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Apr 10, 2017

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Estimation of Heat Losses From Process Piping and Equipment

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Estimation of Heat Losses From Process Piping and Equipment

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An accessible predictive tool calculates surface heat losses from reinery piping

and equipment

Curtin University of Technology

T

he most important part of the Tuned coeficients used in

energy management strategy equations 3 to 6 tance for engineers.

in any process industry is

energy saving. In this article, an development of a simple

Coeficient Value

attempt has been made to formulate A1 2.18201771352 predictive tool

a predictive tool that is easier to B1 2.65054426648 x 10-1 Equation 1 calculates a coeficient, ,

apply than existing approaches, less C1 -1.895691067097 x 10-2 which is the difference in tempera-

complicated with fewer computa- D1 4.641521705558 x 10-4 ture between a surface and the

A2 6.616737105648 x 10-3

tions, and suitable for reinery B2 -1.119534124965 x 10-3 surrounding air, C:

process engineers, for the rapid C2 9.485846901915 x 10-5

estimation of heat losses in terms of D2 -2.43542487435 x 10-6 T = Ts -Ta (1)

wind velocity and the temperature A3 -1.581032525858 x 10-5

B3 3.699760242622 x 10-6

differences between process piping C3 -3.222348926402 x 10-7 The data required to develop the

and equipment surfaces and the D3 8.774496064317 x 10-9 irst correlation include reliable

surrounding air. A4 2.1240407483723 x 10-8 data3 for various values of wind

The tool developed in this study B4 -5.7213183786357 x 10-9 velocity, and the temperature differ-

C4 5.3052858118086 x 10-10

could be of immense practical value D4 -1.572916658647 x 10-11 ence between the surface and the

for engineers and scientists to make surrounding air. The following

a quick check of heat losses to air in methodology has been applied to

contact with walls or surfaces with- Table 1 develop the predictive tool.1,2

out the need for experimental First, combination convection and

measurement. The results can be tool for an accurate estimation of radiation ilm coeficients for air in

used in follow-up calculations to combination convection and radia- contact with vertical walls or

determine heat losses from process tion ilm coeficients for air in surfaces (hcr) in W/(m.C) are corre-

piping and equipment surfaces contact with vertical walls or lated as a function of the

under various conditions. In partic- surfaces to give the combined heat temperature difference between the

ular, engineers should ind the tool transfer coeficient in terms of surface and the surrounding air

to be user-friendly with transparent the wind velocity and the tempera- values (T) in C for different wind

calculations involving no complex ture difference between the process velocity values (v) in metres per

expressions. piping and equipment surfaces and second. Then, the calculated coefi-

Due to limited energy resources, the surrounding air for heat loss cients for these equations are

and environmental pollution arising calculations from various cases. correlated as a function of wind

from the use of fuels, energy saving In view of this shortfall, our velocity values. The derived equa-

has become mandatory.1 In particu- efforts have been directed at formu- tions are applied to calculate new

lar, industrial and chemical lating a simple-to-use, predictive coeficients for equation 2 to predict

processing plants contain intricate tool that can serve practising engi- combination convection and radia-

and costly piping conigurations. neers and applied researchers. The tion ilm coeficients for air in

Piping systems are also employed principal value of the proposed tool contact with vertical walls or

in many other situations, including lies in its accuracy and simplicity, surfaces. Table 1 shows the tuned

water supply, ire protection and wherein the relevant coeficients coeficients for Equations 3 to 6

district cooling/heating applications.2 can be retuned quickly if more data according to the data.3

Several rigorous studies have are available in the future. The case In brief, the following steps are

been reported in the literature on study presented here demonstrates repeated to tune the coeficients of

the combined effects of convection the usefulness of the proposed tool. Equations 1 and 2:

and surface radiation. However, The present study discusses the Correlate the combination

there is no simple-to-use predictive formulation of a simple correlation convection and radiation ilm coef-

surface less the temperature of

surrounding air) up to 280C.

Equation 7 calculates heat losses

from equipment surfaces occur

primarily by radiation and

convection:

Results

proposed correlation for predicting

combination convection and radia-

tion ilm coeficients for air in

contact with walls or surfaces in

comparison with some typical data

obtained from the literature.3 Figure

2 demonstrates the performance of

Figure 1 Prediction of combination convection and radiation ilm coeficients for air in a proposed predictive tool for a

contact with vertical walls or surfaces in comparison with some typical data3 wide range of conditions. As can be

seen, the results of the new

icients for air in contact with surfaces, and the temperature proposed correlation are accurate

vertical walls or surfaces as a func- difference between the surface and and acceptable. This graph also

tion of the temperature difference the surrounding air values: demonstrates the performance of

between the surface and the the proposed correlation. A case

surrounding air for a given wind hcr = a + b(T) + c(T)2 + d(T)3 (2) study is given below to demon-

Repeat step 1 for other values of strate the simplicity of the proposed

wind velocity Where: predictive tool for the estimation of

Correlate corresponding polyno- combination convection and radia-

mial coeficients, which are obtained a = A1 + B1v + C1v2 + D1v3 (3) tion ilm coeficients for air in

in the previous steps, against wind b = A2 + B2v + C2v2 + D2v3 (4) contact with vertical walls or

velocity, so that we have: a = f(v), c = A3 + B3v + C3v2 + D3v3 (5) surfaces.

b = f(v), c = f(v), d = f(v) (see d = A4 + B4v + C4v2 + D4v3 (6)

Equations 3 to 6). Case study

Equation 2 presents a new corre- The tuned coeficients used in How much heat can be saved per

lation in which four coeficients are Equations 3 to 6 are given in Table linear metre by covering a 200 mm

used to correlate the combination 1 and help to cover the reported NPS Sch 40 steam header, carrying

convection and radiation ilm coef- data with wind velocity variations 100 kPa (ga) steam at 120C, with a

icients for air in contact with up to 20 m/s and temperature 25 mm thick layer of block insula-

process piping and equipment gradients (the temperature of a tion? Assume ambient conditions

are -1C with a 24 km/h wind. For

the insulated pipe, assume that the

outside surface of the insulation is

at 10C

Coeicient for combined convection and

radiation, W/(square meter, C)

Solution

Using Equations 2 to 6, the heat

loss from the bare pipe is:

b = 2.64750085877 x 10-3 (from equation 4)

101 c = -2.8669570727 x 10-6 (from equation 5)

Wind velocity = 0 m/s (still air) d = 2.016839208 x 10-9 (from equation 6)

100 101 102 hcr = 33.9874 W/(mC) (from equation 2)

Temperature of surface less temperature of air, C Do = 0.219 m

Tw = 120C

Ta = -1C

L= 1m

Figure 2 Performance of proposed predictive tool for estimation of combination Q = hcr(Ao) (Tw - Ta) = (33.2)(1)() (0.219) (120 -

convection and radiation ilm coeficients for air in contact with vertical walls or surfaces (-1))= 2917 W/(per linear m) (from equation 7)

For the insulated pipe, assume under various conditions. Ta: Surrounding air temperature, C

that the outside surface of the insu- Mechanical and process engineers v: Wind velocity, m/s

lation is at 10 C. Then: should ind the proposed tool to be T: Temperature difference between the

user-friendly, with transparent surface and the surrounding air, C.

a = 3.24404443 (from equation 3) calculations involving no complex

b = 2.647500858 x 10-3 (from equation 4) expressions.

c = -2.86695707 x 10-6 (from equation 5)

d = 2.016839208 x 10-9 (from equation 6) References

hcr = 26.3857 (from equation 2) Acknowledgement 1 Bahadori A, Vuthaluru H B, A simple method

Q = 26.3857(1)() (0.219+2 x 0.025) [10 -(- The lead author acknowledges the Australian for the estimation of thermal insulation

1)]= 245 W/(per linear m) Department of Education, Science and Training thickness, Applied Energy, 87, 2010, 613619.

(from equation 7) for Endeavour International Postgraduate 2 Bahadori A, Vuthaluru H B, A simple

Heat saved = 2917 - 245 = 2672 W/m Research Scholarship (EIPRS), the Ofice of correlation for estimation of economic

Research & Development at Curtin University thickness of thermal insulation for process

of Technology, Perth, Western Australia, for piping and equipment, Applied Thermal

Conclusions providing Curtin University Postgraduate Engineering, 30, 2010, 254259.

An attempt has been made to Research Scholarship and the State Government 3 Gas Processors and Suppliers Association

formulate a novel and simple-to-use of Western Australia for providing top-up Engineering Data book, GPSA, 2004, 12th

predictive tool for the prediction of scholarship through Western Australian Energy edition, Tulsa, OK.

heat loss rate for air in contact with Research Alliance (WA:ERA).

the process piping and equipment

surfaces. This tool gives the Alireza Bahadori is a PhD Researcher in the

Nomenclature School of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

combined heat transfer coeficient,

A, B, C and D: Coeficients at Curtin University of Technology, Perth,

in terms of the wind velocity and Ao: Outside area, m2 Australia. Email: alireza.bahadori@postgrad.

the temperature difference between Do: outside diameter, m curtin.edu.au

the surface and the surrounding air. hcr: Combined convection and radiation heat Hari B Vuthaluru is an Associate Professor

The results can be used in follow- transfer coeficient, (W/(mC)) in the School of Chemical and Petroleum

up design calculations to determine Q: Heat loss, W/(linear metre) Engineering at Curtin University of Technology,

heat losses from equipment surfaces Ts: Surface temperature, C Perth, Australia.

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