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Open System Models

The OSI Reference Model

• Developed by the International Standards Organization
(ISO) as a first step towards connecting open systems.
• The principles behind OSI(O S I ) Model are as
– Separate layer for a different level of abstraction .
– Well-defined functionality.
– Defining internationally standardized protocols.
– The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimize
the information flow across the interfaces.
– Each layer performs independently but in
The OSI Reference Model
Application Layer

• Is the software applications that you use on your

• It is concerned with file access and file transfer
• It serves as a window for application to access the
network resources
• Examples could be FTP, Telnet
Presentation Layer
Translates data received from session layer into a format so that
each application can understand. It is also called as the network’s
translator .
Translates and encrypts data.
Implementation of these tasks:
– Data representation
• Encodes and decodes data making it suitable for transmission.
• ASCII-to-binary conversion in one direction and binary-to-ASCII conversion in
the other direction
– Data compression
• Compressing the data before sending reduces the cost and space in memory.
– Network security and privacy
• Encryption technique is followed in order to enable reliable communication over
untrusted channels
For example, layer 6 defines what happens when it tries to display UNIX-
style data on an MS-DOS screen
Session Layer
• Handles the actual connections between systems I.e
Concerned with opening dialog between sender and receiver
• Handles two applications to communicate over the
• Makes sure communication continues in a controlled fashion.
• Implementation through following three steps:
– Connection establishment
– Data transfer
– Connection release
• Defines the order of data packets to be transmitted
• Breaking of large document into smaller packets
• manages records of transmission sent
Transport Layer
• Is like the registered mail system
• Layer 4 is concerned with ensuring that data gets
to its destination
• The transport layer of the reference model is
responsible for final communication of lower
layers to upper layers.
• Handles errors
• Solves problems related to transmission
• Solves problems related to reception of data
• Ensures the error free message delivery
• This is where the TCP in TCP/IP does its work
Network Layer
• Provides an addressing scheme
• Works with layer 2 to translate data packets’ logical
network addresses into hardware based MAC
address and moves the packets toward their
• It is also the lowest layer that isn’t concerned with
the hardware
• At this layer the term protocol really comes into
play the IP in TCP/IP is what this layer of the
software does.
Data link Layer
• Sends data frames from the Network layer to the
Physical layer.
• It package the bits into logical units for
reliable delivery.
• Ensures error free data frame transfer from one
computer to another
• Here network card addresses become important
Physical Layer

• Transmits bits from one computer to another

• Defines how the cable connects with the network
card adapter
• Connects distinct networks physically.
• Types of connection
• Point to point
e.g pc directly to printer
• Multipoint
e.g connecting central CPU to dumb terminals
Relationships among OSI
Virtual Communication
• Is the communication between peer layers of the
two computers communicating over
• the network
• Exchanges information placed between the
adjacent layers of each machine
• Allows data flow from top to the bottom layers in
the sending computer
• Allows data flow from bottom to the top layers in
the receiving computer
Relationships among OSI
Computer A layers Computer B
Application Application

Presentation Presentation
Session Session

Transport Transport

Network Network

Data Link Data Link

Physical Physical
Data transmission in OSI
User data





Data link

Bits and bytes
DOD Model and TCP/IP
• For establishing a network a set of common
protocols is needed, collectively called a protocol
• TCP/IP is the most commonly used protocol
suite and the very basis of today’s internet.
• The model for TCP/IP suite is the DOD
(Department Of Defense) reference model.
DOD Model
• In the late 1960s, United States DOD
research wing - Advanced Research
Projects Agency devised a reference model
- the DOD reference model
• The DOD model is the very first reference
model and hence the very basis of
DOD Model

Process / Application



Network Access
DOD vs. OSI model

Process / Application Presentation


Host-to-Host Transport


Network Access Data Link


DOD Model
OSI Model
What is TCP/IP Suite?
• It is a set of protocols used for
interconnecting networks.
• It is named after two of its major constituent
protocols Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) and Internet protocol (IP).
• It is based on the DOD reference model.
• Most of the O/S’s support TCP/IP
TCP/IP Protocols
• Process/Application layer protocols:
– Telnet
– File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
– Network File System (NFS)
– Simple mail transport protocol (SMTP)
– Simple Network Management Protocol
TCP/IP Protocols
• Host to Host layer protocols
– Transmission control protocol is responsible
for verifying the correct delivery of data from
one machine to another. It is a connection-
oriented protocol.
– User Data gram Protocol is used to do the job
of TCP in wireless based networks
TCP/IP Protocols
• Internet layer protocols
– Internet protocol is used to maintain the network
addresses and help the packets to route properly in a
– Address Resolution protocol is used to identify the
hardware address of the machine having a particular IP
– Reverse Address Resolution protocol maps the
hardware address to the IP address.
– ICMP is management protocol and messaging service
provider for IP
TCP/IP Protocols

• Network access layer protocols

– Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)
– Token ring (IEEE 802.5)
– X.25
IP Addressing
• An IP address is a numerical identifier assigned
to each machine on an IP network.
• It designates the location of the device in a
• An IP address is a 32 bit binary number
• These 32 bits are divided into four sections each
containing one byte, referred to as octets.
• Eg.10000100.10000010.10100011.01111010
same as |octet
• IP addresses are assigned according to the five
classes of networks
IP address classes
• Class A addresses:
– These are used for the systems with a small number
of networks and a large number of hosts.
– These addresses use the first one byte for specifying
the network and the last three for the host.
• The Class A format could be depicted as follows:
– Network.Node.Node.Node
IP address classes
• Class B addresses:
– These provide an equal number of networks
and hosts by assigning the first two bytes to
the network and the last two bytes to the host.
• The format for Class B network could be
depicted as follows:
– Network.Network.Node.Node
IP address classes

• Class C addresses:
– These classes use the first three bytes of the
address to specify the network and the last
byte to specify the host.
• The format for Class C network could be
depicted as follows:
– Network.Network.Network.Node
Sub-network addressing
• The Internet is divided into sub-networks
• It helps to
– reduce the traffic,
– optimize network performance,
– simplify management and
– facilitates spanning large geographical areas.

Sub-network addressing
• The network administrator creates a 32-bit
subnet mask comprising of ones and zeros.
• The ones in the subnet mask represent the
positions that refer to the subnet addresses.
• The zeros in the subnet mask represent the
positions that refer to the host part of the
Domain Name System
• There are two type of network addresses
– IP addresses and
– Character type NetBIOS addresses
• NetBIOS addresses of a machine consist
of the domain name, the sub-domain and
the machine name.
Domain Name System
• Example sales01.reliance.com


Com Gov Org Edu Net

intel Reliance Microsoft Wipro

Sales01 Sales02 Sales03 Sales04 Sales05

Address resolution
• The process of mapping the IP address of
a machine to its hardware or MAC address
• This job of address resolution is done by
the ARP
• The ARP maintains a table which is used to
store the IP address as well as the MAC
address of a machine.
Address resolution
• If the destination machine is in the local
network then a message is broadcasted in
the network.
• The destination answers the broadcast by
sending a reply packet that contains the
hardware address of the destination.
• This is then entered into the ARP cache.
Internet Protocol (IP)
• The IP is an integral part of the Internet layer.
• IP can be viewed as a pathfinder for packets,
telling the packets to go where they want to go.
• It defines the basic unit of data transfer throughout
a network based on TCP/IP, i.e. the IP packet or IP
data gram..
• IP performs the routing function for the network.
• IP defines a set of rules that embody the idea of
connectionless packet delivery.
The TCP in detail
• TCP is one of the most important part of the
TCP/IP suite. It is a connection-oriented protocol.
• TCP acts as a message-validation protocol
• Handles the retransmission of lost or corrupted
• Processes the receipt of data from the
destination in the form of acknowledgement
• makes a reliable connection between two
processes or the two peer upper layers, through
TCP functions

• To establish a reliable connection.

• To convert data into a suitable format/ data


• To maintain the connection.

• To ensure reliable data delivery.

World Of Internet

• Internet
• Intranet
• Extranet
• How the net work?
• Client/Server basics
• Middleware
• Security
What is the Internet?
• A set of computers talking over fibre optics,
phone lines, satellite links, and other media.
• An ocean of resources waiting to be
• A place, which helps in one’s research for
thesis or presentation.
• Gives access to thousands of libraries and
archives that will open at one’s fingertips.
• Provides unlimited commercial opportunity.
What is Internet?

• In a nutshell:
• It is a collection of small and big Networks.
• All networks are interconnected
• All networks use TCP/IP protocols for
communicating with each other.

• Network within the organization.

• Collection of Two or more LANs.
• Links more than one kind of networking
technology using TCP/IP.
• Uses firewall to keep the larger Internet
out of this smaller network.
• Owned by a particular organization.

10-Mbps Ethernet




FF Router (Bombay)

LAN using
Star Topology
Router (Delhi)

ISDN lines

Delhi Office Bombay Office

• Intranet benefits:
– Reduces the expenditure incurred by an
– Helps in improving the productivity of staff.
– Helps in improving company’s relations with
– Helps in improving the speed and accuracy of
the communication
– Helps in managing and accessing data
warehousing information
– Helps in Knowledge Management
How does the Net work?
• All data are moved on the net in the units
called packets.
• Size of packets depend upon the application
those packed them.
• Every network is attached to the net with the
help of routers.
• Packets are forwarded in the network with
the help of routers to their destination.
• Different packets may follow different path.
Client/ Server basics
• Server
– Server is a special purpose privileged program
or application dedicated to providing one
– Server can handle multiple clients at the same
– Connected to the network so that remote client
can reach for the service.
– Usually resides on a powerful computer.
Client/Server basic

• Example of server applications are:

– Web server
– Mail server
– FTP server
– News server
Client/Server basics

• Client
– Client is the application or program, which
request for particular service from server
– It is designed to directly interact with server.
– Acts as a Interface between user and server.
– Client/server model is known as two tier
Client/server basics

• Examples of client applications are:

– Browsers
– E-mail software's
– FTP client
– Telnet
• The problems with the traditional client/server
(now often called "two-tier" client/server) were
addressed by the multitier client/server
• Conceptually, an application can have any
number of tiers
• Most popular multitier architecture is three-tier
• It partitions the system into three logical tiers: the
user interface layer, the business rules layer,
and the database access layer
• The user interface layer communicates only with
the business rules layer or Middleware, never
directly with the database access layer.
• The business rules layer, in turn, communicates
with the user interface layer on one side and the
database access layer on the other.
• Thus, changes in the database access layer will
not affect the user interface layer because they
are insulated from each other.


Business object or

• This architecture enables changes to be made in
the application with less likelihood of affecting
the client component
• Because the multitier client/server architecture
partitions the application into more components
than traditional two-tier client/server, it also
allows more flexibility in deployment of the
Advantages Of Networking
Advantages of Networking
• Sharing of Information and Resources
• Optimised use of CPU Power
• Reduction in cost of peripherals
• Ease of operation - no manual data transfer
• Better organised file system
• Improved Security system
• On-line Information Update