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Company confidential

MODEL TUNING WITH EXISTING


GSM BTS AND TEMS
GUIDELINES

The information contained herein is the property of Asiacell and is provided on condition that it
will not be reproduced, copied, lent or disclosed, directly or indirectly, nor used for any purpose
other than that for which it was specifically furnished

AUTHOR Chatchai Wiboonsittichok


DOCUMENT OWNER Chatchai Wiboonsittichok
DIVISION RF and Optimization
DEPARTMENT Technical
CONFIDENTIALITY STATUS Technical
DOCUMENT REVISION 1.0 1.0
REVIEW PERIOD

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Document Release History

Version no Release Date Purpose


1.0 11 November 2006

Document Review Team

Name Division/Department

Name Division/Department
Approvals

Approved By Signature Date


AUTHOR: Chatchai Wiboonsittichok Nov 11, 2006
QA REPRESENTATIVE:
DOCUMENT OWNER:
GENERAL MANAGER:

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Table of contents

1. INTRODUCTION 4
1.1 PURPOSE 4
1.2 SCOPE 4
1.3 DEFINITIONS 5
2. MODEL PARAMETER TUNING PROCESS 6
3. AREA AND SITE SELECTION 8
4. AREA AND SITE SURVEY 8
5. DRIVE TEST WITH TEMS 9
5.1 Get ready to drive test 9
5.2 TEMS configuration 9
5.3 Drive test 9
6. POST PROCESSING 10
7. CALIBRATION 11
7.1 Preparing calibration 11
7.2 Manual calibration 12
7.3 Auto calibration 13
8. EQUIPMENT 15
9. APPENDIX 16
9.1 RF data inspection list form 16
9.2 Signia CW data (*.hd) 17
9.3 Data file (*.DAT) 18

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1. INTRODUCTION
In order to plan a network using Asset prediction tools, accurate models are required. As
models use clutter offsets for estimating the losses, the clutter offsets must be tuned for the area
where predictions are going to be made. By comparing actual drive test measurements with prediction
made by the model, the model parameters, clutter offsets can be tuned
Due to lack of CW measurement tools in our network, it is a good practice to select the
existing GSM sites replaced of CW test transmitter and TEMS replaced of CW receiver.
1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this guideline is to present a set of tuned model parameters to be used for the
radio network planning and optimization department in Iraq during CW measurement equipment set
is acquiring so that we can minimize the current mean, RMS and standard deviation error between
prediction and actual and good for practice. In additional this document can help a local engineer
more understand the model tuning for preparing the CW measurement activity during CW
measurement equipment set is acquiring.
1.2 Scope
Model tuning for radio network planning department in Iraq. The one city was selected first:
Sulaimaniyah. This document also considers model tuning whenever there is no test transmitter or
signal generator available, the drive test log files from TEMS cannot actually be imported in the asset
planning tool without ADVANTAGE the additional software of Aircom or modifying file format
before therefore this exercise takes a time consuming. The result of this model tune may not be
accurate compare with using CW test transmitter because;
- This method observes a measurement data from existing GSM site which is modulated by
carrier and not continuously wave (TDMA technique). In correctly, pure sine wave is required for
this.
- The Co and adjacent channel will make an insufficient sample during drive test.
- RF systems such as antenna, feeder, TRX is not a testing equipment and not passed
calibrating.

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- Some clutters in Asset database are not corrected due to they has not updated for a long
time while the city in Sulaimaniyah is growing and expanding up continuously.
- Due to Sulaimaniyah is not a big city, some clutters can not be found, they can not be
calibrated and hence they can not be found a clutter offset.
- The best existing site may be not found in each clutter type therefore a measurement data
get some errors.
- GSM feature, which effect to this activity, is to be disable such as hopping, DL Power
control, DTX etc.
1.3 Definitions
The model is stated in this document is based on the standard model supplier with Asset
called Okumura-Hata model as below
Path loss = k1 + k2log(d) + k3(Hms) + k4log(Hms) + k5log(Heff) + k6log(Heff)log(d) +
k7(diffn) + C_loss
Where:
d Distance from the base station to the mobile station (km).
Hms Height of the mobile station above ground (m). This figure may be specified
either globally or for individual clutter categories.
Heff Effective base station antenna height (m).
diffn Diffraction loss calculated using either Epstein, Peterson, Deygout or
Bullington Equivalent knife edge methods.
k1 and k2 Intercept and Slope. These factors correspond to a constant offset (in dBm)
and a multiplying factor for the log of the distance between the base station
and mobile.
k3 Mobile Antenna Height Factor. Correction factor used to take into account
the effective mobile antenna height.
k4 Okumura-Hata multiplying factor for Hms.
k5 Effective Antenna Height Gain. This is the multiplying factor for the log of
the effective antenna height.

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k6 Log (Heff)Log(d). This is the Okumura-Hata type multiplying factor for
log(Heff)log(d).
k7 Diffraction. This is a multiplying factor for diffraction calculations. A
choice of diffraction methods is available.
C_loss Clutter specifications such as heights and separation are also taken into
account in the calculation process.
2. MODEL PARAMETER TUNING PROCESS
A suggested process of work for tuning a model is presented in the following flow chart:

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Area and site


selection

Area and site


survey

Drive test with


TEMS

Post processing

Prediction

Change
Comparison
parameter

No
Result Ok?

Calibration Yes

Global Apply in
Asset

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3. AREA AND SITE SELECTION
This activity works on Asset planning tool.
- Select area with representative in each clutter type with enough roads for collecting
measurements.
- Select an existing site and sector to completely cover in each clutter type. The antenna
height should be 3-5 m above the clutter height.
- Antenna tilt should be lower than 4 degree depend on vertical half power bandwidth
because antenna radiated pattern can be invalid out of half power bandwidth.
- Select a suitable measurement route. It is important to select the test routes within a
clutter as much as it is possible as enough bins must be collected in each drive route and
measurement. The measurement should be within a half power bandwidth of antenna
horizontal pattern and more than 300 meter away from testing site and avoid a potential
obstacle.
- It should be avoid a hilly terrain where it can be provided improper measurements.
- In region with seasonal of leaves, only take measurements if vegetation is in leaf. (Worst
case)
4. AREA AND SITE SURVEY
To ensure a testing site, site survey activity is need to check and confirm following;
- Check whether clutter in each selected area is match with actual area or not. The clutter
type in actual selected area must be same with clutter in the Asset otherwise a selected
area must be changed to new one.
- Check whether RF and antenna configuration in actual site. See RF data inspection list
form as Appendix
- Antenna type
- Azimuth
- Tilt
- Feeder type and length
- Combiner type and etc

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After site survey finished, RF data in each testing sector has to be updated in the Asset
database.
5. DRIVE TEST WITH TEMS
A very detail drive test of the coverage area of each cell is required to provide sufficient data
to accurately tune the clutter offsets.
5.1 Get ready to drive test
It is important that the access roads to be within one clutter as much as possible.
Ideally, every road should be driven but this is not always possible. There must be two people
dedicated for drive testing; one driver and one responsible for collection of the data. It is important
that the driver understands the way model tuning is carried out and how the routes should be driven.
Before drive test, ensure that all of configuration must not be changed and GSM feature, which effect
to this activity, is to be disable such as DL power control, hopping, DTX and so on.
5.2 TEMS configuration
In testing area of high C-I or low interference, TEMS is to be locked onto the cell.
TEMS should be locked onto that ARFCN on BCCH and disable handover.
In testing area of low C-I or high interference where can not be collected enough
measurements because of many call drop, it is to be retuned a co and adjacent channel or alternatively
co and adjacent channel are to be barred or blocked. After that, TEMS is to be locked onto that
ARFCN on BCCH and disable handover.
When surveying the site, the call must be in dedicated mode.
5.3 Drive test
It should not be driven closer than 300 meter to the site. It is very important that the
routes are driven until the signal strength or quality is so poor that the call almost drops. By this way,
it is possible to see how far the signal strength propagates. By obtaining a very detail drive test and
determining how far the signal propagates, essential information for tuning the clutter offsets is
gathered. Tuning a model is time consuming and the more clutters that need to be measured and tuned
at least 400 samples to be collected in each clutter. Therefore it is good to have a sufficient number of
clutters. It should be driven within a half power bandwidth of horizontal antenna power pattern where

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is valid and be avoid a potential obstacle such as big hill and avoid LOS to site so that signal
measurements can pass through a clutter which can give us a clutter loss. Check and see that the drive
test log files are stored and not lost.
6. POST PROCESSING
Creating site configuration as Signia CW Data (*.hd) format as explained as detail as below
DATA_FILENAME (To open a data file *.DAT)
SITE_ID
SITE_NAME
SITE_GRHEIGHT (Meter)
SITE_LONGITUDE (Decimal)
SITE_LATITUDE (Decimal)
SITE_TYPE (Directional or Omni)
TX_AZIMUTH (Degree)
TX_TILT (Degree)
TX_HEIGHT (Meter)
TX_POWER (EIRP in dBm)
ANTENNA_TYPE (It is to be contained in the Asset database)
FEEDER_TYPE (It is to be contained in the Asset database)
FEEDER_LENGTH (Meter)
CONNECTOR_LOSS (dB)
FREQUENCY (MHz)
OPERATOR (Asiacell)
COMMENTS
DATE_START
TIME_START
DATE_END
TIME_END
A sample of Signia CW Data (*.hd) can be seen in Appendix. Then log file must be modified
into *.DAT format as explained more detail as below

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Longitude Latitude Rxlev Start
45.428513 35.553211 -61
45.428513 35.553211 -61 Finish
After that, It should be eliminated a data which is the same data. Inspect the measurement
data to verify its validity and filter out any erroneous data such as LOS data.
Ensure that sufficient data points are available for each clutter class. In most
Situations it is desirable for the data to be evenly distributed with respect to log (distance) from the
site, clutter classes and with transmitter antenna being placed in typical locations.
7. CALIBRATION
7.1 Preparing calibration
Before calibration, the RF and antenna configuration should be updated according to
the information gathered during the site was surveyed. Use the same signal strength legends as those
used in the drive test tool.
Adding 900 MHz propagation model with standard macro1 as standard parameter as
following
Mobile Rx height 1.5
Earth Radius 8493
k1 150.6
k2 44.9
k1 (near) 0.00
k2 (near) 0.00
k3 -2.55
d < 0.00
k4 0.00
k5 -13.82
k6 -6.55
k7 0.7
Effective Antenna Height (Heff) algorithm Relative
Diffraction Loss algorithm Epstein Peterson

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Merge knife edges closer 0.00
Dual slope No
Clutter parameters N/A
Use clutter heights No
Use clutter separations No
Use mobile heights No

Loading the survey files, it must be set the map resolution and also select a prediction model.
Delete measurements closer than 300m from the test transmitter these will most likely be LOS or
affected by reflections. Check Line of data and choose exclude bins outside the horizontal beam-
width. Filter out very high and very low signal measurements by setting remove measurements > -45
dBm and < -105 dBm which is recommended.
Analyzing the measurement data, it can be shown a statistical analysis to compare how
accurate model is with real world data. In case of manual tuning, ensure model accuracy is an
iterative process, so do not change more than one parameter at once.
Producing Graphs of measurement Data, graphs of Received Level versus log (distance)
and Error versus log (distance) with a regression line, with the colors shown representing the clutter
codes in which the measurements fall.
7.2 Manual calibration
This section describes the often laborious process by which it can be tuned
(calibrate) models. Normally this process is carried out by a specialist and performed the initial
recommended steps as a guide to tuning the Standard Macro cell model as steps;
1. Load one or more CW survey files and use the filtering to remove questionable
data and get an unbiased data set. For example, filter out readings with a signal level below the noise
floor or clutter types with too little data to be statistically meaningful.
2. Derive an estimate of Slope Value (k2) from a plot of the Received Level vs. the
(distance) using the CW Measurement Graph facility. Then fine tune this value.
3. Adjust the k1 parameter to a value, which will lower the mean error to 0. When
the analysis report shows a negative mean error, it means the propagation model is pessimistic when

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compared to the measurement data by the reported value. In this case, it should be lower the k1 value
by the reported amount. Where a positive value is reported, the opposite applies.
4. Diffraction effects (k7) occur only when there is no Line of Sight from the site to
mobile. Therefore to determine the k7 parameter, filter the dataset to include only the non-LOS. As a
rule of thumb if the mean error is lower than 0, decrease k7 otherwise increase it. Normally it should
be not calibrated and set 0.7.
5. Readjust the k1 value if the reported mean in the analysis report has increased or
decreased after the k7 change.
6. Adjust the k6 value. It is useful to view the graphs and the signal error plot on the
Map View to identify trends with successive parameter changes. Normally it should be set -6.55.
7. Readjust the k1 value if the reported mean in the analysis report has increased or
decreased after the k7 change.
9. Adjust each clutter offset in turn trying to get the mean error of that particular
clutter to 0.
10. The goal is to achieve a model with zero mean error and smallest possible error
standard deviation. A standard deviation of can be accepted with 6-8 dB and less than 6 is considered
very good. Apply the best parameter in propagation model.
7.3 Automatic Model Tuning
The model can be tuned (calibrate) using the automatic calibration utility as steps;
1. Ensure to Create and configure an appropriate propagation model
2. Start the process with some sensible defaults for the model parameters. Do not
leave all the K parameters at zero.
3. Archive data before proceeding, if changes are required to a standard Macro cell
model and wish to retain these changes before tuning model parameters.
4. Select survey data, and then specify the model to compare against and the map
data resolution which is wanted to use.
5. Click Autotune.
6. In the Optimizer Parameters pane, select the criteria that define when the
optimization will stop:

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- To end calibration after a set number of optimization iterations, enter a value
in the Max Iterations box. Recommend value is 1000.
- To end calibration when the standard deviation is no longer improving by a
certain amount between iterations, enter a value in the Conv Accuracy box. Recommend value is
0.01. The optimization will end when either of these conditions is met, whichever occurs
first.
7. If we only want to tune certain parameters, select the Fix check boxes next to the
parameters which are not wanted to tune.
8. When finished, the resulting tuned parameters and performance statistics are
displayed. If they are satisfied with model parameter corrections they can be applied the tuned
parameters to propagation model.
If they are not satisfied with model parameter corrections,
- Re-tune by repeating steps 6 to 8.
- Make a parameter change manually and view its effect on the model performance.
To do this, enter the new parameter value.
9. A standard deviation of can be accepted with 6-8 dB and less than 6 are
considered very well. Apply the best parameter in propagation model. Apply the best parameter in
propagation model.

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8. EQUIPMENT
The model tuning in this document is required a equipment and tools as followings
1. Asset (Aircoms prediction tools)
2. TEMS
3. GPS
4. Tilt meter
5. Compass
6. Digital camera
7. 50 meter - Measuring tape

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9. APPENDIX
9.1 RF data inspection list form

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9.2 Signia CW data (*.hd)

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9.3 Data file (*.DAT)

END OF DOCUMENT

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