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Pathogens Name, Morphology of Virus Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and modes of Microbiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment

Microbiologic Diagnosis : Preparations for Treatment and


taxonomy Properties transmission Specimens and Methods of Examination Immunoprophylaxis

F: Picornaviridae Icosahedral with 60 RNA single Culture in 3 antigenic Humans are the only known Specimens : Immunity
subunit stranded virus human or types I II and reservoirs of infections and is Throat and nasopharyngeal swabs Immunity is permanent
G: Enterovirus (capsomeres) +ve sense monkey cells III there is no spread by : Throat and nasopharyngeal aspirates Passive immunity also tranfers from mother
Size is 20-30 nm Infectious cross rxn btw - water CSF to offspring ( not after 6 months)
Causative agent of Non-enveloped them - fingers Feces
POLIOMYELITIS D & C An can - food Treatment
Blood
be detected by - flies Virus-neutralizing antibody forms soon after
- fomites Autopsy material
CF & ELISA exposure to the virus
D changes to Passively administered antibody due to
Fecal-oral route Virological Exam
C under antiviral Ig - lasts about 3-5 weeks
Cultures of human or monkey cells are inoculated and
heating By resp secretions
incubated and observed cytopathic effect in 3-6 days]
D forms have Immunoprophylaxis
* do not have haemagglutinase Indication and identification
full particles Killed vaccines
with DNA activity in F. Picornaviridae Identification by VN test with specific I II III diagnostic
- Salk vaccine
C an of diff antisera
- Inactivated vaccine
viral types are CF test, ELISA, VN, IHA - IPV
cross reactive - Not purified
(but not D-an) Serological Exam
T = 36-37C Known diagnosticum is used Live attenuated vaccine ( better)
Paired serum specimen, required to show a rise in antibody - Sabin vaccine
titre (4 fold rising antibody titre) - Oral vaccine
- OPV (increases humoral immunity which
Rapid Test neutralizes the virus)
Epidemiology Pathogenesis PCR - Develops local immunity
Genetic tests - The live microbe strain that cannot effect
More during summer and fall, rarely Portal of entry - mouth the nervous tissue, only enteric- but cant be
infects during winter months used on immunocompromised patients
Replicates in epithelial cells in throat (first in tonsil, might cause death.
Usually in kids then local lymph nodes, Payers patches and small
Humans are reservior intestine)
Spread thru water, fingers, flies, food and Only productive type , no integrative type
fomites Cytopathic effect present kills cells
Fecal oral route Viraemia virus passes into blood where they meet
May also spread thru resp route VN antibody if AB is high, no meningitis and
infection and only limited clinical enteric infection
Incubation period is 7-14 days but may be 3-35 days
F: Picornaviridae Non- enveloped RNA +ve Culture in Has 2 type Fecal-oral route Specimen Treatment
20-30 mm sense mice and specific D and Resp route also plays a role Swabs of throat No antivial drug
G: Enterovirus isocahedral capsid Single linear produces C an Humans are natural hosts rectal swabs No vaccine
No envelope stranded illness in They can be (replicate in oropharynx and feces collection No possible vaccination
Causative agent of human detected by intestinal tract)
COKSACKIE VIRUS In monkey ELISA and CF Virological Exam immunity against this infection provides type
kidney cell test By isolating virus in cell culture or suckling mice specific IgG antibody however it is not life
A type ( > 20) culture long immunity
B type ( 6 ) Has different Serological Exam
pathological Observe a rise in titre of neutralizing antibody
potential in
mice
* The coxsakie virus tends to produce illness in human which A type is ve
may vary from one another: in cell culture
Virus type A: Herpangina Incubate at T=
Hand-foot mouth disease 36-37C
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis

Virus type B: Pleurodynia


Myocarditis
Pericarditis
Meningoencephalitis

F: Picornaviridae non-enveloped Single linear Not Has 3 Fecal oral route Specimen Treatment
20-30 nm stranded RNA pathogenic for antigenic Throat swabs No antiviral therapy
G: Enterovirus Isocahedral capsid +ve sense mice properties Feces No vaccine
virus Do not cause Rectal swabs No life long immunity
Echovirus disease in
monkey Virological
Enteric pathogenic Culture in By isolating viruses in cell culture
virus other cell
cultures Serological
Human orphan virus
Of little value coz theres a large number of serotype and
many of which are uncommon

Echovirus causes:

Aseptic meningitis
Febrile illness( with or without rash)
Common colds
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
F: Picornaviridae no envelope single stranded culture on No antigenic Fecal-oral route Specimens Immunity
27 nm RNA animals cross- Human reservior
G: Hepatovirus Icosahedral capsid +ve sense (chimpanzees) immunity with Contaminated food and water Pharyngeal throat swabs Immune response consists of IgM (detected
(virion) cultured on HBV or others Person to person rectal swabs when jaundice present)
Causative agent of cell culture feces IgG 1-2 weeks later
HEPATITIS A (hepatoma Life-long protection
continuous cell Viroscopical and Rapid Exam
culture ) Treatment
no cytopathic PCR
effects 1mm electronic microscope ( can find virus within the No antivirus
incubation for feces)
2-6 weeks Prevention
Virological
Active immunization
Culture is chimapzee / other cell culture - vaccine with inactivated HAV ( grown in
Pathogenesis Detected by RIA and ELISA cell culture and inactivated by formalin)
- killed, concentrated cultures with absorbed
fecal-oral route Serological vaccine
In the liver causes liver cirrhosis
Entry through the mouth -> GIT -> Do not use paired sera Passive immunity
Blood -> Liver Find IgM (marker of active process of hepatitis) - Ig serum prior to infection
(in liver it proliferates asymptomatically or 4-fold rise in IgG antibody can be used
causes jaundice