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TITLE : HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

BACKGROUND INFORMATION :

1. Respiratory and Breathing System in Human

Breathing, controlled by the respiratory system, is a continuous process of which a


person is normally unaware. If breathing stops, however, a person becomes acutely
aware of the fact. Breathing is the mechanical process by which the body takes in
oxygen and then releases carbon dioxide is called breathing or pulmonary ventilation.
Inhalation (or inspiration) occurs when air flows into the lungs. Exhalation (or expiration)
occurs when air flows out of the lungs. A single breath, called a respiratory cycle,
consists of an inhalation followed by an exhalation. Breathing is brought about by the
actions of the nervous system and the respiratory muscles.

Once air has filled the lungs, the oxygen in that air must be transported to all the cells
in the body. In return, all cells in the body release carbon dioxide that must be
transported back to the lungs to be exhaled. The exchanges of gases in the body is
known as respiration. External respiration is the exchange of gases through the thin
membranes of the alveoli and those of the blood capillaries surrounding them. Internal
respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood capillaries and the tissue cells of
the body. Within the body, all gases are exchanged through the process of diffusion.

The main function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen for the body's cells
and remove the carbon dioxide they produce. Oxygen is the most important energy
source for the cells. They need it for cellular respiration: the process by which the simple
sugar glucose is oxidized (combined with oxygen) to form the energy-rich compound
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Glucose is produced in cells by the breakdown of more
complex carbohydrates, including starch, cellulose, and complex sugars such as sucrose
(cane or beet sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar). ATP is the compound used by all cells to
carry out their ordinary functions: growth, the production of new cell parts and chemicals,
and the movement of compounds through cells and the body as a whole.

2. Human Circulatory System

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular
system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such
as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to

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and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting
diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. The circulatory
system is often seen to comprise two separate systems: the cardiovascular system,
which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which circulates lymph. The main
organ of circulatory system is heart.

The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the
lungs. In the human heart there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and
with both a systemic and a pulmonary circulation there are four chambers in total: left
atrium, left ventricle, right atrium and right ventricle. The right atrium is the upper
chamber of the right side of the heart. The blood that is returned to the right atrium is
deoxygenated (poor in oxygen) and passed into the right ventricle to be pumped through
the pulmonary artery to the lungs for re-oxygenation and removal of carbon dioxide. The
left atrium receives newly oxygenated blood from the lungs as well as the pulmonary
vein which is passed into the strong left ventricle to be pumped through the aorta to the
different organs of the body.

3. Human Skeletal System

Skeletal system is the system of bones, associated cartilages and joints of human
body. Together these structures form the human skeleton. Skeleton can be defined as
the hard framework of human body around which the entire body is built. Almost all the
hard parts of human body are components of human skeletal system. Joints are very
important because they make the hard and rigid skeleton allow different types of
movements at different locations. If the skeleton were without joints, no movement would
have taken place.

Because the bones making up the human skeleton are inside the body, the skeleton
is called an endoskeleton (endo means "within"). In animals that have an external
skeleton, such as the crab, the skeleton is called an exoskeleton (exo means "outside").
Exoskeletons restrict the movement of an organism and must be shed periodically in
order for that organism to grow. Endoskeletons allow for freer movement and grow along
with an organism. All humans are born with over 300 bones. As an individual ages,
certain bones (such as those in the skull and lower spine) fuse or join together, thereby
reducing the number. By the time an individual reaches adulthood, the number of bones
in the body totals about 206.

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4. Cell Structure & Cell Organisation

Cells are the basic units of life; small machines that facilitate and sustain every
process within a living organism. Muscle cells contract to maintain a heartbeat and allow
us to move, neurons form networks that give rise to memories and enable thought
processes. Epithelial cells arrange to form surface barriers between tissues and the
many cavities throughout our bodies. Not only do different cell types facilitate unique
functions, but their molecular, genetic and structural compositions may also differ. For
this reason, different cell types often possess variations in phenotype, such as cell size
and shape.

A cells function is achieved through the culmination of hundreds of smaller


processes, many of which are dependent on each other, and share protein or molecular
components. Despite the phenotypic and functional variations that exist between cell
types, it remains true that a high level of similarity exists when exploring subcellular
processes, the components involved, and importantly, the organization of these
components. With most subcellular processes under precise regulatory control of other
subcellular processes, and with components often shared between different molecular
pathways and protein cascades, cellular organization is of great importance. This is true
for every cell type, with compartmentalization of subcellular processes, and protein
localization, recruitment and delivery ensuring they are constantly repeated in an efficient
manner and with accurate results.

AIM :

To study the physiological system of human.

PROBLEM STATEMENT :

What are the importance of physiological system to human?

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PROCEDURE :

A. Respiratory and Breathing System


1. Our group went to the first station to study the breathing mechanism in human.

2. The process that stimulated by the respiratory mechanism model is observed and
recorded.
3. The rib cage movement during inhalation and exhalation is observed.
4. Each organ that involved during respiration are identified and recorded.

B. Circulatory System
1. The flow of blood (oxygenated and deoxygenated) in human body that simulated
by the model is observed and recorded.
2. Each organ, artery, vein and capillary that involve in the blood circulation is
identified and recorded.

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3. Then, the structures and the components of heart is observed.

C. Human Skeletal System


1. The part of the skeleton model is observed and each part is labelled and
recorded.
2. The appearance of the model is compared with one of our group members.

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D. Cell Structure and Cell Organisation

Materials : Artery, vein and capillary cell, human blood cell, ovary cell and ovum cell.

1. Structure of artery, vein and capillary cells, human blood cell, ovary cell and ovum
cell are observed by using microscope.

OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS :

During the experiment, all the observation recorded. We labelled each part of the system
that we studied during the experiment.

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A. Respiratory and Breathing System

Larynx

Trachea

Lung
Rib cage
Sternum

Diaphragm

External intercostal muscle

Internal intercostal muscle

Figures Observation
Inhalation Rib cage are moving upward and
outward.
Chest are expand due to the increase of
thoracic cavity.
Diaphragm will contract, move
downward and become flatten.

Exhalation Rib cage are moving downward and

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inward.
The thoracic cavity is decrease.
Diaphragm will relax and curve upward.

B. Circulatory System

Lung
Aorta
Pulmonary vein
Pulmonary artery
Left atrium

Vena cava
Left
ventricle

Right atrium

Body cell
Right
ventricle

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Vena cava
Aorta

Pulmonary
artery

C. Human Skeletal System

Cranium

Maxilla

Mandible

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Clavicle

Sternum

Rib

Scapula

Humerus

Pelvis

Carpal

Metacarpal

D. Cell Structure and Cell Phalanges


Organisation

Artery cell Ovum cell

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Artery, vein and capillary cell Blood cell

DISCUSSION :

The action of breathing in and out is due to changes of pressure within the thorax, in
comparison with the outside. This action is also known as external respiration. When we
inhale the intercostal muscles (between the ribs) and diaphragm contract to expand the
chest cavity. The diaphragm flattens and moves downwards and the intercostal muscles
move the rib cage upwards and out. This increase in size decreases the internal air pressure
and so air from the outside (at a now higher pressure that inside the thorax) rushes into the
lungs to equalise the pressures. When we exhale the diaphragm and intercostal muscles
relax and return to their resting positions. This reduces the size of the thoracic cavity,
thereby increasing the pressure and forcing air out of the lungs.

Blood circulation starts when the heart relaxes between two heartbeats, blood flows
from both atrium into the ventricles which then expand. The following phase is called ejection
period, which is when both ventricles pump the blood into the large arteries. In the systemic

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circulation, the left ventricle pumps oxygen-rich blood into the main artery (aorta). The blood
travels from the main artery to larger and smaller arteries into the capillary network. There
the blood releases oxygen, nutrients and other important substances and takes on carbon
dioxide and waste substances. The blood, which is now low in oxygen, is now collected
in veins and travels to the right atrium and into the right ventricle. Now pulmonary
circulation starts. The right ventricle pumps blood that carries little oxygen into the pulmonary
artery, which branches off into smaller and smaller arteries and capillaries. The capillaries
form a fine network around the pulmonary vesicles, grape-like air sacs at the end of the
airways. This is where carbon dioxide is released from the blood into the air contained in the
pulmonary vesicles and fresh oxygen enters the bloodstream. When we breathe out, carbon
dioxide leaves our body. Oxygen-rich blood travels through the pulmonary vein and the left
atrium into the left ventricle. The next heart beat starts a new cycle of systemic circulation.

The skeleton gives the body shape and protects its internal organs. The brain is
housed inside the cranium, or skull, and is protected by the skull in the event of any trauma
to the head. Likewise, the heart, lungs, liver and other internal organs are housed in the rib
cage and protected from trauma by the ribs. The bones of the spine hold the body straight,
enabling upright forward motions such as walking and running. The body's muscles attach to
the skeleton by way of connective tissues known as tendons. This attachment enables the
muscles to extend and contract. The skeleton also produces red and white blood cells. Red
blood cells, which are used to transport oxygen throughout the bloodstream, are created in
the bone marrow. White blood cells, which the body uses to fight off bacterial and viral
infections, are also created inside of the bone marrow.

CONCLUSION :

As the conclusion, every system in a human body are very important. Examples are
respiratory system important to provide oxygen to human, circulatory system important to
supply the oxygen and nutrient to the cell body through blood, skeletal system important to
protect organs and enable human to move and cell organisation are important because cell
is a basic unit of organisms.

REFERRENCE :

Ching, L. (2011). Pre-U Text STPM Biology Volume 2. Selangor: Pearson Malaysia Sdn.
Bhd.

Gan Wan Yeat, M. a. (2005). Biology Form 4. Selangor: Bakaprep Sdn. Bhd.

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