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TABLE 1.1 Systems of Units English System SISystem ‘Conversion Factor Length Force Mass Mass deasity ‘Suess or pressure Acceleration Velocity Volume ‘Moment or torque foot (ft) inch (in) pound (Ib) ‘Kip (1000 1b) slug (Ib-sec2/R) pound-mass (Ibm) Tomstt? Ibm/in® b/ft (pst) Ibvin? (psi) f/sec* infsec* fsec in/sec fe in-lb ftlb 1. nm axial springs in parallel 3. Springs in parallel and in series Rist Risia k, bk hy ‘meter (1m) meter (m) newton (N) newton (N) ‘kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) gi? kg/m? Nim? (Pa) ‘Nim? (Pa) msec? msec? msec 0.3048 0.0254 4.4482 4448.2 14.59 0.045359 16.02 2680.0 47.88 6894.8 0.3048 0.0254 0.3048 0.0254 0.028317 0.113 1356 kththt 'S. Rotating bar with spring support 6. Rigid bar supported on two springs Ak ke ; KUL + a/LP +k + a/ LP} 3k re 1 + 5a/Ly AE L A = cross-sectional E = clastic modulus 10. Axial helical spring Gat G4nR° 2 = active number of tums G = clastic shear modulus E Ey on =f —_ —1. 1. Torsion ofa uniform shaft os L aaah ee 12, Torsion of tapered circular shaft aa pic 32 L{D,/D, + (D,/D,) + (D,/D,)) 13. Spiral torsional spring Er cL E= Young's modulus ‘= moment of inertia of cross-sectional area L = total length of spiral 14, Cantilever beam, end load h'7. Fixed-fixed beam, load at midspan 3EI(a +b) a 19, Propped cantilever, load at midspan ae (|? 120. Propped cantilever with overhang, load at free end ‘21. Simple beam with overbang, load at free end jes }22. Shear frame, fixed base 23. Shear frame, pinned base cectangular plate of uniform thickness and mass m viangular plate of uniform thickness and mass m Shape Ulustration Elliptical plate of uniform ; thickness and mass m m2 yards + 2 mv") cade + Dewex) nedPeayar+ [Enaniv crac + Dewy Kg= wfiveorer Fo Okada + DF x) Expression agg = (a? + BYE v'@t) = Welt) 9D = HED v(m) = VE) ¥ (at) = Mae) Bux 1) = yx) Belt) BV) = Yhx) BE(t) bv" (x0) = W(x) Be(1)_89( 1) = x) 82) IM*E + C*2+(K*—K$)z = P¥(t)