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Category A/B1/B2

MODULE 1

Sub Module 1.1 ARITHMETIC

Sub Module 1.3 LOGARITHMS

Sub Module 1.5 INTRODUCTION TO

STATISTICS

PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

1.1 - 1 MAR, 2014

PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2

1.1 Arithmatics 00

1.2 Algebra 00

1.4 Geometry 00

PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

MODULE 1

Sub Module 1.1

ARITHMETIC

PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

Contents

Rational and Irrational Numbers..............................1

Absolute Value of a Number.....................................2

PRACTICE QUESTIONS........................................2

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS..................................3

The Laws of Signs....................................................3

The Use of Symbols.................................................4

The Commutative, Associative and Distributive Laws5

Long Multiplication...................................................6

Sequence of Arithmetical Operations......................7

PRACTICE QUESTIONS........................................7

FACTORS AND MULTIPLES...................................8

Factors & Multiples...................................................8

Lowest Common Multiple (L.C.M.)............................8

Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.)..............................8

PRACTICE QUESTIONS........................................8

FRACTIONS.......................................................9

Vulgar Fractions.......................................................9

Types of Fractions..................................................10

Lowest Common Denominator...............................11

Addition of Fractions..............................................11

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

Subtraction of Fractions.........................................12

Multiplication of Fractions......................................13

Cancellation of Fractions........................................13

Division of Fractions...............................................13

Operations with Fractions......................................14

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................15

DECIMALS.......................................................16

The Decimal System..............................................16

Fraction to Decimal Conversion.............................16

Conversion of Decimals to Fractions......................17

Operations of Decimal Numbers............................17

Powers of Ten.........................................................17

Estimation Techniques...........................................19

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................20

WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND CONVERSION FACTORS21

The International System of Units..........................21

Factors of Multiples & Sub-multiples:.....................21

Space & Time:........................................................21

Mechanics:.............................................................21

Heat:......................................................................21

Expressing SI Units................................................22

Conversion Factors.................................................22

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Ratio......................................................................23

Proportional Parts...................................................24

Direct Proportion....................................................24

Inverse Proportion..................................................25

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................26

AVERAGES.......................................................27

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................27

PERCENTAGES.................................................28

Percentage of a Quantity.......................................29

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................30

AREAS AND VOLUMES......................................31

Areas......................................................................31

Volumes.................................................................34

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................35

SQUARES, CUBES AND SQUARE & CUBE ROOTS..37

Squares..................................................................37

Cubes.....................................................................37

Square Roots..........................................................37

Cube Roots.............................................................37

PRACTICE QUESTIONS......................................37

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

It is generally believed that our present number system began The natural numbers are positive integers, but suppose we wish

with the use of the natural numbers, such as 1, 2, 3, 4, . . . to subtract a larger natural number from a smaller natural

These whole numbers, known as the positive integers, were number, e.g. 10 subtracted from 7, we obviously obtain a

used primarily for counting. However, as time went on, it number which is less than zero, i.e. 7 10 3 . So our idea of

became apparent that whole numbers could not be used for numbers must be enlarged to include numbers less than zero

defining certain mathematical quantities. For example, a period called negative numbers. The number zero (0) is unique, it is

in time might be between 3 and 4 days or the area of a field not a natural number because all natural numbers represent

might be between 2 and 3 acres (or whatever unit of measure positive integer values, i.e. numbers above zero and quite

was used at the time). So the positive fractions were introduced, clearly from what has been said, it is not a negative number

either. It sits uniquely on its own and must be added to our

number collection.

1 1 3 negative integers, the concept of zero, positive rational numbers

e.g. 2 , 4 and 4 . These two groups of numbers, the positive and negative natural numbers. What about numbers like 2 ?

integers and the positive fractions, constitute what we call the This is not a rational number because it cannot be represented

positive rational numbers. Thus, 317 is an integer or whole by the quotient of two integers. So yet another class of number

1 needs to be included, the irrational or non-rational numbers.

3 Together all, the above kinds of numbers constitute the broad

number, is a positive fraction and 4 is a rational number. class of numbers known as real numbers.

In fact a rational number is any number that can be expressed

as the quotient of two integers, i.e. any number that can be

a

written in the form b where a and b represent any integers.

4 7

Thus 5 , 9 and 1 are all rational numbers.

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Although we have mentioned negative numbers, we have not 1. 6, 7, 9, 15 are ___________ numbers.

considered their arithmetic manipulation. All positive and 8 1 7

negative numbers are referred to as signed numbers and they

obey the arithmetic laws of sign. Before we consider these laws, 2. 5 , 4 and 64 are ___________ numbers.

let us first consider what we mean by signed numbers. a

Conventional representation of signed numbers is shown below, 3. Rewrite the numbers 5, 13, 16 in the form b ,

with zero at the midpoint. Positive numbers are conventionally

where b 6 .

shown to the right of zero and negative numbers to the left:

4. Express the negative integers 4, 7, 12 in the

, 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4, a

form b , where b 4 .

The number of units a point is from zero, regardless of its

direction, is called the absolute value of the number 5. 16 can be expressed as a positive

corresponding to the point on the above number system when ___________. It is ___________.

points are drawn to scale. Thus the absolute value of a positive

number, or of zero, is the number itself. While the absolute

6. 10 cannot be expressed as a/an ___________

value of a negative number is the number with its sign changed. number; however, it is a/an ___________.

For example, the absolute value of +10 is 10 and the absolute

value of 10 is also 10. Now the absolute value of any number n

is represented by the symbol |n|. Thus |+24| means the absolute

value of +24. Which is larger, |+3| or |14|? The answer is |14|

because its absolute value is 14, while that of |+3| is 3 and of

course 14 is larger than 3.

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ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

Fourth law: To multiply (or divide) one signed number by

The Laws of Signs another, multiply (or divide) their absolute values; then, if the

numbers have like signs, prefix the plus sign to the result; if they

First law: To add two numbers with like signs, add their absolute have unlike signs, prefix the minus sign to the result.

values and prefix their common sign to the result.

Therefore, applying this rule to the multiplication of two positive

This law works for ordinary arithmetic numbers and simply numbers, e.g. 3 4 12 ; 7 9 63 and so on, which of

defines what we have always done in arithmetic addition. For course, is simple arithmetic! Now applying the rule to the

example: ( 3) ( 4) 7 ; (-7) (-5) -12 and so on. multiplication of mixed sign numbers we get e.g.

( 8) (-3) -24 ; - 5 7 -35 and so on.

Second law: To add two signed numbers with unlike signs,

subtract the smaller absolute value

from the larger and prefix the sign of the number with the larger

absolute value to the results.

(-10) ( 6) -4 and so on.

the sign of the number to be subtracted and follow the rules for

addition.

(-3) ( 5) ( 3) ( 5) -8 .

positive numbers, so as not to labour the point the rules for

these operations are combined in our fourth and final law.

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

defined in mathematics. This is because there is no such

The Use of Symbols quotient that meets the conditions required of quotients.

We have introduced earlier the concept of symbols to represent For example, you know that to check the accuracy of a division

numbers when we defined rational numbers where the letters a problem, you can multiply the quotient by the divisor to get the

and b were used to represent any integer. Look at the symbols dividend. For example, if 21/7 = 3, then 7 is the divisor, 21 is the

below, do they represent the same number? dividend and 3 is the quotient and so 3 7 = 21, as expected.

So, if 17/0 were equal to 17, then 17 0 should again equal 17

but it does not! Or, if 17/0 were equal to zero, then 0 0 should

IX; 9; nine; 81 equal 17 but again it does not. Any number multiplied by zero is

always zero. Therefore, division of any number by zero (as well

The answer is yes, since each expression is a perfectly valid as zero divided by zero) is excluded from mathematics. If b=0,

way of representing the positive integer 9. In algebra we use or if both a and b are zero, then a/b is meaningless.

letters to represent Arabic numerals such numbers are called

general numbers or literal numbers, as distinguished from When multiplying literal numbers together we try to avoid the

explicit numbers like 1, 2, 3, etc. Thus a literal number is simply multiplication sign ( ), this is because it can be easily mistaken

a number represented by a letter, instead of a numeral. Literal for the letter x .

numbers are used to state algebraic rules, laws and formulae;

these statements being made in mathematical sentences called Thus, instead of writing a b for the product of two general

equations.

numbers, we write a.b (the dot notation for multiplication) or

a more usually just ab to indicate the product of two general

If a is a positive integer and b is 1 , what isb ? Ofcourse numbers a and b . We can also write (a)(b)

a a a a

b . Any number divided by 1 is always itself. Thus 1 ,

c c 7 7

1 , 1 and so on.

value of a/b? What we are asking is, what is the value of any

positive integer divided by zero? Well the answer is that we

really do not know! The value of the quotient a/b, if b=0, is not

PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

We all know that 6 5 30 and 5 6 30 , so is it true that The above laws are valid no matter whether or not the number

when multiplying any two numbers together, the result is the is positive or negative. So, for example, 8 (16 5) 3 and

same no matter what the order? The answer is yes. The above ( 8 16) 5 3 .

relationship may be stated as: The product of two real numbers

is the same no matter in what order they are multiplied. That is,

ab ba ; this is known as the commutative law of multiplication. In order to complete our laws we need to consider the following

problem: 4(5 6) ? We may solve this problem in one of two

If three or more real numbers are multiplied together, the order ways, firstly by adding the numbers inside the brackets and then

in which they are multiplied still makes no difference to the multiplying the result by 4, this gives: 4(11) 44 . Alternatively,

product. For example, 2 3 4 24 and 4 2 3 24 . This we may multiply out the bracket as follows:

relationship may be stated formally as: The product of three or (4 5) (4 6) 20 24 44 . Thus, whichever method we

more numbers is the same no matter in what manner they are

choose, the arithmetic result is the same. This result is true in all

grouped. That is, a (bc ) (ab)c ; this is known as the associative cases, no matter how many numbers are contained within the

law of multiplication. brackets! So in general, using literal numbers we have:

a (b c) ab ac . This is the distributive law.

These laws may seem ridiculously simple, yet they form the

basis of many algebraic techniques, which we will be using

Remember that the distributive law is valid no matter how many

later! We also have commutative and associative laws for

numbers are contained in the brackets, and no matter whether

addition of numbers, which by now will be quite obvious to us,

the sign connecting them is a plus or minus. As we will see later,

here they are:

this law is one of the most useful and convenient rules for

manipulating formulae and solving algebraic expressions and

The sum of two numbers is the same no matter in what order

equations.

they are added. That is, a b b a . This is known as the

commutative law of addition.

what manner they are grouped. That is, (a b) c a (b c)

. This is known as the associative law of addition.

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

35

24

700

Long Multiplication

35 4 units by 35 . That is 4 5 20 put down

We now multiply the

numbers are first set out, one under the other, like this: 24 the nought carry 2 into the ten column, then multiply the 4

where the right-hand integers 5 and 4 are the units and the units by the 3 tens or, 4 3 12 and add to it the 2 we carried

left-hand integers are the tens, i.e. 3 10 and 2 10 . We to give 140 , i.e.:

multiply the tens on the bottom row by the tens and units on the 35

top row. So to start this process, we place a nought in the units

24

column underneath the bottom row, then multiply the 2 by 5 to

700

get 1 10 , carry the 1 into the tens column and add it to the 140

product 2 3 ; i.e.: All that remains for us to do now is add 700 to 140 to get the

35 result by long multiplication, i.e.:

24 35

0 24

then multiply the 2 5 10 , put in the nought of the ten and 700

carry the one 140

35 840

24

1

00

now multiply 2 3 6 (the tens) and add the carried ten to it, to

give 7 , then

PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

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PIA Training Centre Module 1 MATHEMATICS

Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

5 4 - 12 3 + 7 = 20 - 4 + 7 = 27 - 4 =

23

multiply and divide.

operations. When this happens a definite sequence must be

observed. Practice Questions

1. Brackets are used if there is any danger of 1. Find the value of:

ambiguity. The contents of the bracket must be

a. a (b c d ) , where a 3 , b 4 , c 6 and

evaluated before performing any other operation. d 1 .

Thus:

b. (21 6 7)3

2 (7 + 4) = 2 11 = 22 c. 6 4 5 3

15 - (8 - 3) = 15 - 5 = 10 d. 2 2 2

2. Multiplication and division must be done before 2. Which of the following has the largest absolute

addition and subtraction. Thus: value: 7, 3, 15, 25, 31?

8 4 + 9 = 2 + 9 = 11 (not 8 13)

4. Find the absolute value of 4 (14 38) ( 82) ?

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

15 12 14 1 and n are considered trivial factors and when asked to find

1 the factors of an explicit or literal number, we will exclude the

5. What is: (a) 3 ; (b) 2 ; (c) 2 .

number itself and 1. If a number has no other factors apart from

these, it is said to be prime number. Thus 2, 3, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19

6. What is: (a) (3)( 2)( 5) ; (b) 3 2(15) . and so on are all prime numbers.

7. Evaluate 2a (b 2c 3d ) , when a 4 , b 8 , c 2

and d 2 . The L.C.M. of a set of numbers is the smallest number into

which each of the given numbers will divide. Thus the L.C.M. of

8. Use long multiplication to find the products of the 3, 4 and 8 is 24 because 24 is the smallest number into which

following: the numbers 3, 4 and 8 will divide exactly.

a. 234 82 The L.C.M. of a set of numbers can usually be found by

b. 1824 236 inspection.

Highest Common Factor (H.C.F.)

Factors & Multiples

The H.C.F. of a set of numbers is the greatest number which is

If one number divides exactly into a second number the first a factor of each of the numbers. Thus 12 is the H.C.F. of 24, 36

number is said to be a factor of the second. Thus: and 60. Also 20 is the H.C.F. of 40, 60 and 80.

35 = 5 7 .5 is a factor of 35 and so is 7. Example: Find the LCM and HCF of 12 and 18.

240 = 3 8 10 .3, 8 and 10 are all factors of

240. The multiples of 12 are 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and so on;

whereas the multiples of 18 are 18, 36, 54, 72, 90, and so on.

Therefore the LCM of 12 and 18 is 36.

63 = 3 21 = 7 9.. 63 is said to be a multiple

of any of the numbers 3, 7, 9 and 21 because each of them

The factors of 12 are 2, 3, 4 and 6; whereas the factors of 18

divides 63 exactly.

are 2, 3, 6, and 9. Therefore the HCF of 12 and 18 is 6.

Finally, it is to remember that any number n multiplied by 1 is

Practice Questions

itself, or n 1 = n . So every number has itself and 1 as factors;

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

1. What numbers are factors of: One question arises, why do we need to use fractions at all?

(a) 24 (b) 56 (c) 42 Why not use only decimal fractions? Well, one very valid reason

is that fractions provide exact relationships between numbers.

2. Which of the following numbers are factors of 12: 2, For example, the fraction 1/3 is exact, but the decimal fraction

3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 18 and 24? equivalent has to be an approximation, to a given number of

decimals 0.3333, is corrected to four decimal places. Thus, 1/3

+ 1/3 + 1/3 = 1 but 0.3333 + 0.3333 + 0.3333 = 0.9999, not

3. Write down all the multiples of 3 between 10 and

quite 1.

40.

Vulgar Fractions

4. Find the L.C.M. of the following set of numbers:

(a) 8 and 12 (b) 3, 4 and 5(c) 2, 6 and 12 The circle in the diagram below has been divided into eight

equal parts. Each part is called one-eighth of the circle and

5. Find the H.C.F. of each of the following sets of written as . If five of the eight equal parts are taken then we

numbers: have taken of the circle.

a) 8 and 12 (b) 24 and 36 (c) 10, 15

and 30

FRACTIONS

fraction 2/3 means two divided by three. The fraction x/y means

the literal number x divided by y. The number above the line is

called the numerator; the number below the line is the

denominator, as you learnt before. Thus, fractions are

represented as:

numerator

denominato r

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

From what has been said above we see that a fraction is always Example: Reduce to its lowest terms.

a part of something. The number below the line (the = (by dividing top and bottom by 2)

denominator) gives the fraction its name and tells us the = (by dividing top and bottom by 3)

number of equal parts into which the whole has been divided. = (by dividing top and bottom by 7)

The top number (the numerator) tells us the number of these Hence, reduced to its lowest terms is .

equal parts that are to be taken. For example the fraction

means that the whole has been divided into four equal parts and

that three of these parts are to be taken.

Types of Fractions

The value of a fraction is unchanged if we multiply or divide both

its numerator and denominator by the same amount. If the numerator of a fraction is less than its denominator, the

fraction is called a proper fraction. Thus, , and are all proper

(by multiplying the numerator and denominator fractions. Note that a proper fraction has a value which is less

by 4) than 1.

(by multiplying the numerator and denominator

by 5) If the numerator of a fraction is greater than its denominator, the

fraction is called an improper fraction or a top heavy fraction.

Thus , and are improper fractions. Note that all improper

(by dividing the numerator and denominator by 4) fractions have a value which is greater than 1.

(by dividing the numerator and denominator by Every improper fraction can be expressed as a whole number

16) and a proper fraction. These are sometimes called mixed

numbers. Thus, 1, 5 and 9 are all mixed numbers. In order to

Example: Write down the fraction with a denominator (bottom convert an improper fraction into a mixed number it must be

number) of 28. remembered that:

In order to make the denominator 28, we must multiply the top number

top number bottom number

original denominator of 7 by 4 because 7 4 = 28. bottom number

Remembering that to leave the value of the fraction unchanged

we must multiply both numerator and denominator by the same

amount, then

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

with the smallest.

Example: Express as a mixed number. Expressing each of the given fractions with a bottom number of

(Because 15 8 = 1 and remainder 7). 40 gives:

fraction into a mixed number by dividing the bottom number into

the top number. Notice that the remainder becomes the

numerator in the fractional part of the mixed number. To change Therefore the order is or .

a mixed number into an improper fraction we multiply the whole

number by the denominator of the fractional part. To this we add Addition of Fractions

the numerator of the fractional part and this sum then becomes

the numerator of the improper fraction. Its denominator is the The steps when adding fractions are as follows:

same as the bottom number of the fractional part of the mixed

number. 1. Find the lowest common denominator of the

fractions to be added.

Example: Express 3 as a top heavy (improper) fraction. 2. Express each of the fractions with this common

denominator.

3. Add the numerators of the new fractions to give the

Lowest Common Denominator

numerator of the answer. The denominator of the

When we wish to compare the values of two or more fractions answer is the lowest common denominator found in

the easiest way is to express the fractions with the same bottom first step.

number. This common denominator should be the L.C.M. of the

denominators of the fractions to be compared and it is called the

lowest common denominator. Example: Find the sum of .

7 and 4). It is 28. Now express with a bottom number of 28.

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

A better way of setting out the work is as follows:

Example:Simplify . turn the mixed numbers into improper fractions and then

proceed in the way shown in Example 9.

The L.C.M. of the bottom numbers 4, 3 and 10 is 60.

Example: Simplify

=

=

=

Multiplication of Fractions

Example: Add together

When multiplying together two or more fractions we first multiply

First add the whole numbers together, 5 + 2 + 3 = 10. Then all the numerators together and then we multiply all the

add the fractional parts in the usual way. The L.C.M. of 2, 3 and denominators together. Mixed numbers must always be

5 is 30. converted into improper fractions before multiplication. Similarly,

if the answer is an improper fraction, this can be finally

converted into the corresponding mixed number.

= 10 +

= 10 + Sometimes in calculations with fractions the word 'of' appears. It

= 11 should always be taken as meaning multiply. Thus:

Subtraction of Fractions =

The method is similar to that in addition. Find the common Example: Simplify

denominator of the fractions and after expressing each fraction

with this common denominator, subtract.

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

same as those used with whole numbers. They are, in order:

Example: Simplify

1st Work out brackets;

2 2 2 11 2 11 22 7 2nd Multiply and divide;

3 1 3rd Add and subtract.

5 3 5 3 5 3 15 15

16 7 35

=

Example: Simplify 20 8 4

Example: Simplify

1 6 21 7 3 5 7 1 7 7 49 9

4

2 5 5 8 1 4 2 5 1 2 10 10 With problems of this kind it is best to work in stages as shown

below.

Division of Fractions

upside down) and multiply. Thus:

Example: Divide

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

1 5 2 7 3 5 3 13

Practice Questions

(a) 2 , 6 , 3 , 12 (b) 4 , 8 , 5 , 20

1. Write down the following fractions with the

denominator (bottom number) stated. 7. Simplify:

(a) with denominator 28

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(b) with denominator 20

(e) (f) (g)

(c) with denominator 30 (h) of 140 (i)

(d) with denominator 63 (j) (k)

(a) (b) (c)

(a) (b) (c)

(improper) fractions:

(a) (b) (c)

size, beginning with the smallest:

1 5 2 7 3 5 3 13

(a) 2 , 6 , 3 , 12 (b) 4 , 8 , 5 , 20

size, beginning with the smallest:

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Category A/B1/B2 Sub Module 1.1 Arithmetics

When there are no whole numbers it is usual to insert a zero in

DECIMALS front of the decimal point so that, for instance, .35 would be

written 0.35.

The Decimal System

Fraction to Decimal Conversion

The decimal system is an extension of our ordinary number

system. When we write the number 666 we mean 600 + 60 + 6. We found, when doing fractions, that the line separating the

Reading from left to right each figure 6 is ten times the value of numerator and the denominator of a fraction takes the place of

the next one. a division sign. Thus is the same as 17 80.

We now have to decide how to deal with fractional quantities, Therefore to convert a fraction into a decimal we divide the

that is, quantities whose values are less than one. If we regard denominator into the numerator.

666.666 as meaning 600 + 60 + 6 + then the dot, called the

decimal point, separates the whole numbers from the fractional Example: Convert to decimal number.

parts. Notice that with the fractional or decimal parts, e.g. 0.666,

each figure 6 is ten times the value of the following one, reading = 27 32

from left to right. Thus is ten times as great as , and is ten

times as great as , and so on.

100, 1000 and so on, according to the position of the figure after

the decimal point.

If we have to write six hundred and five we write 605; the zero

keeps the place for the missing tens. In the same way if we

want to write we write 0.305; the zero keeps the place for the

missing hundredths. Also would be written

0.067; the zero in this case keeps the place for the missing

tenths.

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The basic operations (that is addition, subtraction, multiplication

and division) of decimals is same as of integers. However, in

addition and subtraction of decimals, the decimal points of each

number are aligned vertically. For the multiplication and division

of decimal numbers, the numbers are first converted into

fractions and then simplified, and then the result is finally

converted into decimal number.

Powers of Ten

powers of ten. For example:

1,000,000 = 1 106

100,000 = 1 105

10,000 = 1 104

1000 = 1 103

100 = 1 102

Sometimes a fraction will not divide out exactly. For example, = 10 = 1 101

0.333 0 = 1 100

1/10 = 0.1 = 1 10-1

Conversion of Decimals to Fractions 1/100 = 0.01 = 1 10-2

1/1000 = 0.001 = 1 10-3

We know that decimals are fractions with denominators 10, 100, 1/10,000 = 0.0001 = 1 10-4

1000, etc. Using this fact we can always convert a decimal to a 1/100,000 = 0.00001 = 1 10-5

fraction. 1/1,000,000 = 0.000001 = 1 10-6

Example: Convert 0.32 to a fraction. We show the number one million (1,000,000) as 1106, i.e. 1

multiplied by 10, six times. The exponent (index) of 10 is 6, thus

0.32 = the number is in exponent or exponential form.

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Note that we multiply all the numbers, represented in this

manner by the number 1. This is because we are representing

one million, one hundred thousand, one tenth, etc.

the multiplier is always a number which is 1.0 or <10; i.e. a

number greater than or equal to (1.0) one or less than (<10)

ten.

index form. Note that with this number, greater than 1.0, we

displace the decimal point three (3) places to the left; i.e. three

powers of ten. Numbers rearranged in this way, using powers of

ten, are said to be in index form or exponent form or standard

form.

a multiplier that is greater than or equal to one and less than 10,

we need to displace the decimal point four (4) places to the

right. Note that the zero in front of the decimal point is placed

there to indicate that a whole number has not been omitted.

Therefore, the number in index form now becomes 2.45 104.

Notice that for numbers less than 1.0, we use a negative index.

In other words, all decimal fractions represented in index form

have a negative index and all numbers greater than 1.0,

represented in this way, have a positive index.

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(ii)(a) For the number 8762.87412355, the two required

Estimation Techniques significant figures are to the left of the decimal place. So we are

concerned with the whole number 8762 and the first two figures

In most areas of engineering, there is little need to work to so

many places of decimals. If we have so many decimal places are of primary concern again to find our approximation we need

accuracy in a number, this is unlikely to be needed, unless we to first consider the three figures 876, again since 6 is above

are dealing with a subject like rocket science or astrophysics! halfway between 1 and 10, then we round up to give the

So this leads us into the very important skill of being able to required answer 8800. Note that we had to add two zeros to the

provide approximations or estimates to a stated degree of left of the decimal point. This should be obvious when you

accuracy. consider that all we have been asked to do is approximate the

number 8762 to within two significant figures.

Example: For the numbers (a) 8762.87412355 and (b)

0.0000000234876; (b) For the number 0.0000000234876 the significant figures are

any integers to theright of the decimal point and the zeros. So,

1. Convert these numbers into standard form with in this case, the number to the required number of significant

three decimal place accuracy. figures is 0.000000023.

to two significant figures.

get 8.76287412355 103. Now looking at the decimal places

for the stated accuracy we must consider the first four places

8.7628 and since the last significant figure is 8, in this case

(greater than 5) we round up to give the required answer as

8.763 103.

same argument as above, this number is to three decimal

places = 2.349 108.

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7. Round-off the following numbers correct to three

Practice Questions significant figures:

(a) 2.713; (b) 0.0001267; (c) 5.435 104

1. Read off as decimals:

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(e)

answers, where necessary, to 4 decimal places:

(a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

terms:

(a) 0.2 (b) 0.312 5 (c) 0.007 5

(d) 0.45 (e) 2.55 (f) 2.125

(a) 2.375 + 0.625 (b) 12.48 - 8.36

(c) 3.196 + 2.475 + 18.369 (d) 2.42 8

(e) 3.35 2.5 (f) 2.05 1.5

notation:

(a) 3 101 + 5 102 + 8 102

(b) 5 103 + 81 100

(a) 318.62; (b) 0.00004702;

(c) 51,292,000,000; (d) 0.00041045

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Together with major metric countries, Britain has adapted the Area square metre m2

International System of Units known worldwide as the S.I. Volume cubic metre m3

(System International) Units. The effect of this system is to Velocity metre per second m/s

introduce standard units for many of the quantities for which a Acceleration metre per second squared m/s2

multitude of units exist as present. Angular Velocity radian per second rad/s

Angular Acceleration radian per second squared rad/s2

S I Base Units: Frequency Hertz Hz

Mass kilogram kg

Time second s Density Kilogram per cubic metrekg/m3

Electric Current Ampere A Momentum Kilogram metre per second

kg m/s

Thermodynamic Temperature Kelvin K Force Newton N =

Plain Angle Radians Rad kg.m/s2

Luminous Intensity candela cd. Torque or Moment Newton metre N m

Energy, work Joule J = Nm

Factors of Multiples & Sub-multiples: Power Watt W = J/s

Pressure & Stress Newton per square metre N/m2 = Pa

Multiple Prefix Symbol or Pascal

103 kilo k

10-3 milli m Quantity Unit Symbol

10-6 micro

10-9 nano n Celsius Degrees Celsius C

10-12 pico p temperature

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0.000 000 001 s = 1ns (nanosecond).

Leave a small space between figures and symbols.

Expressing SI Units

Conversion Factors

The symbol for SI units and the conventions which govern their

use should be strictly followed. The units which it is thought most likely you will be required to

Use the correct symbols used in the foregoing lists. know are set out below with appropriate conversion factors.

Never use a prefix without a unit either in writing or

speech, e.g. kilogram or kilometre not kilo, or To go from the first quantity into the second multiply by the

millimetre or millilitre not mil. number given.

Always put a zero before a decimal quantity less

Inches Millimetres 25.4

than Unit, e.g. 0.705 m. m Inches 39.37

When two units are multiplied together use a small Knot km/hr 1.852

space between the symbols as the multiplier, e.g. Pounds Kilograms 0.4536

o Kilogram metresquared kg m2. Kilograms Pounds 2.205

o Newton metre N m. Imp. Galls Liters 4.546

bar p.s.i. 14.5

When dividing, use an oblique stroke to separate

p.s.i. Pa (Pascal) 6895

the numerator and denominator. bar Pa 105

metre per second m/s N/m2 Pa 1

Joule per second J/s 1bf N (Newton) 4.45

Use a space as a thousands marker not the horsepower W (Watt) 746

B.T.U. KJ 1.055

comma. The comma is used as a decimal marker in

ft 1bf J (Joule) 1.356

most countries using the metric system and its use

as a thousand marker will cause confusion. Up to

four figures may be blocked together but five or

more figures should be grouped in threes, e.g.

1000 mm = 1m

1 000 000 J = 1 MJ (MegaJoule)

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= 120 = 75 meters.

Ratio

length of a certain aircraft is 20 metres and a model of it is 1

metre long then the length of the model is th of the length of the

aircraft. In making the model the dimensions of the aircraft are

all reduced in the ratio of 1 to 20. The ratio 1 to 20 is usually

written 1 : 20.

all ratios may be looked upon as fractions. Thus the ratio 2 : 5 =

. The two terms of a ratio may be multiplied or divided without

altering the value of the ratio. Hence 6:36 = 1:6 = . Again,

1:5 = 0.20.

can state the ratio between 7 paisa and Rs.2 provided both

sums of money are brought to the same units. Thus if we

convert Rs.2 to 200 paisa the ratio between the two amounts of

money is 7 : 200.

20 : 400 = =

Example: Two lengths are in the ratio 8:5. If the first length is

120 meters, what is the second length?

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Proportional Parts Example: Divide Rs.1100 into two parts in the ratio 7:3.

The following diagram shows a line AB whose length is 16 Total number of parts = 7 + 3 = 10

centimeters divided into two parts in the ratio 3 : 5. As can be Amount of each part = = Rs.110

seen in the diagram the line has been divided into a total of 8 Amount of first part = 7 110 = Rs.770

parts. Amount of second part = 3 110 = Rs.330

three tanks in the ratio 3 : 5 : 4. Find the quantity in each

tank.

Amount of each part = = 240 liters.

Amount of 3 parts = 3 240 = 720 liters.

Amount of 4 parts = 4 240 = 960 liters.

The length AC contains 3 parts and the length BC contains 5 Amount of 5 parts = 5 240 = 1200 liters.

parts. The three tanks contain 720, 1200 and 960 liters.

= 2 centimeters long; hence AC is Two quantities are said to vary directly, or be in direct

3 2 = 6 centimeters long, and BC is proportion, if they increase or decrease at the same rate. Thus

5 2 = 10 centimeters long. the quantity of fuel used and the distance travelled by an aircraft

are in direct proportion.

We could tackle the problem in this way:

In solving problems on direct proportion we can use either the

Total number of parts = 3 + 5 = 8 parts. unitary method or the fractional method.

Length of each parts = = 2 centimeters.

Length of AC = 3 2 = 6 centimeters.

Length of BC = 5 2 = 10 centimeters.

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Example: If 25 kilograms of dry powder fire extinguishant cost = 16 days.

Rs.1700, how much does 8 kilograms cost?

25 kilograms cost Rs.1700.

1 kilograms cost = Rs.68.

8 kilograms cost 8 68

= Rs.544.

Cost of 8 kilograms.

= 1700 =

= Rs.544

Inverse Proportion

proportion, if one quantity increases on decreasing the other

quantity and vice versa. Suppose that 8 fitters working on an

aircraft 'C' check takes 10 days to complete it. If we double the

number of men then we should halve the time taken. If we halve

the number of men then the job will probably take twice as long.

This is an example of inverse proportion.

components in 12 working days. How long will it take 15 men to

produce the 3000 components.

Since this is an example of inverse proportion the number of 1. Express the following ratios as fractions in their

days required must be increased in the ratio . lowest terms:

Number of days required = 12. (a) 8 : 3 (b) 9 : 15 (c) 12 : 4

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11. Two gear wheels mesh together. One has 40 teeth

2. Express the ratio of 30p to Rs.2 as a fraction in its and the other has 25 teeth. If the larger wheel

lowest terms. makes 100 revolutions per minute how many

revolutions per minute does the smaller wheel

3. Express the ratio Rs.5 : 80p as a fraction in its make?

lowest terms. 12. 4 men can do a piece of work in 30 hours. How

many men would be required to do the work in 6

4. Divide Rs.800 in the ratio 5 : 3. hours?

5. A sum of money is divided into two parts in the ratio

5 : 7. If the smaller amount is Rs.200, find the

larger amount.

2 : 3 : 5. Find the amount of each metal in 75

kilograms of the alloy.

do 12 kilograms cost?

What is the cost of 55 rivets?

long will it take to complete a journey of 3500

kilometres?

How long would it take 15 men to produce the same

amount?

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To find the average of a set of quantities, add the quantities 1. Find the average of the following readings: 22.3

together and divide by the number of quantities in the set. mm, 22.5 mm, 22.6 mm, 21.8 mm and 22.0 mm.

Thus,

2. A train travels 300 km in 4 hours. What is its

Average = average speed?

Example: A student falls asleep in every lesson, the following

number of times: 8, 20, 3, 0, 5, 9, 15 and 12. What is his 3. If a car travels for 5 hours at an average speed of

average per lesson? 70 km/h how far has it gone?

= = 9 km/h and then two-hour flight at the rate of 450

km/h, what is the average speed of the whole

Example (Weighted Average): A light aircraft is loaded with 22 journey?

boxes. If nineboxes have a mass of 12 kg, eight boxes have a

mass of 14 kg and five boxes have a mass of 14.5 kg. What is

the total mass of the boxes and the average mass per box?

By finding the total mass of all 22 boxes, we can then find the

average mass per box. So we have:

9 12 = 108 kg

8 14 = 112 kg

5 15.5 = 77.5kg

= 13.52 kg

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To convert a percentage into a fraction we divide by 100. For

PERCENTAGES example,

with a denominator of a hundred. Thus:

3.9% = = 0.039

places to the left.

Fractions with a denominator of 100 are called percentages.

Thus:

= 25 percent

= 30 percent

example:

100 = 75

100 = 85

the same rule. Thus:

0.3 = 100 = 30%

step of turning 0.3 into vulgar fraction and just multiply 0.3 by

100. Thus:

0.3 = 0.3 100 = 30

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22% of the length = 55 cm

Percentage of a Quantity Complete length = 55

= = 250 cm

It is easy to find the percentage of a quantity if we first express

the percentage as a fraction. 4. What percentage is 37 of 264? Give the answer correct

to 5 significant figures.

Examples:

Percentage = 100

1. What is 10% of 40? =

= 14.015%

Expressing 10% as a fraction it is and the problem then

becomes:

What is of 40?

10% of 40 = 40 = 4

25% of 50 = 50 = 12.50

length?

Practice Questions

Now the complete length will be 100%, hence:

1. Convert the following fractions to percentages:

(a) (b) (c)

Complete length = 100 2.5 cm = 250 cm

2. Convert the following decimal numbers into

Alternatively, percentages:

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(a) 0.7 (b) 0.68 (c) 0.819

fractions:

(a) 32% (b) 31.5% (c) 3.95%

4. What is:

(a) 20% of 50 (b) 12% of 20 (c) 3.7% of

68

(a) 25 of 200 (b) 29 of 178 (c) 15 of 33

length?

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Example: An office 8.5m by 6.3m is to be fitted with a carpet, so

Areas as to leave surround 600mm wide around the carpet. What is

the area of the surround?

We are already familiar with the concept of length, e.g. the

distance between two points, we express length in some With a problem like this, it is often helpful to sketch a diagram.

chosen unit, e.g. in meters; but if we wish to fit a carpet to the

room floor, the length of the room is insufficient. We obviously

need to know the width as well. This 2-dimensional concept of

size is termed Area.

= 53.55 - (7.3) (5.1)

= 53.55 - 37.23

= 16.32 m2

Consider a room 4m by 3m as shown above. Clearly it can be

divided up into 12 equal squares, each measuring 1m by 1m. Note that 600mm had to be converted to 0.6m. Don't forget to

Each square has an area of 1 square meter. Hence, the total include units in the answer e.g. m2.

area is 12 square meters (usually written as 12m2 for

convenience). So, to calculate the area of a rectangle, multiply The following table shows the formulae for the more common

length of 1 side by the length of the other side. shapes.

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Example: The cross section of a block of metal is shown. Find Example: A hollow shaft has an outside diameter of 2.5cm.

its area. Calculate the cross-sectional area of the shaft.

= x 40 x (30 + 50) = area of outside circle area of inside circle

= x 40 x 80 = x 1.626 - x 1.25

= 1600 mm = (1.625 - 1.25)

= 3.142 x (2.640 1.563)

= 3.142 x 1.077

= 3.388 cm

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12 x 2 = 24m3.

Example: Calculate the length of arc of a circle whose radius is

8m and which subtends an angle of 56 at the centre. Basically, therefore, when calculating volume, it is necessary to

look for 3 dimensions, at 90 to each other, and then multiply

0 them together. For a box-type shape, multiplying length x width

Length of arc = 2r x 360 x height = volume.

56

The volume of a solid figure is measured by seeing how many

= 2 x x 8 x 360 cubic units it contains. A cubic meter is the volume inside a cube

= 31.28 m which has a side of 1 meter. Similarly a cubic centimeter is the

volume inside a cube which has a side of 1 centimeter. The

Volumes standard abbreviations for units of volume are:

The concept and calculation of volume is the logical extension Cubic meter m

of length and area. Cubic centimeter cm

Instead of squares, we now consider cubes. This is a three- Cubic millimeter mm

dimensional concept and the typical units of volume are cubic

meters (m3). Example: How many cubic centimeters are contained in 1 cubic

meter?

If we have a box, length 4m, width 3m and height 2m, we see

that the total volume = 24 cubic meters (24m3). 1m = 10 cm

6

1m = (10 cm) = 10 cm

= 1 000 000 cm

Each

layer The following table gives volumes of some simple solids

contains

4 x 3 =

12 cubes.

There are

2 layers.

Hence the

volume is

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Practice Questions

25mm find its length.

width of 86.5mm find its length to the nearest four

decimal places.

whose altitude is 5.9cm.

are 75mm and 82mm long respectively and whose

vertical height is 39mm.

16cm long. If its area is 220cm, what is its altitude?

diagram.

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out to make a square sheet 10mm thick. What are

the dimensions of the square?

radius of the cross-section is 25mm, find its height.

66mm. What is its volume?

7. Find the circumference of a circle whose radii are:

(a) 3.5mm (b) 13.8mm (c) 4.2cm 16. Calculate the diameter of a cylinder whose height is

the same as its diameter and whose volume is 220

8. Find the diameter of a circle whose circumference is cm.

34.4mm.

travelling 2km if its diameter is 700mm?

centre by an arc find the length of arc when: r =

2cm, 0 =30

(a) 5 m into cm (b) 0.08 m into mm

(c) 830 000 cm into m (d) 850 000 mm into m

plate 15mm thick and 1.75m wide. Calculate the

length of the plate in m.

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SQUARES, CUBES AND SQUARE & CUBE ROOTS 3 3 3 = 27, it is usual to write it as 33 or 3 cubed.

Squares

Square Roots

When a number is multiplied by itself the result is called the

square of the number. The square of 9 is 9 9 = 81. Instead The square root of a number is the number whose square

of writing 9 9, it is usual to write 92 which is read as the equals the given number. Since 52 = 25, the square root of

square of 9. Thus: 25 = 5.

(1.3)2 = 1.3 1.3 = 1.69 hence we write

Example: Find (168.8)2. 81 9 Similarly, since 92 = 81, so .

= 28,480

The cubed root of a number is the number which cubed equals

2 the number. For example, the cubed root of 64 = 4.

0.9

3

64 4 3 The sign is used to denote a cubed root and

Example: Find the value of 0.15 .

hence we write .

2

0.9 Practice Questions

6 2 36

0.15

1. Find the square of the following numbers:

(a) 1.5 (b) 23 (c) 3.15

(a) 7 (b) 1.5

When a number is multiplied by itself, i.e. 3 3 = 9, it is usual

to write it as 32 or 3 squared. We can take this a stage further 3. Find the value of (3.142)2 correct to 2 places of

and multiply by another 3, i.e. decimal.

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PTC/CM/COMMON/M1/01 Rev. 00

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