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Pathogens Name, Morphology of Virus Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and modes of Microbiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment

icrobiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment and

taxonomy Properties transmission Specimens and Methods of Examination Immunoprophylaxis
ARVI Acute
respiratory viral Tissue culture Person to person Diagnosis by culture, antigenic detection or serology Treatment
infection Chicken Respiratory droplets
embryo A. Specimen No ARVI-specific antiviral therapy except for
Common cold Lab. Animals Nasophranygeal aspirates influenza
They are Intranasal and topical interferon- is
Dna containing virus Non-enveloped Double 41 known B. Rapid Diagnosis effective
Icosahedral stranded DNA intracellular antigenic Detect viral antigens
F: Adenoviridae nucleocapsid types By immunofluorescence method using fluorescence Immunoprophylaxis
G: Mastanedovirus 3,4,7 labeled specific antibodies
Also by enzymatic immunoassay Only for adenoviral and influenza
Immunity against one serotype not cross
RNA- containing virus RNA envelope Segmented (8 H-an C. Virological protective
viruses pieces) N-an Inoculation onto tissue culture Maybe transient
F: Orthomyxoviridae Helical capsule Identification of virus is performed by examination of To prevent reinfecion- specific serum and
G: Influenza virus -ve polarity antigenic structure in immune test / VN / CF / HAI secretory antibodies (IgA)
For recovery,
D. Serological - nasal interferons
IgG antibodies are usually sought - cellular immunity
Need 10-14 days to detect < four fold rise in IgG antibody
F: Paramyxoviridae RNA and Antigenic
G: Respirovirus 1, 3 nucleocapsid spikes
(Parainfluenza virus) Single stranded and H-an
helical nucleocapsid N-an
G: Pneumovirus Protein envelope Fuschia
(Resp. syncritical virus
Virion containing formation of
RSV with 3 serotypes)
RNA polymerase multinucleated
G: Morbillivirus ( -ve polarity) giant cells

G: Rubulavirus
(Parainfluenza virus
serotype 2, 4a, 4b)

F: Coronavidae
G: Coronavirus

F: Picornavirus Non-enveloped Single

G: Rhinovirus Icosahedral stranded
nucleocapsid +ve polarity

F: Reoviridae RNA is double layer Segment Viral

G: Orthoreovirus icosahedral capsid Double hemagglutinin
without envelope stranded DNA Type specific
genome A-
Virion has RNA
INFLUENZA Medium sized Segmented Tissue culture Protective viral Droplets spread by cough and A. Specimens Treatment
Enveloped Single Chicken antigens: sneezing
F: Orthomyxoviridae stranded embryo - haemagglutinin Nasopharyngeal aspirates Severe influenza infection :
Negative sense Lab. Animals ( H-an) - Rimantidine
G: Influenza Virus RNA genome - nueradiminase B. Rapid Diagnosis - Amantidine
Helical (N-an)
Have A,B,C, subtype Detection of viral antigen by CF and ELISA Ribavirin (Type A and B)
according to internal Antigenic PCR can also be used Interferon
structural antigens changes Ig antiviral
Antigenic drift C. Virological Exam
- structural Immunoprophylaxis
changes in Inoculation into cultural model
antigens H and N Indication of viruses depends on sensitive system but main Vaccination
due to viral test is HA-test - Live vaccine
genome mutation Identification - Killed vaccine formalin killed
- Subunit vaccine (have H and N antigen)
Antigenic shift D. Serological Exam - Split vaccine ( have H and N antigen
-structural chemical treatment to decrease pyrogen)
changes in H or Rise in IgG antibody
N antigen Chemoprophylaxis
Detection by CF, HAI
resulting in new
subtype Rimantidin (against influenza A but not B)

Epidemiology Pathogenesis Clinical Manifestations

Different degrees of epidemics or global Site of infection is the ciliated columnar Sudden fever, chills, headache, myalgia,
pandemics epithelial cells dry cough
Usually in young adults, but with higher Early stage : necrosis of nasal and Sore throat, nasal stuffiness
mortality in the elderly tracheal ciliated cells Have primary pneumonia
Spread occlusively in winter Virus imparts chemotaxis and Have bacterial superinfection
phagocytosis by macrophages and (pneumococci, staphylococci aureus)
neutrophils Influenza B and C more severe than
Secondary -> illness and death Influenza A
Influenza B can cause ocular diseases