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Section A - Multiple Choice Questions (10 x 1m)

1) In an experiment, dilute nitric acid was electrolysed using graphite electrodes.

I. Nitrogen is oxidized at the anode to form nitrogen dioxide.

II. The concentration of nitric acid increases.
III. Hydrogen gas is liberated at the cathode.
IV. The volume of gas formed at the cathode is half that obtained at the anode.

Which of the following options is correct?

A. I and II are correct C. II and III are correct

B. I, II and III are correct D. II and IV are correct

2) When dilute rubidium nitrate solution was electrolysed using graphite inert electrodes,

A. the anode shrunk in size.

B. a brown gas was seen at the anode.
C. rubidium cations gain electrons at the cathode and are reduced.
D. the concentration of rubidium nitrate solution increases.

3) A solution containing chloride ions, fluoride ions and bromide ions was electrolysed.

The speed at which the ions move towards an electrode depends on the size of the ion.
The bigger the ion the slower it moves.
The order in which the negative ions would reach the positive electrode, from first to last
is :

A. Br-, Cl-, F-
B. Br-, F-, Cl-
C. F-, Br-, Cl-
D. F-, Cl-, Br-

4) The decomposition of water can be represented by the chemical equation

From this equation, it can be concluded that the formation of two moles of liquid water
from gaseous hydrogen and oxygen is an
A. exothermic process releasing 571.8 kJ of heat energy.
B. exothermic process releasing 1143.6 kJ of heat energy.
C. endothermic process absorbing 571.8 kJ of heat energy.
D. endothermic process absorbing 1143.6 kJ of heat energy.


Section B - Short Structured Questions (20m)

1) (a) Write down the chemical equation, including state symbols for the extraction of iron
from iron ore, iron (III) oxide using carbon monoxide. [2]

(b) Explain, in terms of oxidation number, why this is a redox reaction. [2]

(c) Apart from molten iron, slag is also removed from the Blast Furnace. Write down the
chemical equation for the formation of slag. [1]
2) An iron cup can be plated with silver by passing a steady current through it.
(a) Draw a labelled diagram of the experimental set-up that can be used to electroplate
silver on an iron cup. Indicate clearly the flow of electrons in the circuit as well. [2]

(b) Explain in terms of structure, how the iron cup conducts electricity. [2]

(c) Explain how galvanisation prevents rusting of the iron cup. [2]


3) The experiment set up below is used to investigate the electrical conductivity of zinc
chloride. When zinc chloride is heated, the bulb will be lit the moment zinc chloride
becomes molten.


(a) It was observed that when heat is removed, the bulb did not light up. Explain your
answer in terms of bonding and structure. [2]

(b) The electrolyte is replaced with dilute aqueous zinc chloride.
i) State the observations at both the electrodes. [2]

ii) Give the overall equation for the electrolysis of dilute aqueous zinc chloride. [1]
(c) Name the product formed at the anode when concentrated aqueous zinc chloride is
used as the electrolyte and suggest what is observed when the product at the anode is
bubbled through. [2]
(d) Based on your knowledge of relative stability of products and reactants as well as
favourability of a chemical reaction, suggest a reason why hydroxide ions are
discharged in dilute aqueous zinc chloride solution instead of chloride ions. [2]


Section C Free Response Questions (10m)

1) Galvanisation is the process of coating the entire surface of a piece of iron with zinc to
prevent it from rusting. The information below shows the two common ways of
galvanising iron hot-drip galvanisation and electro-galvanisation (electroplating an
object with zinc).


Hot dip Galvanisation

The piece of iron to be galvanised is dipped into a molten bath of zinc at a temperature of
around 460 C. The piece of iron is then cooled and exposed to the air. The outermost
layer of zinc then reacts with oxygen and carbon dioxide in air as follows:

Reaction 1: Zinc reacts with oxygen to form zinc oxide.

Reaction 2: Zinc oxide reacts with carbon dioxide to form zinc carbonate.
The resulting iron piece looks like this:

Electro Galvanisation (electroplating an object with zinc)

The piece of iron to be galvanised and a piece of zinc are used as electrodes and dipped
into an electrolyte containing a mixture of aqueous zinc cyanide [Zn(CN)2] and aqueous
sodium hydroxide at room temperature and pressure. An external electrical power supply
is used. Zinc ions are discharged to form zinc atoms, which are coated onto the piece of
Other facts about both types of galvanisation
Hot-dip Galvanised Iron Electro galvanised Iron
Layer of zinc is coarse and thick Layer of zinc is smooth and thin
Used to make alloy sheets for roofs Used to make bolts and nuts

a) A student made the following comment on galvanisation:

Galvanising a piece of iron is more effective in preventing it from rusting than

painting or greasing it.

Explain why this comment is true. [2]

b) In hot dip galvanisation,
(i) Write balanced chemical equations for reaction 1 (zinc and oxygen) and reaction 2
(zinc oxide and carbon dioxide). [2]


(ii) Using reaction 2 and your own knowledge, suggest how zinc oxide is acting as a

base. [1]

(iii) In terms of bonding and structure, explain why the piece of iron did not melt
when dipped into the molten bath of zinc at 460 degree Celsius. [2]

c) In electro galvanisation,
(i) In some older processes of electro-galvanisation, dilute hydrochloric acid in the
electrolyte is used instead of aqueous sodium hydroxide. Thus, hydrogen cyanide is
formed as a by-product. Explain how the formation of hydrogen cyanide is a redox
reaction. [2]

(ii) Explain how the layer of zinc is coated onto the piece of iron. [2]


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