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INTRODUCCIN A LA

I N G L E S A
E L I N G L S P U E S TO E N P R C T I C A

Ricardo Arancibia F.
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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa
RIL editores
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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Introduccin a la
Gramtica Inglesa
425 Arancibia Figueroa, Ricardo
A Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa / Ricar-
do Arancibia Figueroa. -- Santiago : RIL editores,
2014.
150 p. ; 23 cm.

ISBN: 978-956-01-0061-0

1Ingls-Gramtica-Enseanza 2 Ingls-Libros
de texto para hablantes extranjeros-Espaol.

Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa


Primera edicin: marzo de 2014

Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa, 2014


Registro de Propiedad Intelectual
N 221.138

RIL editores, 2014


Los Leones 2258
cp 7511055 Providencia
Santiago de Chile
Tel. Fax. (56-2) 22238100
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ISBN 978-956-01-0061-0

Derechos reservados.
ndice

PRIMERA PARTE 11

Aprenda Ingls 13
Ingls general bsico
The alphabet
Formacin de plurales 15
Artculos
Artculos indefinidos (un, una)
Artculo definido (el, la, los, las).
Pronombres personales 16
Pronombres reflexivos 17
Adjetivos posesivos
Pronombres posesivos 18
Referenciales
Adjetivos demostrativos 19
Adverbio de cantidad: there is & there are
Las formas de este adverbio
Tiempos de este adverbio 20
Prepositions 21
Verbos irregulares 22
Verbos regulares 26
Verbos irregulares y auxiliares 29
Los verbos reflexivos 31
Simple present tense
Presente Simple 32
Simple past tense
Pasado Simple 33
Future tense
Tiempo Futuro 34
Near future (futuro cercano) 35
Conditional tense
Tiempo Condicional
Auxiliars: do, does, did, will, would 36
Auxiliares anmalos y defectivos 37
Forma interrogativa
Interrogative words 38
Tag Questions 40
Forma negativa 43
Perfect Tenses
Tiempos Perfectos
Present Perfect Tense
Presente Perfecto 44
Past Perfect Tense
Pasado Perfecto
Formas Interrogativas y Negativas para los
Tiempos Perfectos 45
Forma Negativa de los Tiempos Perfectos 46
Continuous Tenses
Tiempos Continuos
Present Continuous Tense 47
Past Continuous Tense
Formas Interrogativas y Negativas para los
Tiempos Continuos 48
La Hora 49
La Fecha 51
Numbers
Los Nmeros 52
Particularidades de los adjetivos cardinales
Particularidades de los adjetivos ordinales 53
Nmeros fraccionarios y multiplicativos 54
Letter writing 55

SEGUNDA PARTE 59
Tipos de Adverbios 61
Clases de Adverbios 62
- Ordinales (ordinal adverbs)
La comparacin de los Adverbios 63
Los comparativos y superlativos de superioridad
irregulares
La Posicin del Adverbio 64
Adverbios de frecuencia
Adverbios de tiempo y lugar
Uso particular de algunos Adverbios 65
Expresiones adverbiales
Adverbios + Preposiciones
(Formas adverbiales idiomticas) 68
Verbos compuestos 70
If clause
It takes
Present
Past 78
Future
How Long
Direct and indirect speech 79
La voz pasiva (passive voice) 80
Simple Present Tense
Simple Past
Future
Presente Perfect Tense 81
Past Perfect Tense
Conditional 81
Mixed Conditional
Simple Present Tense (Passive Voice)
Simple Past
Future
Perfect Tense (Present)
Past Perfect Tense 82
Conditional
English idioms 83
Falsos Cognados 85

TERCERA PARTE. EL INGLS PUESTO EN PRCTICA 89


Manual de conversacin en ingls
Primera Unidad 91
Segunda Unidad 103
Tercera Unidad 128

Bibliografa 147
Primera Parte
Aprenda Ingls

Ms que un texto de ingls, es un manual de referencia rpida y efec-


tiva para que usted pueda estudiar y aprender este idioma, en su aspecto
bsico-intermedio. Fue diseado en espaol para que se puedan entender
los conceptos, darse cuenta de que lo angloparlantes hablan, piensan y
tienen otra lgica para decir las cosas, muy distinta de la nuestra. Este
libro tiene como objetivo primordial el entregarle y ensearle el uso de
las herramientas bsicas para interactuar en ingls escrito y hablado, es
la base que se necesita para sustentar todo lo dems que implica saber un
idioma en su totalidad. Este libro es el comienzo de una larga y perseve-
rante jornada de aprendizaje.
Consta de tres partes; la primera trata de definiciones y aplicaciones
gramaticales, partiendo desde lo bsico; la segunda aborda temas ms
avanzados pero indispensables y la tercera es un Cuaderno de Prctica
donde encontrar cientos de ejercicios y ejemplos, los cuales deber repetir
constantemente de acuerdo con las intrucciones dadas.
Las aparentemente complicadas estructuras gramaticales son expli-
cadas de tal manera que resulten muy fciles de entender; al igual que
una frmula de qumica, usted debe respetar el orden en que deben ir las
diferentes partes de una oracin. Se han seleccionado los verbos que ms
uso tienen. Los conceptos van acompaados con ejercicios, lo que permite
un entendimiento ms cabal y rpido.
Usted, como estudiante, deber ejercitarse lo que ms pueda fuera de
las horas de clases; el secreto para aprender ingls es la prctica perma-
nente en todo lugar, leer en voz alta libros o textos (ayuda la pronunciacin)
y ver cine o TV en ese idioma, escribir mucho (ayuda la ortografa), pro-
veerse de un buen diccionario (es indispensable). Y ser paciente: recuerde
que al estudiar un idioma tambin aprende otra cultura.

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Estoy seguro que siguiendo estos consejos usted lograr alcanzar sus
objetivos y podr comunicarse en ingls y ampliar sus perspectivas pro-
fesionales. Si usted logra asimilar y poner en prctica lo que se explica en
este manual, tiene el 80% a su favor en el aprendizaje del ingls; lo que
sigue le resultar ms fcil y podr llegar al Cuaderno de Prctica, donde
repasar todo lo que ha aprendido pero en forma aplicada.

Mucho xito.

Ricardo Arancibia F.

14
Ingls general bsico

The alphabet
Saber cmo se pronuncia una letra es importante y es necesario tener en
cuenta que dicha pronunciacin muchas veces cambia de una palabra a
otra; ejemplo: la letra u se pronuncia iu; sin embargo, en la palabra but
la u suena como a; en la palabra put, como u.

A(ei), B(bi), C(ci), D(di), E(i), F(ef), G(gi), H(eich), I(ai), J(jei), K(key),
L(el), M(em), N(en), O(ou), P(pi), Q(kiu), R(ar), S(es), T(ti), U(iu), V(vi),
W(double iu), X(exs), Y(huai), Z(zed).

Formacin de plurales
En ingls, para pluralizar palabras, solo es cuestin de agregar una s.
Pero hay casos en que para pluralizar una palabra va a depender de la
terminacin de sta. Estudie los siguientes casos:

a) Cuando una palabra termine en x, z, s, ch, sh, o, forma su plural


agregando es: box-boxes, class-classes, bush-bushes, do-does.
b) Cuando una palabra termina en f o fe, forma su plural cambiando
la f por una v y agregando es: leaf-leaves, wolf-wolves, wife-wives.
c) Cuando la palabra termina en y, y la precede una vocal, forma el
plural agregando s: key-keys, boy-boys. Si la palabra termina en y,
y le precede una consonante, lo forma cambiando la y por una i
agregando es: lady-ladies, candy-candies, supply-supplies.

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Artculos
Artculos indefinidos (un, una)
Vamos a usar el artculo indefinido an cuando la palabra que sigue co-
mienza con vocal: an apple; y usaremos el artculo indefinido a cuando
la siguiete palabra comienza con consonante: a book.

Some and Any: cuando queramos decir algunos, algunas, debemos


usar some, el cual se usa solo en la forma afirmativa. Vamos a usar any en
las formas negativas e interrogativas; en la forma negativa va a significar
ninguno(a), ningn; en la forma interrogativa, algn(a), algunos(as).

Artculo definido (el, la, los, las).


Usaremos el artculo definido the para referirnos a cosas especficas y
puntuales; ejemplo: the table is red, the pencil is mine, the student was lazy.
Prescindiremos de este artculo, aunque s estn en espaol, para
referinos a cosas de concepto universal; ejemplo: astronomy studies stars
(la astronoma estudia las estrellas), love is beauty (el amor es bello),
knowledge is important (el conocimiento es importante). Tampoco lo
debemos usar cuando nos referimos a cosas en trminos generales; por
ejemplo: cars are expensive (los autos son caros), children are the future
(los nios son el futuro), cats are friendly (los gatos son amistosos).

Pronombres personales

I It
   ZPV   XF
he you
she they

En la tercera persona del singular encontramos los pronombres: he


para referirse a la tercera persona del gnero masculino, she para referirse
a la tercera persona del gnero femenino e it el cual permite reemplazar
a un objeto, cosa, animal o una situacin, dependiendo del contexto; no
tiene significado ni gnero, es un pronombre personal neutro.

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

IMPORTANTE

En ingls siempre se debe comenzar una oracin con un pronombre


personal, a diferenciadel espaol, en que muchas veces se deduce y no es
necesario utilizarlo (tcitos).
Qu pasa si no coloco un pronombre al comienzo de una frase? Lo
voy a explicar con un ejemplo; si escribo en ingls la siguiente frase: play
tennis very well, no tengo cmo saber quin juega bien al tenis porque
a esa frase le puede servir el pronombre I, you, we o they. Necesito el
pronombre para identificar a la persona o personas que ejecutan el verbo.
Sin embargo existe una forma donde se puede comenzar la frase con
un verbo, estamos hablando del modo imperativo, el cual se usa para dar
una orden o solicitar un favor; ejemplo: call our supplier (llame a nuestro
proveedor), bring me a glass of water please (trigame un vaso con agua,
por favor).
El rol principal que tienen los pronombres personales es ejecutar o
conjugar la accin del verbo; por esta razn es que van siempre antes del
verbo. No hay que olvidar que los pronombres personales pueden ser
propios (John, Mary, Paul) o comunes (car, house, family)
Otros ejemplos: when I go to my school, I take a bus (cuando (yo) voy
al colegio, (yo) tomo un autobs), Caroline plays piano (Carolina toca el
piano), my family and I go to the beach (mi familia y yo vamos a la playa).

Pronombres reflexivos
Oneself (a s mismo, por uno mismo), myself (a m mismo, por mi mismo),
yourself (t mismo, a ti mismo, por usted mismo), himself (se, a s mismo,
por l mismo), herself (a s misma, por ella misma), itself (a s mismo,
por ello mismo), ourselves (por nosotros mismos), yourselves (a vosotros
mismos, por ustedes mismos), themselves (a s mismos, por ellos mismos).
Los pronombres reflexivos se utilizan para destacar al sujeto que rea-
liza la accin por (s mismo). Ejemplos: I wrote this manual myself (yo
mismo escrib este manual), the chairman himself opened the meeting (el
presidente en persona abri la reunin), do it yourself (hzlo tu mismo),
he saw it by himself (l lo vio por s mismo).
Con by se expresa la idea de que algo se hizo sin ayuda. Se usa para
indicar el medio de transporte en el que una persona se desplaza o viaja,
ejemplos: she goes to the school by bus (ella va al colegio en bus), my
sister went to Uruguay by plane (mi hermana fue a Uruguay en avin),

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

I like to travel by train (me gusta viajar en tren). Cuando una persona se
traslada a pie se dice on foot, ejemplo: Paul came on foot from his office
(Paul se vino a pie desde su oficina)

Adjetivos posesivos
Sirven para indicar posesin, pertenencia o propiedad; es decir, cuando
hablamos del su de l, su de ella, lo nuestro, etc.

I my my car mi auto
you your your house tu casa
he his his friends sus(de l)amigos
she her her behaviour su(de ella)conducta
It Its Its beauty su (neutro) belleza
we our our chance nuestra oportunidad
they their their computers sus (de ellos) computadores

Pronombres posesivos
Se forman aadiendo la letra s al adjetivo posesivo correspondiente, a
excepcin de la primera persona singular (mine) y la tercera persona sin-
gular (his). Bsicamente, la diferencia entre los adjetivos posesivos y los
pronombres posesivos radica en la forma como expresan el concepto de
pertenencia. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos:

Adjetivo Pronombre

my mine, el mo, lo mo, la ma, los mos, las mas

yours, el tuyo, lo tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas, el suyo, lo suyo,
your
la suya, los suyos, las suyas

his his, el suyo (de l), lo suyo, los suyos, las suyas

her hers, el suyo (de ella), lo suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas

our ours, el nuestro, lo nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras

yours, el vuestro, lo vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras, el


your
suyo

their theirs, el suyo (de ellos, ellas), lo suyo, etc.

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Heres your book. Wheres mine? (Aqu est tu libro. Dnde est el mo?).
Is that car yours? (Es tuyo ese auto?).
A friend of his (Un amigo de l).
Their house is similar to ours (Su casa (de ellos) es similar a la nuestra).

IMPORTANTE

Los adjetivos calificativos van siempre delante de los sustantivos y NO se


pluralizan. Ejemplos: Mary has three black cats (Mara tiene tres gatos
negros), my friend buys old books (mi amigo compra libros antiguos), It
is a fantastic new car (es un fnatstico auto nuevo), they read medicine
magazines (ellos leen revistas de medicina).

Referenciales
Generalmente, cuando en una frase nos referimos a una o varias personas,
NO podemos usar los pronombres personales; para ese efecto usamos
el referencial que le corresponde a cada pronombre, el que siempre va
despus del verbo o al final de la frase. Recordemos que los pronombres
personales van antes que el verbo y los referenciales van despus de ste,
forman parte del complemento. Cada pronombre personal tiene su refe-
rencial. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos:

I me He dances with me (l baila conmigo).


you you I know you (Te conozco).
he him We spoke with him (Nosotros hablamos con l).
she her He saw her yesterday (l la vio ayer).
It It I wrote it in prison (Lo escrib en prisin).
XFVTShe works with us (Ella trabaja con nosotros).
they them Open the door to them (breles la puerta).

Adjetivos demostrativos
Se usan para mostrar o sealar objetos o personas, los cuales pueden estar
lejos o en contacto directo de quien los seala.
Para objetos que estn cerca o en contacto directo de quien los seala:

This (singular: este, esta). This is my car (este es mi auto)


These (plural: estos, estas).These are apples (estas son manzanas)

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Para objetos que estn lejos de quien los seala:

That (singular: ese, esa, aquella, aquel).


That is your problema (ese es tu problema)
Those (plural: esos, esas, aquellas, aquellos).
Those are the pencils we will use (esos son los lpices que usaremos)

Adverbio de cantidad: there is & there are


Es un adverbio de cantidad para conceptualizar el trmino hay. En
espaol usamos la expresin hay para singular y plural, en ingls no,
estudie las diferencias.

There is: hay en singular.


There are: hay en plural.

Se usa basado en las reglas de conjugacin del verbo to be.

Las formas de este adverbio

AFIRMATIVE NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE

There is a cat here There is not a cat here Is there a cat here?
Hay un gato aqu No hay un gato aqu Hay un gato aqu?

There are two doors There are not two doors Are there two doors?
Hay dos puertas No hay dos puertas Hay dos puertas?

Tiempos de este adverbio

There is There are = Presente There was There were = Pasado


There will be = Futuro There would be = Condicional

Ejemplos: There are four cars on the street (Hay cuatro autos en
la calle), there will be a chance for them (Habr una oportunidad para
ellos), there was an air accident in Santiago (Hubo un accidente areo en
Santiago), There would be a guilty person (Habra una persona culpable).

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Prepositions
In: Para indicar cuando algo o alguien se encuentra en un lugar limita-
do; ejemplo: My friend is in the music room. Para indicar el pas o ciudad
donde alguien vive; ejemplo: I live in Peru. Para indicar los aos: ejemplo:
It happened in 1998. Para indicar los meses (january, february, march,
april, may, june, july, august, september, october, november, december) y
las estaciones del ao (summer, spring, autumn (fall), winter).

On: Para indicar que una persona o cosa est sobre algo, pero en
contacto directo; ejemplo: The book is on the table; my cat is on the roof.
Para indicar los das de la semana (monday, tuesday, wednesday, thursday,
friday, saturday, sunday); ejemplo: I will see you on monday. Para indicar
la calle donde alguien se encuentra o vive; ejemplo: Your sister lives on
Alameda Avenue, I am on Moneda Street.

At: Para indicar una hora; ejemplo: Mary has breakfast at 9:00. Para
indicar las comidas diarias (breakfast, lunch, tea time, tinner). Para in-
dicar donde se encuentra una persona, pero en un lugar amplio, grande;
ejemplo: We will be at the university. Para indicar el nmero del lugar
donde alguien trabaja o vive (dar una direccin); ejemplo: She works at
245 Agustinas Street.

From: Para indicar el origen de las cosas o la procedencia de una


persona; ejemplo: John is from USA, Where are you from? Para sealar
cuando una persona va de un lugar a otro; en este caso se debe agregar la
preposicin to ejemplo: My family travels from Santiago to Osorno (mi
familia viaja desde Santiago hasta Osorno).

For: Cuando a continuacin le sigue un verbo, este debe ir en gerundio


(ing), pero se traduce en tiempo presente. Indica un propsito, llevar a
efecto; ejemplo: They speak for learning pronunciation (ellos hablan para
aprender pronunciacin), I work for earning money (yo trabajo para ganar
dinero). Significa por y para.

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Verbos irregulares
Son aquellos verbos cuyo pasado y pasado participio se escriben y
pronuncian diferente al presente.

PRESENT PAST P.PARTICIPLE GERUND

Be Was/Were Been Being


Become Became Become Becoming
Begin Began Begun Beginning
#MPX #MFX #MPXO #MPXJOH
Break Broke Broken Breaking
Bring Brought Brought Bringing
Build Built Built Building
Burn Burnt Burnt Burning
Buy Bought Bought Buying
Catch Caught Caught Catching
Choose Chose Chosen Choosing
Come Came Come Coming
Cost Cost Cost Costing
Cut Cut Cut Cutting
Dig Dug Dug Digging
Do Did Done Doing
%SBX %SFX %SBXO %SBXJOH
Dream Dreamt Dreamt Dreaming
Drink Drank Drunk Drinking
Drive Drove Driven Driving
Eat Ate Eaten Eating
Fall Fell Fallen Falling
Feed Fed Fed Feeding

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Feel Felt Felt Feelling


Fight Fought Fought Fighting
Find Found Found Finding
Fly 'MFX 'MPXO Flying
Forget Forgot Forgotten Forgetting
Forgive Forgave Forgiven Forgiving
Freeze Froze Frozen Freezing
Get Got Got Getting
Give Gave Given Giving
Go Went Gone Going
Go Out Went Out Gone Out Going Out
(SPX (SFX (SPXO (SPXJOH
Have Had Had Having
Hear Heard Heard Hearing
Hide Hid Hid Hiding
Hurt Hurt Hurt Hurting
Keep Kept Kept Keeping
,OPX ,OFX ,OPXO ,OPXJOH
Lead Led Led Leading
Learn Learnt Learnt Learning
Lend Lent Lent Lending
Leave Left Left Leaving
Let Let Let Letting
Light Lit Lit Lighting
Lose Lost Lost Losing
Make Made Made Making
Make Up Made Up Made Up Making Up
Mean Meant Meant Meaning

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Meet Met Met Meeting


Pay Paid Paid Paying
Put Put Put Putting
Read Read Read Reading
Ride Rode Ridden Riding
Ring Rang Rung Ringing
Run Ran Run Running
Say Said Said Saying
See 4BX Seen Seeing
Seek Sought Sought Seeking
Sell Sold Sold Selling
Send Sent Sent Sending
Set Set Set Setting
Shake Shook Shaken Shaking
Shave Shaved Shaven Shaving
Shine Shone Shone Shining
4IPX 4IPXFE 4IPXO 4IPXJOH
Shut Shut Shut Shutting
Sit Sat Sat Sitting
Sing Sang Sung Singing
Sink Sank Sunk Sinking
Spell Spelt Spelt Spelling
Split Split Split Splitting
Spread Spread Spread Spreading
Sleep Slept Slept Sleeping
Smell Smelt Smelt Smelling
Speak Spoke Spoken Speaking
Spend Spent Spent Spending

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Spill Spilt Spilt Spilling


Stand Stood Stood Standing
Steal Stole Stolen Stealing
4XFBS 4XPSF 4XPSO 4XFBSJOH
4XJN 4XBN 4XVN 4XJNNJOH
Take Took Taken Taking
Teach Taught Taught Teaching
Tell Told Told Telling
Think Thought Thought Thinking
5ISPX 5ISFX 5ISPXO 5ISPXJOH
Under- Under- Under- Under-
Stand Stood Stood Standing
Wake Woke Woken Waking
Wear Wore Worn Wearing
Win Won Won Winning
Write Wrote Written Writing

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Verbos regulares
La mayora de los verbos en ingls son regulares, esto quiere decir que
forman su pasado y pasado participio agregando ed al presente o infinitivo,
y si el verbo ya termina en e, solo agregamos la letra d.

Abandon Call Enclose Invite


Abolish Carry Encourage Iron
Accede Cash End Join
Accuse Cease Enjoy Joke
Achieve Change Enter Jump
Act Check Establish Justify
Address Claim Esteem Kick
Admit Clean Evoke Kill
Adorn Clear Exchange Kiss
Advertise Climb Expect Knock
Affirm Close Explain Land
Absorb Collect Explode Last
Abuse Comb Expose Laugh
Accelerate Combine Express Lie
Accept Command Extract Like
Accustom Commit Fail Listen
Acquire Compare Fear Live
Add Complain Fetch Look
Admire Conceal Fill Love
Adore Compose Finish -PXFS
Advance Consider Fish Maintain
Advise Consist Fix Marry
Agree Contain Fit Measure
"MMPX Continue Float Mend

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Amuse Copy 'PMMPX Mention


Amount Correct Fold Move
Announce Cough Found Name
Annoy Count Gain Note
Apologize Cover Gather Notice
Appoint Cross Grant Number
Approve Cry Guess Oblige
Arrive Damage Handle Occupy
Assure %BXO Hang Offer
"OTXFS Deceive Happen Open
Attack Decide Heat Order
Attend Destroy Help Organize
Appear Detach Hire Pack
Approach Develop Hope Paint
Arrange Devote Hunt Pass
Ask Devour Hurry Permit
Astonish Discover Imagine Place
Attempt Dislike Imply Play
Attract Disturb Import Please
Avoid Divide Impress Possess
Bathe Drag Improve Practise
Beg Drop Include Prefer
Believe Dry Increase Prepare
Belong Earn Inquire Present
Blame Elect Intend Print
Book Employ Invent Produce
Promise Sound Sail Visit
Propose Start Save Wait

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Pull Stop Seem Want


Punish Study Sharpen Watch
Push Suffer Shout Wish
Rain Suggest Sign Worry
Reach Suppose Smile Walk
Receive Surprise Smoke Work
Refer Talk
Refuse Tame
Relieve Taste
Remain Tire
Remember Touch
Remind Test
Remove Thank
Rent Tie
Repair Translate
Repeat Tavel
Reply Trouble
Report Trust
Request Try
Require Turn
Rest Unite
Return Use
Rush Vary

Se denomina a un verbo en infinitivo cuando en una frase NO est


siendo conjugado, solo se le nombra; en espaol es cuando el verbo termi-
na en ar, er, ir. Ejemplos en ingls: I like to dance Tango (Me gusta bailar
Tango). Aqu hay dos verbos, pero solo uno est siendo conjugado, like
y el otro est en infinitivo, to dance, He prefers to read police novels (l
prefiere leer novelas policiales), en este ejemplo el verbo ejecutado es prefers

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

y el verbo en infinitivo es to read. Los verbos en infinitivo van siempre


acompaados de la preposicin to: to buy (comprar), to run (correr), to
speak (hablar), etc.

Verbos irregulares y auxiliares


Son verbos que cumplen dos funciones: como expresin verbal propia-
mente tal y como auxiliares para formar otros tiempos verbales. En el caso
del verbo to be, se usa para construir los tiempos continuos. El verbo to
do se usa para las formas interrogativas y negativas. El verbo to have se
usa para construir los tiempos perfectos. Es primordial aprenderse muy
bien los tiempos y formas de estos verbos.

TO BE (Ser o Estar)

PRESENT PAST P.PARTICIPLE GERUND

I am *XBT I have been I am being


you are ZPVXFSF you have been you are being
he is IFXBT he has been he is being
she is TIFXBT she has been she is being
it is JUXBT it has been it is being
XFBSF XFXFSF XFIBWFCFFO XFBSFCFJOH
they are UIFZXFSF they have been they are being

29
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE FUTURE CONDITIONAL

I am not am I? *XJMMCF *XPVMECF


You are not are you? :PVXJMMCF :PVXPVMECF
He is not is he? )FXJMMCF )FXPVMECF
She is not is she? 4IFXJMMCF 4IFXPVMECF
It is not is it? *UXJMMCF *UXPVMECF
We are not BSFXF 8FXJMMCF 8FXPVMECF
They are not are they? 5IFZXJMMCF 5IFZXPVMECF

Importante: El verbo to be es el nico que no usa auxiliares en sus


formas negativas e interrogativas, en los tiempos presente y pasado.

TO DO (Hacer)

PAST
PRESENT PAST GERUND
PARTICIPLE

I do I did I have done I am doing


you do you did you have done you are doing
he does he did hehas done he is doing
she does she did she has done she is doing
it does it did it has done it is doing
XFEP XFEJE XFIBWFEPOF XFBSFEPJOH
they do they did they have done they are doing

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

TO HAVE (Tener o Haber)

PRESENT PAST PARTICIPLE GERUND

I have I had I have had Im having


you have you had You have had You are having
he has he had She has had She is having
she has she had He has had He is having
it has it had It has had It is having
XFIBWF XFIBE We have had We are having
they have they had They have had They are having

Para las formas negativas e interrogativas, en los tiempos presente y


pasado, el verbo to have tiene dos opciones:

NEGATIVE FORM: I dont have, you dont have, she doesnt have,
he doesnt have, it doesnt have, we dont have, they dont have
OR: I have not (havent), you have not (havent), she has not (hasnt)

INTERROGATIVE FORM: Do I have? do you have?, does she have?,


does he have?, does it have?, do we have?, do they have?
OR: have I? have you?, has she, has he?, has it?, have we, have they?

Los verbos reflexivos


Un verbo es reflexivo, al igual que en espaol, es cuando la accin del
sujeto recae sobre este mismo.
To wash (lavar).
To wash oneself (lavarse).

Existen algunos verbos reflexivos en espaol que no lo son en ingls.


To get up / levantarse
To sit down / sentarse
To wake up / despertarse

31
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

No siempre se conjugan algunos verbos en su forma reflexiva.


In the morning, I wash myself and I shave myself / Por la maana,
yo me lavo y me afeito.
Es mejor decir: In the morning, I wash and shave.

Conjugacin de los verbos reflexivos en ingls:

TO WASH ONESELF LAVARSE

I wash myself yo me lavo


you wash yourself t te lavas
he washes himself l se lava
she washes herself ella se lava
it washes itself se lava (animal, cosa)
we wash ourselves nosotros nos lavamos
you wash yourselves ustedes se lavan
they wash themselves ellos se lavan

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Simple present tense


Presente Simple
Recordemos una vez ms que una oracin en ingls siempre debe co-
menzar con un pronombre personal, en ingls no existen los pronombres
tcitos.
El orden para construir una oracin en presente simple en ingls es:

Pronombre personal + Verbo en presente + Complemento

You dance tango very well


He speaks many languages
She writes beautiful poems
We work in this factory
It is a nice story
I understand that problem
They paint landscapes
Peter and Rose have three pets

Importante: Cuando un verbo se conjuga en presente con los pronom-


bres she, he, it, el verbo debe ir en plural (se le agrega una s); por ejemplo:
he dances, it works, he goes to Europe, she plays tennis.

Simple past tense


Pasado Simple
Para construir una oracin en un pasado simple en ingls, debe seguir el
siguiente orden:

Pronombre personal + Verbo en pasado + Complemento

They played football yesterday


I brought the newspaper
He broke a glass
It was on the table
The cat ate fish They studied He wrote good news
many theories
I knew him We paid two Jane bought bread
hundred pesos for us

33
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

You broke a glass Birds were big She was in the


and colourful laboratory
It was very late Workers were They waited
on strike the bus
He suffered a lot My family
travelled to Asia I walked in the park

Future tense
Tiempo Futuro
En espaol el futuro es cuando los verbos se conjugan de la siguiente mane-
ra: yo ir, Juan correr, Susana leer, nosotros pintaremos, ellas cantarn.
1BSBDPOTUSVJSFTUFUJFNQPTFVUJMJ[BVOBVYJMJBS XJMM FMDVBMTJFNQSF
debe ir antes del verbo; este auxiliar, en la frase, no tiene significado, su
misin es poner al verbo en tiempo futuro. En el ingls britnico tambin
se usa el auxiliar shall, principalmente para las primeras personas del
singular y del plural (I we). &KFNQMPXFTIBMMEBODFUPNPSSPX*TIBMM
be in your office at 11.00 am.
Inportante: siempre que un verbo est siendo conjugado con un au-
xiliar, el verbo debe ir en infinitivo sin la preposicin to. Ejemplo: I do
not understand the problem.
El orden para construir una oracin en futuro es el siguiente:

Pronombre personal + will +Verbo en presente.+ Complemento

$IBSMFTBOE1FUFSXJMMEBODF 4IFXJMMUSZUPCVZBOFXDPNQVUFS
tropical dances
:PV{MMCFIFSFUPNPSSPX  8FTIBMMDBMMZPVVQJOUIFNPSOJOH
1IJMXJMMQMBZUIFHVJUBS  5IFZXJMMSFQBJSUIJTNPUPS
*{MMJNQPSUOFXQSPEVDUT  *TIBMMTQFBLXJUIIJN

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Near future (futuro cercano)


Equivale a decir en espaol: vamos a ir a... voy a ir a
El orden para construir una oracin en futuro cercano es el siguiente:

(Pronombre personal + Verbo to be + going to + C).

Afirmativo: Im going to visit my aunt Lucy (Voy a ir a visitar a mi


ta Lucy), he is going to the beach (l va a ir a la playa), we are going to
study biology (vamos a ir a estudiar biologa).
Tambin lo podemos usar en un pasado cercano: Peter was going to
buy the newspaper (Peter iba a ir a comprar el diario), we were going to
the cinema (bamos a ir al cine), you were going to eat italian food (t
ibas a ir a comer comida italiana).

Forma interrogativa: are you going to buy the newspaper? (Vas a ir a


comprar el diario?), is John going to play chess? (va Juan a jugar ajedrez?),

Forma negativa: Im not going to understand his theory (no voy a


FOUFOEFSTVUFPSB
&SJLBXBTOPUHPJOHUPUSBWFMUP&OHMBOE &SJLBOPJCB
a viajar a Inglaterra). Este tiempo se basa en la conjugacin del verbo to be.

35
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Conditional tense
Tiempo Condicional
1BSBDPOTUSVJSFTUFUJFNQPTFVUJMJ[BVOBVYJMJBS XPVME FMDVBMTJFNQSF
debe ir antes del verbo; este auxiliar, en la frase, no tiene significado, su
misin es poner al verbo en tiempo condicional. En espaol el condicional
es cuando los verbos terminan en a, ejemplo: yo ira, Juan correra,
Susana leera, nosotros pintaramos.
La frmula para construir una oracin en condicional es la siguiente:

Pronombre personal + would +Verbo en presente + Complemento

*XPVMEHPUPUIFDJOFNBJG 5IFZ{EXPSLIFSFJG
)FMFOXPVMEXSJUFBQPFNJGw 8FXPVMETQFOEUIBUNPOFZJGw
)JTEPHXPVMECFJOUIFDPVOUSZ 0VSGSJFOETXPVMEJOWJUFVTJGw
)F{EMJLFUPESJOLBCFFS  :PVXPVMETJOHBTPOHJOUIF 
festival

Auxiliars: do, does, did, will, would


Do y dont se usan para interrogar y negar en tiempo presente, solo
QBSBMPTQSPOPNCSFTQFSTPOBMFT* ZPV XF UIFZ

Does y doesnt se usan para interrogar y negar en tiempo presente,


solo para los pronombres personales he, she, It.

Did y didnt se usan para interrogar y negar en tiempo pasado; se


usan con todos los pronombres personales.

Will y will not (wont) es un auxiliar que representa el tiempo futuro.


Lo usamos en las formas afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas. Se usa
con todos los pronombres personales.

Would y would not (wouldnt) es un auxiliar que representa el tiempo


condicional. Se usa en las formas afirmativas, interrogativas y negativas.
Sirve para todos los pronombres personales.

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Auxiliares anmalos y defectivos


Son auxiliares que tienen significado propio y representan un tiempo
nico.

May poder, para pedir permiso o autorizacin, solo en presente.

May I go to the cinema with you? Puedo ir al cine con ustedes?


May she speak now? Puede hablar ella ahora?

Might debera, expresa una posibilidad, una opcin, solo condicional.

He said that she might go that day El dijo que ella debera ir ese da

Can poder, para consultar una posibilidad o habilidad, solo en


presente.

Can you climb that mountain? Puedes escalar esa montaa?


Can he practice karate? Puede l practicar karate?

Could podra o pude, para consultar una posibilidad o habilidad,


pero solo se traduce para los tiempos pasado y condicional, va depender
del contexto.
En pasado indica que algo se pudo hacer pero que finalmente no se
hizo por ejemplo:

I could go with them to the party but I decided to stay at home.


Pude ir con ellos a la fiesta, pero decid permanecer en casa

Could they buy that beautiful car? Podran ellos comprar ese her-
moso auto?, Could you dance with her? Pudiste bailar con ella?

Must: debe, es algo obligatorio, imperativo, solo en presente.

They must pay taxes or theyll be prosecuted


Ellos deben pagar impuestos o sern procesados.

37
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Should: debera, para expresar obligaciones e indicar una accin


correcta, solo en tiempo condicional.

You shouldnt tell lies (duty). No deberas decir mentiras (oblig.).


They should eat more fruits (advise). Ellos deberan comer ms frutas.

Ought to: debera, para recordarle a alguien sus obligaciones o de-


beres, condicional.

You ought to obey your parents Deberas obedecer a tus padres.


He oughtnt to eat between meals. l no debera comer entre las comidas

Have to: variante del verbo to have. Significa tener que (obligatorio).

You have to study that theory. T tienes que estudiar esa teora.
They have to deliver the cards Ellos tienes que repartir las
on time tarjetas a tiempo.

To be able to: ser capaz de (cuando se logra un objetivo).

I was able to abandon the country before the war began.


Pude abandonar el pas antes que comenzara la guerra.
(la persona est hablando a salvo desde un pas neutral).

Forma interrogativa
Interrogative words
Cuando el verbo est siendo conjugado con un auxiliar, en forma afir-
mativa, negativa o interrogativa, el verbo debe ir siempre en infinitivo,
perdiendo la preposicin to.

What: Cuando se usa con el verbo to be, est preguntando el trabajo


o profesin que uno desempea: What are you? = Im gardener. Con los
dems verbos es para requerir informacin: What does she read? = She
reads poems.

Who: Con el verbo to be pregunta sobre nuestra identidad, nuestro


nombre. En presente y pasado no usa auxiliares; le sigue inmediatamente
el verbo; cuando se pregunta en presente, al verbo debe agregarse la s,

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

aunque la respuesta sea plural o no. Who speaks here? Who is he? En
QBTBEPXIPTQPLF 8IPEBODFEZFTUFSEBZ

Who With: Se usan separadamente; es para preguntar con quin


se realiza una accin. Ejemplo: Who do you go to the cinema with? Who
did you speak with? Who will she dance with, in the party? Who did they
fight with?
El orden para construir una frase interrogativa es el siguiente:

(INTERR.WORDS + AUXILIAR + PERSONAL P. + VERB + COMPLEMENT)

where : do : i : play : tennis?


when : must : : read : a book?
why : does : you : go : to usa?
what : should : : talk : german?
how : did : she : come : here?
how often : might : : get : a prize?
how long : will : he : give : a concert?
how many : ought to : : have : money?
how much : would : it : do : homeworks?
whom : : : work : everyday?
at what time : can : we : see : the film?
what for : : : buy : a new car?
which : coul : they : know : new boys?

At what time does he leave the flat, in the morning?


A qu hora deja l el departamento en la maana?

Why did we have to sell our books if they are still useful?
Por qu tuvimos que vender nuestros libros si an son tiles?

Can your friends work in those conditions?


Pueden tus amigos trabajar en esas condiciones?

Will you break our pact just because of her?


Rompers nuestro pacto slo por causa de ella?

How many problems do you solve everyday?


Cunto problemas resuelves todos los das?

39
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Would they like to come home and have a party?


Les gustara a ellos venir a casa y hacer una fiesta?

)PXPGUFOEPFTIFEJWFXIFOIFHPFTUPUIFCFBDI
Cun a menudo bucea l cuando va a la playa?

8IBUGPSEP*EPUIJTIPNFXPSLJG*EPO{UMJLFJU
Para qu hago este trabajo si no me gusta?

Tag Questions
Las tag questions es una forma gramatical que sirve para solicitar una
corroboracin o confirmacin de una afirmacin o negacin. Es una
estructura especial en ingls; es una frase que termina en una pregunta
corta. La frase completa se llama tag question, y la pregunta corta al final
de la frase se llama question tag.
Es muy comn en ingls. En espaol equivale a: no es cierto?, ver-
dad?, cierto?
En ingls se procede de la siguiente manera: cuando la frase princi-
pal est en forma afirmativa, la question tag se hace en forma negativa
y viceversa.
La estructura bsica es:

Positive statement Negative tag


4OPXJTXIJUF isnt it?

Negative statement, Positive tag


You dont like me, do you?

40
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Estudie estos ejemplos con frases afirmativas:

positive statement negative tag notes:

personal
main pronoun
subject auxiliary auxiliary not
verb (same as
subject)

You are coming, are nt you?

We have finished, have nt XF

You do like coffee, do nt you?

You like coffee, do nt you? You (do) like...

XPOU  XJMM
They XJMM help, XP nt they?
not

I can come, can t I?

We must go, must nt XF

He should try harder, should nt he?

You are English, are nt you? no auxiliary for


main verb be
John XBT there, XBT nt he? present & past

Estudie los siguientes ejemplos con frases negativas en la pgina 42:

41
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

negative statement positive tag

personal
main
subject auxiliary auxiliary pronoun
verb
(same as subject)

It is nt raining, is it?

We have never seen that, have XF

You do nt like coffee, do you?

They XJMM not help, XJMM they?

They XP nt report us, XJMM they?

I can never do it right, can I?

We must nt tell her, must XF

He should nt drive so fast, should he?

You are nt English, are you?

John XBT not there, XBT he?

Algunos casos especiales:

I am right, arent I? arent I (not amnt I)

You have to go, dont you? you (do) have to go...

I have beenBOTXFSJOH havent I? use first auxiliary

USFBU TUBUFNFOUT XJUI OPUIJOH  OPCPEZ FUD MJLF


Nothing came in the post, did it?
negative statements

LetsHP TIBMMXF lets = let us

Hed better do it, hadnt he? he had better (no auxiliary)

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Forma negativa
Para construir la forma negativa se deben usar los mismos auxiliares que
usamos en la forma interrogativa, pero en otra ubicacin, como veremos
en el siguiente esquema:

PERSONAL P. + AUXILIAR + NOT + VERB + COMPLEMENT

Ejemplos:

She does not (doesnt) speak french. Ella no habla francs.


I did not (didnt) dance with her. Yo no bail con ella.
We will not (wont) travel next week. No viajaremos la prxima
semana.

My friends can not (cant) climb that mountain.


Mis amigos no pueden escalar esa montaa.

Peter and Paul would not (wouldnt) bring their tools.


Peter y Paul no traeran sus herramientas.

43
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Perfect Tenses
Tiempos Perfectos
Los tiempos perfectos son aquellos que se construyen con la conjugacin
de dos verbos, donde uno de ellos trabaja como auxiliar y el otro como
verbo principal. En primer lugar trabajaremos con los tiempos perfectos,
para lo cual deberemos usar el verbo to have, pero no como tener, si no
como haber, usando el pasado participo del verbo principal.
Luego estudiaremos los tiempos continuos, donde usaremos el verbo
to be en combinacin con el gerundio del verbo principal.

Present Perfect Tense


Presente Perfecto
Como mencionamos anteriormente, usaremos el verbo to have como
auxiliar, en su significado haber, conjugado en presente. Y el verbo
principal ser conjugado en pasado participio (enviado, estudiado,
sido, ido, etc.). En espaol equivale a decir t has jugado cartas,
yo he visitado a un amigo. Si bien es cierto, la frase total se refiere a
una accin en tiempo pasado, se le denomina Presente Perfecto desde
un punto de vista gramatical ya que la conjugacin del verbo to have
va en ese tiempo.
El orden para conjugar este tiempo es:

PP + Verbo to have en presente + Verbo principal en pasado participio


+ Complemento

We have gone to Europe twice. Hemos ido a Europa dos veces.


He has understood the problem. l ha entendido el problema.

They have studied insects. Ellos han estudiado a los insectos.


You have had four cars. T has tenido cuatro autos.

She has changed her behavior. Ella ha cambiado su comportamiento


I have earned a lot of money. Yo he ganado mucho dinero.

44
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

It has been a good day. Ha sido un buen da.


Peter has drunk tequila. Pedro ha bebido tequila.

He has had two wives. El ha tenido dos esposas.


My family has travelled many times. Mi familia ha viajado muchas veces.

Past Perfect Tense


Pasado Perfecto
En este caso, como se puede ver, el nico cambio por realizar es el tiempo
del verbo to have; ahora debe ser conjugado en pasado; todo lo dems
se mantiene igual.
El orden para conjugar este tiempo es:

PP + Verbo to have en Pasado. + Verbo principal en pasado participio


+ Complemento

The cat had eaten fish El gato haba comido pescado.


Carol had had a gold ring. Carol haba tenido un anillo de oro.

We had been at the university. Habamos estado en la universidad.


You had paid him. T le habas pagado (a l).

I had built a beauty brigde. Yo haba construido un bello puente.

They had put the bread Ellos haban puesto el pan en la mesa.
on the table.

Formas Interrogativas y Negativas para los Tiempos Perfectos


Para la forma interrogativa de los tiempos perfectos se debe seguir la
siguiente estructura:

Verbo to have + PP + Verbo Principal en pasado participio + Complemento

Have you visited the Egypcian Has visitado la Pirmides


Pyramids? Egipcias?

Has she danced Flamenco? Ha bailado ella Flamenco?

45
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Had they gone to USA before? Haban ellos ido a USA antes?

Has Mary found her wallet? Ha Mary encontrado su billetera?

Have you spoken with your sister? Has hablado con tu hermana?

Had John read that book? Haba John ledo ese libro?
Forma Negativa de los Tiempos Perfectos

PP + Verbo to have + Not + Verbo Principal en pasado participio


+ Complemento

Mary has not (hasnt) painted Mary no ha pintado ese cuadro.


that picture.
You have not (havent) been T no has sido mi amigo.
my friend.

It has not (hasnt) been a No ha sido un buen regalo.


good gift.

We have not (havent) found it. No lo hemos encontrado.

I had not (hadnt) considered No los (las) haba considerado.


them.

They had not (hadnt) painted it. Ellos no lo (la) haban pintado.

46
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Continuous Tenses
Tiempos Continuos
Los tiempos continuos son aquellos que tambin se construyen con la
conjugacin de dos verbos, donde uno de ellos trabaja como auxiliar y
el otro como verbo principal. A diferencia del anterior, aqu usaremos
como verbo auxiliar al verbo to be, y al verbo principal lo conjugaremos
en gerundio (terminacin ing).

Present Continuous Tense


Presente Continuo
El verbo to be ser el verbo auxiliar y estar conjugado en presente; el
verbo principal debe estar en gerundio (ing). En espaol equivale a Yo
estoy bailando, Carolina est cocinando.
El orden para conjugar este tiempo es:

PP. + to be en presente + Verbo principal en gerundio + Complemento

The cat is eating. El gato est comiendo.


We are buying shoes. Estamos comprando zapatos.

He is painting the wall. l est pintando la pared.


He and Mary are walking. l y Mary estn paseando.

Her father is reading the paper. Su pap est leyendo el diario.


My friend is singing. Mi amigo est cantando.

Past Continuous Tense


Pasado Continuo
El verbo to be ser el verbo auxiliar y estar conjugado en pasado; el verbo
principal debe estar en gerundio (ing). En espaol equivale a Yo estaba
bailando, Carolina estaba cocinando.
El orden para conjugar este tiempo es:

PP. + to be en pasado + Verbo principal en gerundio + Complemento

The cat was eating. El gato estaba comiendo.


We were buying shoes. Estabamos comprando zapatos.
47
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

He was painting the wall. l estaba pintando la pared.


He and Mary were walking. l y Mary estaban paseando.

Her father was reading the paper. Su pap estaba leyendo el diario.
My friend was singing. Mi amigo estaba cantando.

Formas Interrogativas y Negativas para los Tiempos Continuos


Forma Negativa de los Tiempos Continuos

PP + Verbo to be + Not + Verbo principal en gerundio + Complemento

John is not (isnt) playing chess. Juan no est jugando ajedrez.


Your dog is not (isnt) sleeping. Tu perro no est durmiendo.
Her sister was not (wasnt) Su hermana (de ella) no estaba
reading leyendo

We were not (werent) running. No estbamos corriendo.

Forma Interrogativa de los Tiempos Continuos

Verbo to be + PP + Verbo principal en gerundio + Complemento

Are they building a new garage? Estn ellos construyendo un


garage nuevo?

Was Carol dancing with you? Estaba Carol bailando contigo?

Were you spelling his name? Estabas deletreando su (de l)


nombre?
Is he having lunch in that place? Est l almorzando en ese lugar?

48
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

La Hora
La expresin utilizada en ingls para preguntar la hora es la siguiente:
What time is it? o tambin Whats the time? (menos usual) = Qu hora es?

Para mecionar una hora (para una reunin, cita, etc):


See you at 4:30 this afternoon. (Te veo esta tarde a las 4:30).

En espaol decimos: Son las 15:00 horas.


En ingls decimos: Its 15:00 hours.

Aunque tambin existen otras posibilidades:

- Have you got the time?


- Could you tell me the time please?
- Would you mind telling me the time?
- Have you got the time on you?
- You wouldnt know the time, would you?
- Do you know the time?

Se utiliza am y pm en un lenguaje ms formal y normalmente escrito.


Ejemplo: Banks are open from 9:30 am to 2:30 pm.

Es ms normal decir: In the morning, In the afternoon, In the evening,


At night.

7:00 am = seven oclock in the morning.


2:15 pm = quarter past two in the afternoon, (two fifteen).
7:30 pm = half past seven in the evening, (seven and half).
11:00 pm = eleven oclock at night.

Oclock es una contraccin antigua que significa of the clock (del


reloj). El empleo actual equivale al espaol en punto (seven oclock =
siete en punto). Tambin existe la expresin We have the meeting at 16:00
sharp (Tenemos la reunin a las 16:00 en punto), pero sharp enfatiza ni
un minuto ms tarde.

49
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

oclock = en punto a quarter past... = y cuarto


half past... = y media a quarter to... = un cuarto para

TO PAST

12:00 = midday
24:00 = midnight
Cuando a la hora sigue una fraccin de minutos, si es inferior a 30 se
utiliza el adverbio past. Si es superior, se indican los minutos seguidos de
la preposicin to.

Its twenty past eleven / son las once veinte. Its ten to four / son diez
para las cuatro.
En los horarios oficiales se sigue el sistema internacional de divisin
del tiempo en 24 horas.
I left on the 15.30 train from London / Sal de Londres en el tren de
las 15:30.

50
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

La Fecha
En ingls se utilizan los nmeros ordinales (first, second, third, etc.) para
expresar las fechas, a diferencia del espaol en que se emplean los nmeros
cardinales (uno, dos, tres, etc.).
Today is the 2nd of June / hoy es 2 de junio
Para expresar los das utilizamos la preposicin on. En cambio, para
expresar meses o aos se utiliza la preposicin in.
You came on the 12th of May / viniste el 12 de mayo. You came in
May / viniste en mayo. You came in 2007 / viniste en 2007.
En ingls, a diferencia del espaol, los meses y los das se escriben
con mayscula.
March / marzo, Monday / lunes

Los das de la semana (weekdays) son:


Sunday / domingo, Monday / lunes, Tuesday / martes, Wednesday /
mircoles, Thursday / jueves, Friday / viernes, Saturday / sbado.

Los meses (months) del ao (year) son:


January / enero, February / febrero, March / marzo, April / abril,
May / mayo, June / junio, July / julio, August / agosto, September / septiembre
October / octubre, November / noviembre, December / diciembre.

Las estaciones del ao (seasons) son:


spring / primavera, summer / verano, autumn (U.K.) fall (USA) /
otoo, winter / invierno.

Normalmente, las fechas se escriben en el siguiente orden: mes / da / ao


June, 20th 1997 / 20 de junio de 2007, March, 3rd 2007 / 3 de marzo
de 2007.
Podemos omitir las letras de orden (-st, -nd, -rd, -th).
September 2, 2007 / 2 de septiembre de 2007.
Al igual que en espaol, las fechas pueden escribirse nicamente con
nmeros refiriendo mes, da y ao. En este caso, hay que tener presente
que el formato de fecha USA es mes/da/ao mientras que el formato de
fecha U.K. (Gran Bretaa) es, como en espaol, da/mes/ao.
20 de junio de 1999 (USA) = 2/16/2007 (UK) = 16/2/2007.

51
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Algunos otros trminos relacionados:


date = fecha, calendar = calendario, weekday = da de la semana,
weekend = fin de semana, working-day = da laborable, holiday = festivo
(holidays = vacaciones), day = da, month = mes, year = ao, yesterday
= ayer, tomorrow = maana, after tomorrow = pasado maana, before
yesterday = antes de ayer, next week = la prxima semana, next month =
el prximo mes, next year = el prximo ao.

Numbers
Los Nmeros
0 nought, zero -
1 one first
2 UXP second
3 three third
4 four fourth
5 five fifth
6 six sixth
7 seven seventh
8 eight eighth
9 nine ninth
10 ten tenth
11 eleven eleventh
12 UXFMWF UXFMGUI
13 thirteen thirteenth
14 fourteen fourteenth
15 fifteen fifteenth
16 sixteen sixteenth
17 seventeen seventeenth
18 eighteen eighteenth
19 nineteen nineteenth
20 UXFOUZ UXFOUJFUI
21 UXFOUZPOF UXFOUZSTU
30 thirty thirtieth
40 forty fortieth
50 fifty fiftieth
60 sixty sixtieth
70 seventy seventieth
80 eighty eightieth
90 ninety ninetieth
100 a/one hundred a/one hundredth
1.000 a/one thousand a/one thousandth
1.000.000 a/one million a/one millionth

52
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Particularidades de los adjetivos cardinales


a.) Podemos expresar el nmero cero de varias formas:
nought o naught, usado de forma genrica y en matemticas.
zero, usado normalmente para indicar la temperatura. Tambin en
matemticas:

Five degrees below zero / Cinco grados bajo cero.


ou (pronunciado: ou); en UK se usa para indicar los nmeros de
telfono, tarjetas de crdito, pasaporte, etc. (En USA es ms usual decir
zero para estos nmeros).
My telephone number is 01204 (ou - one - two - ou - four) = U.K.
(zero - one - two - zero - four) = USA.
nil, usado generalmente para indicar resultados de encuentros de-
portivos, como el ftbol y el rugby. En tenis se dice love por cero.
Spain beat France two-nil / Espaa gan a Francia dos a cero.

b.) Separamos con un guin las unidades que siguen a las decenas, a
partir del nmero 20

34 = thirty-four, 78 = seventy-eight.
Los nmeros entre 100 y 1000 unen las centenas y decenas con and.
247 = two hundred and forty-seven
Los miles pueden leerse como grupos de dos. Se incluye and si el valor
de la centena es menor de cien.
1.995 = nineteen ninety-nine, 1.020 = a thousand and twenty.

Particularidades de los adjetivos ordinales


Se forman aadiendo el sufijo -th al nmero, a excepcin de los 3 primeros
(first, second, third).
Se expresan de forma abreviada aadiendo a las cifras las dos ltimas
letras del ordinal:

1 = 1st, 2 = 2nd, 3 = 3rd, 4 = 4th, 5 = 5th.

53
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Nmeros fraccionarios y multiplicativos


Para expresar un nmero fraccionario nombramos el numerador como
nmero cardinal y el denominador como nmero ordinal.

2/3 = two thirds = dos tercios.


1/4 = one fourth (a quarter) = un cuarto.
Los nmeros multiplicativos son:

one, only = uno, single = uno solo, double = doble, treble = triple,
quadruple = cudruple, quintuple = quntuple, sixfold = seis veces (sxtuplo),
sevenfold = siete veces, eightfold = ocho veces, etc.

54
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Letter writing
(Reglas para redactar una carta de ndole informal)

The address appears at the top right-hand corner of the page. It is


called The Heading.

The order of the heading is as follows: the number of the house, the
name of the street, the town or city, the area, the country and the date.
Put country only when youre writing to someone who lives abroad.

14 Grafton St. 21 Brook St. Flat, 18 1327 West 18 Street


Croydon, Woodside, 2081, Raymond Apt 43A
Surrey, California, Road
&OHMBOE 64"-POEPO19/FX+FSTFZ
E76 NJ 10382
England United States
UI"QSJM wOE'FC w

&BDIMJOFPGUIFBEESFTTJTGPMMPXFECZBDPNNB5IFMBTUMJOFJTGP-
MMPXFECZBGVMMTUPQ8FEPOUQVUBDPNNBPSBGVMMTUPQBGUFSUIFEBUF

In the address we usually write St. for street,Rd for road,Sq


for square, ave for avenue, Pl for place; we write words like Lane
and Drive in full.

We dont always write the names of areas or postal districts in full


when writing the address. We sometimes write part of a name or only
capitals letters; Calif. for California; N.Y. for New York, etc.
We must write the date in full under the address. We can write the
date in two ways:
17th April, 20; or April 17th, 20. Numbers are written as follows:1st
(the first); 2nd (the second); 23rd (the third); 14th (the fourth), etc.
The date: the following months of the year are written in full: March,
April, May, June and July. The remaining months: Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept.,
Oct., Nov., Dec.

55
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

%JGGFSFODFTCFUXFFO#SJUJTIBOE"NFSJDBOXBZUPXSJUFEBUF

July 30th, 2012 July 30, 2012


20th July, 2012 20 July, 2012
20.7.12 7.20.12
England USA

Addressing the Envelope: the names and address must appear in


the middle. Titles are always used with names; Mr. James Bond or James
Bond Esq.(esquire); Miss H. Smith; Mrs D. Smith; Mr and Mrs J. Bond.

Most letters begin with the word Dear followed by a name. The
word Dear should be placed against the left hand margin:

24 Clayton Ave.
St. Albans,
Herts,
England.
4th June w
Dear Tom,

How to begin a letter:

Friends should be addressed by their first names: Dear Fred: Never


begin a letter with the words Dear Friend.

When writing to relations you may begin: Dear Mother, Dear Father,
Dear Uncle John, Dear Aunt Alice; but never Dear cousin or Dear Cousin
Tom.

If you are writing to a person you dont know very well, you should
begin as follows: Dear Mr Brown; Dear Miss Williams. Always put a
comma after the name.

Para comenzar: Para una sola persona que conoces:

My dear + Name Dear Mr Eliott,


Dearest + Name Dear Mrs Eliott,
Dear Miss Eliott,

56
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Para un hombre que no conoces: Para una mujer que no conoces


(soltera o casada):

Dear Sir, Dear Madam,

Para personas muy importantes: Para una empresa:

Sir, Dear Sirs,


Madam, Gentlemen,

In the first paragraph of your letter you should refer either to a letter
ZPVIBWFSFDFJWFEPSUPBOFWFOUXIJDIIBTQSPNUFEZPVUPXSJUF/PUF
XIFSFUIFSTUCFHJOT QBSBHSBQI


Dear Fred,
I was very pleased to learn that youre well.

Learn the following opening phrases by heart:

Im sorry it has taken me so long to write, but....


I was glad to hear from you at last and to learn that....
What a surprise it was to....
Forgive me for not writing earlier, but....
You will be glad to hear that....
Thank you for letting me know that....
I have not heard from you for some time, so....
It was very kind of you to....
You must be very annoyed with me for....
I have just heard that....
I really hate to complain, but....
Some time ago, I....
I have not forgotten that....
You will find it hard to believe, but....
Im afraid I....
I wonder how you learnt that....
You will never guess who/what....

A letter contains three main parts: the Introduction, the Purpo-


seandtheConclusion.

57
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

The most important part is the Purpose. Here you must explain why
youre writing.
FH*NBGSBJE*MMOPUCFBCMFUPDPNFXJUIZPVUPOFYU5IVSTEBZT
concert. I have had to change my plans because something quite unex-
pected has happened.

The conclusion: The last paragraph of a letter should take the form
of a polite wish. Learn the following phrases by heart:

Please give my love/regards to....


I hope you will be well again soon.
I shall be looking forward to hearing from/seeing you soon.
I hope you will soon settle down in your new (job, home).
Im very sorry for all the trouble this has caused you.
I wish you good luck/every succes in...

)PXUPFOEBMFUUFS4UVEZUIJTFYBNQMF
Im looking forward to see you soon.
Yours sincerely,
Tom

The Signature: How you sign your name depends on how well
youknowthe person youre writing to. You may use your full name, your
first name, or even a nickname. Your signature must be readable. It must
come under the letter-ending.
The Postscript: If you wish to add something to your letter after you
have finished it, you may do so under signature. Whatever you write must
be preceded by the letters P.S., which stand for Postscript.

Yours sincerely,
Tom

P.S. Ill send you a copy of the book by separate post.

58
Segunda Parte

En esta parte se aportarn nuevos conceptos gramaticales, ms avanza-


dos, pero imprescindibles para lograr un buen nivel de ingls intermedio-
avanzado, con un conocimiento de aproximadamente de unas 3.000 a
4.000 palabras.
No olvide estar siempre practicando tanto en la forma oral como la
escrita; facilita en gran medida el aprender nuevas estructuras, expresiones
idiomticas y por supuesto un vocabulario ms amplio.
Nuevamente les deseo mucho xito como as tambin constancia y
nunca desanimarse; si ya han alcanzado este segundo nivel, lo que viene
es solo prctica y ms prctica.
Tipos de Adverbios
El adverbio es una parte de la oracin cuya funcin principal consiste
en modificar, potenciar o complementar al verbo, del adjetivo o de otro
adverbio.

The teacher speaks slowly / El profesor habla despacio.

Los adverbios explican cmo ocurre una accin: slowly (despacio) nos
indica la forma en la que el profesor habla. Es por lo tanto un adverbio
de modo. Como veremos, existen varias clases de adverbios.

Clases de Adverbios
- De modo (adverbs of manner)
Expresan cmo se realiza una accin. La mayora suelen terminar en
-ly (equivale a la terminacin adverbial espaola -mente y por lo tanto
suelen formarse a partir del correspondiente adjetivo al que se agrega
dicha terminacin.

careful - carefully (cuidadosamente), easy - easily (fcilmente), etc.


Aunque existen excepciones:
well (bien), aloud (en voz alta), etc.

De lugar (adverbs of place)


Indican el lugar donde se realiza una accin:

around (alrededor), far (lejos), near (cerca), there (all), here (aqu), etc.

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

- De tiempo (adverbs of time)


Indican cuando tiene lugar una accin:

again (otra vez), at first (al principio), before (antes), soon (pronto),
late (tarde), etc.

- De frecuencia (adverbs of frequency)


Indican con qu frecuencia se realiza una accin:

always (siempre), frequently (frecuentemente), never (nunca), some-


times (algunas veces), etc.

- De cantidad (adverbs of quantity)


Expresan la cuanta de algo no siempre cuantificable:

little (poco), much (mucho), very (muy, mucho), too (demasiado), etc.

- De interrogacin (interrogative adverbs)


Se utilizan para hacer preguntas:

when? (cundo?), where? (dnde?), why? (por qu?), how?


(cmo?), etc.

- Relativos (relative adverbs)

when (cuando), where (donde), why (por que).

- Ordinales (ordinal adverbs)

firstly (en primer lugar), secondly (en segundo lugar), etc.

- De grado o intensidad (adverbs of degree)


Indican la intensidad de la accin:

completely (completamente), extremely (extremadamente), greatly


(grandemente), etc.

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Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

- De probabilidad (adverbs of probability)

maybe (quiz), perhaps (quiz, tal vez), possibly (posiblemente),


probably (probablemente), etc.

- De afirmacin (adverbs of affirmation)

certainly (ciertamente), naturally (naturalmente), of course (por


supuesto), surely (seguramente), etc.

- De negacin (adverbs of negation)

no, not (no), never (nunca), not at all (en absoluto).

La Comparacin de los Adverbios


La mayora de los adverbios comparativos y superlativos se forma con
more y most.

Can you drive more carefully, please? / Puedes conducir con ms


cuidado por favor?

Los adverbios que tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos; se forman
con er y est.

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Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Los ms usados son:

Fast, early, hard, long, near, high, low, soon, easy, slow, loud, quick.
They all play badly, but he plays worst of all / Todos juegan mal, pero l
es el que peor juega. She speaks slower (Informal) than Andy. / Ella habla
ms despacio que Andy. (Tambin se puede decir more slowly). Nobody
gets up earlier than Wally. Nadie se levanta ms temprano que Wally

Los comparativos y superlativos de superioridad


irregulares
Well bien Better mejor Best lo mejor
Badly mal Worse peor Worst lo peor
Late tarde Later ms tarde Latest lo ms tarde
Little poco Less menos Least lo menos
Much mucho More ms Most lo ms
Far lejos Further/farther ms lejos Farthest lo ms lejos
Tall alto Taller ms alto Tallest el ms alto

La Posicin del Adverbio


La posicin del adverbio depende de la funcin que desempea en la frase.
Existen tres posiciones normales para los adverbios:

- En medio de la frase (antes del verbo o formando parte del verbo).


She suddenly went away / Ella repentinamente se alej.

- Al final de la frase
She spoke suddenly / Ella habl repentinamente.

- Al principio de la frase
Suddenly she went away / Repentinamente ella se alej.

No todos los adverbios pueden ocupar distintas posiciones en la frase.


Depende de la forma del verbo y de la clase de adverbio.

64
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Adverbios de frecuencia
Normalmente se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo principal.

We have never seen Rome / Nunca hemos visto Roma.


Cuando la frase es interrogativa, el orden es:

Auxiliar + sujeto + adverbio + verbo principal


Have you ever seen New York? / Has visto alguna vez Nueva York?

- Siempre siguen al verbo to be, excepto en el imperativo


Im often in Madrid / A menudo estoy en Madrid.
Never be late! / Nunca llegues tarde!

Adverbios de tiempo y lugar


- Generalmente se colocan al final de la frase.
Im going to the cinema now / voy al cine ahora.

- Aunque tambin pueden ir al principio, dando ms nfasis:


Now, lets go to the stadium / Ahora, vmonos al estadio!

Existen muchas otras caractersticas al respecto de la posicin de de-


terminados adverbios, no obstante, aqu estn las ms frecuentes. Hay que
considerar que dichas normas nunca pueden seguirse con absoluta rigidez,
pues el orden y la posicin gramatical pueden alterarse dependiendo de
la funcin en la conversacin, nfasis en las frases, estilos literarios, etc.

Uso particular de algunos Adverbios


Fairly y rather. Ambos significan bastante; sin embargo, fairly se utiliza
generalmente con adjetivos y adverbios que tienen un sentido favorable
como good (bueno), well (bien), etc., mientras que rather se usa habitual-
mente con adjetivos con un sentido negativo como bad (malo). Rather es
tambin ms formal y se utiliza ms en ingls britnico.

Mary is fairly clever, but Eduard is rather stupid.


Mary es bastante lista, pero Eduard es ms bien estpido.

65
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Fairly y rather, al igual que los adverbios quite y pretty modifican


la intensidad de los adjetivos o adverbios a los que acompaan Pueden
tambin significar hasta cierto punto o no muy. Generalmente el
significado depende mucho de la entonacin.
Pretty es el ms expresivo. Se usa sobre todo en ingls hablado:

It was a pretty good day / Fue un da bastante divertido.

Cuando rather o pretty se usan con una cualidad positiva, le dan un


tono de entusiasmo a la expresin:

A rather good film. A pretty good film / Una pelcula muy buena.

En cambio, con una cualidad negativa, expresan desacuerdo:

Its rather expensive. Is pretty expensive. / Es ms bien caro.


Rather es el nico que puede utilizarse con comparativos o con too.
Adems, puede usarse rather con would + infinitivo para expresar pre-
ferencia:

Its rather smaller than we thought / Es bastante ms pequeo de lo


que pensbamos.
I would rather go home / Preferera irme a casa.

Quite, cuando va unido a un adjetivo que expresa una idea de plenitud,


se traduce como completamente; en cambio, cuando se utiliza con otros
adjetivos y adverbios rebaja el significado de los mismos.
This glass is quite full / Este vaso est completamente lleno.
(En ocasiones, el significado vara dependiendo de la pronunciacin. Si
quite es ms fuerte, significa lleno, pero no del todo. Sin embargo, si full
es ms fuerte, significa totalmente lleno).

This is quite a good film / Esta es una pelcula aceptablemente buena.

-Yet tiene en negativo el significado de an no, todava no y en


interrogativo el significado de ya. Se posiciona al final de la oracin:

Have you finished yet? / Has terminado ya?


I havent finished yet / An no he terminado.

66
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

- Hardly, barely y scarcely tienen un significado generalmente ne-


gativo. Se corresponde con las expresiones apenas, difcilmente, rara
vez, etc.

I hardly know him / Apenas le conozco.


There were scarcely two hundred / Apenas haba doscientas
people present personas.

- Still en afirmativo e interrogativo indica la continuidad de la accin.


En negativo resalta la idea de no haber comenzado la accin.

Are you still studying? / Ests todava estudiando?


Im still studying / An estoy estudiando.
He still isnt studying / Todava no est estudiando (y ya debera).

Observa la diferencia con:

He isnt studying yet / No est estudiando todava (y es lgico).

- Too (demasiado), que no conviene confundir con too (tambin).

This coffee is too hot for me / Este caf est demasiado caliente para m.

- Ever significa en forma interrogativa alguna vez, mientras que en


negativo tiene el significado de nunca (significado que tambin puede
adoptar en frases afirmativas).

Have you ever been to England? Has estado alguna vez en Inglaterra?
Nothing ever happens / Nunca pasa nada.
This is the best wine / Este es el mejor vino que
I have ever drunk he bebido nunca.

- Else tiene el significado de otro, ms y se utiliza con pronombres


interrogativos o con los indefinidos que combinan con some, any, no,
every y where.

Who else knows French? / Qu otra persona sabe francs?


Do you want anything else? / Quieres algo ms? (Alguna otra cosa?).

67
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Expresiones adverbiales

a long time ago, hace tiempo all at once, sbitamente


as soon as, tan pronto como at any rate, de todas formas
by and large, hablando
as far as, segn
generalmente
by far, con mucho by the way, a propsito
(every) now and then, de vez en
far better, mucho mejor
cuando
in so far as, en cuanto in the long run, a fin de cuentas
off hand, a primera vista off hand on, a ratos
on no account, de ninguna
of late, de poco tiempo a esta parte
manera
on purpose, intencionalmente on the whole, en suma
so as to, de manera que somehow or other, como sea
so far, hasta ahora so long as, mientras
sooner or later, tarde o temprano

Adverbios + Preposiciones
(Formas adverbiales idiomticas)
En ingls hay muchos adverbios que se unen con preposiciones para formar
expresiones adverbiales (expresiones formadas por un grupo de palabras
que equivalen a un solo adverbio); traducidas literalmente no tienen sen-
tido a veces, pero necesitamos conocer para comprender su significado.
Ejemplo de este tipo en espaol tenemos tambin muchos (tal vez, mas o
menos, de repente, a menudo, por las buenas, a manos llenas, etc.).
Algunos ejemplos de las ms significativas en ingls son:

A little beyond, un poco ms lejos Almost over, casi acabado


Along with, junto con All through, de principio a final
Altogether below, por debajo de Apart from, por otra parte

68
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Away from, lejos de Close upon, cerca de


Distinctly above, claramente por
Close beside, junto a
encima
Down to, hasta Far below, muy por debajo
Greatly to, grandemente Hard by, al lado mismo
Long after, mucho despus de Out of, por, a causa de
Shortly before, poco antes de Up to, hasta, al

69
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Verbos compuestos
ADD UP Totalizar ADD UP TO Alcanzar Un Total

ANSWER Contestar De Malos


ANSWER FOR Responder De
BACK Modos

Preguntar Por (Un Preguntar Por La


ASK ABOUT ASK AFTER
Asunto) Salud

Pedir Hasta (Un


ASK FOR Pedir, Preguntar Por ASK UP TO
Precio)

ASK BACK Invitar A Volver ASK DOWN Invitar A Bajar

ASK IN Invitar A Entrar ASK OUT Invitar A Salir

ASK UP Invitar A Subir

BACK AWAY Retroceder BACK OUT Volver Atrs

Estar Por (Un


BACK UP Reforzar BE ABOUT
Lugar)

BE AWAY Estar Fuera BE BACK Estar De Vuelta

BE FOR Estar A Favor De BE IN Estar En Casa

BE OFF Irse, Estar Apagado BE ON Estar Encendido

BE OUT Estar Fuera BE OVER Estar Acabado

BE UP Estar Levantado BEND DOWN Agacharse

BEND OVER Inclinarse BLOW AWAY Llevarse (El Viento)

Derrumbarse Por El Dejar Salir (El


BLOW DOWN BLOW OFF
Viento Vapor)

Apagar (Se) (Una Volar (Con


BLOW OUT BLOW UP
Llama) Explosivos)

BREAK
BREAK AWAY Soltarse Derruir, Averiarse
DOWN

Irrumpir, Romper (Se)


BREAK IN BREAK OFF
Interrumpir (Relaciones)

Terminar El Curso Estallar (Una


BREAK UP BREAK OUT
O Una Relacin Guerra)

BRING
BRING BACK Devolver Acarrear
ABOUT

BRING BRING
Traer (Consigo) Derribar, Rebajar
ALONG DOWN

70
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Hacer Salir,
BRING IN Hacer Entrar BRING OUT
Publicar

BRING UP Criar, Educar BRUSH OFF Quitar El Polvo

Consumirse (El Derrumbarse (Por


BURN AWAY BURN DOWN
Fuego) El Fuego)

Consumirse (El Consumirse (Por El


BURN OUT BURN UP
Fuego) Fuego)

Comprar Por O
BUY FOR BUY OVER Sobornar
Para

BUY UP Acaparar

Hacer una visita,


CALL AT CALL AWAY Seguir llamando
hacer escala

Llamar (a alguien)
CALL BACK CALL FOR Pedir a voces, exigir
para que regrese

Llamar (a alguien)
CALL IN CALL ON Ir a ver (a alguien)
para que entre

Pasar lista,
CALL OUT Gritar CALL OVER
enumerar

Llamar (a alguien)
CALL UP Telefonear CALL DOWN
para que baje

CARRY
Persuadir CARRY OFF Llevarse a la fuerza
ALONG

CARRY ON Continuar CARRY OUT Llevar a cabo

CLEAR AWAY Dispersar (se) CLEAR OFF Marcharse

Aclararse (el
CLEAR OUT Marcharse CLEAR UP
tiempo,un misterio)

CLOSE
Cerrar CLOSE UP Acercarse
DOWN

COME COME
Suceder Encontrarse con
ABOUT ACROSS

COME Acompaar, venir


COME AT Embestir
ALONG por (la calle)

COME AWAY Desprenderse COME DOWN Bajar

Venir por (en busca


COME FOR COME FROM Venir de
de)

71
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

COME IN Entrar COME OFF Desprenderse

Vamos! (en
COME ON COME OUT Salir
imperativo)

Ascender (una
COME TO COME UP Subir
suma), volver en s.

COME UP TO Acercarse a COUNT IN Incluir

COUNT ON Contar con COUNT UP Calcular

COUNT UP
Contar hasta CRY FOR Pedir llorando
TO

CRY OUT Llorar a gritos CRY OVER Lamentarse

Reducir gastos,
CRY TO Llamar a gritos CUT DOWN
talar

CUT IN Interrumpir CUT OFF Separar de un tajo

CUT Acortar por un


CUT OUT Recortar, omitir
THROUGH atajo

CUT UP Trinchar, triturar

DIE AWAY Cesar poco a poco DIE DOWN Apaciguarse

DIE OUT Extinguirse DO UP Abrochar

DO Pasarse sin (carecer


DRAW AWAY Alejarse
WITHOUT de)

DRAW BACK Retroceder DRAW DOWN Bajar

Economizar,
DRAW IN DRAW OFF Apartarse
encoger (se)

Aproximarse, Sacar, redactar,


DRAW ON DRAW OUT
retirar fondos alargarse (el da)

Ahuyentar, alejarse
DRAW UP Para (un vehculo) DRIVE AWAY
en coche

DRIVE BACK Rechazar DRIVE BY Pasar en coche

Entrar en coche, Salir en coche,


DRIVE IN DRIVE OUT
introducir expulsar

Alejarse en coche,
DRIVE OFF
ahuyentar

EAT AWAY Erosionar EAT INTO Roer

EAT UP Devorar

72
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Disminuir,
FALL DOWN Caerse FALL OFF
desprenderse

FALL OVER Tropezar FIGHT OFF Ahuyentar

Luchar
FIGHT ON Seguir luchando FIGHT UP
valerosamente

FILL IN Rellenar FILL UP Rellenar, llenar

Arreglar (un
FIND OUT Averiguar FIX UP
asunto)

Volar de un lado a
FLY ABOUT FLY AT Atacar
otro

FLY AWAY Huir volando FLY DOWN Descender

FLY OFF Desprenderse

GET ABOUT Ir de ac para all GET ALONG Hacer progreso

GET AT Dar a entender GET AWAY Escaparse

GET BACK Volver, recuperar GET DOWN Descender

GET IN /
GET TO Llegar a Entrar, meterse
INTO

GET OUT
Salir, apearse GET OFF Apearse, bajarse
(OF)

GET ON Subirse, progresar GET OUT Producir, salir

Saltar por encima, GET


GET OVER Abrirse camino
recobrarse THROUGH

GET UP Levantarse GIVE AWAY Repartir, denunciar

Despedir (humo,
GIVE BACK Devolver GIVE OFF
olor)

GIVE OUT Agotarse, repartir GIVE UP Entregar, rendirse

Ir de un lado para
GO ABOUT GO ALONG Ir a lo largo de
otro

GO AT Atacar GO AWAY Marcharse

GO BY Pasar por GO DOWN Bajar

GO IN / INTO Entrar GO OFF Explotar, marcharse

Salir, pasarse de
GO ON Continuar GO OUT
moda, apagarse

73
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

GO
GO OVER Repasar Penetrar, sufrir
THROUGH

GO UP Subir GO UP TO Acercarse a

GO
GO ACROSS Atravesar Pasarse sin
WITHOUT

HANG
Vagar HANG BACK Retraerse
ABOUT

HANG
Quedarse atrs HANG FROM Colgar de
BEHIND

HANG OFF Colgar (el telfono) HANG UP Colgar (un cuadro)

HOLD BACK Detener HOLD ON Continuar

HURRY
HOLD OUT Resistir Darse prisa
ALONG

HURRY AWAY Irse rpidamente HURRY OFF Irse rpidamente

HURRY UP Darse prisa

JUMP ABOUT Dar saltos JUMP AT Atacar

JUMP DOWN Bajar de un salto JUMP IN Entrar de un salto

Saltar por encima


JUMP ON Subir de un salto JUMP OVER
de

Mantenerse
KEEP AWAY Mantenerse alejado KEEP BACK
separado

KEEP DOWN Controlar KEEP OFF Abstenerse

Mantenerse de pie, KNOCK


KEEP UP Golpear ac y all
resistir ABOUT

KNOCK
KNOCK AT Llamar (a la puerta) Derribar
DOWN

Dejar fuera de
KNOCK OUT
combate

LOOK AFTER Cuidar LOOK AT Mirar

LOOK
Mirar atrs LOOK DOWN Mirar abajo
BEHIND

LOOK
LOOK FOR Buscar FORWARD Anhelar
TO

LOOK IN Mirar dentro LOOK LIKE Parecer

74
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Mirar por encima


LOOK OUT Mirar fuera LOOK OVER
de

LOOK Mirar arriba,


Mirar alrededor LOOK UP
ROUND buscar

MOVE
MOVE AWAY Alejarse Pasar, no detenerse
ALONG

Mudarse (de
MOVE DOWN Bajar MOVE IN
domicilio)

No detenerse, pasar
MOVE OFF Marcharse MOVE ON
a (otro asunto)

Mudarse (de Moverse (para dejar


MOVE OUT MOVE UP
domicilio) sitio)

PASS AWAY Fallecer PASS BY Pasar por (un sitio)

Pasar (de mano en


PASS IN Entrar PASS ON
mano)

PAY FOR Pagar PAY IN Ingresar (dinero)

Liquidar (una
PAY OFF PAY UP Pagar (una deuda)
cuenta), pagar

POINT AT Sealar POINT AWAY Sealar a lo lejos

POINT
POINT TO Sealar Sealar abajo
DOWN

POINT OUT Destacar POINT UP Sealar arriba

PULL AWAY Arrancar PULL DOWN Derribar

PULL OFF Arrancar PULL OUT Sacar

PULL UP Parar (un vehculo) PUT AWAY Poner a un lado

PUT BACK Poner en su sitio PUT DOWN Anotar, bajar (algo)

PUT IN Meter, instalar PUT OFF Posponer

Ponerse (una
PUT ON PUT OUT Apagar, sacar
prenda)

Subir (algo),
PUT UP PUT UP WITH Soportar
alojarse

Correr de ac para Encontrarse con,


RUN ABOUT RUN ACROSS
all atravesar corriendo

Pararse (un reloj),


RUN DOWN RUN IN Entrar corriendo
enfermar

75
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

RUN OFF Escapar corriendo RUN OUT Salir corriendo

RUN OVER Atropellar RUN UP Subir corriendo

SEE ABOUT Indagar SEE OFF Despedir (a alguien)

SEE TO Encargarse de SEND ALONG Despachar

SEND DOWN Bajar (algo) SEND FOR Enviar por

Despachar,despedir
SEND OFF SEND ROUND Circular
(trabajadores)

SEND UP Subir (algo) SET ABOUT Ponerse (a trabajar)

Partir (para un
SET DOWN Asentar, colocar SET OFF
viaje)

Callarse, cerrar
SHUT IN Encerrar SHUT UP
(una tienda)

Incorporarse,
SIT DOWN Sentarse SIT UP
sentarse erguido

Presentarse (a un
SIT FOR SPEAK FOR Hablar a favor de
examen)

SPEAK TO Hablar con SPEAK UP Hablar en alta voz

STAND BY Quedarse cerca STAND OFF Mantenerse alejado

STAND OUT Destacar STAND UP Ponerse de pie

Permanecer al lado
STAY AT Hospedarse STAY BY
de

Quedarse fuera de
STAY IN Quedarse en casa STAY OUT
casa

STEP ACROSS Atravesar STEP DOWN Bajar

STEP IN Entrar STEP OUT Salir

Acercarse a
STEP UP Subir STEP UP TO
(alguien)

STOP BY Quedarse al lado de STOP IN Quedarse en casa

Empastar (una
STOP UP muela), tapar (una
botella)

Escribir al dictado, Tomar por


TAKE DOWN TAKE FOR
bajar (algo) (equivocarse)

76
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Quitarse (una
TAKE IN Engaar, meter TAKE OFF
prenda), despegar

TAKE OUT Sacar, quitar TAKE TO Llevar a

TAKE UP Subir (algo) TALK ABOUT Hablar acerca de

TALK OF Hablar de TALK TO Hablar con

TEAR AWAY Quitar (rasgando) TEAR OFF Separar (rasgando)

Hacer pedazos THROW Tirar (algo


TEAR UP
(rasgando) AWAY inservible)

THROW THROW
Devolver Tirar hacia abajo
BACK DOWN

THROW IN Tirar hacia adentro THROW OFF Echar fuera

THROW OUT Arrojar THROW UP Tirar hacia arriba

Probarse una
TRY ON TURN AWAY Mirar a otro lado
prenda

TURN BACK Darse la vuelta TURN DOWN Poner boca abajo

Apagar (la luz), Encender (la luz),


TURN OFF TURN ON
cerrar (una llave) abrir (una llave)

Volcar, poner boca


TURN OUT Apagar TURN OVER
abajo

TURN INTO Convertirse TURN UP Llegar

WALK Andar de ac para WALK


Andar por
ABOUT all ALONG

WALK AWAY Alejarse andando WALK DOWN Bajar

WALK IN Entrar WALK OFF Marcharse

WALK UP Subir WORK OUT Calcular

WORK Trabajar a las WRITE


Anotar
UNDER rdenes de DOWN

77
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

If clause
When If is used means that an event can or might occur; it will happen
depending on a condition. Sometimes these events are highly probable.
Here tenses change as follow:

If + present = future If I buy that car, I will invite


you to see it.
If + past = conditional If she lost her job, she would
go abroad.
If + past perfect = perfect If you have lost your job, you
conditional would have gone to Brazil.

If you were in my situation youd would act different.


They will have a lot of money, If they work hard.
If I were tired, I would go to bed.
If you knew me better, you wouldnt say that.

It takes
You use IT TAKES to mention the time requiered to carry out an action.
Read the next examples:

Present
It takes me 20 minutes to have breakfast.
%PFTJUUBLFZPVNJOVUFTUPXBTIZPVSDBS
No, it doesnt take me.
No, it doesnt it; it takes me 20 minutes to have breakfast.

Past
It took me 2 hrs to read this book.
Did it take you 1 hr to read this book?
No, it didnt take me.
No, it didnt take it, it took me 2 hrs to read this book.

78
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Future
It will take us 3 hrs to drive up to Curic.
Will it take you 3 hrs to drive up to Curic?
Yes, it will take us 3 to drive up ti Curic.
No, it wont take us 3 to drive up to Curic.

How Long
)PXMPOHEPFTJUUBLFZPVUPTIBWF
It takes me 5 minutes to shave.

)PXMPOHEJEJUUBLFZPVUPTIBWF ZFTUFSEBZ
It took me 5 minutes to shave, yesterday.

Direct and indirect speech


There are two ways of relating what a person has said. In Direct Speech
we repeat the original speakers exact words. He said, I have lost my
umbrella.
In Indirect speech we give the exact meaning of a speech, without
using the speakers exact words. He said that he had lost his umbrella.
When you change from direct speech into the another; tense changes
necessary. See:

Direct Speech Indirect Speech

Future to conditional
Future continuous to conditional continuous
Simple present to simple past
Present continuous to past continuous
Present perfect to past perfect
Pte.perfect continuous to past perfect continuous

79
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

La voz pasiva (passive voice)


En esencia, la voz pasiva es una forma de describir un acontecimiento
donde el pronombre personal ya no es el que comienza la frase; es el
sustantivo el que ejecuta al verbo.
En ingls, es necesaria la presencia del verbo to be ms un participio
pasado. Ejemplos: It is built; It was held; It was being done. El espaol
posee una forma parecida en fue construido, fue/era enviado, pero el
continuo estaba siendo hecho puede sonar extrao al odo espaol (aun-
que se puede escuchar esta construccin en algunos pases.). El espaol
suele preferir el uso de se para formar la pasiva: se construye, se deca,
se estaba haciendo.

Ejemplos:

Activa: He gave her some flowers (El le dio a ella unas flores).
Pasiva: Some flowers were given to her by him (Unas flores le fueron
dadas a ella)

Activa: The police could watch the thieves through binoculars. (La
polica poda observar a los ladrones por los binoculares).
4VKFUP DPVME JOOJUJWP DPOEJDJPOBMEFAXBUDI
 DPNQMFNFOUP

Pasiva: The thieves could be watched through binoculars (Los ladrones


podan ser observados a travs de los binoculares por la polica).
Nuevo sujeto + could + infinitivo del verbo be (condicional de be) +
past participle

Una seleccin de las posibles variaciones de la pasiva inglesa y su


traduccin en espaol se indican a continuacin:

es enviado - se enva - it is sent


fue enviado - se envi - it was sent
era enviado - se enviaba - it was (or, it used to be) sent
ser enviado - se enviar - it will be sent
sera enviado - se enviara - it would be sent
ha sido enviado - se ha enviado - it has been sent
haba sido enviado - se haba enviado - it had been sent
habr sido enviado - se habr enviado - it will have been sent

80
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

habra sido enviado - se habra enviado - it would have been sent


est siendo enviado - est envindose - it is being sent
estaba siendo enviado - estaba envindose - it was being sent
estar siendo enviado - estar envindose - it will be being sent
estara siendo enviado - estara envindose - it would be being sent

The passive voice is formed by putting the verb to be into the same
tense as the active verb and adding the past participle of the active verb.
(La voz pasiva se forma colocando el verbo to be en el mismo tiempo en
que est el verbo activo y agregando el pasado participio del verbo activo
o principal).

Simple Present Tense


He delivers a letter.
A letter is delivered by him.

Simple Past
He delivered a letter.
"MFUUFSXBTEFMJWFSFECZIJN

Future
She will buy a dress.
A dress will be bought by her.

Presente Perfect Tense


She has read a book.
A book has been read by her.

Past Perfect Tense


She had read a book.
A book had been read by her.

Conditional
4IFXPVMEDMFBOUIFDBSQFU
"DBSQFUXPVMECFDMFBOFECZIFS

81
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Mixed Conditional
4IFXPVMEIBWFDMFBOFEUIFDBSQFU
"DBSQFUXPVMEIBWFCFFODMFBOFECZIFS

Simple Present Tense (Passive Voice)


A picture is stolen.
The house is painted.
The girl is loved.
"XPSLJTOJTIFE

Simple Past
"CPPLXBTSFBE
"EPPSXBTLOPDLFE
5IFUIJFGXBTQSPDFTTFE

Future
"TVJUXJMMCFCPVHIU
5IFQJDUVSFTXJMMCFTIPXFE
"SBEJPXJMMCFSFQBSBUFE
"CFHHBOXJMMCFIFMQFE
"IPVTFXJMMCFCVJMU

Perfect Tense (Present)


A book has been read.
A carpet has been dirtied.
5IFXBMMIBTCFFOQBJOUFE
The glass has been broken.

Past Perfect Tense


"XBUDIIBECFFOJNQPSUFE
The police dog had been bought.
5IFDPNQFUJUJPOTIBECFFOXPO
5IFXJOEPXIBECFFOCSPLFO

82
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Conditional
"LJUDIFOXPVMECFDMFBOFE
"XBUDIXPVMECFTUPMFO
5IFNBOXPVMECFEJFE
5IFCPPLXPVMECFSFBE
5IFXPSLXPVMECFOJTIFE

English idioms
1. To get on : (to enter, board)
2. to get off: (to leave, descend from)
3. to put on: (to place on oneself- said particulary of clothes)
4. to take off: (to remove said also of clothes)
5. to call up: (to telephone)
6. to turn on: (to start, begin)
7. to turn off: (to stop, terminate, extinguish)
 SJHIUBXBZ JONFEJBUFMZ BUPODF WFSZTPPO

 UPQJDLVQ UPUBLFmFTQFDJBMMZXJUIUIFOHFST

BUPODF JONFEJBUFMZ WFSZTDPO SJHIUBXBZ

11. to get up: (to arise, to change from a lying position)


12. at first: (originally, in the first instance)
UPXBJUGPS UPFYQFDU BXBJU

14. to last: (finally)


BTVTVBM BTBMXBZT DVTUPNBSJMZ

16. to find out: (to get information, discover, learn)


UPMPPLBU UPEJSFDUUIFFZFTUPXBSE XBUDI

18. to look for: (to search for, seek)


19. all right: (satisfactory, correct)
20. right here,
right there,
 SJHIUOPX FUD FYBDUMZIFSF FYBDUMZUIFSF

MJUUMFCZMJUUMF HSBEVBMMZ CZEFHSFFT TMPXMZ

22. tired cut: (estremely tired)


23. to call on: (to visit)
24. never mind: (do not mind, do not pay any attention to it)
25. to pick out: (to choose, select)
26. to take one
 UJNF  UPXPSLPSHPMFJTVSFMZ OPUUPIVSSZ

27. to talk over: (to dismuss, consider)

83
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

UPMJFEPXO UPSFBMJOF UBLFBMZJOHQPTJUJPO

29. to start up: (to rise, take a upright or standing position after
being seated)
UPTJUEPXO UPUBLFBTJUUJOHQPTJUJPOBGUFSTUBOEJOH

31. all day long: (the entire day, continuosly through the day)
32. by oneself: (alone)
33. on pupose: (purposely, intentionally)
34. to get along: (to do, suceed, make progress)
35. to make no
difference : ( to be of equal importance)
36. to take out: (to remove, extract)
37. to take part: (participate)
38. att all: (in any degree, in the least generally
used only a)
39. look up: (to search for- especially in a dictionary
   PSDBUBMPHVFXIFSFPOFNVTUUVSOPWFSQBHFT

UPXBJUPO
(upon): (to serve, attend to in a store or shop)
41. at least: (in the minimun)
42. so far: (up to the present time)
UPUBLFBXBML UPHPGPSBXBML QSPNFOBEF

UPUBLFBTFBU UPTJUEPXO

45. to try on: (to test, try before buying- said only of clothes)
46. to think over: (to consider carefully before deciding)
47. to take place: (to happen, occur)
UPQVUBXBZ UPTFUBTJEF SFUVSOTPNFUIJOHUPJUTQSPQFSQMBDF

UPTIBLFIBOET UPFYDIBOHFHSFFUJOHTXJUIBDMBTQPGUIFIBOET

50. to look out: (to be careful)


51. to get back: (to return)
UPDBUDIDPME UPCFDPNFTJDLXJUIBDPME

53. to make up
ones mind: (to decide)
54. to change
ones mind: (to alter ones decision or opinion)
55. for the time
being: (for the present, temporarily)
56. to get over: (to recover from)
57. to call of: (to cancel)
58. for good: (permanently, forever)

84
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

59. in a hurry: (hurried, in a rush)


60. to hang up: (to place upon a hook)
61. to leave out: (to omit)
62. to count on: (to depend upon)
UPNBLFGSJFOET UPXJOPSBHBJOGSJFOET

PVUPGPSEFS OPUJOXPSLJOHDPOEJUJPO

65. to put out: (to extinguish)


66. all of e sudden: (suddenly)
67. to get better,
 XPSTF FUD UPCFDBNFCFUUFS XPSTF FUD

68. to get sick,


 XFMM UJSFE XFU 
 CVTZ FUD UPCFDPNFTJDL XFMM DPOTUSVDUJPO

69. to figure out: (to calculate, to study carefully in order


to understand)
70. to put off: (to postpone)

Falsos Cognados
Se denomina falso cognado a aquella palabra en ingls que, en su forma
escrita, tiene una gran similitud con una en espaol, pero que su significado
es muy diferente. Por ejemplo, la palabra exit, en ingls, es muy parecida
a la palabra xito, en espaol, sin embargo exit significa salida y la
palabra xito en ingls se escribe success. Estudie los siguientes casos:

an abstract: resumen (y no abstracto)


actual: real, efectivo (y no actual, que se dice current)
actually: en realidad (y no actualmente, que se dice nowadays, at present)
to advertise: anunciar (y no advertir, que se dice to warn)
advice: consejos (y no aviso, que se dice warning, notice)
to apologise: pedir disculpas (y no apologa, que se dice defence)
apt: propenso (y no apto, que se dice qualified, able)
argument: discusin, pelea (y no argumento de un libro/una pelcula,
que se dice plot)
arena: estadio, plaza de toros (y no arena, que se dice sand)
arm: brazo (y no arma, que se dice gun)
army: ejrcito (y no arma, que se dice navy)
assessment: evaluacin (y no asesora, que se dice consultancy)
to assist: ayudar (y no asistir a un lugar, que se dice to attend)
to attain: lograr, conseguir (y no atar, que se dice to tie)

85
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

attendance: asistencia (y no atencin, que se dice attention)


avocado: aguacate (y no abogado, que se dice lawyer)
balloon: globo (y no baln, que se dice ball)
bank: banco - la institucin (y no banco de plaza, que se dice bench)
billet: acuartelamiento, alojamiento militar (y no billete, que se dice
ticket o note)
billion: mil millones (y no billn, que se dice trillion)
brave: valiente (y no bravo, que se dice fierce)
camp: base militar o campamento (y no campo en general, que se dice field)
carpet: alfombra (y no carpeta, que se dice folder)
cartoon: dibujos animados, tira cmica (y no cartn, que se dice
cardboard)
casualty: vctima o herido (y no casualidad, que se dice coincidence)
cellular: celular, relativo a la clula (y no telfono celular, que se dice
mobile telephone)
collar: cuello de las prendas de vestir (y no collar, que se dice necklace)
college: facultad, colegio universitario (y no colegio, que se dice school)
command: orden, mandato (y no comando, que se dice commando unit)
commodity: mercanca o materia prima (y no comodidad, que se dice
comfort)
to complain: quejarse (y no complacer, que se dice to please)
complexion: tez, tono de la piel (y no complexin, que se dice body type)
conductor: director de orquesta o cobrador (y no conductor, que se
dice driver)
confident: seguro de s mismo (y no confidente, que se dice confidant)
(to be) constipated: sufrir de estreimiento (y no estar constipado, que
se dice to have a cold/chill)
council: consejo (y no conciliar, que se dice to reconcile)
curse: maldicin (y no curso, que se dice course)
date: fecha (y no dato, que se dice a piece of information o data)
deception: engao (y no decepcin, que se dice disappointment)
dessert: postre (y no desierto, que se dice desert)
dinner: cena (y no dinero, que se dice money)
diversion: desviacin (y no diversin, alegra, que se dice fun)
dramatic: drstico, espectacular
economics: economa (y no econmicos, que se dice cheap)
embarrassed: avergonzado/a (y no embarazada, que se dice pregnant)
eventual: definitivo o posible (y no eventual, que se dice casual,
incidental)

86
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

eventually: finalmente, tarde o temprano (y no eventualmente que se


dice by chance, possibly)
exit: salida (y no xito, que se dice success)
fabric: tela (y no fbrica, que se dice factory)
familiar: conocido, familiar (adjetivo) (y no pariente, familiar
(sustantivo), que se dice relative)
form: formulario (y no forma, que se dice shape)
fume: vapor o gas (y no fumar, que se dice smoke)
gracious: corts (y no gracioso, que se dice funny)
grocery: tienda de comestibles (y no grosera, que se dice rudeness o
rude word/expression)
horn: cuerno (y no horno, que se dice oven)
idiom: modismo, locucin (y no idioma, que se dice language)
inhabitant: habitante (y no inhabitado, que se dice uninhabited)
intoxicated: ebrio (y no intoxicado, que se dice with food poisoning)
involve: involucrar (y no envolver, que se dice wrap)
large: grande (y no largo, que se dice long)
lecture: conferencia (y no lectura, que se dice reading)
lentil: lenteja (y no lentilla, que se dice contact lens)
letter: letra del abecedario o carta (y no letra de una cancin, que se
dice lyrics)
library: biblioteca (y no librera, que se dice bookshop)
luxury: lujo (y no lujuria, que se dice lust)
mayor: alcalde (y no mayor, que se dice bigger)
media: medios (y no media, que se dice sock)
misery: tristeza (y no miseria, que se dice poverty)
to molest: abusar sexualmente (y no molestar, que se dice to bother o
to annoy)
notice: nota, anuncio (y no noticia, que se dice a piece of news)
occurrence: aparicin (y no ocurrencia, que se dice absurd idea)
office: oficina (y no oficio, que se dice trade o job)
once: una vez (y no once, que se dice eleven)
oration: discurso ceremonial (y no oracin, que se dice sentence o prayer)
ordinary: comn (y no vulgar, que se dice vulgar)
pan: cacerola, cazuela (y no pan, que se dice bread)
parade: desfile (y no pared, que se dice wall)
parents: padres (y no parientes, que se dice relatives)
policy: poltica (y no polica, que se dice police)
politic: diplomtico, corts o prudente (y no poltico, que se dice politician)

87
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

preservative: conservante (y no preservativo, que se dice condom)


to quit: abandonar, dejar (y no quitar, que se dice to remove o to put away)
recollection: recuerdo (y no recoleccin, que se dice harvest o collection)
regular: de tamao normal (y no regular, que se dice bad, not so good)
rude: maleducado, descorts (y no rudo, que se dice rough)
to realize: darse cuenta (y no realizar, que se dice to make)
to record: grabar (y no recordar, que se dice to remember)
to remove: quitar, eliminar (y no remover, que se dice to stir)
to resume: reanudar, continuar o reasumir (y no resumir, que se dice
to summarize o to sum up)
salad: ensalada (y no salado, que se dice salty)
sane: cuerdo (y no sano, que se dice healthy)
sensible: sensitivo (y no sensible, que se dice sensitive)
sensitive: sensible (y no sensitivo, que se dice sensible)
signature: firma (y no asignatura, que se dice subject)
sin: pecado (y no sin, que se dice without)
spade: pala (y no espada, que se dice sword)
success: xito (y no suceso, que se dice event)
to support: apoyar (y no soportar, que se dice to put up with)
sympathy: compasin, comprensin, psame (y no simpata, que se
dice friendliness, affection)
target: objetivo (y no tarjeta, que se dice card)
tax: impuesto (y no taxi, que se dice taxi)
terrific: fenomenal, genial (y no terrorfico, que se dice terrifying)
to traduce: calumniar (y no traducir, que se dice to translate)
to translate: traducir (y no trasladarse, que se dice to move)
tramp: vagabundo (y no trampa, que se dice trap)
ultimate: final (y no ltimo, que se dice last)
umpire: rbitro (y no imperio, que se dice empire)
zealous: entusiasta (y no celoso, que se dice jealous)

88
Tercera parte

El ingls puesto en prctica

En esta tercera parte aplicamos y practicamos el ingls que hemos estado


estudiando todo este tiempo: siga las instrucciones dadas al comienzo de
cada unidad para lograr buenos resultados y, lo ms importante, nunca
deje de practicar el ingls, en sus tres formas, escrita, hablada y auditiva.
Si usted no lo practica, muy pronto se dar cuenta que ha perdido un gran
porcentaje de lo aprendido y tendr que volver a empezar.
Manual de conversacin en ingls
Primera Unidad
Aqu usted deber no solo aprender los significados de cada forma de
interaccin, si no tambin pronunciarlos apropiadamente; para ello, la-
las en voz alta tantas veces como sea necesario hasta conseguir el acento,
enfasis y fluidez adecuados.

Hello, es la forma de saludo ms comn entre conocidos.

Good morning! Buenos das!


Good afternoon! Buenos das! (despus de las doce).
Good evening! Buenas tardes!
Good bye! Adis!
Good night! Buenas noches! Solo de despedida.
)PXBSFZPV   2VUBMFTUT
Please! Por favor!
Thank you! Gracias!
Yes. S.
Yes, please! S, por favor!
No. No.
Nothing. Nada.
No, thank you. No, gracias.
That`s enough. Es suficiente.
I beg your pardon! Disculpe?

91
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Fine! bien!
Right! Vale!
When? Cundo?
Who? Quin?
'PSIPXMPOH    y$VOUPUJFNQP
Where? Dnde?
Where to? Adnde?
Here. Aqu.
There. All.
On (to) the right A la derecha.
On (to) the left. A la izquierda.
4USBJHIUPO   %FSFDIPQPSw
)BWFZPVHPUw    y5JFOFw
*OFFEw    /FDFTJUPw
*XPVMEMJLFw   .FHVTUBSB
8IFOJTwPQFO    y$VOEPBCSFw
What does it cost? Cunto cuesta eso?
8IBUJTDBMMFE    y$NPTFEJDFw
8IFSFJT BSF
w    y%OEFIBZw
8IFSFJTUIFXBTISPPN MBWBUPSZ
 y%OEFFTUOMPTMBWBCPT
Where`s my luggage? Donde est mi equipaje?
8IFO XIFSF
TIBMMXFNFFU  y$VOEP EOEF
OPTSFVOJSFNPT
8IFSFDBO*IJSF DBTBSFOU
w  y%POEFQVFEPBMRVJMBS
$PVMEZPVMFOENFw   y1PESBQSFTUBSNFw
Could you repair this for me? Podra repararme esto?
$PVMEZPVHJWF TIPX
NFwQMFBTF  y1PSGBWPS QPESBEBSNF
(indicarme)...?
"UJDLFU UXPUJDLFUT
QMFBTF 6OCPMFUP EPTCPMFUPT
QPSGBWPS
What`s the time? Qu hora es?
Yesterday. Ayer.
Today. Hoy.
5PNPSSPX   .BBOB
*OBXFFL    %FOUSPEFVOBTFNBOB
In an hour`s time (ten minutes). Dentro de una hora (diez minutos).
/FYUXFFL   -BTFNBOBRVFWJFOF
5XPIPVST WFNJOUFT
BHP )BDFEPTIPSBT DJODPNJOVUPT

-BTUXFFL    -BTFNBOBQBTBEB
*EPOzUXBOUUP DBOzU
  No quiero (puedo).
wJTPVUPGPSEFS   wOPGVODJPOB

92
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Come in! Pase!


Just a minute, please! Un momento, por favor!
Leave me alone! Djeme en paz!
Waiter! Camarero!
Waitress! Camarera!
The bill, please! La cuenta, por favor!
Help! Socorro!
Fetch a doctor, quickly! Llame a un mdico, rpido!
I`m very glad to see you. Me alegro mucho de verle / te!
Did you have a good journey? Ha tenido un buen viaje?
)PXBSFUIJOHT HPJOH
  y2VUBM
"OEIPXBSFZPV    Y usted como est?
)PXzTUIFGBNJMZ    Qu tal la familia?
.ZJTJMM    .JwFTUFOGFSNPB
%JEZPVTMFFQXFMM   y%VSNJCJFO
7FSZXFMM UIBOLZPV  Muy bien, gracias.
We`re feeling fine. Nos encontramos muy bien.

How to address someone Maneras de dirigirse a alguien

Mrs. Jones Seora Jones


Madam (Si no sabemos el nombre)
Professor Profesor
Doctor Mdico
Ladies! Seoras!
Ladies and gentlemen! Seoras y seores!
Gentlemen Seores!
Miss Seorita
:PVSXJGF    4VFTQPTB
Your daughter Su hija
Your son Su hijo
Your husband Su marido
Letters Cartas

Yours faithully... Atentamente


Dear Mrs... Estimada seora
Dear miss... Estimado seorita
Dear Mr... Estimado seor
Yours sincerely... Le/te saluda

93
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

8JUI
LJOESFHBSETw  .VDIPT
TBMVEPT
(With) love... Con cario (Familiar)
Dear sirs... Muy seores mos
Dear... Querida/o, estimada/o
Dear miss... Querida, estimada seorita
Dear Mrs... Querida, estimada seora
Dear... Querido, estimado
Dear Mr... Querido, estimado seor

Knowing someone Al conocer a alguien

Relatives Parientes
My name is... Me nombre es (me llamo)
.ZTPOw    .JIJKPw
.ZEBVHIUFS   .JIJKBw
My (boy) friend... Mi amigo/ novio...
.Z HJSM
GSJFOE   .JBNJHBOPWJBw
.ZGBUIFS    .JQBESFw
.ZNPUIFS   .JNBESFw
My dad/mom (parents) Mi pap/mam (padres)

La forma de saludo general al presentar a alguien es How do you


do, que es dicha por los dos interlocutores que son presentados. O sea,
cuando nos dicen How do you do, la respuesta consiste en repetir de
nuevo How do you do.

)PXEPZPVEP   .VDIPHVTUP


%POzUXFLOPXPOFBOPUIFS y/PTDPOPDFNPTEFBMHVOB
by sight? parte?
Do you live here? Vive usted aqu?
Are you Mr. .ST NJTT
w  y&TVTUFEFMTFPS MBTFPSB
     TFPSJUB
w
Could you tell me your name, Podra decirme su nombre
please? por favor?
What`s your name? Cmo te llamas?
Where are you from? De dnde es usted?
Have you been here long? Lleva ya mucho tiempo aqu?
8FzWFCFFOIFSFBXFFL  y-MFWBNPTBRVVOBTFNBOB
Do you like it here? Le gusta esto aqu?

94
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

We (I) like it very much. Nos (me) gusta mucho.


Are you here alone? Est usted (ests t) solo/a aqu?
I`m spending my holidays here. Estoy pasando aqu mis vacaciones.
8IFSFEPZPVXPSL   y%OEFUSBCBKBVTUFE USBCBKBT

What do you do for a living? En qu trabaja?


What (subject) are you studying? Qu estudia usted?
Are you still free? Tiene an algo de tiempo?
4IBMMXFHPUPUIFw   Iremos al/a la...?
8IFOTIBMMXFNFFU   Cundo nos vemos?
May I call for you? Puedo llamarle/la?

Paying a Visit De visita

Are you Mrs...? Es usted la Seora...?


Does Mr... live here? Vive aqu el seor...?
8IFOXJMMIF TIF
CFIPNF  y$VOEPFTUBSFODBTBw
8IFODBO* TIBMMXF
DPNF  y$VOEPQVFEPJS WBNPT

I`m looking for... &TUPZCVTDBOEPBw


I`ll call again later. Llamar ms tarde.
* XF
XPVMEMPWFUPDPNF .F OPT
FODBOUBSBWFOJS
Come in! Pase!
%PTJUEPXO   Sintese, por favor.
Just a minute, please! Un momento, por favor!
Come in please. Entre, por favor.
Thank you very much for your Muchas gracias por su
invitation. invitacin.
Am I disturbing you? Molesto?
Please don`t go to a lot of trouble Por favor, no se tome tantas
molestias!
What may I offer you? What Qu puedo ofrecerle/s?
XJMMZPVIBWF    Qu desea?
8PVMEZPVMJLFw   y-F MFT
HVTUBSBw 
.SwBTLFENFUPHJWFZPVIJT Saludos de parte del seor...
regards
*zNBGSBJE*NVTUHPOPX  .FUFNPRVFUFOHPRVFJSNFZB
1MFBTFHJWF.SNZSFHBSET 1PSGBWPS TBMVEFBMTFPSwEFNJ
parte.
*IPQFXFzMMNFFUBHBJOTPPO &TQFSPRVFOPTWFBNPTQSPOUP
Goodbye Despedidas

95
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

See you soon! Hasta pronto!


5JMMUPNPSSPXUIFO  `)BTUBNBBOBFOUPODFT
Do your best! Haz lo mejor que puedas
Have a Good journey! Que tengas un buen viaje!
I have come to say Good bye. He venido a despedirme.
Thank you for coming. Muchas gracias por venir.
Come again soon! Vuelva pronto!
8IFODBOXFNFFUBHBJO   y$VOEPQPEFNPTWFSOPTPUSBWF[
*zMMSJOHZPV5PNPSSPX  -FUFMMBNPNBBOB
It`s late. Es tarde.
Give my regards. Mis saludos a....
Thank you very much. Muchas gracias!
*UXBTMPWFMZ   Ha sido muy agradable.
I liked it very much. Me ha gustado mucho.
I`ll take you to the... -FUFMMFWPw 
To have breakfast Desayunar
To have lunch Almorzar
To have tea Tomar el t
To have dinner Cenar

General questions Preguntas generales

What kind of...? Qu clase de...?


Which one? Cul?
5PXIPN     y"RVJO  PCKFUPJOEJSFDUP

8JUIXIPN 8IPwXJUI  y$PORVJO 
Who? Quin?
)PX     y$NP  
)PXMPOHGPS  GPSIPXMPOH
 Cunto tiempo?
)PXNVDI    y$VOUPT $PTBTOPDPOUBCMFT 
azcar, caf, leche, etc.
)PXNBOZ    y$VOUPT $PTBTDPOUBCMFT TJMMBT 
gatos.
Where? Dnde?
Where from? De dnde?
Where to? Adnde?
What for? Para qu?
.BZPOFIFSF    y1VFEFVOPwBRV 
$BO*w     y1VFEP  

96
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

%PZPVOFFEw    y/FDFTJUBw  
)BWFZPVw    y5JFOFw
When can I get...? y$VOUPQVFEPSFDJCJSw
When does it open (close)? Cundo abren (cierran)?
8IBUXPVMEZPVMJLF   y2VEFTFBSB
Whats that? Qu es eso?
Whats happened? Qu ha pasado?
What does that mean? Qu quiere decir eso?
What does that cost? Cunto cuesta eso?
What are you looking for? Qu busca usted?
Whoses that? De quin es eso?
Whom are you looking for? A quin busca?
Whos there? Quin est ah?
$BOBOZPOFw    y2VJOQVFEFw
8IBUTwDBMMFE    y$NPTFEJDF
)PXEP*HFUUP   y$NPTFWBBw
)PXEPFTUIBUXPSL   Cmo funciona esto?
)PXMPOHEPFTJUUBLF MBTU
 y$VOUPUJFNQPUBSEB EVSB

)PXNVDIEP*HFU   y$VOUPNFEBO
)PXNVDIJTJU    Cunto es?
8IFSFDBO*GOE   y%OEFQVFEPFODPOUSBSw
8IFSFJT BSF
    y%OEFFTU FTUO
w
8IFSFTUIFOFBSFTU   y%OEFFTUFM MB
wNTDFSDBOPB
8IFSFDBO*    y%OEFQVFEPw
8IFSFDBO*HFUw   y%OEFQVFEPDPOTFHVJSw
Where is (are) there...? Dnde hay una cosa (varias cosas)?
Where do you live? Dnde vive/s?
8IFSFBSFXF    y%OEFFTUBNPT
Where do you come from? De dnde viene/es?
Where are you going to? A dnde va usted/vas?
Where does this path (road) go to? A dnde lleva este camino
(esta carretera)?
8PVMEZPVCSJOH HJWF TIPX
 y1VFEFUSBFSNF EBSNF FOTFBSNF

me... please? por favor?
$PVMEZPVUFMMNFw QMFBTF  y1PSGBWPS QPESBEFDJSNFw
8PVMEZPVGFUDI   y1VFEFJSBCVTDBSw
(I beg your) Pardon? Cmo? (ver el recuadro)
What can I do for (get) you? Qu desea?
* 8F
XPVMEMJLFw  2VFSSB2VFSSBNPT

97
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

I need... Necesito...
*XPVMEQSFGFS   1SFGFSJSBw
$BO*IBWF HFU
w   y.FQVFEFEBSw
Please help me! Por favor, aydeme!
(menos apremiante):
Certainly Claro que s!
Excuse me, please (May I?) Me permite?
I hope youll be better soon Espero que est mejor pronto!
Have a good time! Que lo pase bien!
*IPQFZPVMM   &TQFSPRVFw

Formas en que se agradecen las cosas y lo que se contesta, as como


otras expresiones iles.

1. Cuando se pide algo se utiliza please: Por favor, dme...


Would you give me..., please?, Please, could you.?
2. Las respuestas cuando alguien nos agradece algo son varias:
Youre welcome, Dont mention it, not at all, my pleasure
3. Cuando alguien se disculpa la respuesta sera: Thats all right!,
Its OK!
4. Cuando no se entiende o no se oye algo se dice: I beg your
pardon?, excuse me?

98
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Thanks Agradecimientos

Thank you (very much)! (Muchas) gracias!


Many thanks!
(Thank you very much indded!) Muchas gracias! (Muchsimas
gracias!)
Thanks a lot Un milln de gracias!
Thank you, too. Lo mismo digo!
(gracias igualmente)
No, thank you. No, gracias.
Im most grateful to you. Le quedo muy agradecido.
*BN XFBSF
NPTUHSBUFGVM -FFTUPZ FTUBNPT

UPZPVGPS   BHSBEFDJETJNPTQPSw

Thank you very much for your help (all your trouble). Muchas gracias
por su ayuda (las molestias que se ha tomado).

Affirm and deny Afirmar y negar

Yes S.
Certainly Claro que s.
Of course Por supuesto
Ill be glad to Me gustara
Good! Fine Bien!
Thats right! Eso es!
Fine! Estupendo!
With pleasure! Con mucho placer!
No No
Never Nunca
Nothing Nada
Certainly not! Claro que no!
*EPOUXBOU UP
 DBOU
  /PRVJFSP QVFEP

Perhaps Quizs
Probably Probablemente
(Im) Sorry! Lo siento!
I beg your pardon! Perdone!
Im so sorry! Lo siento mucho!
Im very sorry. Lo siento mucho!
Im terribly sorry about it. Lo siento muchsimo!

99
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

I must apologize Permtame que me disculpe.


Please dont take it a miss. No se lo tome a mal!
Do forgive me! Perdneme!

Regret something Lamentar algo

What a pity! Qu pena!


5PNZ HSFBU
SFHSFUw  1BSBNJ HSBO
QFTBSw
Im very sorry abou it. Lo siento mucho.
*UTBTPSSPXUIBUw  &TVOBQFOBRVFw
Im afraid its impossible. Me temo que no es posible.

Congratulations and condolences Delicitaciones y psames

Congratulaions... Felicitaciones...
On your birthday Por tu cumpleaos
On your engagement Por tu compromiso
On your marriage Por tu boda
On your success Por tu xito
7FSZCFTUXJTIFT   Mis mejores deseos!
Happy birthday! Feliz cumpleaos
(Many happy returns!) (Que cumplas muchos ms!)
Merry (Happy) Christmas! Feliz Navidad!
"IBQQZ/FX:FBS  Feliz Ao Nuevo!
* 8F
XJTIZPVw   -FMFTEFTFP EFTFBNPT

Good luck! Buena suerte!
Good luck! Mucho xito!
All the best! Que todo le vaya bien!
My sincere sympathy Le acompao en el sentimiento.
My condolences Mis condolencias

Complaints Quejas

*XBOUUPNBLFBDPNQMBJOU Deseara expresar una queja.


Can I speak to the manager, Podra hablar con el gerente
please? por favor?
I really must lodge a complaint Tengo que poner una
BCPVU    RVFKBTPCSFw
Thats most annoying. Es realmente molesto.

100
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

JT BSF
NJTTJOH   'BMUB GBMUBO
w
*IBWFOUBOZw   /PUFOHPOJOHVOBPw
wEPFTOUXPSL   wOPGVODJPOB(Un aparato).
... JTPVUPGPSEFS   wOPGVODJPOB(Una instalacin).

Understanding each other Dndose a entender

Do you speak spanish? Habla usted espaol?


English? Ingls?
French? Francs?
Do you understand me? Me comprende?
I understand Entiendo
I dont understand anything at all. No entiendo nada.
Could you speak a litle more Por favor, podra hablar
TMPXMZ QMFBTF    NTMFOUP
)PXEPZPVTBZUIBUJO&OHMJTI  y$NPTFEJDFFTPFOJOHMT
What does that mean? Qu quiere decir eso?
I beg your pardon? (Im sorry?) Cmo? (cuando uno no ha
entendido)
)PXJTUIJTXPSEQSPOPVODFE  y$NPTFQSPOVODJBFTUBQBMBCSB
Could you translate that for me, Por favor, puede traducirme eso?
please?
8PVMEZPVXSJUFUIBUEPXO y1VFEFFTDSJCJSNFFTP 
for me, please? por favor?
Would you spell that, please? Me lo deletrea, por favor?

Weather El tiempo (clima)

8IBUTUIFXFBUIFSHPJOHUP y2VUJFNQPWBBIBDFS
be like?
8IBUzTUIF XFBUIFS
GPSFDBTU  y2VEJDFFMQSPOTUJDPEFMUJFNQP
The barometer`s rising (falling) El barmetro sube (baja).
5IFXFBUIFSzTHPJOHUPCFw 7BNPTBUFOFS
Changeable... Tiempo variable...
It looks like rain. Parece que va a llover.
*TJUHPJOHUPSBJO TOPX
  y7BBMMPWFS OFWBS

What are road conditions like En qu estado est la carretera


CFXFFOIFSFBOEw   FOUSF
Its very slippery. Est resbaladizo

101
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Its very hot. - (Hace) mucho calor.


Its foggy. - (Hay) niebla. Est nublado.
*U{TWFSZXJOEZ   - Hay mucho viento.
Its stormy. - (Est) tormentoso.
Whats the temperature? A qu temperatura estamos?
*UTDPME XBSN
   )BDFGSP DBMPS

Theres going to be a change El tiempo va a cambiar.
JOUIFXFBUIFS
Its going to be fine again. Va a hacer buen tiempo otra vez.
Were going to have a (thunder) Vamos a tener una tormenta.
storm.
Theres going to be a storm. Va a haber una tormenta.
Is the fog going to lift? Se va a disipar la niebla?
It has stopped raining. Ha dejado de llover?
Its clearing. Se est despejando.
The suns shining. El sol brilla.
The suns burning. El sol da muy fuerte.
The skys clear. El cielo est despejado.

102
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Segunda Unidad
Esta unidad est diseada para la prctica del ingls, siga las siguientes
recomendaciones para lograr ptimos resultados: no traduzca las pala-
bras de este listado, busque un sinnimo o antnimo de la palabra, en
ingls; Otro buen ejercicio es construir frases en ingls con cada una de
estas palabras. Leer este listado en voz alta frente a una grabadora para
corregir la pronunciacin.

south airplane milk general question


legs arm butter person cigar
studio egg father rail brick
QPXFS top money transport photo
principal church brother officer XIFFM
keyboard door bread trumpet mouth
TBOEXJDI telephone XBUFS president assistant
invitation gold regiment school XFFLFOE
field time man name cigarette
step ear soap tobacco BOTXFS
bridge song corner number stay
dentist potatoe sister boy take
accident boat banana ticket actor
Europe postcard apple music bath
chicken tooth album baby feel
floor sugar pen card learn
kettle land chair plant piano
flame XPPM letter family root
umbrella tree dog finger listen
head foot brush minute make
cup book prison cake hotel
thing cloud JOUFSWJFXFS bank shelf
XJOEPX UPXO TOPX metal choose
DPX XJOUFS bed doctor run
toes fire year cinema police
bag XPNBO rain guitar inch
glove building hand colour TIPX

103
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

hammer silver XPSE comfortable look


engine daughter eye television success
garden salt money XIJTLZ something
friend boy day moment find
bottle horse shop captain let
fork XPSL room studio pipe
coat clock restaurant coffee journey
dress air programme lamp use
bar six ambulance available talk
tongue ship belgium point mile
car nose street radio troussers
animal sand sky paper catch
XBMM king XPPE river pull
park toothpaste touch pass goal
page CMPX XPSL tea pocket
smell laugh train season smile
have fruit XSJUFS keep brush
film part help cut prince
storekeeper kiss break ball icebox
think turn sport toothbrush bite
XBML line pleasure cut come
soup support XBTI give pot
office find go lunch hairpin
dream dance taxi noise cost
play plan leather eat drink
bus XFBUIFS forget fall cat
motion begin cry beer size
die glass sandal live knee
table gun hear XJOE bucket
stamp see cheese bedroom XBWF
sing stone amount seaside speak
ring collar ray pay russia
direction toe repeat south voice
XBUDI do summer shoemaker scissors
push student education government call

104
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

shoe lock place help neck


basket monkey rest one stocking
science TXJN motor scale blue
read north SBJMXBZ stop moon
LOPXMFEHF boil push silk spade
change roll mountain cause cover
sleep pencil mother UPNPSSPX interesting
dark shirt many dry far
month often pleasant great steam
tired rich cold road intelligent
ripe green paint TMPX serious
full picture rare jealous XIJUF
night pretty poor beautiful sheep
quick IPMMPX fat skin early
grey first price polite fresh
dirty pain empty late bad
station steep modern thin pistol
easy english XFU nail funny
young cool bone gay round
thick body honest strong clear
love sharp old ZFMMPX map
large red XBSN teacher dry
TXFFU OPX lip near open
also hat difficult ready here
box clean hot never pot
big rough all leaf expensive
straight but thig ready short
BMXBZT bell cheap soft alone
house XSPOH small that chin
liquid quick not food unhappy
OFX five knife certain long
screen XFMM equal bitter because
again loud hard many soon
dangerous black every tonight true
MPX yes BMXBZT false blue

105
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

chair yesterday important little sort


together XJEF TMPX XJGF perhaps
smooth light morning today serious
left post first strange high
smoke please happy deep sock
sometimes OBSSPX better cock enough
french good letterbox pig false
translate XPSL branch command listen
go heat you introduce live
fishy hand sing help cotton
good see can XFJHIU bundle
GPMMPX permit end valley invite
find fingernails tea arrest continue
spoon taxi turn eat clothing
ball cut lay drop mountain
send suggest attraction sister GPMMPX
standarize harbour comfort shoot organize
account ZFMMPX declare spell skirt
calm climb look frame seven
imitate believe carriage year make
rise brain morning PX start
farmer variety bind melt cloth
tax lie sit ESBXFS bank
keep inform button yard pull
knee bookstore bar nail correct
discovery flame hire play face
university hinder fill addition temple
BOTXFS begin business family call
give distance extreme XSJUF pass
chest diamond creep reproduce farm
mother float reach angle telegraph
fly TXFMM far discussion hold
reduce young master XJO discuss
broad cake let read electricity
yes describe stop great garage

106
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

ride boil comfortable horse pay


spread commercial learn remain present
balance say sink TXFBS CSPXO
pronounce put ruin grammar push
dance TIPX grass split finish
forget hard understand meet run
famous combine speak come give
come bedroom bear TXJN talk
eye thorn freeze cork age
tell familiar action XFFLEBZ burn
bad title beak risk bus
circle hope feed mother bed
end enter canal field fruit
fight salary hospital thin accept
chief electric cause hear glass
general XFFLFOE steal horizon elastic
thirst try efficient gentleman elasticity
sell child churchyard against HSPX
fortune active fault cook motor
circular bay feel confidential because
basis think absolutely copy enough
cost fresh heat grey bake
XJEF group agent mix able
mill XFBUIFS drink XJOEPX certain
castle XBTI night copper thief
XFJHIU tongue elephant church must
guest but air fall actor
ceremony thing sleep model OFXT
heap use gift beautiful favourite
call clay free universal move
tooth cool each forgive classroom
again minute carry heaven generous
ear ask ton beast miserable
bone action XFMDPNF gas eat
tobacco misery feather hate city

107
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

centre christmas bring door beard


thick have element freedom translation
die tin heart english greet
activity time dream forbid XIJUF
girl feast break effective ground
XFBQPO diner film horse control
XFBMUI term bone operation possible
captain meal steam conversation brain
address rank hook literature noble
TXFBU complicated mystery XIBU permanent
artificial father earth one rubber
bridge essence rat simple dinner
adventure respect round company XFTU
plan music governor full sympathy
salt discipline thunder passage shame
bread XFMM person double cape
early shoulder GPSXBSE handle money
passenger XF green country opinion
goods zero drum strong grain
committee attention price bottle lighter
drop ripe roll mouse moon
perhaps bottom brother thread quick
road no actual system XBY
midday nonsense rain tank perfect
bath rest XFFL cotton ticket
port car full east street
task efect night paper fast
character modern result association chain
dry pen much noon moral
artist XBZ friend moment pipe
card bell month remedy haste
stiff friendly pearl fork shot
base relative theatre generosity again
original test loud barber ordinary
business poor special palace dozen

108
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

post envelope rice fat nose


storm president head courage open
pardon box XIFFM strict order
XBUFS TUSBX stem restaurant formal
charm reserve park fork north
place reference stone perfection devil
king patriotic race sand landing
red popularity morality nine once
competition mild letter rich pink
pure public problem representative procession
note part quality side manner
moon russia line pound press
complete needle lamp price baggage
television ideal station position nest
KFXFM party room soldier idea
recent holland social reporter quarter
XBMM net plant reputation temperature
limit TIBEPX particle saddle island
reproduction old very jealous XPSUIMFTT
TXPSE back knee father republic
grain metal april partner baby
number nail oil temple light
shoe photography river OPX man
personal camp shock ladder quantity
telegraph explosive ice priest condition
cliff product pan variety machine
foot queen hat luck floor
record force natural IPMMPX stock
XBSN life flesh rail tent
kitchen immoral often rival situation
experiment sugar bundle immense XPSN
official detail small serious summer
district large colour radio bone
important blood pair valley short
XPSME officer mountain mile BMXBZT

109
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

state telephone nothing uncle attention


money land black pain sail
slave glory ocean father lunch
front private book mad colony
type arm middle sick hammer
XJTF pit food XPSLNBO trade
loose trick ambition sauce indeed
XPSE block big long report
shade UPXO industry tree flat
art standard apple excuse XJOE
nut height college DPX mass
extra seed dark spade rival
second cousin inclusive crime mice
army soap butter cold UPXFS
success hut deaf clock pool
fisherman blind bicycle love school
tube cloud many coast HSPXUI
guide shame animal hall tour
market politics excess XPPM south
coal flame hotel local ocean
cup article ink bed secretary
XJME subject god fire essential
late coffee hill house name
fit cross doctor plate material
expert fish life poison black
goat staff hunger high train
milk belief butter japan stick
club DSPXO clerk plaster friendship
dead examination so practical amusement
translator XBSN study bitter clear
tent minister blue top body
invitation day sleeve delicate MPX
glory room sharp star leg
OFX cushion point UXFOUZ puzzle
curiosity sport XJOUFS stream scale

110
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

leather finger member XPPE police


date special deep soup QPXEFS
political boat fortune production class
qualify spoon niece revolution HSPXUI
demography lesson spectacular household electricity
jealously declaration surplus clause sort
funds department economical speed potential
combination dividend smoke goods tradition
capital poet finances vacation balance
little protection correlation minority TOPX
protest amendment financial QPXEFS postcard
chart institute literature crisis secretariat
cargo model coefficient subsidy conference
interest debit campaign international leader
industrial stock contract department premium
speciality grade international agronomist charter
transaction purple status pattern pension
never cotton ratification moment match
rules practice card instrument cheque
series XBHPO pleasure margin personality
bank simple client tanker telegram
OFQIFX correspondence characteristics river nation
administration result bankruptcy FMCPX state
HPPEXJMM investment neck branch telephone
tariff silver transport inventory inflation
list dock economy XPSLFST insect
socialism compromise monopoly solid bookkeeper
theory economy popular order instructions
cycle nature representative examination export
nurse science organization term lung
dumping communism motion price insolvent
luxuries statute socks report graph
tendency medicine guarantee discrimination culture
establish-
index proletariat bulldozer interest
ment

111
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

bale envelope salary certificate canal


authority policy industry parliament control
public syndicate party aspect federation
code magnate cereals contraband food
corporation battery inflation plan partisan
boycott invitation budget packet command
position partner import beer statistics
tax legal expansion contract union
ideology observation identity option hypothesis
condition strike JOUFSWJFX cash entity
nation TIPX competition deflation reference
programme food calendar specialist market
holding helicopter rank list candidate
concrete product dollar form energy
collection credit expert congress specimen
trust compensation reproduction rights frequency
association financial shop interest costs
delegation supermarket automation fleet consultation
session personnel project document title
impulse convention emigrate research instrument
depression competence ton patent herbicides
fiscal standard immigration foundation consul
system liberal anchor agony reserves
period diagram manager secretary category
automatic variations pool insurance committe
line SBJMXBZ partner champion capacity
sector coordination cartel concession price
periodical multilateral column grain institution
profit doctrine traffic petition national
colony income bilateral president firm
funds cashier leader register constant
fruit note finish production parity
politician dispute journal illustration combination
population insecticides cable bonus construction
copy importer artificial factor stagnation

112
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

pact catalogue deficit private explanation


transistor telescope benzine regime antiseptic
irrigation rose commission pyramid sulphate
jute nomenclature emotion candle magic
agency condenser opium climate surplus
truth inflammable sensation irrigation insulator
protein positive clerk equator stimulus
soda question mental satellite section
tide energy filter coke method
gas structure prism devaluation cinema
atmosphere radium ticket equivalent quinine
organism article parallel electrolysis impulse
course vitamin pilot diagram inventory
cube chocolate friction computer thin
crab theory sack XJME diaphragm
tunnel insect electrode diameter eclipse
finance volume alkaline alcohol guarantee
proton spectrum skeleton produce period
oval bridge participate aspirin tank
series risk volt pedal formula
pay cylinder spiral axle nationalize
element blood normal operate celluloid
radioactive proportion analyse thermometer malaria
beast concentrate isotope sex electron
speculate apparatus method radio devalue
pillar compass circuit eliminate decimal
atom fraction stimulate varnish larva
catalyst invest degree nucleus plastic
collaborate millimetre centimetre barometer exploit
fragment brain collapse violet degree
antiseptic rationalize ferment nicket lens
negotiate sponge automatic bacteria industrialize
cigarette process neutral membrane molecule
frequency intelligence oxidation planet gramophone
cement solder function oil pole

113
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

concentrate conditions radial mass analyse


efficient material gum vary hypothesis
opposition parasite condense capacity cycle
organic perforate anchor reaction diagonal
reproduce impulse proton battery refine
instrument temperature negative state synthetic
channel engine horizontal grammar jelly
iron dimension meter compact chamber
reduce laboratory hydraulic variety start
generator cable contact ask molecule
agent diameter begin dose technique
critical change fossil LJMPXBUU pump
reply echo erosion ampere vote
electricity defect OFXUSPO study aluminium
process plastic accept manager crystal
research refuse steel risk justify
XPSL grade molecular meet lift
accumulator gravitation understand inflame fundamental
project congratulate specify potential form
ratify produce fraction composition print
contract basis reservoir multiply alternate
essential mill organize compensate specific
elastic enter activate apparatus profile
declare distil couple artificial speak
dissociate effective rotor galvanize factor
kinetic impression eliminate element metal
comment graduate stable turbine delegation
atomize pulp uniform criticism install
control centrifugal discussion isolate ivory
volatge committee classify dynamic initial
decision circulate petroleum static vital
polish balance mechanism question chairman
counting agenda information cooperation difficulty
term force margin confidence BOTXFS
extract important college constitution future

114
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

position deliberation colleague legal custom


public commission session line terminology
theory idea especial ratification complicated
opinion rivalry official clause member
interruption place definite priority private
illegal error mandate microphone unanimous
simultaneous excellent memorandum period periodical
reception passage congress dossier harmony
illegal expert article tank conclusion
definition condition secret protest election
capacity invitation simple supplement definition
listener necessary defence version meaning
contract statute incomplete time nonsense
point fundamental debate repetition signature
president problem document union later
report experts coin opening motion
success organization ordinary translation help
preamble solution original absenteeism preceding
responsible danger debate notes junior
efficiency absent secretary value procedure
legitimate paper stocking proposal problem
interest receiver facts vacancy text
SPX plan present examination cage
conference arbitration initiative evening effort
against MBX XJOEPX discipline order
resolution edge argument convention instrument
rule convocation quorum feeling origin
element abstract publication pattern compensation
suggestion intention button final chairmanship
majority heaven corporation record general
engine clothes response agriculture TPSSPX
enemy XIJQ BSSPX matter orange
comparison sale brush store honour
corner barrel office stomach suit
mistake XBWF face player basket

115
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

XFJHIU government keyring meeting inventor


cup body SBJMXBZ cliff absence
fear title payment factory scissors
thought history visit verb brick
commerce influence application dress cup
supper value tears headache curls
expression declaration youth faith extension
sign hobby point aim breath
speed proof fool joke noise
aunt shell drum event shape
fashion seal cable tune pig
donkey page umbrella LOPXMFEHF grease
ring inch direction forest XJOH
tailor amount throat effort interest
picture sound hay strength victory
tip XPVOE virtue pigeon invention
rope quarrel religion skin stairs
fan illness simplicity citizen DSPXE
explosion ray neighbour postman shirt
journey choice temptation sentence soil
root cream farm degree exercise
expansion UPXFM belt chalk servant
lady doubt SFXBSE truth distance
leaf accident practice LOPXMFEHF danger
cheese agreement dictionary toe stamp
QPXFS district sky XJGF council
axe band harbour anger mill
reality speech prison language branch
murder angle reason MBX gap
propose coat society border cry
monkey fence garden attract rent
current joy count lake custom
shop receive bucket average lock
smile entrance voice frame pray
business autumn beggar explode proporsal

116
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

reader queen dive parents service


bird marry rust seat game
trust map profession bill serve
something affair sight set desire
purpose CPXM increase liquid advantage
bottom print silence unity supply
gun post-office beat dare patience
introduction catch suck future TDSFX
stay cover toy science educate
jump behaviour confidence change repair
description plural remember laugh battle
voyage develop smell development agency
separate kill religion danger shut
possess tradesman advantage load explain
beauty visitor BMMPX protect trip
PXFS expect shake liberty expense
govern shout dust advance scold
repeat gallon tail decrease shore
pocket accuse shop duty population
discover forest fun WJFX measure
danger birth accident divide frame
secret GFMMPX lend mud fright
firm avoid remark appearance village
knock habit WPXFM people taste
husband board pencil solve employee
silk exception UISPX tools pupil
story mention parcel curtain example
society sad royal XJTI reply
safe patient extend admire real
urgent disappear sell brave severe
deliver punish tender square feed
unite lucky earnest touch TMPX
literary travel bargain regular probable
interrupt distance gentle safe vote
journal dark gentle satisfy corporation

117
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

satisfactory guilty pass delay smooth


rude change residence gay steep
exist rent simple polite bury
XBHFT grand equal XFBS secret
left clean XIJTQFS XFBMUI XJME
ugly recognize output numerous impossible
believe origin independent ready differ
XFMGBSF rapid dry add airline
dangerous peoples save scientific different
heavy profits visitor serious exact
spit regression SBX lazy leave
valid human female prepare quantity
original curious elect society XFU
straight XIJTUMF investigation every reasonable
escape TIPXSPPN absent cruel slide
performance valuable scientific compare profession
quiet TXFFU act statesman clever
food CMPX shipyard excellent share
property XSPOH destroy improve subvention
easy build lose merchant common
calculate CPSSPX investor nice employ
seize meeting honest shave XBML
mortality sour fold choose inhabitants
happy invent paint OFXTQBQFS soft
breathe earn movement cheap steer
compose foreigner composition expenses earnings
vote harvest foreign duties spend
concern employer management transfer dividend
airfield portion quote entrance account
payment exchange healthy trade mark freight
CPSSPX approximation horticulture director authorize
disparity delay assistance deduct disease
farm buyer verify development payable
cooperation approve demand size index
prolong gap preference damage XJUIESBX

118
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

defect refugee enterprise liquidate aid


XIPMFTBMFS accident supply agriculture treaty
unit purchase adult uneconomic taxation
insure legislation carpenter sample offer
citizens intervention proof deliver collision
label loss hire accountant businessman
reduction invest probable payment veins
join relationship barge strike load
aviation spread restrictions store promise
load airport outsider refuse vapour
provisions maternity rise task debt
occupation smuggle resistance fair marriage
permit submarine expensive injury participate
spongey furniture freedom distribute square
holiday value develop scale MBX
evidence lend tissue manager departure
reduce revolution obligations factory print
spore subdivision parcel negotiate desinfectant
customer XPSLTIPQ indemnify crane case
usage GPSXBSE artery labour trade
leave tar community member contribute
honey engagement soil divorce solution
admission savings complain similar loan
confidence continue charcoal pivot DIFX
compose boil glass contract facilitate
obtain lever decorate contain evaporate
petal argument pulverize develop lemon
emit transform extract expand reduce
handle oxygen differ terminate exception
mast diminish vaporize liquid pollen
commence replace similar germ smelt
prevent desirable butterfly attain reinforce
influence jet limit proceed filament
mist contaminate equip rest carbon
maintain modify excessive equation diffuse

119
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

displace progressively knob amplify expose


pressure piston decide consider soluble
radiation regulate estimate altitude composition
converge atomize performance conductor suck
feed disadvantage globe induce exclude
reduction oven convert lubricate motion
acid distribute deduce advantage buffet
transmit liberate speed magnet disperse
mount help lever admit lick
danger mathematics serve combat resonance
abdomen assemble deliver rigid nerve
inject dissolve malleable gland develop
vomit suspension image introduce vibrate
content mirror react spray cause
orbit keep compress probably hydrogen
protect irritate molten alloy forge
react support onion deposit dilute
considerable layer absorb inject fluid
improvement apply correspond properties adopt
cease viscous fold resist absorb
combustion bleach bake digest steam
adapt freeze deposit XJOEJOH XJTF
signature pulley SPX XJSF gardening
fibre propulsion empire reconstruction rib
surface century licence pulse suction
chimney installation rat versatile paste
mason temporary streamline roof reeform
rivet substance haste producer file
soil chain service carpet tension
chicken salesman sole QPXFS BOZXBZ
XFJHIU resistance shield somebody receipt
sieve pressure suddenly safe source
tube nearly hostilities dense fuel
myself founder hereditary magnet everybody
fragile circumference distance BOZXIFSF packing

120
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

shaft bore UPNPSSPX freedom pottery


slag OPXIFSF rebellion propeller thread
outside participant ankle preliminary really
birth-control clear value openly council
target pipe tonight foreign compound
residue originally folder partial fracture
sometimes destination infectious pocket usually
foreman field force today insurance
horn heat TPNFXIFSF appearance vinegar
proportion almost beneficiary mould orifice
safely bridgehead QPXFS needle quietly
solution lizard bush alive average
breast helmet foreign contribution groove
leak urgent apprentice plane passage
possible connections inflammation joint ancient
background valve flexible stupid area
pendulum face proud arbitration pinion
inlet pink commerce potato fission
strange bid furnace gun tall
complaint mosquito measure true contestation
interval grease distortion create agreement
observer spring permit code attitude
granular consider surprise complaint district
exchange standpoint expense tyre trust
figures project charge consult expenditure
extension fertile demand coincidence competence
dissimilar suspend treasurer modification accessible
discuss refusal presidency chemistry improve
summary abstention flax refuse observation
responsibility cone interrupt brackets topic
triangle elect target objection port
decide purpose proposal bulb recognition
treaty x-rays previous XJUOFTT nevertheles
yeast desirable intervention filings premature
friendship unconscious referee available expression

121
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

universe leaf VOMBXGVM XFMDPNF satisfaction


annual authorization BMMPXBODF support verbatin
mister bull anger estimate
nomination dismissal expect arbitration meeting
conscience conclude explanation estimates ribbon
represent sense delay pet stay
approval consultation idle conciliate remark
request dirty introduce object negotiations
damp recognize acceptable aim pad
participate aid direction prevention supply
urgent delegate crack confirm authority
WJFXQPJOU rightly opening treasurer hospitality
DPXBSE authorize measures rule account
facilitate sub-committee participant mail favour
adjournment introduction mechanic transfer appreciation
mediator judgement prolong statement conception
kind replace attention legality cottage
insult assistant footnote plainly deliver
minutes confusion juicy outstanding relation
failure connection BXLXBSE kingdom occasionally
poverty instant duck cloudy conscious
determination admission respectful argument lately
apology resistance VOXPSUIZ indoors extensive
ease mind avenue fate carriage
performance opportunity sacred sudden generous
audience discomfort preparation NFBEPX OFXTQBQFS
qualification stuff improvement humble PVUXBSET
omission lucky reflection boundary receipt
resignation appointment expectation ditch outcome
concern division performance untidy curse
rubbish case yield faintly evil
background territory message faithful string
holiness peculiar CBDLXBSET railing careful
curve rock confusion dissatisfaction pale
envy civilization extensive IPXFWFS fearful

122
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

attractive development partly ruler eager


outstanding merry independence irregular occasion
competitor collar flavour merchant marriage
preference substance neat mercy reasonable
rake crash host roughly employment
OBSSPX meaning coin profit boundary
debt fierce extraordinary dull memorial
UPXFS despair gradual cautious gate
prejudice rod arch entertainment attentive
memory careless favour arrangement grateful
pressure kindness cave bold ESBXFS
rude plenty pride greed hardly
present revenge messenger distance disgust
lonely experience criminal OBSSPXOFTT creature
rug strictly fever dot surface
unnecessary refreshment lodging difficulty outline
approval peculiar anxious holidays desk
progress flash XIFBU XJQF settle
disease XJUOFTT stretch rescue scenery
terible concern struggle XJDLFE sheet
include tie persuasion conspicuous hurt
hurry scientist settlement arise reflect
sore pond compete TXFFQ dish
sense represent postpone vessel temptation
SFWJFX arrange scorn steady complain
tremble damage stain please pour
rate splendid qualify disturb harvest
unkind argue XBSO management violent
faint fade veil tired boast
cheat slope cloth PXO threaten
harmful BXBLF replace check razor
search furnish treat vain hostess
desert occur treasure screen continue
cheer salesman upright mix XBUDI
tool tailor suppose scatter signature

123
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

solemn contain hesitate sailor slight


memorize satisfy tide usual imagine
yield treasurer sincere gain spin
sands confession video stir tough
strip merge spend request suspicious
include XBTUF shelter recognition bump
spill cattle chest sting prevent
sample skirt overcome scratch trial
scornful gather upset busy treatment
hide agree XSFDL XBHFT XPSTIJQ
manage TIBMMPX urge UXJTU descend
trouble skill disappoint remind scarce
tap connect pinch XPSSZ stage
compose depend tribe XPPE TFX
observe space annoy object careful
estimate provide accustom produce suspect
rebate bidder roar strike shortage
broker offend charge proceedings shareholder
decay surround remainder eligible TXBMMPX
polish staff emergency explore hoard
riots applicant drive obviate instalment
bill rush consign storehouse bearer
disagree double labourer discount drag
XBTUF bond gratuity prefer resign
resignation disturbance relieve prohibit slack
consumption rejoice levy stockholder grant
dig conceal freedom recipe contractor
disapprove manufacture invoice debtor cure
convey postage brand excite refund
means deed preserve reveal inquiry
failure encourage display lorry delivery
determine collapse level fringe grind
expire customs amalgamation dip collect
lumber XFMM promise revalue mortgage
location collection expropiate improvement charges

124
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

oppose retire mediation tender resign


promote forgery XBSFIPVTF enjoy affiliate
GSBNFXPSL merger guess proceed convertible
movables rub cancel fortuitous site
enclose controversy taxpayer recommend ESBXCBDL
PXOFS bolt fix survey appointment
TFBXPSUIZ succeed securities casualty barter
employ currency available manure refer
outlet assets partnership claim recovery
discharge process distinguish mediator IJHIXBZ
adjustment suffer obsolete cask lease
support barrel expenditure excise level
binoculars consider debenture resignation log
rob custody court companion ache
burden corn retirement prove carriage
opposite proper notice share actually
consideration bless IBSEXBSF lid pile
behave issue defeat NFBOXIJMF persuade
package convenience insurance adopt leaflet
intention advertisement judge livestock crime
fur mend perishable justice bunch
admit turnover burden payment kick
fee lack precious decide requirements
QBX statement perform outlook pin
tune join possessions landlord output
deserve XBSSBOU moderate hunter multiply
dissatisfac-
settlement beam bargain XBSOJOH
tion
MBXZFS dirt crush liability relief
tight congratulate landlord keeper bush
intend commitments nuisance TIPXFS obey
craftsman KBX spirit bark crop
convent surprise insure bricklayer delight
frequent cultivate agreement independent extensively
defend census delight IJHIXBZ apologize

125
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

statement basin treasury inquire abstention


crop severe confuse blend particular
trunk applaud notification unemployed prayer
neglect slump necessity sacrifice annoy
overvaluation loan foolish omit setback
insult slippery last shipment backbone
trap attend eddies ornament caution
offer spider limb disgusting deceive
truck property employer apply ratio
mixture funeral confess forceful anxiety
modest attract response community approve
useful crack smallpox HFBSXIFFM pile
bedbug draught cartridge surgery bearing
rectangle chisel exhaust XSJOLMF rifle
bark data cam skull anvil
gauge blade funnel accurate core
coolant grapes focus maintenance application
drainage nostril available XIBMF rudder
cats device bubble CPXFMT consumption
vacuum sausage knit rate truck
design slide drop clip drill
generate reliable spoke range quench
shaft starch aerial bird stress
area crankshaft rotate XFBS spine
brittle protrude stroke pigeon radius
soak ductile TXJUDI bat expand
average hair gear fertilize target
spider drug magnify superheated air-tight
fern bounce XBTUF soot nut
breed tip bruise hinge splash
slot spring fuel obstruct spindle
bracket bolt propel sleeve spark
lathe ensure sheet surgeon hydrocarbon
collide fissile cavity ore glaze
crude fungus peg revolve grate

126
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

bud coil survey lacquer slit


loom act level resin poultry
encounter obsolete fertilizer drain notice
smoke bead manure remove sample
sensitive canvas adhere cast iron cross-section
foam relieve fan snail moist
avoid failure beetle lining adjust
blast glue fur proliferate axis
garment kidney solve beam slate
ant generate reject validity remain
reputation disqualification enable corrode notice
scratch vice-chairman survey ignite management
XJUIESBX assigment commitment restrictions improve
dismissal issue enactment expel file
suitable mutual restrict expire valid
conciliation require postpone irrefutable briefing
avoid delete subtle lecture attract
convene desirable regulations achieve boost
mediation emphasis reflect digress invalid
repayment assume cancell USVTUXPSUIZ cancellation
convey abstain reliable distrust insert
eligible board provide unsuitable retread
repel incidentally quotation XJUIESBX application
signatory suppress purpose contribution resign
qualification spokesman sponsor bargain excerpt
dissolve provision invalidity settle trouble
challenge flea advice proxy designate
jurisdiction resignation initial value director
lapse paragraph admission manage methodology
ballot divulge postponement census resolve
substitute deputy disapprove investigation offence
audit comprehensible liability discontinue nullity
alteration endeavour banking NJMLZXBZ guilty

127
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Tercera Unidad
La siguiente lista de frases en ingls debe ser practicada en forma oral.
Lala en voz alta, no la traduzca, trate de comprender la manera en que el
idioma ingls se expresa. Construya frases en forma negativa, interrogativa
o afirmativa a partir de las entregadas en este listado.

It is not possible Put the pot on the fire


There are no potatoes in the house (JWFNFBCPYPGGBDFQPXEFS
5IBUNBOIBTQPXFSPWFSVT )FXBTQSFTFOUBUUIFNFFUJOH
In this book the print is very
What is the price of that hat?
good
)FXJMMCFJOQSJTPOGPSUXPZFBST He sent me a private letter
I sent him the product of my
It is very probable
farm
He had a small profit this year I have a property in the south
I presented a protest against his
Is that book in prose or in verse?
decision
He gave a strong pull on the
This is a public school
cord
*IBWFBQVNQGPSUIFXBUFS 8IBUXBTIJTQVOJTINFOU
8IBUXBTUIFQVSQPTFPGZPVS
He gave me a push
statement?
*XJMMQVUNZNPOFZJOUIFCBOL What is the quality of this cloth?
This is a simple question for boys )FHBWFBRVJDLBOTXFS
This boy is very quiet *BNRVJUFXFMMUIJTNPSOJOH
This rail is made of iron We had rain yesterday
Chile has a long range of mountains I have seen a rat in my room
8FTBXBSBZPGMJHIUJOUIF
5IFCBOLSBUFXBTIJHIFS
XJOEPX
8IBUXBTIJTSFBDUJPOXIFOZPV He gave me a recept for my
said that? money

128
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

This is an English record She has a red hat


I have no regret about that His heart has a regular rhythm
Have you any family relations in What is the religion of this
Argentina? country?
*XJMMNBLFBSFRVFTUGPSNPSF
He is a representative of my brother
money
I have great respect for him You are responsible for the fire
Take a rest after your meals Yesterday, I had a bright idea
5IJTHMBTTXBTCSPLFOCZNZTPO I have a brother in Brazil
4IFIBTCSPXOIBJS He put the brush on the table
)FFNQUJFEBCVDLFUPGXBUFSPO 5IFSFBSFOFXCVJMEJOHT
the fire EPXOUPXO
This bulb is broken There is a burn in my coat
In the afternoon business is
5IFSFXBTBCVSTUPGMBVHIUFS
better
Put bread and butter on the
*XJMMHP CVUOPUUIJTNPSOJOH
table
Please, put this buttom on my
8FXJMMHPCZUIFOFXSPBE
jacket
She put the cake on the table *IBWFBOFXDBNFSB
Give me a canvas seat, please Give this card to your brother
Take my baby, but carefuly :PVSOFXDBSJTSFBEZ
That old cart is colorful We have three cats in our house
5IBUXBTUIFDBVTFPGIJTEFBUI *BNDFSUBJOUIBUIFXJMMDPNF
)FJTXSJUJOHXJUIDIBMLPOUIF
)FSFJTUIFOFXDIBJOGPSZPVSEPH
XBMM
This is your last chance )FXJMMDIBOHFIJTDPNQVUFS
This is a cheap hat Put the cheese on the table
This is a chemical poison for rats He has the chest of a strong man
The police chief asked for the folder He has a cut on his chin

129
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

*XJMMHPUPUIBUDIVSDIUPNPSSPX He belongs to a literary circle


The sky is very clear this
Get me a clean shirt
morning
:PVSDMPDLJTTMPX 5IJTDMPUIIBTUIFMPXFTUDPTU
There is a coal mine near this
There are clouds in the sky
UPXO
*XJMMNBLFBDPBUXJUIUIJTDMPUI You have cold hands
Give me a collar for my dog What is the colour of the hair?
Give me a comb, please )FXJMMDPNFUPNPSSPX
I sent a private letter to the
Air conditioning adds comfort
committee
The office of my company is in
)FJTBNBOXJUIDPNNPOTFOTF
the outskirts
5IFSFJTOPDPNQBSJTPOCFUXFFO
There is a competition for boys
them
Give me a complete list of their This is a complex question for
names me
What are the conditions of your
I have trade connections in Lima
offer?
5IFHPWFSONFOUXPSLTGPSUIF
We have a good cook
people
I have complete control over these There are many copper mines in
boys Chile
Make a copy of this letter Give this cord to your brother
Put this cork in that bottle 4IFIBTBOFXDPUUPOESFTT
You have a bad cough *XJMMHPUPNZDPVOUSZJOXJOUFS
(JWFNFBOFXDPWFSGPSNZ 5IFSFBSFUXFOUZDPXTPOUIJT
UZQFXSJUFS field
There is a crack in the glass My credit in that bank is good
5IFOFXTPGUIFDSJNFXBTJOUIF
He is a cruel man
papers

130
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

The actor met a human crush He gave a cry of pain


In this river the current is very
Give me a cup of milk, please
strong
There are many curves on this
4IFIBTUXPDVSUBJOTJOIFSSPPN
road
5IFTFDVTIJPOTBSFOFX He has a cut on his face
The fire did damage to my house 5IFSFJTEBOHFSPGXBSJO&VSPQF
*IBWFPOFEBVHIUFSBOEUXP
This house has dark rooms
sons
In this country the days are very There is a dead man on the
cold street
5IFOFXTPGIJTEFBUIDBNFUIJT
This pen is very dear to me
morning
His debt is in the six digits 8IBUXBTUIFKVEHFTEFDJTJPO
4IFIBTEFFQLOPXMFEHFPO The temperature dropped ten
anatomy degrees
"XPSLFSJTEFQFOEFOUPOIJT
I have a delicate heart
job
)FSFJTUIFOFXEFTJHOGPSZPVS My great desire is to have a
closet garden
Give me all the details of this
8FTBXUIFEFTUSVDUJPOPGUIFUPXO
crime
*UXBTBOFYQFOTJWFIPVTF I have different ideas on that
development point
"UXIBUUJNFEPZPVIBWFMVODI *OXIBUEJSFDUJPOBSFZPVHPJOH
5IFDPNQBDUEJTDXBTBHSFBU
This boys has dirty hands
discovery
*IBWFIBEBEJTDVTTJPOXJUINZ There is a strange disease in this
sister UPXO
What is the distance from here
He gave a look of disgust
of Paris?

131
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

He had the distribution of


There is a division in the family
beverages
5IFZIBWFUXPEPHTJOUIFJS
)FXJMMEPUIJTXPSL
house
5IJTSPPNIBTUXPEPPSTBOEPOF
There is no doubt that she is ill
XJOEPX
8FXJMMHPEPXOCZUIFMJGU This drain is dirty
Send her this blue dress to her
This draver has a good lock
house
5BLFBXBSNESJOLFWFSZOJHIU He is driving an automobile
5IFSFJTOPUBESPQPGXBUFS Give me a dry cloth, please
There is dust on these seats This boy has big ears
5IFUFBDIFSXSPUFBEJGDVMU
$PNFFBSMZUPNPSSPX
lesson
Dont drive close to the edge of
Argentina is to the east of Chile
the road
He gave a good education to his
There are six eggs in the basket
son
That noise had a bad effect on my This is a most elastic computer
nerves program
We have electric light in the cabin This is the end of the story
Have you enough sugar in your
These engines are of a special type
milk?
Yesterday he had breakfast at
5IJTVOEFSXFBSJTPGFRVBMRVBMJUZ
9:00
Even he came late yesterday 5IBUXBTBHSFBUFWFOUJONZMJGF
0ODFVQPOBUJNFJOw I go to Madrid every year
8FXJMMNBLFBOFYDIBOHFPG
(JWFNFBOFYBNQMFPGZPVSXPSL
books
He has a sad existence in that An expansion of our toys
prison production

132
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Have you any experience in this


)FJTBOFYQFSUJOKFXFMT
XPSL
Rose forgot her ring on the night
She has dark eyes and black hair
table
5IFSFXBTBGBMMJOUIFFYDIBOHF
It is a fact that he is ill
rate
In our family there are three
He gave a false statement
boys
Valparaiso is very far from here We bought a farm in Temuco
My brother is very fat Our father is very ill
5IFSFJTOPGFBSPGXFBSJO"NFSJDB 4IFXFBSTBMPOHTLJSUBOEBIBU
5IBUXBTBGFFCMFFGGPSU A feeling of love is good
This animal is female There is fertile land in the West
This is not fiction; this is true 5IJTFMEJTGVMMPGDPXT
He is putting his fingers in the
:PVIBETBJEUIBUIFJTXSPOH
XBUFS
5IFSFXBTBSFJOIJTIPVTF That is her first son
This river is full of fish This linen has a fixed price
He saluted the flag *TBXUIFBHTGSPNNZXJOEPX
There are many flat roads in this
)FHPUBMPXGBSFGPSUIBUJHIU
country
5IFSFBSFCFBVUJGVMPXFSTJOIJT
*XJMMQVUBOFXPPSJONZLJUDIFO
garden
The baby has a cookie in his cup of
5IFOVSTFGPMEFEUIFUPXFM
milk
5IFSFJTFOPVHIGPPEGPSUXP
You have made a foolish error
months
Her foot is very small Give me a spoon for my soup
Religion is a great moral force 8FXPOBTQPSUQSJ[F

133
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

5IFBSNZXJMMNPWFGPSXBSE
5IJTJTBOFXGPSNPGFEVDBUJPO
during the night
*IBWFBOFXGSBNFGPSUIBU
-FUzTHPIVOUJOHGPSXJMEGPXM
picture
I am free to tell you about my 5IFNPUPSJTOPUXPSLJOH
XFEEJOH properly
I have many friends among
This is a letter from my father
politicians
This is the front of the house Put the fruit on the table
0VSHBSEFOJTGVMMPGPXFST Plan your future vacation
I am the general manager in this
*XJMMHFUUIBUCPPL
office
There are fifty girls in that school *XJMMHJWFGPPEUPZPVSEPH
(JWFNFBHMBTTPGXBUFS QMFBTF She puts her gloves on the table
Please, go to his house I have ten goats on my farm
)FXJMMDBMMZPVVQUPNPSSPX *IBWFHPPEOFXTGPSZPV
5IFSFJTBOFXHPWFSONFOUJOUIJT
This is a grain of sand
country
5IJTJTHPPEHSBTTGPSUIFDPXT #PMJWBSXBTBHSFBUHFOFSBM
The manager approved the
Did they acquire those articles?
budget
5IFSFXBTBHSPVQPGCPZTJONZ
He gave me a grip on the arm
room
)FXBTIBQQZXJUIUIFHSPXUIPG )FSFJTUIFOFXHVJEFGPSPVS
IJTXFBMUI men
I have six guns in my house Your hair is very long
Give me a hammer and some mails )FSIBOETBSFWFSZXIJUF
He is hanging a picture I am a happy man
5IFTIJQXBTJOUIFIBSCPVS )FIBEBDPNQVUFSXJUIBIBSE
yesterday disc

134
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

There is no harmony among them *IBWFBOFXIBUGPSUIJTESFTT


These poor boys have very little
The opposite of hate is love
food
He is seriously ill )FSTJTUFSXBTXBTIJOHUIFDBS
He seems a healthy man My hearing is very bad
I could feel the heat from the
Learn it by heart!
oven
Give me your help, please Come here, please!
High mountains have a spectacular I am teaching history to those
WJFX boys
There is a hole in the roof 4IFXBTJOWJUFEUPBCBMM
He is putting a hook on the door There is no hope for us
$PXTIBWFUXPIPSOT He has many horses on his farm
4IFXFOUUPUIFIPTQJUBMZFTUFSEBZ *OUISFFIPVSTXFXJMMCFUIFSF
)JTOFXIPVTFJTWFSZCFBVUJGVM )PXBSFZPVUIJTNPSOJOH
Hes in a bad humor .ZNPUIFSTBJEUIBU*XBTJMM
)FIBTQVUJDFJOUIFXBUFS Your idea is very good
*XJMMHPJGZPVHJWFNFNPOFZ My father is ill in bed
He has an important position in my
He had a sudden impulse to type
office
He is in the house I had an increase in my profits
5IJTJTBOFXJOEVTUSZ Get me the right ink, please
Those instruments are very
There are many insects in the grass
delicate
Have you insurance against fire? The dog attacked the little girl
There are many iron mines in
)JTOFXJOWFOUJPOJTWFSZJNQPSUBOU
Spain
This island is very small Please, put the jelly on the table
There are seven joints in this
4IFIBTKFXFMTPOIFSOHFST
chain

135
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

8FXJMMNBLFUIFKPVSOFZJOUIF )FUPMENFUIBUUIFKVEHFXBT
summer very old
The goat gave a jump to cross the *XJMMLFFQNZNPOFZJOUIBU
ditch bank
5IJTLFUUMFJTGVMMPGXBSNXBUFS This is the key to your room
He gave me a kick He is a kind man
The girl gave a kiss to her mother Your right knee is bleeding
He had a knife in his hand She made a knot in the cord
*IBWFBHPPELOPXMFEHFPG&OHMJTI I dont believe you
What language is that? *XJMMNBLFBMBTUPGGFS
He came late to the meeting Our neighbours are moving
5IFSFJTBOFXMBXBHBJOTUUIJT This is a lead mine
He is learning the history of this
(JWFNFBTIFFUPGXIJUFQBQFS
country
This beautiful leather came from The road is on the left side of
Mexico the river
The club collects money Let me go or Ill be late
*XJMMTFOEBMFUUFSUPNZGBUIFS 8JMMUIFZCVZBOFXBTIMJHIU
5IFSFBSFUXPMJGUTJOUIJT
*XFOUUPUIFMJCSBSZUIJTNPSOJOH
building
The firm increased its profits He is very much like his father
)FNBEFBSFEMJOFXJUIIJT
There is a limit on that plane fare
pencil
They spent their vacations in Brazil Her lips are very red
There is little liquid in this bottle Here is the list of our men
5IFSFXBTOPMJWJOHUIJOHPO
She has a little brother
that island
There is no lock on this door The days are long in summer
He gave a look in that direction 5IFIPSTFXBTMPPTFPOUIFFME
That magazine is hers Our staff earns a good salary

136
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

5IFSFXBTOPMPWFJOIJTMPPL 5IFTFBSFMPXNPVOUBJOT
This machine is very old *XJMMNBLFBOPGGFSUPZPVSTPO
The opposite of male is female I have never played chess
He is the manager of our bank This is a map of Argentina
He made a mark on the paper 5IFSFJTBOPMENBSLFUJOUPXO
He is a married man I go to mass on Sundays
Have you a match? *XJMMHFUUIFNBUFSJBMTUPNPSSPX
:PVNBZHPOPX He gave a meal to that poor man
This is a measure of distance This sort of meat is bad for him
5IFSFXJMMCFBNFFUJOH
My friend is under medical care
UPNPSSPX
This sort of metal has great
My memory is very bad
value
We are in the middle of the river This is a military school
Give this milk to your son Your mind is very quick
There are sixty minutes in an
I have a mine in Mexico
hour
5IFSFXBTNJTUUIJTNPSOJOH 5IJTXJOFJTNJYFEXJUIXBUFS
There are many monkeys in
She didnt like bitter chocolates
UIPTFXPPET
5IFSFBSFUXFMWFNPOUITJOUIFZFBS *TBXUIFNPPOUISPVHIUIFUSFFT
5IFNPSOJOHXBTDPME His mother is in Uruguay
There are many mountains in
There is little motion on this ship
Chile
Could you prepare a good
Her mouth is very small
speech?
They have much in common His arms have strong muscles
This music is very beautiful Boy, your nails are very long
8IBUJTUIFOBNFPGUIJTPXFS 5IJTJTBOBSSPXTUSFFU

137
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Mexico is a great nation His natural impulses are good


I have sold a house near a factory I have all the necessary details
His neck is very thin Dont mention my name to them
Give me a needle, please *EPO{ULOPXIPXUPFYQMBJOJU
%PO{UXBJTUZPVSUJNF 8FIBWFBOFXIPVTFPOUIFIJMM
)BWFZPVBOZOFXTGSPNZPVS
5IFOJHIUXBTDPME
father?
5IFSFXBTBTUSBOHFOPJTFJOUIF
5IFSFJTOPXBUFSPONZGBSN
night
He is a normal man *XJMMHPUPUIFOPSUIPG$IJMF
John has received a message
His nose is very long
from England
8FXJMMHPOPXBOEOPU
Send this note to your father
UPNPSSPX
Give me the number of your house There are many nuts on this tree
I made an observation to the
This is a book of history
committee
Our ship is off her course He made an offer for my house
We have an office in our home There is oil in this bottle
This old house is very dark )FBMSFBEZSFBEUIFOFXTQBQFS
I carry only one key in my pocket We cant climb that mountain
My father is in charge of the What is your opinion about this
TPGUXBSF letter?
Clean is the opposite of dirty Will Mary buy her bride dress?
+PJOVTBOEZPVXJMMTFFUIF
8JMMZPVHPOPXPSUPNPSSPX
difference!
He gave the order in the morning 8FXPSLJOBHPPEPSHBOJ[BUJPO
He has some ornaments in his
/PXXFIBWFPUIFSJEFBT
house
*XJMMCFPVUBMMNPSOJOH 5IJTPWFOJTWFSZXBSN

138
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

Would you care to come to my


*BNUIFPXOFSPGUIJTIPVTF
sisters party?
There are eighty pages in this book I have a pain in my leg
This green paint is very expensive Put that paper on the table
These are parallel lines This parcel is for you
$IJOB JOUIFQBTU XBTBHSFBU
5IJTJTPOMZBQBSUPGNZXPSL
nation
What is this black paste? I made the payment yesterday
There is no peace in this house *UXBTWFSZLJOEUPLOPXZPV
He gave a pencil to the boy He is a kind person
He has great physical strength This is a picture of my father
These pigs are very fat Give me a pin for my dress
He put his pipe on the table There is no place for you
Give me a plane and a hammer What is the name of this plant?
I had thought you had undertood
5IJTJTBQMBZPGXPSET
that
I had the pleasure of his
He said: please, give me that book
company
This plough is for my farm His pocket is full of money
*XBTPOUIFQPJOUPGDPNJOH Get me a poison for rats
This is a box of polish for shoes His political position is bad
There is no porter in this
We are very poor this year
building
He has a good position in the bank )FHBWFBSFXBSEUPNZCSPUIFS
There is no rhythm in this music I have only rice for this meal
You have no right to say that She has a ring on her finger
8FXJMMHPUPUIFSJWFSUPNPSSPX 5IJTSPBEJTOFX
Those iron rods are for the He has a roll of paper in his
XJOEPXT hand

139
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

They are putting the roof on our There are eight rooms in this
house house
These are the roots of that tree He has rough hands
8IPNXJMMTIFWJTJUBUUIFIPTQJUBM Lets study those formulas
That is against the rules of this
A short run every day is healthy
hospital
Could you explain yourself,
We are in a safe place
yesterday?
*TBXUIFXIJUFTBJMTPGBTIJQ There is no salt on the table
Both countries broke the pact I have sand in my shoes
*XJMMTBZUIBUUPNZNPUIFS He doesnt smile frequently
There is a good school in this city We are learning science
5IFTFOFXTDJTTPSTBSFWFSZTIBSQ 5IPTFTDSFXTBSFGPSNZCSPUIFS
5IFXBUFSJOUIFTFBMPPLTCMVF Would you like a cup of coffee?
This is his second book I must be at the station at 15:00
He has a private secretary 8FXJMMTFFUIFIPVTFUPNPSSPX
These seeds are for our garden Horse are beautiful animals
He has a good selection of books I have great self control
*XJMMTFOEUIJTMFUUFSUPIJN This boy has no common sense
They have separate rooms You have made a serious error
He is a self made man What is the sex of this animal?
She paid $ 2.000 in advance Give the bottle a shake
It is a shame to say that He has a sharp knife in his hand
*IBWFNBEFBOFXTIFMGGPSZPVS
)FIBTUXFOUZTIFFQBOEUXPHPBUT
books
5IJTTIJQJTGSPN/FX:PSL Your shirt is on your bed
)JTEFBUIXBTBTIPDLUPNF :PVSOFXTIPFTBSFWFSZTNBMM
This is a short story He has shut the door
He is on the other side of the river )FNBEFBTJHOXJUIIJTIBOE

140
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

*IBWFBOFXTJMLTIJSU (JWFNFBTJMWFSXBUDI QMFBTF


/FWFSDIBOHFZPVSQPJOUTPGWJFX I have a sister in Buenos Aires
What is the size of your farm? 4IFIBTXIJUFTLJOBOECMVFFZFT
I sent my skirt to the laundry The sky is blue in spring
A slide on the ice can be
A deep sleep is healthy
dangerous
)FJTWFSZTMPXXJUIIJT
The road has a slope
thoughts
I have a small house in the country 5IFCBCZIBTTMFQUUXPIPVST
There is a strange smell in this
My brother paid me a visit
room
8IBUXPVMEJUIBQQFO*G*UPME
There is smoke in the room
you the truth?
This species of snakes are very long You have learnt nothing!!
5IFSFJTTOPXPOUIPTFNPVOUBJOT .ZGBUIFSJTOPUTPTUSPOHOPX
Everybody loves somebody
I have put soap in your room
sometimes
Give me a soft cushion for my
)FQVUIJTOFXTPDLTJOUIFESBXFS
seat
)FCVJMUBTPMJEXBMMBSPVOEIJT
Here I have some good books
house
1BVMEJEO{ULOPXIPXUPTQFMMNZ
That is the song of a bird
name
What sort of sheeps are these? 5IFSFXBTOPTPVOEJOUIFGPSFTU
*XBTXBUDIJOHNZGBWPSJUF57
Put the soup on the table
program
Have you a spade for the
Is there enough space for my seat?
garden?
*UXJMMHPCZTQFDJBMEFMJWFSZ There is no sponge in the bath
In this country spring is very
Here is the spoon for your soup
beautiful

141
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

There is a square table in my room 5IJTJTUIFMBTUTUBHFPGPVSXPSL


Give me a stamp for this letter Who broke his compact disks?
This is the start of the competition Make a statement to the judge
$PNFUPUIFTUBUJPOXJUINF There is thick steam in the air
I have the steel for the rails 1VUUIJTTUFNJOXBUFS
8IPTQPLFXJUIUIFTFDSFUBSZ
He gave a step in that direction
today?
Mary became an excellent
This liquid is sticky
veterinarian
My brother is still ill in bed (JWFUIJTCVUUPOBTUJUDIPSUXP
*IBEBEFMJDBUFTUPNBDIXIFO
These stockings are made of silk
young
The train makes a stop in that
The boy has a stone in his hand
station
Go to the store and get me bread %JETIFEPIFSIPNFXPSLT
8FXJMMHPTUSBJHIUUPIJTIPVTF I have had better days!
In this street the houses are very old *IBWFBXJEFTUSFUDIPGMBOE
He is very strong and very healthy *NBEFUIJTTUSVDUVSFXJUICSJDLT
5PNXBTXJUIPVUEPVCUUIFCFTU 5IFNPEFMJTXFBSJOHBOJDF
runner dress
(JWFNFUXPCBHTPGTVHBS 
I had a sudden idea
please
Your suggestions are very good 5IJTTVNNFSXFXJMMHPUP-JNB
There is a bright sun this morning He found a theory by himself
She got a surprise she did not
*HBWFTPNFTXFFUTUPZPVSCPZ
expect
Students marks are very bad this
8IBUJTZPVSOFXXPSLTZTUFN
year
There are no tables in the room This hair is from my horses tail
*XJMMESJOLBHMBTTPGNJML *IBEBUBMLXJUIZPVSGSJFOE

142
Introduccin a la Gramtica Inglesa

You havent forgotten my


My brother is a tall man
teachings
The policeman caught the thief He is teaching English
What is the political tendency this
5IJTXJMMCFBUFTUGPSZPVSCSBJO
year?
She is more beautiful than my sister I gave your book to that man
%PZPVSXPSLBOEUIFOHP
Photography is an art
home?
Maths are extremely difficult for me 8FXJMMHPUIFSFCZUSBJO
*IBWFBUIJDLDPBUGPSUIFXJOUFS She has thin fingers
.ZDBS{TSBEJPXBTTUPMFO *XJMMTFOEUIJTMFUUFSUP1BOBNB
*BNXFMM UIPVHI*EPOUGFFMWFSZ He could abandon the country
strong CFGPSFUIFXBS
Here is the thread for your dress I have a pain in my throat
)FNBEFBIPMFUISPVHIUIFXBMM He put his thumb in his mouth
Caroline didnt save enough money Give me a ticket to Venezuela
*BMXBZTCPPLNZUJDLFUTBUUIF
This collar is very tight
travel agency
/PX*IBWFUJNFGPSUIJTXPSL This is a tin mine
I am very tired this morning Whats it going on here?
We have toes on our feet 8FXFSFUPHFUIFSZFTUFSEBZ
)FXJMMDPNFUPNPSSPXXJUIIJT The fire burnt the house
mother completely
"UXIBUUJNFXJMMTIFBSSJWFGSPN We are on the top of the
her office? mountain
To the touch this feels like silk 5IFSFJTBUPXOOFBSUIJTSJWFS
5IFSFJTOPUSBEFCFUXFFOUIPTF
0VSUSBJOXBTMBUF
states
This ship is an army transport The church is on Catedral Street
He has beautiful trees in his garden This is a trick

143
I ran into trouble at the end of the
:PVSOFXUSPVTFSTBSFTIPSU
year
5VSOUPUIFMFGUBOEXBMLUISFF
The theme is highly complicated
blocks
8IZEPZPVXBMLTPGBTU 5IFZESBOLUXPCFFST
Your shoes are under the bed .ZDPNQVUFSJTWFSZQPXFSGVM
*XJMMHPVQUPUIFNFFUJOHSPPN 8IPNXPVMEZPVTFFUIJTXFFL
What is the value of this picture? He should see the doctor at once
Put your raincoat on, Its rainning There are six vessels in the
again! harbour
*IBWFBCFBVUJGVMWJFXGSPNNZ
There is a violent fight going on
XJOEPX
That is my mothers voice *IBWFCFFOXBJUJOHUXPIPVST
Human anatomy is very
"MPOHXBMLJTHPPEGPSZPV
complex
Where can he keep his documents? )PXNVDIEJEJUDPTU
Try to look for your lost pen! 5IJTJTBXBTUFPGUJNF
4IBMMXFEJTDVTTUIJTQSPZFDUJO
)FIBTBHPMEXBUDIJOIJTQPDLFU
the meeting?
(JWFNFBCPYPGXBY QMFBTF 5IJTJTUIFXBZUPTDIPPM
8FIBEHPPEXFBUIFSBMMNPOUI )FXBTBXFFLJO#VFOPT"JSFT
8IBUJTUIFXFJHIUPGUIJTQBDLBHF 7FSZXFMM XFXJMMHP
)FDBNFGSPNUIFXFTUPG#SB[JM .ZDPBUJTXFUBOEEJSUZ
)PXMPOHIBWFZPVCFFOTJDL )FTBJEXIFSFJTNZIPSTF
:PVNBZDPNFXIJMFNZTPOJT
)FHBWFBXIJTUMFUPUIFSFGFSFF
XPSLJOH
5IFSFBSFXIJUFDMPVETJOUIFTLZ Who is that man?
5IJTJTBXJEFTUSFFU CVUWFSZ
Why are you so late?
DSPXEFE
5IFSFXBTBTUSPOHXJOEUIJT
*XJMMJOTFSUUIFDEJOUIFDPNQVUFS
morning
)PXNVDIEJEIFQBZGPSUIBU57
1VUUIFXIJUFXJOFPOUIFUBCMF
set?
5IJTXJOUFS*XJMMHPUP#PMJWJB )FJTBXJTFNBO
)PXPGUFOXPVMETIFUSBWFMUP
Why couldnt you feed the bird?
Via?
What for did they import dry 5IJTTPSUPGXPPMDPNFTGSPN
fruits? Argentina
*XJMMEPUIBUXPSLJOUIF
%PZPVHFUXIBU*{NFYQMBJOJOH
morning
)PXNBOZQSPCMFNTEPFTTIFGBDF )FIBTBXPVOEJOUIFMFH
*BNXSJUJOHBMFUUFSUPSFRVJSF
4IFIBTXSPOHJEFBT
information
They brought grapes from Fifth
This is a good year for our business
Region
:FTUFSEBZXBT8FEOFTEBZ *XJMMHPXJUIZPVUPUIFDPODFSU
My dad painted his boat 8FTIBMMTIBSFPVSLOPXMFEHF
.BSJTPMXPVMEO{UCVZUIBU
)FSFUIFXBUFSJTQVSF
picture
Animals are beautiful people *XBTUPME1FUFSXBTJMM
Children should obey their
5IFBDDJEFOUXBTEFTDSJCFECZIFS
parents
Thay must learn it by heart We invited them to our church
Those mountains are a gift to our The computer is not running
eyes properly
/PCPEZLOPXTXIBUIBQQFOFE
8BSJTUIFXPSTUXPSEJOUIFXPSME
to him

5IFZBSFXFBSJOHKFBOTBOECP
Who brought us chocolates?
ots

145
Bibliografa

Longman English Grammar


L.G. Alexander
Editorial Longman
-POEPO /FX:PSL 

A Practical English Grammar


A.J. Thomson
Editorial Oxford University Press
London, 1971

An Intermediate English Practice Book


S. Pit Corder
Editorial Longman
London, 1969

Verbos Ingleses
Editorial Larousse
Ciudad de Mxico, 2001

Sixty Steps to Precis


L.G Alexander
Editorial Longman
London 1974

Writing a College Handbook


James A.W. Heffernan y John E. Lincoln
Editorial W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
/FX:PSL -POEPO 

147
Ricardo Arancibia Figueroa

Course in English
Robert J. Dixson
Editorial Simon & Schuster, Inc
/FX:PSL 

Modern American English


Robert J. Dixon
Editorial Simon & Schuster, Inc.
/FX:PSL 

New Dimensions in English


)BSPME#"MMFO 7FSOB-/FXTPNF
Editorial McCornick-Mathers Publishing Company, Inc.
Cincinnati, Ohio, 1968

English as It is
Maria J. Cesnik
Editorial Print World
El Paso Texas, 1999

A Reading Spectrum (Book 4)


Virginia French Allen
Editorial International Communication Agency
Washington, 1966

Essential English
C.E. Eckersley
Editorial Longman
-POEPO /FX:PSL 5PSPOUP 

148
Este libro se termin de imprimir
en los talleres digitales de

RIL editores
Telfono: 223-8100 / ril@rileditores.com
Santiago de Chile, marzo de 2014
Se utiliz tecnologa de ltima generacin que reduce
el impacto medioambiental, pues ocupa estrictamente el
papel necesario para su produccin, y se aplicaron altos
estndares para la gestin y reciclaje de desechos en
toda la cadena de produccin.
L a esencia de este libro es crear una slida base de la gramtica inglesa
y est orientado a personas que quieren o deben aprender ingls por
razones culturales, profesionales o curriculares.
Tiene por objetivo aportar al aprendizaje del idioma desde una perspec-
tiva diferente, pues est diseado de manera amena y fcil de entender:
cada materia es explicada y complementada con ejemplos, lo que resulta
amigable y comprensible.
Es posible utilizarlo tanto de manera autodidacta, como con apoyo do-
cente, en el aula de clases como texto de estudio y tambin como material
de consulta.
La gramtica inglesa est explicada, en gran parte, en espaol, de manera
que se puedan entender las diferencias, equivalencias y complementos idio-
mticos y los ejemplos permiten captar de mejor manera ambos idiomas.
Propone un inicio desde lo ms bsico, a partir de gran cantidad de ejem-
PLOSYDENICIONESFCILESDEENTENDERYAPLICAR YESCALONADAMENTESEVA
avanzando, hasta llegar a un nivel de ingls intermedio-avanzado. La parte
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tura y mejorar la pronunciacin.

ISBN 978-956-01-0061-0