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Pathogens Name, Morphologic and Cultural and biochemical Antigenic Virulence Factors Microbiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment

Microbiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment and

taxonomy Tinctorial Properties properties Properties Specimens and Methods of Examination Immunoprophylaxis

BOTULISM Gram +ve Decompose proteins Exotoxins Botulism exotoxin A,B,C1,C2,D-G Specimen Treatment
Rods Ferment a variety of sugars Teichoic ABE- principle cause of human illness - vomit, gastric lavage, feces, autopsy material, Trivalent (ABE) antitoxin neutralizes the
F: Clostridiaceae Spore-forming C. Botulism is Lipase +ve acid AB mainly in food, E in fish leftover food exotoxin
G: Clostridium - to detect toxin and pathogen
Motile , except Many clostridia can cause CD in animals
S: Botulinum H antigen Immunoprophylaxis
C.perfinges hemolysis zone G non disease causing Examination
Endospores Obligate anaerobes - peptidoglycan Trivalent toxoid (ABE)
-enteral clostridiosis Toxins controlled by lysogenic group of genes Bacteriological
-central culturing in anaerobic media : exotoxin , Tetravalent toxoid (ABE , tetanus toxoid)
- Found in soil, Neurotoxin - attacks centres of brain
-subterminal (tennis - Wilson Blair media depends on Pentatoxoid
contaminated vege , - Blocks ACh release Bacterioscopical not beneficial
racket appearance) - Chopped meat glucose type of - polyvalent 5 toxoids (ABE + 2 gas gangrene
food and animals - Flexoid paralysis
media C.Botulinum toxoids)
The vegetative form grows Serological Hexatoxoid
and produces toxin in - neutralization test (in vivo) the ability of - Polyvalent 6 toxoids (3 botulism, 2 gas
anaerobic condition botulism antitoxin to neutralize botulism toxin gangrene and 1 tetanus toxoid)
Epidemiology injected in mice ( a form of biological test) Proper sterilization when packing food
Pathogenesis Clinical Findings -passive hemagglutination test.
Adequately cooked food
Spores, widespread in soil, contaminate vege and - R-IHA, RIA ( in vitro)
From Gut Weakness and paralysis Erythrocyte diagnosticum with antibody A
Via bloodstream Diplopia Erythrocyte diagnosticum with antibody B
Canned @ vacuum-packed food without adequate
To peripheral NS in nerve synapse blocks Dysphagia Polyvalent erythrocyte diagnosticum with
release of ACh Resp. muscle failure antibody ABE
2 types of clinical form :
- wound botulism (locally) - PCR for diagnosis
- infant botulism ( grows in gut)

TETANUS Endospores Strict anaerobes H antigen Tetanospasmin (neurotoxin) Specimen Treatment

-central Ferment sugar - released by vegetative cell - tissue from wound, blood, surgical dressing, soil Tetanus antitoxin (non-immunized patients)
F: Clostridiaceae -terminal (drum stick Digest proteims - acts on CNS - bacteria are localized in portal of entry but - of animal or human origin
G: Clostridium appearance) - blocks ACh release exotoxins can spread Penicillin (anti-microbial)
S: Tetani - inhibition of postsynaptic spinal neuron Tetanus toxoid (immunized patients)
- blocking of neuromuscular transmission Examination
(saprophytes) Bacteriological Immunoprophylaxis
Tetanolysin - Rarely : treatment needs to be rapid and fast Tetanus Toxoid (DPT-vaccines)
-parentral clostridiosis - lysis if RBC - C. tetanus has only one type of toxin
-Found in soil, feces of Bacterioscopical - toxin treated with 0.4% formalin, 40 C for 4
horses and other Exotoxin - Terminal, swollen endospores are seen weeks -> loses toxicity but retains antigenicity
animals - cause toxinemia Children are immunized by DPT vaccine
Serological Proper care of wounds contaminated with soil
-neutralization test (in vivo)
-R-IHA, RIA ( in vitro) to detect and identify
Epidemiology Pathogenesis Clinical findings tetanus toxin
Widespread in soil Tetanus toxin (tetanospasmin) exotoxin Violent muscular spasm Rapid Test PCR to etect DNA of microbe
Portal of entry -> wound produced by vegetative cells Lockjaw due to rigid contraction of jaw muscles
Germination of spores is favored by necrotic Act on CNS inhibits release of inhibitory Resp. failure
tissues and poor blood supply in wound mediators at spinal synapses Increase mortality rate
Neonatal tetanus organism enters through
umbilicus tract
GAS GANGRENE Endospores Ferment CHO with formation Lecithinase (-toxin) ferments lecithin Specimen Treatment
-central of gas Thetha toxin (-toxin) hemorrhagic and - wounds, pus, tissue Surgical debridement / amputation
F: Clostridiaceae -terminal Hemolysis +ve necrotizing effect - smears - seen as large number of G+ve rods in Gas gangrene polyvalent antitoxin
G: Clostridium - subterminal Sterile milk DNA-ase, RNA-ase G-ve environment
Anti-microbial drugs - penicillin
S: Perfinges Motile, peritrichous - spores usually not present
* clot torn with gas bubbles Hyaluronidase Hyperbaric O2
* has ABCDE flagella Wilson-Blair agar Collagenase Polyvalent anti-toxin
subspecies Examination
(thioglycollate medium) Exotoxins (ABCDE) - has lethal, necrotizing and
Novyi Bacterioscopical
* black colonies and some gas hemorrhagic properties Immunoprophylaxis
Septicum - large gram +ve rods in gram stain
bubbles - has neurotoxin effect Gas gangrene toxoids
Histolyticum - spores not present.
Ramorum Chopped meat glucose Enterotoxin causes food poisoning by marked -pentatoxoid
medium (Kitt-tavozri medium) hypersecretion in jejunum and ileum leading to - polyvalent toxoid (6 toxoids)
-spores in soil, vege , * liquid phase non-transparent loss of fliud and electrolytes..
-normals flora of 5% blood agar
1. - Wilson-Blair agar (thioglycollate medium)
vagina and colon *greenish zone of hemolysis
* black colonies and some gas bubbles
- Chopped meat glucose medium (Kitt-tavozri
* liquid phase non-transparent
- 5% blood agar
Only C. Perfinges is
*greenish zone of hemolysis (-hemolysis
aerotolerant but non motile 2. Growth on first medias transferred to sterile milk
The rest are obligate 3. In 24 hours, a lot of clots torn by gas
anaerobes but motile C.Perfinges
Clinical Findings 4. Biochemical analysis hemolysis and colony
Pain 5. Lecithinase activit forms colony in egg-yolk-salt
Cellulitis around the wound Serological
Hemolysis and jaundice are common -neutralization test (in vivo)
Increased mortality rate -R-IHA, RIA ( in vitro)