straight circular
metric models, even flow distribution in each tubes, the flow is considered laminar when Re is
branch of generation G2 is used (i.e., 25% of the less than 2300, turbulent when Re is great than
total flow rate for each branch). For the asym- 4000, and transitional between those values.(39)
metric model, the tracheal flow is distributed These Re values are different for flow in differ-
among the five lobar bronchi according to the ent geometries and vary with upstream turbu-
data reported by Horsfield et al.(29) The exact per- lence level.
centages of flow rate through each lobar branch When fluid flow changes direction suddenly,
are listed in Table 2. particles carried by the fluid may be collected on
Regarding flow patterns, whether a flow is the surface by inertial impaction. The ratio of the
laminar or turbulent is governed by the ratio of stopping distance to a characteristic dimension is
the inertial force of the fluid to the viscous force defined as the Stokes number (Stk). Stokes num-
of the fluid. This ratio is generally characterized ber is a measure of the importance of inertial ef-


Right upper Right middle Right lower Left upper Left lower Total
Model (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%)

Data from the literature(29) 21 9 25 20 25 100

IB 20 10 25 20 25 100
WB 25 25 25 25 100
FB 25 25 25 25 100
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fects in determining particle trajectories. Usually, where mp is the mass of particles deposited in the
the Stokes number is given by(39): all parts of the solid walled models, mr is the
mass of particles deposited in the specific region,
Ccpdp2U mf is the mass of particles collected in the down-
Stk   (2)
18D stream parts (including filters and adapter), and
min is the mass of particles entering the specific
where Cc is the Cunningham slip correction. For region.
larger particles, the slip correction factor is very
close to unity and varies within a small range
(1.031.07) for particles with diameters of 2.57.5
m, and thus can be neglected in formula (2) for RESULTS
our purposes. Here, p is the particle density, dp
is the particle diameter, and  is the dynamic vis- Total particle deposition in three airway models
cosity of fluid. U is the velocity obtained by di- A summary of total deposition efficiency as a
viding the flow rate by the cross sectional area of function of an inertial parameter dp2Q (gm2s1)
the trachea, and D is the characteristic length. in three idealized airway bifurcation models is
In particle deposition studies, the inertial para- plotted in Figure 3. As indicated, total deposition
meter dp2Q (gm2s1) is another convenient pa- efficiency (t) increases with increasing values of
rameter for normalizing impaction dominant de- the inertial parameter dp2Q (gm2s1) in the
position data when flow rate and particle density three models, and differences in particle deposi-
are different, where  (g/cm3 ) is the particle den- tion within the three models are not significant
sity, dp (m) is the particle diameter and Q (cm/sec) over the range of inertial parameter. The present
is the flow rate. Although the inertial parameter work, as well as previous publications,(711) sug-
does not take into account the inter-subject vari- gests that for the conducting airways up to the
ability of the geometries of human airways, it is end of the generation G2 of the lung, inertial de-
still widely used for presentations of particle de- position is the dominant deposition mechanism.
position data, especially for in vivo data, due to Figure 3 shows that total particle deposition effi-
the difficulty of determining an adequate charac- ciency is not sensitive to differences in the geome-
teristic length for the realistic human airways. tries used here.
The weight of each component is determined by
an analytical balance (Sartorius 1207MP2, Ger-
Regional particle deposition in the mouth-throat
many) with a resolution of 0.0001 g. The measured
increase in weight is used to determine the mass of Particle deposition efficiency in the mouth-
particles deposited within the correspondent parts. throat from the above tests is plotted in Figure 4.
Generation G3 is not included in the presentation Due to the high convection speed in the laryngeal
of particle deposition in order to avoid the possible opening into trachea, it is supposed that differ-
effect of flow disturbances from the open ends of ences of the flow patterns downstream caused by
terminal airways on the particle deposition. Since variations of bifurcating pattern have negligible
the components of each model could be disassem- effect on upstream particle deposition. As shown,
bled into individual parts and weighed separately, there are virtually no differences in particle de-
the total and regional deposition could be obtained position among any of the models studied, de-
simultaneously from one test. spite distinguishable geometric differences in se-
The total deposition efficiency (t), the absolute quentially bifurcating airways for each model.
deposition efficiency (a), and the relative depo- This result demonstrates that, as expected, the
sition efficiency (r) are given by: flow characteristics downstream of the mouth-
throat cause no effect on total particle deposition
mp in the mouth-throat.
t (%)    100 (3)
mp  mf

mr Regional particle deposition in the trachea

a (%)    100 (4)
mp  mf Airflow in the trachea is complicated due to the
effects of complex flow and geometry upstream
mr and downstream. Absolute deposition efficiency
r (%)    100 (5)
min (a) in the trachea as a function of the inertial pa-
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FIG. 3. Total deposition efficiency in the three models versus inertial parameter. Each point represents the average
of three repeats and error bars refer to standard deviation.

rameter dp2Q is shown in Figure 5. Particle de- inertial impaction with increasing inertial para-
position efficiency increases with the inertial pa- meter, so that the net effect is decreased deposi-
rameter at a slower rate than in the mouth-throat. tion with increasing inertial parameter.
A peak exists for tracheal deposition within each Relative deposition efficiency (r) for particles
model. The peak may be explained as follows: entering the trachea is plotted as a function of
with increases of the inertial parameter, enhanced Stokes number (Stk) in Figure 6 with the diameter
particle deposition in regions upstream (i.e., the of the trachea as the characteristic length. It can be
mouth-throat) will greatly reduce the absolute seen that deposition efficiency (r) values increase
amount of particles entering the trachea. This will monotonically with increasing Stokes number,
partially counteract the enhanced quantity of par- and particle deposition efficiency in the FB model
ticles deposition in the downstream airways by is higher than that in either WB or IB models.

FIG. 4. Deposition efficiency in the mouth-throat versus inertial parameter. Each point represents the average of
three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.
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FIG. 5. Deposition efficiency in the trachea versus inertial parameter. Each point represents the average of three re-
peats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.

Two major factors influence particle deposition ficiency (r) for particles entering the trachea is
in the trachea, namely, local flow pattern and in- plotted as a function of Stokes number (Stk) again,
let velocity profile. Due to the significantly larger and the characteristic length used here is the hy-
cross section area of the trachea (i.e., 257 mm2 for draulic diameter of the glottis Dh (10.887 mm),
FB model) compared with the constriction of the which is given by
larynx (95 mm2), the magnitude of the inlet ve-
locity to the trachea is much larger than the mean Dh   (6)
velocity in the trachea. Therefore, it may be more
reasonable to use a dimension upstream as a char- where S is the cross sectional area of the glottal
acteristic length to calculate the Stokes number. aperture, and L is the perimeter of the cross sec-
As shown in Figure 7, the relative deposition ef- tion. As shown, deposition data falls within a

FIG. 6. Deposition efficiency for particles entering the trachea versus Stokes number. Each point represents the av-
erage of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.
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FIG. 7. Deposition efficiency for particles entering the trachea versus Stokes number. Each point represents the av-
erage of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.

more narrow data range and a linear increase of be present. As shown in Figure 8, tracheal depo-
deposition with increasing Stokes number is seen. sition fraction in the FB model is plotted for the
Since the identical mouth-throat is used for these three Reynolds number of 2276, 4553, and 6830,
three bifurcation models, the single collapsed corresponding to flow rates of 30, 60, and 90
curve suggests that the upstream laryngeal con- L/min, respectively, and the characteristic length
dition is the dominant factor in determining the used here is the diameter of trachea. A slight in-
particle deposition in the trachea, and not the lo- crease of deposition efficiency is observed with
cal dimensions of the trachea. increasing Reynolds number. This may be due to
As seen in the experiment by Grgic et al.,(36) an a steepening of velocity profiles near the wall
effect of Reynolds number on deposition could with increased Reynolds number leading to in-

FIG. 8. Deposition efficiency in the trachea (FB model) with the different Reynolds numbers versus Stokes number.
Each point represents the average of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.
5967_09_p460-473 12/6/05 1:28 PM Page 469


creased impaction velocities near walls.(34) Alter- or the IB model. This is due to the larger cross
natively, enhanced turbulent mixing could play sectional area of the FB model, which reduces
a partial role in promoting particle deposition at the magnitude of the velocity, and decreases
higher Reynolds number. the probability of particle deposition by iner-
Previous deposition tests in an idealized mouth- tial impaction. However, the plot with Stokes
throat model have indicated a similar Reynolds number in Figure 11 shows that the dimension-
number effect on deposition.(36) Following the less deposition data collapses close to a single
empirical Reynolds number correction suggested curve.
by Grgic et al.,(36) Stokes number (Stk) is multi- Gas transport under the combined influence of
plied by Reynolds number (Re) to the power of jet induced turbulence and oscillatory flow have
0.37. With this correction, deposition data and a been examined experimentally by Kamm et al.(40)
function obtained by a least squares curve fit are They divided the region influenced by the jet
shown in Figure 9. It is found that particle depo- into two zones: a near field and a far field. In the
sition in the trachea collapses more closely onto near field, the jet is treated as a confined jet. In
a single curve. (Note that Re in Figure 9 refers the far field, axial mass transport is increased
to the flow Reynolds number. Particle Reynolds due to the turbulence, which decays in strength
number [Rep] would of course be 1 and is in away from the jet. The experiments showed that
the usual Stokes flow regime.) the presence of a turbulence jet led to gas trans-
port enhancement within a region extending up
to 20 tube diameters. Recently, Corcoran and
Regional particle deposition in the proximal
Chigier(41) measured the flow field in the tracheal
lung bifurcations
sections of a cadaver based larynx-trachea model
Absolute and relative particle deposition ef- using Phase Doppler Interferometry and ob-
ficiencies in the lung bifurcations (G1 and G2) served high levels of turbulence intensity near
are shown in Figures 10 and 11. Deposition the anterior tracheal walls within one diameter
efficiencies are plotted as a function of both in- downstream of the larynx. These turbulence lev-
ertial parameter (dp2Q) and Stokes number els were still significant up to four diameters
(Stk), where the diameter of the trachea is used downstream. However, it is not clear whether
as the characteristic length. The results indicate this effect of the laryngeal jet continues into the
that absolute deposition efficiency in the FB bifurcation downstream and affects particle de-
model is lower than that in either the WB model position there. In order to investigate this ef-

FIG. 9. The data of Figure 8 is replotted with x-axis, indicating a Reynolds number correction. Each point repre-
sents the average of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.
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FIG. 10. Deposition efficiency for particles entering the proximal lung bifurcation as a function of inertial parame-
ter. Each point represents the average of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.

fect, particle deposition in the FB model with DISCUSSION

and without the mouth-throat is compared. As
shown in Figure 12, the difference between par- Since a major test of in vitro data in physical
ticle deposition in the bifurcations between the models is to obtain deposition data similar to data
two cases is minor. Therefore, at a constant flow from realistic human subjects, it is useful to com-
rate, the effect of the laryngeal jet seemingly does pare our experimental data directly with in vivo
not propagate into bifurcations downstream or data. However, in vivo deposition data in the first
at least, does not significantly affect particle de- several generations of the lung is sparse. Although
position there. in vivo particle deposition data in the TB tree is

FIG. 11. Deposition efficiency for particles entering the proximal lung bifurcation versus Stokes number. Each point
represents the average of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.
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FIG. 12. Effect of the laryngeal jet on deposition for particles entering the proximal lung bifurcations. Each point
represents the average of three repeats, and error bars refer to standard deviation.

available, no data is present for each generation inertial parameter. Note that data in Figure 13 is
of the lung due to the resolution limitations of ra- relative deposition (see Equation 5) and so allows
dionuclide imaging method. However, there are comparison of our data to that shown for the en-
still several experimental data sets suitable for tire TB tree. Significant scatter can be seen in the
comparison. In Figure 13, the tracheo-bronchial in vivo data. Possible reasons for the scatter in-
tree deposition of ferric oxide aerosols obtained clude differences in breath pattern and variability
from in vivo human tests(2,13,42) and polystyrene of airway geometry. It can be seen from Figure 13
latex fluorescent particles in a human airway cast that the present deposition data lies within the
with mouth-throat(16) is plotted as a function of range of several sets of in vivo data.

FIG. 13. Comparison of the present data with tracheo-bronchial deposition in humans in vivo(2,13,42) and in a human
airway cast.(16)
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Alternatively, a number of empirical correla- REFERENCES

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tions, only the equations of Chan and Lipp- ticle deposition in human nasal airway replicas man-
ufactured by different methods. Part I. Inertial regime
mann(2) and ICRP(3) would be expected to repre-
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ways that included the effects of a larynx and gional deposition of inhaled particles in humans. Am.
multiple bifurcations. The predictions of deposi- Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 41:399409.
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the Stokes number is calculated based on the di- ICRP. ICRP Publication 66. Elsevier, New York.
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The financial support of the Alberta Ingenuity three-dimensional laryngeal models. J. Aerosol Med.
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