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INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Integration the process of finding the function whose derivative is given.

Indefinite Integrals:

These are integrals of the form f ( x ) dx where f(x) is the integrand and x
is the variable of integration.

Properties of Indefinite Integrals:

1. du u c

2. du dv .... dz du dv .... dz

3. If c is a constant, then cdu c du

Fundamental Integration Formulas:

The Power Formula:

u n 1
u du c where n 1
n

n 1

The Trigonometric Function Formulas:

1. cos u du sin u c 5. sec u tan u du sec u c

2. sin u du cos uc 6. csc u cot u du csc u c

sec u du tan u c sec u du ln sec u tan u c


2
3. 7.

csc u du cot u c csc u du ln csc u cot u c


2
4. 8.

1 1
sec u du sec u tan u ln(sec u tan u ) c
3
9.
2 2

Exponential Function Formulas:

au
e du e c a du
u u
1. 2. u
C where a > 0, a 1
ln a
Logarithmic Formula:

du
u
ln u c

Inverse Trigonometric Formulas:

du u du 1 u
1. a u
2 2
Arc sin
a
c 2. a 2
u 2
Arc tan c
a a

du 1 u
3. u u a
2 2

a
Arc sec c
a

Integration by Parts:

udv uv vdu
Hyperbolic Function Formulas:

1. cosh udu sinh u c 2. sinh udu cosh u c

Trigonometric Substitution:

When the integrand involves a 2 x 2 , let x a sin ;


when the integrand involves a 2 x 2 , let x a tan ;
when the integrand involves x 2 a 2 , let x a sec .

Definite Integrals:
b
These are integrals of the form a
f ( x ) dx where a (the lower limit) and b
(the upper limit) are the limits of integration. If f ( x ) dx F ( x ) , then

a
f ( x)dx F ( x) b

a
F (b) F (a)

Properties of Definite Integrals:`

1. Interchanging the limits of integration changes the sign of the integral, i.e.
b a
a
f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx
b

2. The interval of integration may be broken up into any number of subintervals,


and the integration performed over each interval separately, i.e.
b c b
a
f ( x ) dx a
f ( x ) dx f ( x ) dx
c
3. The definite integral of a given integrand is independent of the variable of
integration, i.e.
b b
a
f ( x) dx a
f ( z ) dz

Even and Odd Functions:

A function that remains unchanged when x is replaced by x, i.e.


f ( x) f ( x )
is called an even function.
Examples:
1. f ( x) x 2 since f ( x) ( x) 2 x 2
2. f ( x) cos x since f ( x) cos( x) cos x

If f(x) is an even function of x,


a a
a
f ( x ) dx 2 f ( x ) dx
0

A function such that f ( x ) f ( x ) is called an odd function.


Examples:
1. f ( x) x 3 since f ( x) ( x) 3 x 3
2. f ( x) sin x since f ( x) sin( x) sin x

If f(x) is an odd function of x,


a
a
f ( x ) dx 0

Wallis Formula:

/2 [(m 1)(m 3) 2 or 1][(n 1)(n 3) 2 or 1]


0
sin m x cos n xdx
( m n)(m n 2)(m n 4) 2 or 1

where m & n 0, i.e. positive integers including zero


/ 2 if both m & n are even, otherwise 1
Note: If the first factor in any of the products to be formed using Wallis
Formula is less than one, replace that factor by unity.

A Theorem of Pappus:

If a plane area is revolved about an axis in its plane and not crossing the area,
the volume of the solid generated is equal to the product of the generating area and
the circumference of the circle described by the centroid of the area, i.e.

V = A 2r

Centroids of Common Plane Figures:


Oblique Triangle

Right Triangle

Semicircle

Quarter Circle

Parabolic Segment

Review Exercises in INTEGRAL CALCULUS

e
sin 2 x
1. Evaluate: cos 2 xdx
sin 2 x
e e sin 2 x
a. c b. e sin 2 x c c. e sin 2 x c d. c
2 2

e x dx
2. Evaluate the integral of .
ex 1
b. ln e x 1 c
ln e x
a. e x c c. e x 1 c d. c
e
2
1
3. x dx
2 x
x3 1 x3 1
a. 2x c c. x c
3 4x 3 4x
3
x3 4 1 1
b. x c d. x c
3 x 3 2x

x sec xdx
2
4.
x2
a. x tan x ln sin x c c. tan x c
2
b. x sec x ln sec x tan x c d. x tan x ln cos x c

cos
5. 1 sin 2

d =

a. sec tan c c. ln 1 sin 2 c


b. sin csc c d. Arc tan sin c

6. 1 cos x dx =
1 1
a. 2 2 cos x c b. 2 2 cos x c c. 2 2 cos x c d.
2 2
2 2 cos x c

7. Find the area bounded by the curve 2x2 + 4x + y = 0 and the line x + y = 0.
a. 7/4 sq. units b. 8/3 sq. units c. 2/7 sq. units d. 9/8 sq. units

8. Find the area bounded by the curve 5y2 = 16x and the curve y2 = 8x 24.
a. 16 sq. units b. 19 sq. units c. 30 sq. units d. 20 sq. units

9. Find the area bounded by the curve y2 3x + 3 = 0 and the line x = 4.


a. 15 sq. units b. 12 sq. units c. 10 sq. units d. 11 sq. units

10.Given the area in the first quadrant bounded by x2 = 8y, the line y 2 = 0 and the y-
axis. What is the volume generated if this area is revolved about the line y 2 = 0?
a. 53.31 cu. units b. 45.87 cu. units c. 26.81 cu. units d. 33.98 cu. Units
2
11. Given the area in the first quadrant bounded by y = x, the line x = 4 and the x-axis.
What is the volume generated when this area is revolved about the y-axis?
a. 98.44 cu. units b. 74.87 cu. units c. 67.95 cu. units d. 80.42 cu. units

1
12. What is the integral of with respect to x and evaluate the result from x =1 to
3x 4
x = 3?
a. 0.206 b. 0.306 c. 0.406 d. 0.506

13. Find the area bounded by the parabola x 2 16 y 1 and its latus rectum.
a. 56.27 b. 46.27 c. 42.67 d. 52.67

14. The integral of any quotient whose numerator is the differential of the denominator is
the __________ of the denominator.
a. product b. derivative c. reciprocal d. logarithm

ydy
15. The integral of
4 y2
1 y 1
a. Arc sin c b. 4 y2 c c. ln 4 y c d.
2
2 4 y2 c
2 2 2

16. The area bounded by the curves y = x2 3x and y = 3 x is given by the integral
x 2 x 3 dx 3 2 x x dx
3 3
2 2
a. 1
b. 1

3 4 x x dx 3 2 x x dx
1 4
2 2
c. 3
d. 0

17. What theorem is used to solve for centroids?


a. Pappus b. Varignons c. Castigllianos d. Pascals

18. If the integral of dt/(9 + t2) from 0 to x is equal to /12, then x is equal to
a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4

19. What is the area bounded by the curve x2 = 9y and the line y + 1 = 0?
a. 6 sq. units b. 5 sq. units c. 4 sq. units d. 3 sq. units

20. If the integrand involves x2 a2 where a is a constant, then x may be substituted by


a. a cos b. a sin c. a tan d. a sec

21. Find the length of the arc of the parabola x2 = 4y from x = 2 to x =2.
a. 4.2 b. 4.6 c. 4.9 d. 5.2

22. Find the volume of the solid generated by revolving the first quadrant region bounded
by y = x2, the y-axis and y = 4 about the y-axis.
a. 8 b. 4 c. 16/3 d. 32/3

x2 y2
23. The area enclosed by the ellipse 1 is revolved about the line x = 3. What is
9 4
the volume generated?
a. 355.3 b. 360.1 c. 370.3 d. 365.1

e dx
2 ln x
24.
1 x3 1 3 2 2 ln x
e c x c e c
3
a. b. e x /3
c c. d.
3 3 x
x 1
25. When partial fractions are used, the decomposition of is equal to
x 3x 2
2

A B
where A and B are equal to ___ and ___ respectively.
x 1 x 2
a. 2, -3 b. -2, 3 c. 3, -2 d. 2, 3

26. The area in the second quadrant of the circle x2 + y2 = 36 is revolved about the line
y + 10 = 0. What is the volume generated?
a. 2218.33 b. 2228.83 c. 2233.43 d. 2208.53

x y dydx
4 3
2
27. Evaluate: 2 1

a. 88/3 b. 89/3 c. 86/3 d. 79/3

28. How far from the x-axis is the centroid of the semicircle y = 4 x2 ?
a. 0.849 b. 0.424 c. 0.365 d. 0.673

29. Locate the centroid of the plane area in the first quadrant bounded by the curve
y2 = 4x and the lines x = 1 and the x-axis.
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
a. , b. , c. , d. ,
4 5 5 4 5 5 4 3

30. Find the moment of inertia with respect to the y-axis of the plane area between the
parabola y = 9 x2 and the x-axis.
a. 256/3 b. 294/5 c. 324/5 d. 269/4

ANSWER KEY

1. a 7. d 12. a 17. a 22. a 27. a


2. b 8. a 13. c 18. c 23. a 28. a
3. c 9. b 14. d 19. c 24. c 29. b
4. d 10. c 15. b 20. d 25. b 30. c
5. d 11. d 16. b 21. b 26. b
6. a