Você está na página 1de 22

1

Assignment:-
Organization Behavior

Submitted To:-
Maam Ayasha Saddiqa

Topic:-
Personality traits

Submitted By:-
Kashif Faraz (339)
Zeeshan Ali (333)
M. Naeem (326)
Saqib Hussan(322)

Department of industrial management (MBA 3 )


rd

Government College University


Faisalabad
2
3

personality:
The dictionary defines personality as:

1. Habitual patterns and qualities of behavior of any individual as


expressed by physical and mental activities and attitudes; distinctive
individual qualities of a person, considered collectively
2. The complex of qualities and characteristics seen as being distinctive
to a group, nation, place, etc.
3. The sum of such qualities seen as being capable of making, or likely
to make, a favorable impression on other people
4. Informal personal attractiveness; engaging manner or qualities

Everybody's heard the term personality, and most of us can describe our
own or our friend's personality. What most don't know, however, is that
personality is one of the most theorized and most researched aspects of
psychology?

The key to understanding the is to think about how the person typically is
(trait) and how the person has temporarily changed (state) in response to
something.

2) Traits:
Traits are defined as "a distinguishing quality or characteristic, as of
personality." In other words, this means that personality traits are the
distinguishing characteristics that make you "you." Personality traits are
the unique set of characteristics and qualities that only you possess.
While a lot of people might have similar personality traits, each person
combines these traits in a different way, to create one unique,
irreplaceable conglomeration of traits that make up their individual
personality.
4

How Do I Create My Personality?


Your personality is entirely up to you. It is in the actions you take and the
decisions you make. Either you are a patient person, or not; a responsible
person or not. The only way to change your personality is to take active
steps to become the person you want to be.

Taking up a hobby is a great way to become well rounded and improve your
personality. Sports can make you stronger, arts and crafts can make you
patient, and volunteering can make you caring. Even just reading a book can
push you to be better.

How Can My Personality Affect Others?


Being positive and upbeat can influence everyone around you, and so can
negativity. For example, a friendly smile to a stranger can brighten up their
day, as a glare can frighten them and cause their mood to drop. Like the
famous quote, “Do unto others as you would have them do to you”. While
you may not be able to help it if you are having a bad day or if you don’t like
doing a particular thing, changing your attitude changes everything.
Complaining and sulking will only make time drag on when doing an
unpleasant task. Singing a song in your head or even humming makes it just
a little easier to deal with. Being a pleasant person helps every day.

WHY PERSONALITY TESTING ? or (the


features and benefits of personality):
- Having the ability to learn about a person's personality reveals many new
questions you will surely want to discuss in the interview before making a
hiring or promotion decision. Interviews often start by having the applicant
tell the interviewer something about themselves. Perhaps even more often,
5

the applicant is better prepared for the interview than the person conducting
the interview!

Having personality information available can help keep the interview


focused on the important issues.

Basic purpose and procedure:


Companies with sophisticated development systems uses psychological tests to measure
employees skills personality types and communication styles self peer and managers
ratings of implores interpersonal styles and behaviors may also be collected

The Myers Briggs type indicator(MBTI)

Is the most popular psychological test for employ development?

As many as 2 million people take the MBTI in the us each year the test consists of more
than 100 questions about how the persons feels or prefer to behave in different situations

Jung's typological model regards psychological type as similar to left or


right handedness: individuals are either born with, or develop, certain
preferred ways of thinking and acting. The MBTI sorts some of these
psychological differences into four opposite pairs, or dichotomies, with a
resulting 16 possible psychological types. None of these types are better or
worse; however, Briggs and Myers theorized that individuals naturally
prefer one overall combination of type differences. In the same way that
writing with the left hand is hard work for a right-hander, so people tend to
find using their opposite psychological preferences more difficult, even if
they can become more proficient (and therefore behaviorally flexible) with
practice and development.
The 16 types are typically referred to by an abbreviation of four letters—the
initial letters of each of their four type preferences (except in the case of
intuition, which uses the abbreviation N to distinguish it from Introversion).
For instance:
ESTJ: extraversion (E), sensing (S), thinking (T), judgment (J)
INFP: introversion (I), intuition (N), feeling (F), perception (P)

And so on for all 16 possible type


6

ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ

ISTP ISFP INFP INTP

ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP

ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ

The MBTI identifies individual preferences for energy (introversion VS


extroversion (information gathering (Sensing VS intuition) decision making
(Thinking VS feeling) and life style (Judging VS Perceiving) the energy
dimension determine where individuals gain intrapersonal strength and
vitality.

Attitudes: Extraversion (E)/Introversion (I):

Extraverted (E):
Extraversion is a preference to focus on the world outside the self. Extraverts
enjoy social interactions and tend to be enthusiastic, verbal, assertive, and
animated. They enjoy large social gatherings, such as parties and any kind of
group activity. Extraverts are likely to enjoy time spent with people and find
themselves energized by social interaction.
Introverted (I):
Introversion is a preference to focus on the world inside the self. Introverts
tend to be quiet, peaceful and deliberate and are not attracted to social
interactions. They prefer activities they can do alone or with one other close
friend, activities such as reading, writing, thinking, and inventing. Introverts
find social gatherings draining.

people believe that an extrovert is a person who is friendly and outgoing.


While that may be true, that is not the true meaning of extroversion.
Basically, an extrovert is a person who is energized by being around other
people. This is the opposite of an introvert who is energized by being alone.
7

Extroverts tend to "fade" when alone and can easily become bored without
other people around. When given the chance, an extrovert will talk with
someone else rather than sit alone and think. In fact, extroverts tend to think
as they speak, unlike introverts who are far more likely to think before they
speak. Extroverts often think best when they are talking. Concepts just don't
seem real to them unless they can talk about them; reflecting on them isn't
enough.
Extroverts enjoy social situations and even seek them out since they enjoy
being around people. Their ability to make small talk makes them appear to
be more socially adept than introverts (although introverts may have little
difficulty talking to people they don't know if they can talk about concepts
or issues).
The extravert's flow is directed outward toward people and objects, and the
introvert's is directed inward toward concepts and ideas. Contrasting
characteristics between extraverts and introverts include the following:

• Extraverts are action oriented, while introverts are thought oriented.


• Extraverts seek breadth of knowledge and influence, while introverts
seek depth of knowledge and influence.
• Extraverts often prefer more frequent interaction, while introverts
prefer more substantial interaction.

Extraverts recharge and get their energy from spending time with people,
while introverts recharge and get their energy from spending time alone.

Functions: Sensing (S)/Intuition (N) and Thinking


(T)/Feeling (F):

Sensing (S):
Sensing refers to how people process data. Sensing people focus on the
present, they are "here and now" people, who are factual and process
information through the five senses. They see things as they are, they are
concrete thinkers.
Intuition (N):
Intuition refers to how people process data. Intuitive people focus on the
future and the possibilities. They process information through patterns and
impressions. They read between the lines, they are abstract thinkers.
8

Thinking (T):
Thinking refers to how people make decisions. Thinking people are
objective and make decisions based on facts. They are ruled by their head
instead of their heart. Thinking people judge situations and others based on
logic.
Feeling (F):
Feeling refers to how people make decisions. Feeling people are subjective
and make decisions based on principles and values. They are ruled by their
heart instead of their head. Feeling people judge situations and others based
on feelings and extenuating circumstances.
pairs of psychological functions:

• The two perceiving functions, sensing and intuition


• The two judging functions, thinking and feeling

According to the Myers-Briggs typology model, each person uses one of


these four functions more dominantly and proficiently than the other three;
however, all four functions are used at different times depending on the
circumstances.Sensing and intuition are the information-gathering
(perceiving) functions. They describe how new information is understood
and interpreted.

As noted already, people who prefer thinking do not necessarily, in the


everyday sense, "think better" than their feeling counterparts; the opposite
preference is considered an equally rational way of coming to decisions
(and, in any case, the MBTI assessment is a measure of preference, not
ability). Similarly, those who prefer feeling do not necessarily have "better"
emotional reactions than their thinking counterparts.

Lifestyle: Judgment (J)/Perception (P):


Judging (J):
Judging is the preference outwardly displayed. Judging does not mean
"judgmental". Judging people like order, organization and think sequentially.
They like to have things planned and settled. Judging people seek closure.

Perceiving (P):
9

Perceiving is the preference outwardly displayed. Perceiving people are


flexible, like to keep their options open and think randomly. They like to act
spontaneously and are adaptable. Perceivers like to keep things open ended.
nd Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by
identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging
function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or
intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).

Measurement:
Extraversion-introversion is normally measured by self-report. A
questionnaire might ask if the test-taker agrees or disagrees with statements
such as I am the life of the party or I think before I talk.

Extraverted and Introverted are opposite preferences. A person's natural


tendency toward one will be stronger than the other.

Extraverted (E):
Extraversion is a preference to focus on the world outside the self. Extraverts
enjoy social interactions and tend to be enthusiastic, verbal, assertive, and
animated. They enjoy large social gatherings, such as parties and any kind of
group activity. Extraverts are likely to enjoy time spent with people and find
themselves energized by social interaction.

Extravert Characteristics :
• Gregarious
• Assertive
• Talkative
• Social/outgoing
• Likes groups, parties, etc.
• Energized by interaction
• Expressive & enthusiastic
• Volunteers personal information
• Distractable
• Has many friends
• Easy to approach
10

Extraverted Personality Types :


• ESTJ - Overseer
• ESTP - Persuader
• ESFJ - Supporter
• ESFP - Entertainer
• ENTJ - Chief
• ENTP - Originator
• ENFJ - Mentor

ENFP – Advocate

Introverted (I):
Introversion is a preference to focus on the world inside the self. Introverts
tend to be quiet, peaceful and deliberate and are not attracted to social
interactions. They prefer activities they can do alone or with one other close
friend, activities such as reading, writing, thinking, and inventing. Introverts
find social gatherings draining.
Introvert Characteristics:
• Energized by time alone
• Private
• Keeps to self
• Quiet
• Deliberate
• Internally aware
• Fewer friends
• Prefer smaller groups
• Independent
• Not socially inclined
• Enjoys solitude
• Thinks before speaking

Introverted Personality Types :


• ISTJ - Examiner
• ISTP - Craftsman
• ISFJ - Defender
11

• ISFP - Artist
• INTJ - Strategist
• INTP - Engineer
• INFJ - Confidant
• INFP - Dreamer

Sensing and iNtuition are opposite preferences. A person's natural tendency toward one
will be stronger than the other.

Sensing (S):
Sensing refers to how people process data. Sensing people focus on the
present, they are "here and now" people, who are factual and process
information through the five senses. They see things as they are, they are
concrete thinkers.
Sensing Characteristics :
• Concrete
• Realistic
• Lives in the present
• Aware of surroundings
• Notices details
• Practical
• Goes by senses
• Factual

Sensing Personality Types :


• ESTJ - Overseer
• ESTP - Persuader
• ESFJ - Supporter
• ESFP - Entertainer
• ISTJ - Examiner
• ISTP - Craftsman
12

• ISFJ - Defender

ISFP – Artist

Intuition (N):
Intuition refers to how people process data. Intuitive people focus on the
future and the possibilities. They process information through patterns and
impressions. They read between the lines, they are abstract thinkers.
Intuitive Characteristics :
• Future-focused
• Sees possibilities
• Inventive
• Imaginative
• Deep
• Abstract
• Idealistic
• Complicated
• Theoretical

iNtuition Personality Types :


• ENTJ - Chief
• ENTP - Originator
• ENFJ - Mentor
• ENFP - Advocate
• INTJ - Strategist
• INTP - Engineer
• INFJ - Confidant
• INFP - Dreamer

Thinking and Feeling are opposite preferences. A person's


natural tendency toward one will be stronger than the other.
Thinking (T):
Thinking refers to how people make decisions. Thinking people are
objective and make decisions based on facts. They are ruled by their head
13

instead of their heart. Thinking people judge situations and others based on
logic.

Thinking Characteristics :
• Logical
• Objective
• Decides with head
• Wants truth
• Rational
• Impersonal
• Critical
• Thick-skinned
• Firm with people
• Driven by thought

Thinking Personality Types :


• ESTJ - Overseer
• ESTP - Persuader
• ENTJ - Chief
• ENTP - Originator
• ISTJ - Examiner
• ISTP - Craftsman
• INTJ - Strategist

INTP – Engineer

Feeling (F):
Feeling refers to how people make decisions. Feeling people are subjective
and make decisions based on principles and values. They are ruled by their
heart instead of their head. Feeling people judge situations and others based
on feelings and extenuating circumstances.
Feeling Characteristics :
• Decides with heart
• Dislikes conflict
• Passionate
14

• Driven by emotion
• Gentle
• Easily hurt
• Empathetic
• Caring of others
• Warm

Feeling Personality Types :


• ESFJ - Supporter
• ESFP - Entertainer
• ENFJ - Mentor
• ENFP - Advocate
• ISFJ - Defender
• ISFP - Artist
• INFJ - Confidant
• INFP - Dreamer

Judging and Perceiving are opposite preferences. A


person's natural tendency toward one will be stronger than
the other.

Judging (J):

Judging is the preference outwardly displayed. Judging does not mean


"judgmental". Judging people like order, organization and think sequentially.
They like to have things planned and settled. Judging people seek closure.

Judging Characteristics :
• Decisive
• Controlled
15

• Good at finishing
• Organized
• Structured
• Scheduled
• Quick at tasks
• Responsible
• Likes closure
• Makes plans

Judging Personality Types:


• ESTJ - Overseer
• ESFJ - Supporter
• ENTJ - Chief
• ENFJ - Mentor
• ISTJ - Examiner
• ISFJ - Defender
• INTJ - Strategist

INFJ – Confidant

Perceiving (P):
Perceiving is the preference outwardly displayed. Perceiving people are
flexible, like to keep their options open and think randomly. They like to act
spontaneously and are adaptable. Perceivers like to keep things open ended.

Perceiving Characteristics:
• Adaptable
• Relaxed
• Disorganized
• Care-free
• Spontaneous
• Changes tracks midway
• Keeps options open
• Procrastinates
• Dislikes routine
• Flexible

Perceiving Personality Types :


16

• ESTP - Persuader
• ESFP - Entertainer
• ENTP - Originator
• ENFP - Advocate
• ISTP - Craftsman
• ISFP - Artist
• INTP - Engineer

INFP – Dreamer

Assesign the individual personality:


Determining one's natural Myers-Briggs Type or one's Personality Type is
frequently complicated by our life-long learning experiences. The classic
question is: " Am I this way because I learned it or is this just the way I
am?"

In reviewing the comparisons in our inventory, you may find yourself drawn
equally to opposing choices. In such cases I suggest you try to think back to
how you were before the age of 12 or even younger if you can recall. The
rationale for this suggestion is the fact that by the time we are 3 years old,
the core of our cognitive organization is well-fixed. . . although the brain
continues to allow some plasticity until puberty.

After the onset of puberty, our adult learning begins to overlay our core
personality - which is when the blending of nature and nurture becomes
more evident. For some people, this "learning" serves to strengthen what is
already there, but with others it produces multiple faces to personality.

Discovering or rediscovering this innate core of yourself is part of the


journey of using personality type to enrich your life.

Each of the four questions of the CSI inventory has two parts. The first
part is a general description of the preference choices. The second part is
a list of paired statements. Use both parts to form your opinion on your
more dominant preference.

Q1. Which is your most natural energy orientation?


17

Every person has two faces. One is directed towards the OUTER world
of activities, excitements, people, and things. The other is directed inward
to the INNER world of thoughts, interests, ideas, and imagination.

While these are two different but complementary sides of our nature,
most people have an innate preference towards energy from either the
OUTER or the INNER world. Thus one of their faces, either the
Extraverted (E) or Introverted (I), takes the lead in their personality
development and plays a more dominant role in their behavior.

On the other hand normally the small and easy question are asked from
the respondent such like.

what's your motto?

o just the facts


o trust your gut

time is...

o money
o relative

life is in the...

o details
o big picture

Extraverted Introverted
Characteristics Characteristics
• Act first, think/reflect later • Think/reflect first, then Act
• Feel deprived when cutoff • Regularly require an amount
from interaction with the of "private time" to recharge
18

outside world batteries


• Usually open to and • Motivated internally, mind is
motivated by outside world sometimes so active it is
of people and things "closed" to outside world

• Enjoy wide variety and • Prefer one-to-one


change in people communication and
relationships relationships

Q2. Which way of Perceiving or understanding is most


"automatic" or natural?
The Sensing (S) side of our brain notices the sights, sounds, smells and
all the

sensory details of the PRESENT. It categorizes, organizes, records and


stores the specifics from the here and now. It is REALITY based, dealing
with "what is." It also provides the specific details of memory &
recollections from PAST events.

The Intuitive (N) side of our brain seeks to understand, interpret and form
OVERALL patterns of all the information that is collected and records
these patterns and relationships. It speculates on POSSIBILITIES,
including looking into and forecasting the FUTURE. It is imaginative and
conceptual.

While both kinds of perceiving are necessary and used by all people,
each of us instinctively tends to favor one over the other.
On the other hand normally the small and easy question are asked from
the respondent such like.

all the importance to….

o small things
o big things...
19

pick one...

o literal
o figurative

sports is...

o stats
o passion

Sensing Characteristics Intuitive Characteristics

• Mentally live in the Now, • Mentally live in the Future,


attending to present attending to future
opportunities possibilities
• Using common sense and • Using imagination and
creating practical solutions is creating/inventing new
automatic-instinctual possibilities is automatic-
• Memory recall is rich in instinctual
detail of facts and past • Memory recall emphasizes
events patterns, contexts, and
• Best improvise from past connections
experience • Best improvise from
theoretical understanding
• Like clear and concrete
information; dislike guessing • Comfortable with ambiguous,
when facts are "fuzzy" fuzzy data and with guessing
its meaning.

Q3. Which way of forming Judgments and making


choices is most natural?
The Thinking (T) side of our brain analyzes information in a DETACHED,
objective fashion. It operates from factual principles, deduces and forms
conclusions systematically. It is our logical nature.
20

The Feeling (F) side of our brain forms conclusions in an ATTACHED and
somewhat global manner, based on likes/dislikes, impact on others, and
human and aesthetic values. It is our subjective nature.

While everyone uses both means of forming conclusions, each person has
a natural bias towards one over the other so that when they give us
conflicting directions - one side is the natural trump card or tiebreaker.
On the other hand normally the small and easy question are asked from
the respondent such like.

like to be...

o specific
o general

which do you like to do...

o watch one show until it's over


o channel surf constantly

which would you rather do...

o make a plan
o wing it

Thinking Characteristics Feeling Characteristics

• Instinctively search for facts • Instinctively employ personal


and logic in a decision feelings and impact on people
situation. in decision situations
• Naturally notices tasks and • Naturally sensitive to people
work to be accomplished. needs and reactions.
• Easily able to provide an • Naturally seek consensus and
21

objective and critical popular opinions.


analysis.
• Unsettled by conflict; have
• Accept conflict as a natural, almost a toxic reaction to
normal part of relationships disharmony.
with people.

Q4. What is your "action orientation" towards the


outside world?
All people use both judging (thinking and feeling) and perceiving (sensing
and intuition) processes to store information, organize our thoughts, make
decisions, take actions and manage our lives. Yet one of these processes
(Judging or Perceiving) tends to take the lead in our relationship with the
outside world . . . while the other governs our inner world.

A Judging (J) style approaches the outside world WITH A PLAN and is
oriented towards organizing one's surroundings, being prepared, making
decisions and reaching closure and completion.

A Perceiving (P) style takes the outside world AS IT COMES and is


adopting and adapting, flexible, open-ended and receptive to new
opportunities and changing game plans.

On the other hand normally the small and easy question are asked from
the respondent such like.

daydreaming is...

o a waste of time
o fun
22

which do you prefer on tests...

o multiple choice
o essay-type questions

Judging Characteristics Perceiving Characteristics

• Plan many of the details in • Comfortable moving into


advance before moving into action without a plan; plan
action. on-the-go.
• Focus on task-related action; • Like to multitask, have
complete meaningful variety, mix work and play.
segments before moving on. • Naturally tolerant of time
• Work best and avoid stress pressure; work best close to
when able to keep ahead of the deadlines.
deadlines.
• Instinctively avoid
• Naturally use targets, dates commitments which interfere
and standard routines to with flexibility, freedom and
manage life. variety

(The personality of some employees will be evaluated


in the presentation)

The end