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Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for

Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Adenoviridae Different size- ds DNA tissue culture, Hemagglutinin for Aerogenic route via Specimens: nasopharyngeal No specific AVRI antiviral
G: Mastadenovirus Smallest white mice, orthomyxoviridae and respiratory droplets. aspirates, conjunctiva therapy. Intranasal and
Serotypes: Picornaviridae- 20 nm chicken embryo paramymyxoviridae Contact route: hand to scrapping, autopsy material. topical interferon
Adenoviruses, Largest (allantoic cavity) nose Nose and throat swab give (leukocytic or
epidemic serotypes Paramyxoviridae- Source: human lower yield recombinant) effective in
3, 4, 7 (12, 21) 200nm keratoconjunctivitis.
Rapid Diagnosis: detection of
F: Paramyxoviridae Orthomyxoviridae, (-) ss RNA viral antigen by IF or EIA. Vaccines only for
G: Respirovirus Paramyxoviridae and Usually not conducted- too adenoviruses and
Serotypes: Coronaviridae are many Ags. influenza. Too many types
Parainfluenza virus enveloped of vaccines to prerpare.
serotype 1,3 The rest are naked Virological examination:
inoculation onto tissue culture.
G: Pneumovirus (-) ss RNA RSV has tendency to form
Serotypes: respiratory multinucleated giant cells.
syncitial virus- 3 Adenoviruses replicate
serotypes intracellularly and form
intracellular inclusions. Other
F: Coronaviridae- (-) ss RNA viruses do not produce a
G: Coronavirus marked CPE and are indicated
Serotypes: by ability to agglutinate RBC
Coronaviruses(11 (hemagglutinin test).
serotypes) Identification of antigenic
structure by VN, CF, HAI.
F: Picornaviridae- (+) ss RNA
G: Rhinovirus Serological: detection of IgG by
Serotypes: CF, VN, HAI. Acute and
Rhinoviruses(more convalescent sera taken at
than 100 serotypes) least 10-14 days apart.

F: Reoviridae- ds Virusoscopic: demonstration of


G: Orthoreovirus segmented intracellular inclusion for
Serotypes: RNA Adenovirus
Respiratory
reoviruses(3
serotypes)

F: Orthomyxoviridae (-) ss RNA


G: Influenza virus
Serotypes: A, B, C
Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Orthomyxoviridae 110nm in diameter, Segmented Chicken embryos Hemagglutinin Aerogenic route through Specimens: Nasopharyngeal Treatment:
G: Influenza virus spherical or rod (-) ss RNA respiratory droplets aspirates, sputum, autopsy 1. Non-specific: IFN and
Serotypes: A, B, C shaped, helical Serotypes Cell cultures Neuraminidase material, nasal and pharyngeal Vitamin C
capsid, enveloped. A, B has 8 Contact route through swabs give lower yield 2. Specific:
segments Laboratory Nuclear protein indirect contact of Rimantadine/
While animals contaminated objects Rapid diagnosis: detection of amantadine for type
serotype C M2 protein viral antigen by CF test, ELISA, A influenza. Not
has 7 PCR or IF given to children up
segments- to 12 yo.
very Virological: inoculation into Arbidol (type A, B)
changeable chicken embryos, cell cultures, Ribavirin (type A, B)
through Ag laboratory animals. Indication is Tamiflu (inhibitor of
drift and Ag by HA test, colour test or neuraminidase,
shift hemadsoprtion test and inhibit both entrance
identification by CF test and release)
(identify serotype) and HAI test Prophlaxis
(for subtyping). 1. Non-specific:
Wearing mask
Serological: rise in IgG Immunomodifiers
antibodies by CF test and HAI. Using of
Must collect paired patient handkerchief
sera. 2. Specific vaccination:
1. Live vaccines (given
Virusoscopic: demonstration of orally) containing live
inclusion in cytoplasm. attenuated strains of
A(H3N2), A(H1N1) and B
2. Formalin inactivated
vaccine
3. Subunit vaccine
containing H and N
antigens
4. Split vaccine
Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Rhabdoviridae Bullet shaped capsid (-) ss non- mice single antigenic type Contact route- direct biting Specimens: brain of a suspect Prevention and control:
G: Lyssavirus with a length of about segmented residing in the by infected animals: bat, rabid animal that might have annual vaccination of
S: Rabies virus- 180 nm. Spiral RNA murine envelope dog, fox and wolf. infected the pt, skin biopsy, domestics animal
genotype 1 symmetry neuroblastoma cell glycoprotein spikes brain biopsy, corneal
capsomeres. One end culture Aerogenic route- impression smear, saliva, CSF Post-exposure
is rounded or conical nucleoprotein inhalation of contaminated prophylaxis: aim to
and the other end is aerosols of bats Rapid diagnosis: detection of neutralize inoculated virus
planar or concave. antigen by direct IF antibody b4 entering nervous
Surrounded by Rarely through test on acetone-fixed brain system- Wound cleansing
lipoprotein envelope transplantation esp impression smears or using or application of viricidal
cornea. ELISA. Detection of antigen by agents e.g. alcohol,
IF using pts skin biopsy. PCR quaternary ammonium
is of diagnostics vale also. compounds or aq iodine

Virusological: intracerebral Specific prophylaxis:


inoculation of mice (3 weeks) 1. Active immunization-
or murine neuroblastoma cell tissue culture vaccine.
culture (4 days) Latest- duck embryo
vaccine
Virusoscopic:Detection of 2. Passive immunization-
Babes-Negri bodies in brain rabies immunoglobulin
tissue under light microscopy

F: Poxviridae brick shaped particles linear ds tissue cultures Hemagglutinin Contact route by minute Specimen: vesicular fluid of the Treatment:
G: Orthopoxvirus of about 200-400nm DNA (observe skin abrasion skin lesions, blood, Methisazone
S: Variola vera long a disk shaped Guarnieris spot) Nucleroprotein Aerogenic route by nasopharyngeal swab, autopsy
core within a double inhaling airborne virus. material. Vaccination: live divergent
membrane and a Chicken embryo vaccinecontaining cow
lipoprotein envelope. on CAM Rapid diagnosis: detection of pox virus recommended
viral antigen using IF test, PCR for lab technician.

Virological: growing cell in cell


cultures or chicken embryo

Viroscopic: Demonstration of
presence of virus- Pashens
particle (silver impregnation) or
Guarnieris spot.

Serological: low benefit


Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Picornaviridae Naked, icosahendral, (+) ss Primary or 3 Ag types: I, II, III Fecal-oral route. Specimens: nasopharyngeal Treatment is non specific
G: Enterovirus 27nm in diameter, linear RNA continuous cell line 2 type-specific Ag: D Aerogenic route via swab, stool, CSF, autopsy aiming at symptomatic
Serotypes: contains 60 of human tissues and C which can be respiratory secretions. material. relief and respiratory
Polioviruses types capsomeres n monkey kidney detected by ELISA. D support.
1-3 cells and certain form is converted to Humans are the only Virological: Isolation of the
cell lines (HeLa) at C form by heating. D natural hosts. virus Immunoprophylaxis:
36-37C represents the full 1. Inoculation of cell cultures of 1. killed vaccine (Salk
particle while C is the monkey kidney cells, human vaccine)
empty particle. C amnionic cell lines, HeLa 2. Live vaccine (Sabin
form is cross 2. Indication by CPE, color test, vaccine)
reactive. plaque formation test
3. Identification in VN test with
type I, II, III antisera. CF test,
PG and IF tests may also be
used.

Serological: rise in antibody


titer in paired patient sera using
VN test or CF test.

F: Togaviruses icosahedral (+) ss RNA cell culture hemagglutinin Aerogenic route: Specimen: Amniotic fluid, Treatment: no antiviral
G: Rubela virus which nucleocapsid and respiratory droplets serum therapy.
causes rubella and lipoprotein envelope
congenital rubella Via blood: Transplacental Serology: detection of rising Prevention: live
syndrome antibodies. attenuated vaccine
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Herpeviridae Enveloped virus ds linear cell culture HSV-1: Aerogenic route Specimen: vesicular fluid from Treatment: Acyclovir
SF: Alphaherpesvirinae covered by cubical DNA via respiratory secretion skin lesion. which acts on thymidine
G: Simplexvirus capsid embryonated and saliva kinase, IFN inductors
Type: HHV-1, 2, chicken egg Virusoscopic: Tzanck smear in
Herpes simplex virus 1, 2 HSV-2: Contract route via which cells from the base of the Prevention: avoid contact
sexual contact vesicles are stained with with skin lesion.
Type 1 causes Giemsa stain. Presence of
predominantly orofacial multinucleated giant cells
infection- encephalitis, suggests inf.
gingivostomatitis, herpes
labialis, Virological: Inoculation of virus
keratoconjunctivitis. into cell culture or embryonated
Type 2 causes egg. CPE is observed in 1-3
predominantly genital days. By using ELISA, we can
infection- genital herpes identify the virus.
and neonatal herpes.
Rapid test: PCR, IF

F: Herpeviridae Enveloped virus ds linear cell culture Aerogenic route via Specimen: vesicular fluid from Treatment: No antiviral
SF: Alphaherpesvirinae covered by cubical DNA respiratory droplets skin lesion. therapy necessary.
G: Varicellovirus capsid embryonated Contact route via direct Acyclovir given to pts with
Type: HHV-3 (Varicella chicken egg contact Virusoscopic: Tzanck smear in severe symptoms, and
Zoster virus) which which cells from the base of the immunocompromised pts.
causes chicken pox vesicles are stained with
and zoster. Giemsa stain. Presence of Prevention
multinucleated giant cells 1. Acyclovir given to
suggests inf. immunocompromised pt to
prevent zoster.
Virological: Inoculation of virus 2. Vericella zoster
into cell culture or embryonated immunoglobulin
egg. CPE is observed in 1-3 3. live attenuated vaccine
days. By using specific
antisera, we can identify the
virus.

Rapid test: PCR, IF


Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Herpeviridae Enveloped virus ds linear cell culture Aerogenic: via saliva Specimens: urine, CSF Treatment: Cidofovir,
SF: Betaherpesvirinae covered by cubical DNA Foscarnet, Ganciclovir.
G: Cytomegalovirus capsid embryonated Fecal oral route: Virusoscopic: fluorescent-
Type: HHV 5 (CMV) chicken egg contaminated breast milk antibody staining of inclusion Prevention: No vaccine,\.
causes cytomegalic bodies which are intranuclear Infected infants should be
inclusion diseases in Via blood: transplacental, and have owl-eye shape. isolated
neonates. blood transfusion and
organ transplatation Virulogical: culturing of virus in
special tube called shell vials
coupled with
immunofluorescent antibody.
Indication by CPE.

Serology: Rise in 4 times


antibody titre is indicator of
reactivation of infection.

F: Herpeviridae Enveloped virus ds linear VCA-viral capsid ag EBV Specimens: blood, serum, Treatment
SF: Gammaherpesvirinae covered by cubical DNA (Diagnostic) Aerogenic route: saliva High doses of acyclovir in
S: Epstein-barr virus capsid EA-early ag Respiratory secretions & life-threatening EBV
(EBV), HHV 8 (Kaposis EBNA- nuclear ag saliva Hematologic approach infections
Sarcoma-associated -atypical lymphocytes are large
Herpesvirus) Lymphocyte- HHV-8 & hv a lobulated nucleus & Prevention
determined Contact route: Sexual / vacuolated, basophilic No EBV vaccine
EBV membrane ag organ transplantation cytoplasm.
Infectious mononucleosis Viral membrane ag Treatment (HHV-8)
Immunologic approach (2 types Surgical excision
HHV-8 of serologic tests) Radiation
1o infection: -Heterophil Ab test (early Systemic drugs:
uncertain diagnosis of infectious -Alpha interferon
Recurrent infection: mononucleosis), Monospot test -vinblastine
Kaposis sarcoma is better than tube agglutination
test
-EBV-specific Ab tests
:IgM VCA Ab detect early
illness
:IgG VCA Ab detect prior
infection
:EA & EBNA Ab for diagnosis
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
Arthropod-borne-viruses
(Arboviruses)

F: Togaviridae Icosahedral capsid (+) ss RNA Indirect route: Virological: Isolation of virus EEE:
G: Alphavirus Enveloped EEE: Culiesta mosquito Serology: rise in Ab titer no antiviral therapy
S: Eastern equine 70nm in diameter WEE: Culex mosquito Prevention: killed vaccine
encephalitis virus to protect horses
Western equine reservoir: wild birds
encephalitis virus dead-end host: human WEE:
and horses No antiviral therapy
Killed vaccine for horses

F: Flaviviridae Icosahedral (+) ss RNA SLE :Culex mosquito SLE: serology (difficult to no antiviral or vaccine
G: Flavivirus Enveloped isolate)
S: St. Louis encephalitis 40-50nm in Prevention:
virus diameter Yellow fever (human): YFV: isolation of virus & detect Live attenuated yellow
Yellow fever virus mosquito Aedes aegypti rise in Ab-titer fever virus vaccine (lasts
(jaundice & fever) for 10 years)
Dengue virus DV: A aegypti & Aedes DV: Isolation of virus in cell DV: insecticides, drain
(breakbone disease & mosquitoes culture & serologic tests IgM stagnant water, use
dengue hemorrhagic Ab or 4-fold/ greater rise in Ab- mosquito repellent, wear
fever) titer clothes that cover entire
West nile virus body
WNV: Culex mosquito WNV: isolation of virus from
brain, blood / spinal fluid
Detection of Ab in spinal fluid /
blood

F: Bunyaviridae Helical 3 segment Mosquito Aedes serology no antiviral or vaccine


G: Bunyavirus nucleocapsid (-) ss triseriatus
S: California encephalitis Enveloped circular
virus RNA

F: Reoviridae Naked virions with segmented Tick Dermacentor Isolation of virus from blood no antiviral or vaccine
G: Cortivirus an isometric and ds DNA andersoni Detecting rise in Ab-titer
S: Colorado tick fever round capsid Prevention:
virus Wear protective clothing
Inspect skin for ticks
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
Hemorrhagic fever
caused by viruses

F: Filoviridae enveloped, long, linear, (-) direct contact with infected Specimen: blood, secretions No antiviral therapy
S: Ebola virus filamentous ss RNA body fluids, skin or mucus Prevention:
morphology membrane contact Virology: Isolating virus Limit secondary spread by
Serology: Detect rise in Ab-titer proper handling of
patients secretion & blood

F: Bunyaviridae Helical 3 segment Rodent-borne Specimen: lung tissue, serum No effective drug; ribavirin
S: Haantan virus nucleocapsid (-) ss No vaccine
(Korean hemorrhagic Enveloped circular Diagnosis:
fever) RNA PCR, Immunohistochemistry
on lung tissue, detect IgM Ab in
serum

F: Arenaviridae Enveloped (-) ss RNA Contaminated food/ water Viroscopy Treatment: Ribavirin,
S: Lassa fever virus Has surface spikes by animal urine Electron microscope: sandlike Hyperimmune serum
Helical Secondary transmission ribosomes on their surface
nucleocapsid among hospital personnel No vaccine
Virological: Isolating virus
Prevention: proper inf
Serology: Detect rise in Ab-titer control & rodent control

F: Filoviridae enveloped, long, linear, (-) Diagnosis No antiviral therapy


S: Marburg virus filamentous ss RNA Isolating virus No vaccine
morphology Detect rise in Ab-titer
Prevention:
Stringent infection control
practices

Tacaribe Complex of enveloped RNA (Junin Diagnosis Ribavirin for lab-acquired


Viruses & Isolating virus Sabia virus
(Sabia, Junin, Machupo Machupo) Detect rise in Ab-titer
virus) No vaccine
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Hepadnaviridae Spherical, double- chimpanzee HBs Transmission via blood: Specimen: blood, serum Treatment: no specific
G: Orthohepadnavirus enveloped with stranded HBc - direct: blood transfusion, antiviral drug; only IFN for
S: Hepatitis B virus icosahedral DNA. HBe organ transplantation. Serology: immunoprecipitation, chronic infection; passive
nucleocapsid HBx - indirect: surgical ELISA, immunization with sera
instruments. immunoeclectrophoresis, RIA from immune pts may
Contact route: to detect viral antigen prevent the disease.
- direct contact: sexual
contact Vaccine: containing viral
Mother may transmit virus HBsAg
to child at birth. 3 types of antigen:
1. HBsAg produced by
recombinant DNA in yeast
cell
2. Polypeptide form 22 nm
viral particle
3. Recombinatnt of live
vaccinia vaccine and
HBsAg gene

F: Flaviviridae Enveloped, (+) ss RNA chimpanzee Transmission via blood: Specimen: blood, serum Treatment: combination of
G: Hepacivirus spherical - direct: blood transfusion, IFN and ribavirin
S: Hepatitis C virus organ transplantation. Serology:
- indirect: surgical 1. ELISA or
instruments. 2. RIBA (recombinant
Contact route: immunoblot assay) for the
- direct contact: sexual detection of Ab.
contact 3. PCR for detection of vRNA.

F: Unclassified Enveloped, (-) ss RNA chimpanzee core protein delta Transmission via blood: Specimen: blood, serum Treatment: no effective
G: Deltavirus spherical hepatoma cell line antigen - direct: blood transfusion, drug. Non specific IFN can
S: Hepatitis D virus organ transplantation. Serology: only alleviate some
- indirect: surgical 1. detection of delta antigen symptoms but does not
instruments. 2. detection of IgM against eradicate carrier state.
Contact route: delta antigen. No specific vaccine but
- direct contact: sexual vaccine against HBV also
contact protects pt from HDV.
Family, genus name Morphology of virus Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Picornaviridae naked icosahedral ss RNA chimpanzees Fecal oral route via Specimen: serum, faeces. Treatment: no antiviral
G: Hepatovirus nucleocapsid hepatoma cell line contaminated food, water. therapy.
S: Hepatitis A virus Serology: detection of IgM
Vaccine:
Rapid tests: IF, PCR 1. active- killed vaccine.
2. passive- immune serum
globulin.

F: Caliciviridae naked icosahedral ss RNA chimpanzees Fecal oral route via Specimen: serum, faeces. No antiviral therapy and
S: Hepatitis E virus nucleocapsid hepatoma cell line contaminated food, water. no vaccine
Serology: detection of IgM

Rapid tests: IF, PCR

F: Togaviridae enveloped, (+) ss RNA cell culture Aerogenic route- via Specimen: amniotic fluid, Treatment: No antiviral
S: Rubella virus icosahedral respiratory droplets serum therapy
nucleocapsid
Virological: inoculation of Vaccine: live attenuated
specimen into cell culture will vaccine
no produce CPE if the culture Immune serum globulin
is superinfected by can be given to pregnant
echoviruses. women in the first
trimester.
Serology: detection of IgM and
its 4 fold rising
Family, genus name Morphology of Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
virus transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Retroviridae -cone shape 2 identical (+) -Cultivate in rats, 1.gp-specific Ag Contact route 1.ELISA Treatment:
G: Lentivirus capsid with ss RNA mice -P24 (HIV1) -sex -presumptive diagnosis 1. Alidothymidine
S: HIV1,2 cubical -linked at 5 -no -P26 (HIV2) -blood transfusion 2.Western blot analysis -$3000/year
symmetry end hemagglutination ~located intracapsid -organ transplantation -definitive diagnosis
-surrounded by -aka diploid -can b in cell -mother-fetal 3.cell culture 2. HAART
lipid n culture w T- 2.glycoprotein -breast feeding in 50% -but only can b done in a few -Highly Active Antiretroviral
glycoprotein 1.structural lymphocytes w -GP160 (HIV1) cases labs Therapy
genes symplast formation ~GP 41+120 4.PCR -consists of 2nucleoside
-gag ~GP41-mediate 5.P24 Ag test inhibitors(zidovudine and
-env -enzymes located fusion of viral lamivudine) and a
in the envelope w cell protease(indinavir)
2.regulatory nucleocapsid of membrane during -improve quality of life but
genes the virion: infection does not cure chronic HIV
-tat-rev 1. reverse ~GP120-consists of infection
transcriptase 2domains:
3.accessory -syn DNA using (i)-responsible for Prevention:
genes RNA as template binding w cell w CD4 1. NO vaccine
-nef -have RNA Rs on their surface 2. protected sex
-vif nuclease activity (ii)-have 3. autoclaving of medical
-vpr which can destroy immunogenic epitope tools
-vpu RNA in DNA-RNA for virus to neutralize 4. disposable syringes etc
hybrid-such AB; however, virus
elimination of RNA can still escape
is important for action of AB
formation of DNA -GP 140 (HIV2)
2. integrase ~GP 36+105
-takes part during
the integration of
double stranded
DNA into cell
genome
3. protease
-have the ability to
cleave the viral
precursor protein
Family, genus name Morphology of Genome Culturing (models) Antigenic structure Routes and modes of Specimen for diagnosing; Immune preparations for
virus transmission diagnostic laboratory tests treatment and prophylaxis
F: Paramyxoviridae -helical (-) ss RNA -cell culture -RNA polymerase Aerogenic route via resp Specimen: serum -no antiviral treatment
G: Morbillivirus nucleocapsid forming symplast -envelope spikes: droplets available
S: Measles virus -outer 1. hemagglutinin Serology: 4x rise in Ab titre
lipoprotein 2. fusion protein for Prevent:
envelope with cell fusion n 1. live,attenuated vaccine
spikes sometimes -should not b given to
hemolysis children <15months of age
3. spreading factor because AB fr mother can
4. lechitinase neutralize the virus
-booster dose is
recommended
-should not b given to
immunocompromised
person n pregnant woman
-killed vaccine should not
b used
2. Ig can b used to modify
the disease if given to
unimmunised individuals
early in the incubation
period

F: Paramyxoviridae -envelope with (-) ss RNA -cell culture 1. two types of Aerogenic route via resp Specimens: saliva, spinal fluid, -no antiviral treatment
G: Rubulavirus spikes envelope spikes: droplets urine
S: Mumps virusf neuraminidase + Prevention:
hemagglutinin Serology: 1ive,attenuated vaccine
2. S Ag 1. CF -effective n long lasting
-soluble internal 2. HAI -given during 15months of
nucleocapsid protein ~4x rise in the AB titer age, usually together w
~appears early n measles n rubella
short-lived vaccines
~indicated current
infection -Ig is not useful for
3. V Ag preventing or mitigating
~indicates patient mumps orchitis
has mumps in the
past