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Viruss name and Morphology Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and

Taxonomy and and tinctorial (models) structure Modes of virus Specimens and Method of Prophylaxis
Classification properties transmission Examination
Infectious ~ enveloped ~ linear double ~ cell ~ viral capsid ~ transmitted (a) Specimen ~ immunity
mononucleosis stranded DNA culture An by exchange of ~ saliva response to EBV
(Herpes viruses) ~ icosahedral (used in saliva of IgM antibody
diagnosis test) (during kissing) (b) Hematogenic approach to VCA, IgG for
F: Herpetoviridae ~ 120 200 ~ 30% abnormal lymphocytes VCA is for life
G: nm ~ early An ~ blood seen on smears (IgG reveal
gammaherpesviri (produce prior transmission prior infection)
dae to viral DNA (rare) (c) Immunology approach
synthesis) ~ life time
~ Epstein Barr **Heterophil antibody test immunity
virus (EBV) ~ nuclear An - Early diagnosis usually against 2nd
(EBNA) +ve by 2nd week of episode is
(HV-4) infection (not useful for based on
~ lymphocyte detection of prior Antibody to viral
determined mb infection) mb An
An - Monospot test
Detect heterophil ~ heterophil
~ viral mb An antibody Antibody
(neutralization More sensitive, (detect by test
activity against specific and cheaper with An diff from
it) than tube the an that
agglutination test induce them)
** EBV Antibody specific test
- IgM Viral Capsid An(VCA) Treatment
antibody respond can be ~ no antiviral
used to detect early therapy
illness
- IgG VCA antibody detect ~ inc dose
by prior infection acylovir in life
threatening EBV
(d) Fluorescent Antibody
staining of nuclear smear Prevention
~ non specific
~ no vaccine

Pathogenesis: - herpesviridae

~ affect B lymphocytes and T-killer 1. Causes cytolytic effects


act against infected B cell 2. Multiply rapidly
3. Cause latent infection in neurons
~ EBV latent with B lymphocytes
~ infectious mononucleosis is associated with nasopharyngeal sarcoma, Hodgkins disease, B-cell
lymphoma, leukoplegia, CNS lymphoma in AIDS and Burkitts lymphoma
Viruss name and Morphology and Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Modes of Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
Taxonomy and tinctorial (models) structure virus transmission Specimens and Method Prophylaxis
Classification properties of Examination
Cytomegalic ~ enveloped ~ linear Inoculated in Has single ~ By variety modes: (a) Specimen Treatment
inclusion disease double cell culture serotype (1) Early life- ~ blood, urine, saliva, (a) Ganciclovir
(CID) ~ isosahedral stranded DNA placenta (birth semen, cervical in treatment
capsid canal) in breast secretion of CMV
Pneumonia milk retinitis and
~ 120-200nm (2) In young children (b) Virological pneumonia
F: Herpesviridae (saliva) ~ isolation in cell in AIDS
Subfamily: (3) Later in life culture, such cell (b) Foscarnet,
betaherpesviridae sexually culture treat with cidofovir,
(HV-5) (semen and monoclonal antibody fomiversen
cervical lunk with fluorochrome (for CMV
~ secretion) to find source of viral retinitis)
(4) Transmitted thru
cytomegalovirus infection
bld transfusion Prevention
and organ ~ no vaccine
~ culture in special
transplantation
tubes shell vials
coupled with IF antibody ~ Ganciclovir
Clinical findings
suppress
~ Fever (c) Rapid test progression of
~ PCR dectect viral retinitis in AIDS
~ malaise nucleic acid
~ PCR based assay ~ isolation of
~ lymphadenopathy infected infant
(d) Viroscopic
~ pneumonia ~ blood
~ histological staining
of inclusion bodies in transfusion to
~ hepatosplenomegaly newborn must
giant cell in urine and
tissue has intranuclear be CMV
~superinfection with other bacteria
n has an oval owl eye antibody ve
depression of immune response
shape
~ only organs
(e) Serological for CMV
~ have 4 folds rise in antibody ve
antibody titier donor
transplant to
anti antibody
ve recipient

Viruss name and Morphology and Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Modes of Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
Taxonomy and tinctorial (models) structure virus transmission Specimens and Method Prophylaxis
Classification properties of Examination
Chicken Pox ~ enveloped ~ linear ~ in cell ~ single ~ by respiratory (a) Specimen Immunity
(Varicella) double culture serotype droplets ~ lesion ~ lifelong for
~ Isosahedral stranded DNA Varicella but
Zoster (Shingles) capsid ~ by direct contact (b) Tzanck smear zoster can occur
of lesion (highly ~ presumptive despite of
F: Herpesviridae ~ 120-200nm contagious in diagnosis immunity to
Subfamily: children) varicella
alphaherpesvirida (c) Virological
e ~ isolation of virus in Treatment
cell culture and ~ no antiviral
~ Varicella-zoster identification with treatment
virus (VZV) specific antiserum
(serological diagnostic) ~ in adult if
(HV-3) severe, treat
~ antibody titer inc with acyclovir
used for diagnose of (dec the
varicella but less duration and
efficient in zoster severity
symptoms)

~ disease
caused by
acyclovir
Prevention: resistance strain
(1) Acyclovir of VZV are
(2) Varicella-zoster Ig treated with
(which contain high foscarnet
level of antibody to
the virus) ~ no drugs cure
(3) Vaccine (live latent state
attenuated VZV)
~ one dose (1-
12yrs)
~ two doses
( teenagers who has
no disease yet)
** do not give to
immunocompromised
and pregnant women
*** dried crusts of skin lesions du not have active virus particles

Viruss name and Morphology and Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Modes of Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
Taxonomy and tinctorial (models) structure virus transmission Specimens and Method Prophylaxis
Classification properties of Examination
Herpes simplex ~ enveloped ~ linear ~ in cell ~ HSV-1 by saliva (a) Specimen Treatment
virus type 1 and double culture ~ lesion ~ Acyclovir
type 2 ~ Isosahedral stranded DNA ~ HSV-2 by sexual
capsid contact (b) Virological Prevention
(HSV-1, HSV-2) ~ isolation of virus ~ non specific
~ 120-200nm ~ typical cytopathic
F: herpesviridae effect occurs in 1-3 ~ long term
Subfamily: days administration
Alphaherpesvirus ~ identified by IF of drugs
antibody staining ( acyclovir,
~ELISA valacyclovir,
HSV-1 famciclovir) can
** (c) Rapid diagnosis suppress
gingivastomatitis ~ Tzanck smar, cell recurrences
** Herpes labialis stain with Giemsa stain,
** presence of
keratoconjunctiviti multinucleated giant
s cells
** encephalitis ~ PCR
** Herpetic
whitlow of skin (d) Serological
(finger or hand) ~ neutralization test
** disseminated for primary infections
infections (e.g. (no use for recurrent
pneumonia, infections)
esophagitis)

HSV-2
**genital herpes
** neonatal
herpes
**aseptic
meningitis

Viruss name and Morphology and Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Modes of Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
Taxonomy and tinctorial (models) structure virus transmission Specimens and Prophylaxis
Classification properties Method of
Examination
Measles ~ enveloped ~ single ~ in tissue ~ single ~ by respiratory (a) Specimens ~ lifelong
stranded culture serotype droplets (coughing, ~ cough plate, saliva immunity although
F: ~ helical sneezing after the IgG antibody play a
Paramyxoviridae nucleocapsid ~ -ve sense ~ rash appear) (b) Virological role in neutralizing
Subfamily: Hemagglutini ~ isolated in cell virus in uremia
Paramyxovirinae ~ 150nm ~ RNA virus n ~ from maternal to culture stage
(not fetus
G: Morbilivirus ~ envelop segmented) ~ fusion (c) Serological ~ cell mediated
contains two protein ~ have 4 folds of
** slow viral types of spike ~ contain rising in antibody
infection ** with RNA titer (used to Treatment
hemagglutinatin dependent diagnose difficult ~ no antiviral
g activity RNA case) therapy
** with cell polymerase
fusing and Prevention
hemolytic ~ live attenuated
activities vaccine (with
mumps and rubella
vaccine)
**MMR vaccine

~ to age of 15
months
maternal antibody
in child neutralize
the virus and
reduce the
immune response

~ booster dose is
recommended

Clinical findings:

~ fever
Viruss name and Morphology and Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Modes of Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
~ malaise and
Taxonomy tinctorial (models) structure virus transmission Specimens and Method Prophylaxis
Classification properties of Examination
~ cough

~ conjunctivitis

~ photophobia

~ anorexia
Mumps ~ enveloped ~ single ~ in cell ~ ~ by respiratory (a) Specimen ~ life long
stranded culture Hemagglutini droplets ~ droplets of immunity
F: ~ helical n respiratory (maternal
Paramyxoviridae ~ -ve sense ~ direct contact ~ saliva, spinal fluid Antibody for 1st
Subfamily: ~ capsid RNA ~Neurominida 6 months)
Paramyxovirinae se (b) Virological
G: Rubella virus ~ 150nm ~ non ~ isolation in cell Treatment
segmented ~ fusion culture from saliva, ~ no antiviral
~ have two protein spinal fluid or urine
types of envelop Prevention
spikes ~ internal (c) Serological ~ live
** with capsid protein ~ have 4 folds rising in attenuated
Hemagglutinin is S(soluble) antibody titer in either vaccine
and antigen HAI or CF test is
neuraminidase **detected by diagnostic ~ no Ig
** with cell CF
fusing and ~ CF test that asay both
hemolytic S and V (viral) An is
activity used

(d) Mumps skin test


(delayed
hypersensitivity)
~ detect previous
infection (determine
whether cell medicated
immunity is competent)

Clinical signs

~ swelling of parotid glands

~ 5 15 years children

~ anorexia

~ headache

~ malaise

~ low grade fever (38.3C - 40C)

~ prognosis is good but sometimes have complications (peritonitis, myocarditis, arthritis,


nephritis)
Viruss name and Morphology Genome Culturing Antigenic Routes and Microbial Diagnosis, Treatment and
Taxonomy and and tinctorial (models) structure Modes of virus Specimens and Method of Prophylaxis
Classification properties transmission Examination
Rubella (German ~ enveloped ~ single ~ cell culture ~ single ~ transmitted by (a) Specimen ~ life long
Measles) stranded RNA antigenic type respiratory ~ saliva immunity
~ icosahedral droplets antibody cross
** congenital capsid ~ +ve sense ~ hemagglutinin (b) Virological placenta and
rubella syndrome ** incubation ~ from mother to ~ inoculation in cell protect newborn
~ surface ~ no virion time 12-23 fetus culture but little
**slow viral spike contain polymerase days cytopathic effect Treatment
infection hemagglutinin ~ no antiviral
~ identify by ability to therapy
F: Togaviridae interfere with echovirus
G: Rubivirus cytopathic effect Prevention
Rubella virus ~ live attenuated
~ if Rubella virus present vaccine (10 yrs)
in specimen and grown in
cell culture, no CPE when ~ for young adult
culture is superinfected and 15 month
with an echovirus child

(c) Serological ~ Ig for pregnant


~ have 4 folds rise in women who
antibody titer btn acute expose to rubella
and convaslescent but may fail to
antisera in HAI, ELISA, prevent fetal
observed presence of IgM infection
antibody in single acute
phase serum sample

~ if pregnant women
expose to virus, presence
of IgM recent infection 1:8
titer IgG indicator
immunity and
Clinical findings consequence protect of
fetus
~ fever

~ symptoms of upper resp. tract


** if 1st trimester pregnant women have
~ lymph node enlargement infection might transmit to fetus

~ arthralgia (a) Mental retardation


(b) Heart defects
~ diffuse fine red macula-papular rash (c) Deafness
(d) Cataracts