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Disciplina

Fonologia Segmental da Língua Inglesa

Coordenador da Disciplina

Profª. Vládia Maria Cabral Borges


Copyright © 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edição ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poderá ser reproduzida,
transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrônico, por fotocópia e outros, sem a prévia autorização, por escrito, dos autores.

Créditos desta disciplina

Coordenação

Coordenador UAB
Prof. Mauro Pequeno
Coordenador Adjunto UAB
Prof. Henrique Pequeno
Coordenador do Curso
Profª. Vládia Maria Cabral Borges
Coordenador de Tutoria
Prof. José Tobias Lima Sales
Coordenador da Disciplina
Profª. Vládia Maria Cabral Borges

Conteúdo

Autor da Disciplina
Profª. Vládia Maria Cabral Borges
Prof. Willis Poole

Setor Tecnologias Digitais - STD

Coordenador do Setor
Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno

Centro de Produção I - (Material Didático)


Gerente: Nídia Maria Barone
Subgerente: Paulo André Lima
Transição Didática Formatação Design, Impressão e 3D
Elicélia Gomes José Almir da S. Costa Filho Afonsina Soares
Karla Colares José André Loureiro Andrei Bosco
Maria de Fátima Silva Tiago Lima Venâncio Eduardo Ferreira
Ofélia Pessoa Fred Lima
Rafaelli Monteiro Publicação Iranilson Pereira
Elilia Rocha Márllon Lima

Gerentes
Audiovisual: Ismael Furtado
Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento
Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Diagramado em 11/10/2011
Sumário
Class 01: An introduction to Phonology ................................................................................................... 1 
Topic 01: Introduction to the Course ........................................................................................................ 1 
Topic 02: What is a phoneme? .................................................................................................................. 4 
Topic 03: Voicing...................................................................................................................................... 9 
Topic 04: Phonemic Transcription .......................................................................................................... 15 
Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs ................................................................................................ 17 
Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs .............................................................. 17 
Topic 01: Front Vowels........................................................................................................................... 19 
Topic 02: English Back Vowels .............................................................................................................. 29 
Topic 03: English Central Vowel – The Schwa ...................................................................................... 38 
Topic 04: English Diphthongs................................................................................................................. 46 
Class 03: English Consonants Part I ....................................................................................................... 53 
Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of CONSONANTS ........................................................................ 53 
Topic 01: English Consonants - Stops .................................................................................................... 55 
Topic 02: Affricates and Fricatives ......................................................................................................... 67 
Class 04: English Consonants Part II...................................................................................................... 86 
Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of CONSONANT CLUSTERS...................................................... 86 
Topic 01: Nasals ...................................................................................................................................... 88 
Topic 02: Approximates and the Lateral "L" .......................................................................................... 97 
Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English .............................................................................................. 105 
Task: Reviewing the Pronunciation of Consonant Clusters .................................................................. 105 
Tópico 01: Consonant Clusters at the Beginning of Words .................................................................. 107 
Tópico 02: Consonant Clusters at the End of Words ............................................................................ 122 
Tópico 03: Consonant Clusters at the End of Words ............................................................................ 136 
Part 2: Three-member final consonant clusters ................................................................................ 136 
Tópico 04: Phonological Processes - Voicing Assimilation ................................................................. 142 
Fonologia Segmental da Língua Inglesa

Class 01: An introduction to Phonology

Topic 01: Introduction to the Course


In “Fonologia Segmental da Língua Inglesa” you will start studying the phonology of English.
Phonology is the field of linguistics that studies how the sound systems of languages are organized.
Phonology can be studied at two levels:

At the segmental level, phonology is concerned with the study of vowels, diphthongs and
consonant phonemes. At the suprasegmental level, phonology deals with word and sentence stress and
intonation.

For the time being, you will be studying segmental phonology. The units (“Aulas”) in this
course are organized as follows:

Each unit consists of four lessons (“Tópicos”). In each lesson, there will be activities which
will be either checked automatically or by your tutor when you post them in your portfolio. You will also
be assigned to go to external links for supplementary readings and further practice.

At the end of each unit there will be a task. The tasks consist of self-reflection journals. These
self-reflection journals will be posted in your portfolio, and evaluated by your tutor. The aim of the self-
reflection journals is to help you become aware of and overcome your pronunciation problems. In each
journal you will be asked to record your oral reading of a passage in English, focusing on the aspects of
pronunciation that you learned in the unit, and correcting any pronunciation errors that you have made.

The goal of this course is to help you develop good comprehensible


pronunciation. Although we are not aiming at developing native-like
pronunciation, it is very important that you, as a future English teacher, develop
intelligible pronunciation.
Pronunciation is a broad term used to describe a number of aspects of producing appropriate
sounds in the target language. Most people think it refers to only the separate, identifiable sounds of
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words, but it covers more than that. Pronunciation involves the segmental1 and suprasegmental2 aspects
of the sound system of languages.

The English sound system


All languages have their own unique sound systems. For example, we can find sounds in
English such as "th" which cannot be found in Portuguese. Similarly there are sounds, such as “lh”, which
do not exist in English. Sometimes the same sound is found in both English and Portuguese, e.g., “v” and
“f”.

When writing in English, we use 5 vowel and 21 consonant letters. When speaking American
English, however, we typically use 14 different vowel sounds (including 3 diphthongs), and 24 consonant
sounds.

1
Vowel, diphthong and consonant phonemes
2
stress and intonation
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As you noticed, not every spelled letter in English is pronounced. The lack of a one-to-one
relationship between spelling and pronunciation in English sometimes presents learners with problems.
Therefore, it is wise to follow Ricardo Shultz advice:

Forum

The Importance of Good Pronunciation

Click on the link below to read more about the importance of a good pronunciation:
http://www.sk.com.br/sk-pron.html#difpron

Click on the link below to watch a video about good pronunciation:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/

When you finish reading, think about the following and post your comments in the
forum.

1. Why is it so challenging to distinguish sounds within the string sequence of


sounds of oral production?
2. Why is the interference of native language over the second language most
readily noticed in the pronunciation?
3. In the text, Shultz points out the following as the main differences between the
pronunciation Portuguese and English:

- correlation between pronunciation and spelling


- relationship between vowels and consonants
- number of phonemes
- stress and rhythm

What seems particularly more difficult to you?

o What are your pronunciation goals?


o What will you specifically do during this course to better your
pronunciation?

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Class 01: An introduction to Phonology

Topic 02: What is a phoneme?


Although there are slight differences in how individuals articulate sounds, we can still
describe reasonably accurately how each sound is pronounced.

Stop to Read

A phoneme is the smallest sound unit of a language that distinguishes one word from
another. For example, the phonemes /I/ and /i/ distinguish ship from sheep; the words
tell and yell are distinguished by their initial phonemes /t/ and /y/.

Please, go to http://www.sk.com.br/sk-voga.html and read more about phonology and


phonemes (Read up to “Conclusion”).

Stop to Read

Phonemic transcription gives both teachers and students a way of accurately recording
the pronunciation of words and utterances. In this course we will be using the
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to the sounds of spoken standard American
English.

The IPA is a system of phonetic notation, devised by the International Phonetic Association
and used by linguists, speech pathologists and therapists, foreign language teachers and students,
lexicographers, and translators. The IPA is designed to represent those qualities of speech that are
distinctive in spoken language: phonemes, intonation, and the separation of words and syllables. In most
dictionaries, the pronunciation symbols used to show how words are pronounced are adapted from the
IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).
The following examples are used to show certain conventions which will be used in this
course, and found in most dictionaries and reference books.

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The International Phonetic Alphabet


 Consonant Phonemes
There is less variation in consonants between speakers of different dialects than between
vowels. British and American consonants are the same. Most of the consonant symbols are similar to the
normal alphabet of written English. Just a few have to be learned.

Here are the 24 consonant phonemes of English. Click on the pronunciation symbol to hear the
pronunciation of the isolated phoneme and of the phoneme within a word.

 Vowel Phonemes
Most English-speaking people would say there are five vowels in English, but they are
thinking of the written language. In fact, in spoken language there are many more. The exact number
depends on the dialect of the speaker. The following list is based on standard American English. There
are simple vowels, like /I/ as in "hit", and complex ones (diphthongs), like /aI/ as in "my", where two
vowels combine and run into each other.

Click on the pronunciation symbol to hear the pronunciation of the isolated phoneme and of
the phoneme within a word.

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Practice 1

Change the transcriptions below into words in the regular (Roman) alphabet and then
write them in the crossword puzzle.

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Answers.

Portfolio Activity – Part I

Can you pronounce these words? Record the pronunciation of the words and post them
in your portfolio as Portfolio Activity – Part I.

Acesse o ambiente SOLAR para baixar o programa Audacity, necessário para gravação.
Utilize-o toda vez que for pedido uma gravação. Este mesmo programa pode ser
encontrado no Material de Apoio.

Portfolio Activity – Part II

Identify the transcriptions. Then choose the word that best completes each of the
sentences below. Copy the completed sentences in a word document, save it and post it
in your portfolio as Portfolio Activity – Part II. Follow the example (1).

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1. Hippies believed in love and peace (5).


2. Romeo and Juliet were young _______________.
3. He was _______________ in an accident.
4. John Lennon was from _______________.
5. Look at my _______________.
6. Here. _______________ the ball.
7. _______________ the chair, please.
8. Let’s _______________ clothes for the party.
9. It’s hot. Let’s enjoy the _______________.
10. I’d like to _______________ you for the money.

Further Reading

Click on the link to read more about the IPA for English:

http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronunc-soundsipa.htm

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Class 01: An introduction to Phonology

Topic 03: Voicing


An important way in which one speech sound may differ from another is in voicing or the
lack of it. We say that a sound is voiced if our vocal cords vibrate as we pronounce it; a sound is
voiceless if it is pronounced without such vibration.

Voiceless Sound = no vibration of the vocal cords


Voiced Sound = vibration of the vocal cords

In order to identify if a sound is voiced, press two fingers lightly against your throat and
pronounce / z /. You should be able to feel the vibration of the vocal cords as you say the sound. Try it!

In order to identify if a sound is voiceless, press two fingers lightly against your throat and
pronounce / s /. You should be able to notice no vibration as you say the sound. Try it!

Challenge

Now try pronouncing /f/ and /v/. Which of the two sounds is voiced?

Click to check.
/ v / = voiced; / f / = voiceless

All vowel phonemes are voiced. The word "vowel" originated in Latin vocalis meaning
"voice." Vowels are pronounced by vibrating the vocal cords.

Press two fingers lightly against your throat and pronounce the vowel phonemes below. Feel
the vibration of the vocal cords as you say each vowel.

Try it!

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You may have noticed that there are a number of pairs of consonants – such as /s/ and / z /,
and / f / and / v / - which seem to be very much alike except that one is voiced and the other voiceless.

The consonants / b / and / p / form another such pair – both sounds are made in the same place
(between the lips) and in the same manner (by closing the lips, then opening them to let the air escape
explosively), but / b / is pronounced with vibration of the vocal cords, and / p / without vibration.

Voiced and Voiceless Sounds


 Voiceless Voiced pairs of Consonants

These consonant sounds come in voiceless/voiced pairs:

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 Voiced Sounds

These consonant sounds are voiced:

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 Voiceless Consonants

This consonant sound is voiceless.

Further Reading

Click on the link to read more about voicing and hear and see voiced and voiceless
sounds being pronounced. On the page click on American English. Then click on Voice.
Choose voiced to hear and see voiced sounds being pronounced and voiceless to hear
and see voiceless sounds being pronounced.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/

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Practice 1

Are the following sounds voiced or voiceless? Type the number of each sound under
the appropriate column.

Voiced:
01. ___________ 1. 2. 3. 4.
02. ___________ 8. Voiceless:
03. ___________
5. 6. 7. 01. ___________
04. ___________
02. ___________
05. ___________
9. 11. 03. ___________
06. ___________ 10. 12.
04. ___________
07. ___________ 13. 14. 16.
05. ___________
08. ___________ 15.
06. ___________
09. ___________
18. 07. ___________
10. ___________
17. 19. 20. 08. ___________
11. ___________
09. ___________
12. ___________ 23.
13. ___________
21. 22.
14. ___________

answers.
Voiced: answers.
Voiceless:
2.
3.
5.
4.
7.
6.
8.
9.
10.
16.
11.
17.
12.

13. 18.

14. 23.
15. 16.
19.

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20.

21.

22.

Practice 2

Click on the icon to listen to the sounds being pronounced.

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Class 01: An introduction to Phonology

Topic 04: Phonemic Transcription


With phonetic transcriptions, dictionaries tell you about the pronunciation of words. Phonetic
transcription is necessary, because the spelling of a word does not tell you how you should pronounce it.

Phonetic transcriptions are usually written in the International Phonetic Alphabet


(IPA), which you have been introduced to in the last lesson. As you learned, in the
IPA each English sound has a special symbol.

Phonetic transcription is usually given in brackets, like this: /no/, /du/.


In a dictionary, it looks like this:

[Longman Active Study Dictionary of English]

Phonemic transcription is the most common type of phonetic transcription, used in many
English dictionaries. In this course, you will be doing phonemic transcription.

How does phonemic transcription work? Suppose we have two different English sounds.
Should we give them separate symbols in transcriptions? In phonemic transcription, the answer is "yes"
only if there is an English word where saying one sound instead of another changes the meaning.

Example

Saying "d" instead of "t" in the word bet changes the meaning (the word becomes bed),
therefore we use separate symbols for "d" and "t" in phonemic transcriptions. In other
words, we say that "t" and "d" are two separate phonemes.

On the other hand, the "flap t" (in the pronunciation of the word letter )
and the regular "t" (in the pronunciation of the word tea ) are two very
different sounds. However, there are no English words where saying the "flap t" instead
of the regular "t" (or the other way around) changes the meaning. Therefore, in
phonemic transcription, we use the same symbol for the "flap t" and the regular "t". In
other words, we say that the "flap t" and the regular "t" are the same phoneme.

More examples
Each of these examples gives two different sounds that are written with the same symbol in phonemic
transcription. In other words, the two sounds are the same phoneme.

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 the "clear l" in lean and the "dark l" in hill (the second sounds
like a vowel and the tongue does not touch the top of your mouth; the difference is especially
audible in British English)
 the "p" sound in pin and spin (the first is accompanied by more
breathing)

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Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs

Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of vowels and diphthongs


Each task in this course has two parts. In Part 1, you will be requested to transcribe some
words, read sentences aloud and record your reading. You have to post the transcription of the words and
the audio of your reading in your portfolio. Part 1 is worth 4 points. In Part 2, your teacher will send you
the reading of the same sentences made by a native speaker. Listen to the audio, and compare the native
speaker’s pronunciation to yours. Practice saying the sentences again trying to imitate the pronunciation
of the native speaker. Then, record your sentences again and send your audio recording to your teacher.
Part 2 is worth 4 points.

PART 1
Follow the steps below.

1. For each sentence below, transcribe the words in upper case. Use the IPA symbols in the
Material de Apoio. For example:

Ex. They COINED the wrong KIND


Transcription: /kɔɪnd/ /kaɪnd/

2. Save the transcription in a word document. Copy the sentence and paste the transcription
into the document.

3. Then, read each sentence, paying special attention to the way you pronounce the words you

transcribed. When you think you are ready, record your reading and save it. .

Lembre-se de utilizar o programa Audacity toda vez que for pedido uma gravação. Este
mesmo programa pode ser encontrado no Material de Apoio ou neste link (acesse o ambiente SOLAR).

4. Post the word document and the recording in your portfolio.

PART 2
1. You will receive the recording of each of the sentences made by a native speaker of
English.

2. Listen to the native speaker’s recording and compare to the recording you sent to the tutor.

3. Check the pronunciation of the words in upper case, comparing it to the way the native
speaker pronounced them.

4. If you notice you have mispronounced a word, correct it. Record the sentence again. Save it
and send it to your tutor as an attachment to an email message.

1. Please SIT in this SEAT. Transcription –

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2. Don’t WAIT until you are WET. Transcription –

3. I HATE this HAT. Transcription –

4. I’m MAD at the MAID. Transcription –

5. Please take a LOOK at LUKE. Transcription –

6. Will the COOK bring me a COKE. Transcription –

7. Her skirt CAUGHT on the COT. Transcription –

8. The DON came at DAWN. Transcription –

9. That HUT was certainly HOT. Transcription –

10. It was DUG by the DOG. Transcription –

11. My GUN is GONE. Transcription –

12. The BUG is too BIG. Transcription –

13. She CRIED in the CROWD. Transcription –

14. We’ll TRY to visit TROY. Transcription –

15. Please POINT to the PINT. Transcription –

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Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs

Topic 01: Front Vowels


In this unit you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce English vowels and
dipthongs. The unit consists of four lessons – Lesson 1: Front Vowels, Lesson 2: Back Vowels, Lesson
3:The “schwa” and Lesson 4: Dipthongs.

ENGLISH VOWELS

There are eleven vowel sounds in English. Vowel sounds are made by an airstream passing
through the vocal chords causing them to vibrate. The airstream then passes through the oral cavity where
it is modifyed by the tongue and lips. producing the different vowel sounds.

English vowels can be classified according to where the airstream is modified in the mouth to
produce the vowel sound. There are five Front vowels, one Central vowel (the “Schwa”) and five Back
vowels3. Take a look at the vowel chart.

Stop and Check

Click on the link below to see how each of these vowels is pronounced.

When on the page, click on American English. Click on Monothongs, then on Vowels
and finally on Front vowels.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#

3
The exact number depends on the dialect of the speaker. 11 vowels and 3 diphthongs is based on standard American English.
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LISTEN

Front Vowels

Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each front vowel. Then click on
the Written Word to hear the sounds of the different vowels in written words.

Pratice 1

Match the sound to the phonetic symbol.

Click on each play button to listen to each Front Vowel Sound. Then, type the number of
the vowel sound that you hear next to the phonetic symbol.

To check your answers

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Listen

Minimal Pairs with /I/ and /i/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /I/ and /i/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Pratice 2

Minimal Pairs with /I/and /i/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to hear one of the two similar words given. Decide
which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 3: Pronunciation Practice with /i/ and /I/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound /i/.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /i/. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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 The sound /I/.

Each word contains the sound /I/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

Listen

Minimal Pairs with /ɛ/ and /e/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /ɛ/ and /e/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Pratice 4

Minimal Pairs with /ɛ/ and /e/ phonemes

Click on the play button to listen to one of the two similar words given. Decide which of
the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 5: Pronunciation Practice with /ɛ/ and /e/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound /ɛ/.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /ɛ/. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound /e/.

Each word contains the sound /e/ Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Listen

Minimal Pairs with /æ/ and /e/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /æ/ and /e/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Pratice 6

Minimal Pairs with /æ/ and /e/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 7: Pronunciation Practice with /æ/ and /e/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound /æ/.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /æ/. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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 The sound /e/.

Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /e/. Click on
each word to hear its pronunciation

Forum

Click on the link below to watch a video. When you finish watching it, discuss the
following questions with your classmates and tutor in the Forum

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/learningenglish/grammar/pron/sounds/

- Have you ever used a dictionary to check pronunciation? Why? Why not?

- Do all dictionaries indicate pronunciation the same way?

- Do you ever use the Pronunciation Key/Table in your dictionary when you check the
pronunciation of a word?

- Why does being able to check pronunciation in the dictionary mean becoming
independent?

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Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs

Topic 02: English Back Vowels


Click here to see a chart that shows the back vowels that you will be learning in this lesson.

The back vowels

Stop and Check

Click on the link below to see how each of these vowels is pronounced.

When on the page, click on American English. Click on Vowels, then on Monothongs
and finally on Back vowels.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#

Listen

Back Vowels

Click on the play button to hear the sound of each back vowel and the sound of the back
vowel in words.

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Practice 1

Match the Sound to the Phonetic Symboll

Click on each play button to listen to each Back Vowel Sound. Then, type the number of
the vowel sound that you hear next to the phonetic symbol.

To check your answers

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Listen

Minimal Pairs with / / and /u/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / / and /u/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 2

Minimal Pairs with / /and /u/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 3: Pronunciation Practice with / / and /u/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound /u/.

Each word contains the sound /u/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Listen

Minimal Pairs with / / and /o/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / / and /o/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 4

Minimal Pairs with / /and /o/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 5: Pronunciation Practice with / / and /o/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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 The sound /o/.

Each word contains the sound /o/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

Listen

Minimal Pairs with /ɑ/ and / / phonemes

Click on the play button the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /ɑ/ and / /
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 6
Minimal Pairs with / ɑ / and / / phonemes
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

To check your answers

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PRACTICE 7: Pronunciation Practice with / ɑ / and / / phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / ɑ /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / ɑ /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound / /.

Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs

Topic 03: English Central Vowel – The Schwa


The schwa is the most common vowel in spoken English. It is the sound in the first syllable of
“about” / ba t/ or “banana” /b næn /. The last syllable of a word such as “teacher” is a 'schwa' / /
and is said extremely fast.

Stop and Check

Click on the link below to see how the schwa and its variants are pronounced.

When on the page, click on American English. Click on Vowels, then on Monothongs
and finally on Central vowels.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#

Listen

Central Vowel – “Schwa”

Click on the play button to hear the sound of each back vowel and the sound of the back
vowel in words.

Listen

Minimal Pairs with / / and / ɑ / phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / / and / ɑ /
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 1
Minimal Pairs with / /and / ɑ / phonemes
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 2: Pronunciation Practice with / / and / ɑ / phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound / ɑ /.

Each word contains the sound / ɑ/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Listen

Minimal Pairs with / / and / / phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / / and / /
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 3
Minimal Pairs with / /and / / phonemes
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 4: Pronunciation Practice with / / and /ɔ/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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 The sound / /.

Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

Listen

Minimal Pairs with / / and /I/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / / and /I/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 5
Minimal Pairs with / /and /I/ phonemes
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

To check your answers

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PRACTICE 6: Pronunciation Practice with / / and /I/ phonemes


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound /I/.

Each word contains the sound /I/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Class 02: English Vowels and Dipthongs

Topic 04: English Diphthongs


Diphthongs are sounds formed when two vowel sounds are said very close together, with the
first sound changing into the second. There is a glide (or movement of the tongue, lips and jaw) from one
vowel sound to the other. The first sound in each phoneme is longer and louder than the second. For
example, if you listen to the word “house”, you can hear that the /a/ part of the diphthong /a / is longer
than the final / / part.

Click on the diphthongs to see their characteristics. Remember that even though diphthongs
are a glide from one vowel sound to another, they are perceived as one sound. The glide in each diagram
is shown as an arrow from the tongue position of the initial sound (represented by a dot) to the finishing
position of the second element of the diphthong.

Diphthongs
 / I/

 /aI/

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 /a /

Listen

Diphthongs.

Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each diphthong and to hear it in
the word.

Practice 1
Match The Sound To The Phonetic Symbol
Click on each play button to listen to each diphthong. Then, type the number of the
diphthong that you hear next to the phonetic symbol.

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To check your answers

Listen

Minimal Pairs with /a / and /aI/ diphthongs

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /a / and /aI/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 2
Minimal Pairs with /a /and /aI/ diphthongs
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 3: Pronunciation Practice with /a / and /aI/ diphthongs


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound /a /.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /a /. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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 The sound /aI/.

Each word contains the sound /aI/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

Listen

Minimal Pairs with / I/ and /aI/ diphthongs

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the / I/ and /aI/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening
until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 4
Minimal Pairs with / I/and /aI/ diphthongs
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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To check your answers

PRACTICE 5: Pronunciation Practice with / I/ and /aI/ diphthongs


Practice your pronunciation

 The sound / I/.

Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound / I/. Click on each word to hear its
pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

 The sound /aI/.

Each word contains the sound /aI/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Class 03: English Consonants Part I

Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of CONSONANTS

PART 1 (4 points)

Follow the steps below.

1. For each sentence below, transcribe the words in upper case. Use the IPA symbols in the Material de
Apoio. For example:

Ex. Her HAIR blew in the AIR.

Transcription:

2. Save the transcription in a word document. Copy the sentence and paste the transcription into the
document.

3. Then, read each sentence, paying special attention to the way you pronounce the words you

transcribed. When you think you are ready, record your reading and save it.

Lembre-se de utilizar o programa Audacity toda vez que for pedido uma gravação. Este mesmo programa
pode ser encontrado no Material de Apoio ou neste link.

4. Post the word document and the recording in your portfolio.

PART 2 (4 points)

1. You will receive the recording of each of the sentences made by a native speaker of English.

2. Listen to the native speaker’s recording and compare to the recording you sent to the tutor.

3. Check the pronunciation of the words in upper case, comparing it to the way the native speaker
pronounced them.

4. If you notice you have mispronounced a word, correct it. Record the sentence again. Save it and send it
to your tutor as an attachment to an email message.

1. Please BUY a PIE.

2. She was PATTING the PADDING.

3. The JEEP was not CHEAP.

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4. Was MARGE going to MARCH?

5. Our FAN is in the VAN.

6. Can you SAVE enough to feel SAFE?

7. Being THIN is no SIN

8. Their GROSS shows a steady GROWTH.

9. I don’t DARE go THERE.

10. How does this BREED manage to BREATHE?

11. I will SUE the ZOO.

12. It PAYS to keep a fast PACE.

13. Those SHEEP are not CHEAP.

14. Do WITCHES grant WISHES?

15. He was REHIRED and then REFIRED.

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Class 03: English Consonants Part I

Topic 01: English Consonants - Stops


Para escutar os áudios acesse o ambiente SOLAR

In this unit you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce the following
English consonants:

Lesson 1: STOPS

Lesson 2: AFFRICATES AND FRICATIVES

ENGLISH CONSONANTS
There are 24 consonant phonemes in English. Consonants can be defined and distinguished in
three ways. First, consonant phonemes can be distinguished by the Point of Articulation which refers to
the specific vocal organs that modify the airstream to produce the particular consonant sound.

The second way to distinguish consonant phonemes is by the Manner of Articulation which
refers to how the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract to produce a particular
consonant sound. Finally, the third way to distinguish consonants is by Voicing which refers to whether
or not the vocal chords are vibrating during the production of a particular consonant sound.

Vocal Organs of Speech

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Look at the chart below to see how each consonant is classified by Point of Articulation,
Manner of Articulation and Voicing.

ENGLISH CONSONANT PHONEMES (Standard American dialect):

PRACTICE 1: (Practice identifying consonants as to their Point of


Articulation, Manner of Articulation and Voicing)

Matching
Using the chart of English Consonant Phonemes classify each of the following phonemes according to its
Point of Articulation, Manner of Articulation and Voicing by writing the appropriate characteristic
in the appropriate column.

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POINT OF Manner of Articulation Voicing


ARTICULATION
/l/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/f/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/p/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/ŋ/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/ð/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/z/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/r/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/k/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/h/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________
/d/ ____________________ ____________________ __________________

Check your answers.

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English Stop Consonants


There are six consonants that are STOPS in English. STOP sounds are made by completely
blocking the air stream at some point in the vocal tract. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is
then released explosively.

Stop Consonants:

Stop and Check

Click on the link to hear and see how the Stop Consonants are pronounced.

Then click on American English, on Consonants and on Stops.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/#

LISTEN: STOP Consonants

1. Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each STOP Consonant. Then click on the
Written Word to hear the sounds of the different Plosive Consonants in written words.

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PRACTICE 2: Match the sound to the phonetic symbol.

Practice 2

Match the sound to the phonetic symbol.

Click on each play button to listen to each Plosive Consonant Sounds. Then, type the
number of the Plosive Consonant Sound that you hear next to the phonetic symbol.

( ) a) /p/

( ) b) /b/

( ) c) /t/

( ) d) /d/

( ) e) /k/

( ) f) /g/

Check your answers.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /p/ and /b/ phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /p/and /b/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 3
Minimal Pairs with /p/and /b/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/p/ /b/

1. ( ) pig ( ) big

2. ( ) pie ( ) buy

3. ( ) pad ( ) bad

4. ( ) stapple ( ) stable

5. ( ) simple ( ) symbol

6. ( ) mopping ( ) mobbing

7. ( ) rope ( ) robe

8. ( ) cap ( ) cab

9. ( ) cup ( ) cub

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Check your answers.

PRACTICE 4: Pronunciation Practice with /p /and /b/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /p/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /b/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /t /and /d/ phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /t/ and /d/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 5
Minimal Pairs with /t/and /d/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/t/ /d/
1. ( ) To ( ) Do
2. ( ) Try ( ) Dry
3. ( ) Tip ( ) Dip
4. ( ) Patting ( ) Padding
5. ( ) Hurting ( ) Herding
6. ( ) Sweeten ( ) Sweden
7. ( ) Fat ( ) Fad
8. ( ) Bet ( ) Bed
9. ( ) Built ( ) Build

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Check your answers

PRACTICE 6: Pronunciation Practice with /t /and /d/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /t/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /d/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /k /and /g/ phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /k/ and /g/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 7
Minimal Pairs with /k/and /g/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/k/ /g/

1. ( ) coat ( ) goat

2. ( ) could ( ) good

3. ( ) came ( ) game

4. ( ) ankles ( ) angles

5. ( ) decree ( ) degree

6. ( ) plucking ( ) plugging

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Check your answers

PRACTICE 8: Pronunciation Practice with /k /and /g/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /k/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /g/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Forum

Comparing American and British Vowel Sounds

Click on the link below to go to the British Council website. When you are on there, click
on the vowel sounds in the Phonemic Chart.

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/activities/phonemic-chart

When you finish listening to the pronunciation of each vowel sound, discuss the following
topics with your classmates and tutor:

- What’s the main difference in the pronunciation of American and British vowel sounds?

- Which vowel sounds are pronounced differently in British and American English?

- With which accent are you more familiar with – American or British?

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Class 03: English Consonants Part I

Topic 02: Affricates and Fricatives


Para escutar os áudios acesse o ambiente SOLAR.

In this lesson you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce English
affricates and fricatives.
This chart shows the AFFRICATES and FRICATIVES that you will be learning in
this lesson.

Chart

Affricate and Fricative Phonemes


There are two affricates in English (see the chart above). Affricate sounds are made by
placing the blade of the tongue against the palato-alveolar area in the roof of the mouth blocking the
airstream. Air pressure increases behind the closure, and is then released slowly producing an audible
frication sound. The only difference between the two affricate sounds is voicing. The sound is
voiceless and the is voiced.

Note

Palato-alveolar is where the Alveolar ridge and hard palate meet in the mouth (See
diagram in Lesson 1).

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Stop and Check

Click here (http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/) to see and hear how the


English Affricates are pronounced. Then click on American English, Consonants and
Affricates

LISTEN: English Affricate Consonants


Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each Affricate consonant. Then click
on the Written Word to hear the sounds of the different Affricate consonants in written words.

Practice 1
Match the sound to the phonetic symbol.

Click on play button to listen to each Affricate Consonant Sounds. Then, choose the
correct Phonetic Symbol for the sound. Write the number of the sound in the
parentheses next to the IPA symbol.

( ) a)

( ) b) / /

Check your answers.

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LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the and
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Practice 2
Minimal Pairs with and phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to one of the two similar words given. Decide which
of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

1. ( ) Cheap ( ) Jeep
2. ( ) Chin ( ) Gin
3. ( ) Choke ( ) Joke
4. ( ) Etching ( ) Edging
5. ( ) Riches ( ) Ridges
6. ( ) Batches ( ) Badges
7. ( ) Search ( ) Surge
8. ( ) March ( ) Marge
9. ( ) Lunch ( ) Lunge

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Check your answers.

PRACTICE 3: Pronunciation Practice with phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound . Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound . Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH FRICATIVE CONSONANTS


There are nine fricatives in English (see the chart). Fricative sounds are made when two
vocal organs come close together and form a narrow passage. When air passes through the narrow
passage a friction sound is produced.

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Click here

Stop and Check

Click here (http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics) to hear and see how English


Fricative Consonants are produced: Click on American English, then on Consonants and
finally on Fricatives.

LISTEN: Fricative Consonants


Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each Fricative Consonant. Then click
on the Written Word to hear the sounds of the different Fricative Consonants in written words.

ENGLISH FRICATIVES: /f/and /v/

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The /f/ and /v/ labio-dental fricative phonemes are produced by lightly placing the lower lip
against the upper teeth. When air passes through the narrow passage a friction sound is produced. The
only difference between these two labio-dental fricative sounds is voicing. The /f/sound is voiceless and
the /v/ is voiced.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /f/ and /v/phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /f/ and /v/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

PRACTICE 4: Minimal Pairs with /f/and /v/phonemes

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Practice 4

Minimal Pairs with /f/and /v/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/f/ /v/

1. ( ) Fat ( ) Vat

2. ( ) Fan ( ) Van

3. ( ) Few ( ) View

4. ( ) Rifle ( ) Rival

5. ( ) Shuffle ( ) Shovel

6. ( ) Refuse ( )Reviews

7. ( ) Grief ( ) Grieve

8. ( ) Belief ( ) Believe

9. ( ) Safe ( ) Save

Check your answers.

PRACTICE 5: Pronunciation Practice with /f/ and /v/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /f/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /v/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH FRICATIVES: /θ/ and /ð/


The /θ/ and /ð/ interdental fricative phonemes are produced by lightly placing the tongue tip
between upper and lower teeth. When air passes through the narrow passage a friction sound is produced.
The only difference between these two interdental fricative sounds is voicing. The /θ/ sound is voiceless
and the /ð/ is voiced.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /θ/ and /ð/ phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /θ/ and /ð/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 6
Minimal Pairs with /θ/ and /ð/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/θ/ /ð/

1. ( ) thigh ( ) thy

2. ( ) loath ( ) loathe

3. ( ) mouth ( ) mouthe

4. ( ) wreath ( ) wreathe

5. ( ) sheath ( ) sheathe

6. ( ) teeth ( ) teethe

7. ( ) sooth ( ) soothe

8. ( ) this’ll ( ) thistle

9. ( ) ether ( ) either

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Check your answers

PRACTICE 7: Pronunciation Practice with /θ/ and /ð/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /θ/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /ð/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH FRICATIVES: /s/ and /z/


The /s/ and /z/alveolar fricative phonemes are produced by lightly placing the tongue blade
on the alveolar ridge. When air passes through the narrow passage a friction sound is produced. The only

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difference between these two alveolar fricative sounds is voicing. The /s/sound is voiceless and the /z/is
voiced.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /s/ and /z/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /s/ and /z/ phonemes. Try to
hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can clearly hear the
differences between the minimal pairs.

PRACTICE 8: Pronunciation Practice with /s/ and /z/ phonemes


Practice 8

Minimal Pairs with /s/ and /z/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

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/s/ /z/

1. ( ) sue ( ) zoo

2. ( ) sink ( ) zink

3. ( ) seal ( ) zeal

4. ( ) fussy ( ) fuzzy

5. ( ) muscle ( ) muzzle

6. ( ) racing ( ) raising

7. ( ) place ( ) plays

8. ( ) niece ( ) knees

9. ( ) pace ( ) pays

Check your answers.

PRACTICE 9: Pronunciation Practice with /s/ and /z/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /s/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /z/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH FRICATIVES:

The and fricative phonemes are produced by lightly touching the


alveolar ridge with the tongue blade. When air passes through the narrow passage a friction sound is
produced. The only difference between these two palatal-alveolar fricative sounds is voicing. The sound
is voiceless and the is voiced. Some examples of words having the phoneme are she - ,
fish - , nation - , and words having the phoneme are beige - and measure -
. Note: There are very few minimal pairs in words with and so practice is provided with
the and phonemes.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 10
Minimal Pairs with phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

1. ( ) share ( ) chair

2. ( ) sheep ( ) cheap

3. ( ) shoe ( ) chew

4. ( ) wishes ( ) witches

5. ( ) washing ( ) watching

6. ( ) cashes ( ) catches

7. ( ) mash ( ) match

8. ( ) crush ( ) crutch

9. ( ) marsh ( ) march

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 11: Pronunciation Practice with phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound . Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound .
Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH FRICATIVE: /h/


The /h/ glottal fricative phoneme is produced when air passes from the lungs through the
open glottis, causing audible friction. The /h/ is a voiceless phoneme.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /h/ and /f/ phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /h/ and /f/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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Practice 12
Minimal Pairs with /h/ and /f/ phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/h/ /f/

1. ( ) hat ( ) fat

2. ( ) hair ( ) fair

3. ( ) heat ( ) feet

4. ( ) hate ( ) fate

5. ( ) hill ( ) fill

6. ( ) unhired ( ) unfired

7. ( ) hound ( ) found

8. ( ) height ( ) fight

9. ( ) hear ( ) fear

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Check your answers.

PRACTICE 13: Pronunciation Practice with /h/ and /f/ phonemes

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /h/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /f/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with Words beginning with vowels and the addition
of the /h/phoneme to the beginning of words.
Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with Words beginning with
vowels and the addition of the /h/ phoneme. Try to hear the differences in each minimal pair. Keep
listening until you can clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

Pratice 14
Words beginning with vowels and the addition of the /h/ phoneme

Click on the play icon on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given. Decide
which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

Words
beginning with /h/
vowels

1. ( ) Eye ( ) high

2. ( ) air ( ) hair

3. ( ) old ( ) hold

4. ( ) eel ( ) heel

5. ( ) art ( ) heart

6. ( ) edge ( ) hedge

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Check your answers.

PRACTICE 15: Pronunciation Practice with Words beginning with vowels


and the addition of the /h/ phoneme

a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word begins with a vowel sound.
Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound /h/. Click
on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Class 04: English Consonants Part II

Task: Reviewing the pronunciation of CONSONANT CLUSTERS

"L"PART 1 (4 points)

1. For each sentence below, transcribe the words in upper case. Use the IPA symbols in the
Material de Apoio. For example:

Ex. The KING is KIN.

Transcription:
2. Save the transcription in a word document. Copy the sentence and paste the transcription into the
document.
3. Then, read each sentence, paying special attention to the way you pronounce the words you

transcribed. When you think you are ready, record your reading and save it. .
4. Post the word document and the recording in your portfolio.

PART 2 (4 points)
1. You will receive the recording of each of the sentences made by a native speaker of English.
2. Listen to the native speaker’s recording and compare to the recording you sent to the tutor.
3. Check the pronunciation of the words in upper case, comparing it to the way the native speaker
pronounced them.
4. If you notice you have mispronounced a word, correct it. Record the sentence again. Save it and send it
to your tutor as an attachment to an email message.

1. He HANGS the best HAMS.

Transcription:

2. Get the HAMMER from the HANGER.

Transcription:

3. Tomorrow he WINS his WINGS.

Transcription:

4. That THING is THIN.

Transcription:

5. SOMEDAY she will come on SUNDAY.

Transcription:

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6. The girls were SCREAMING at the SCREENING.

Transcription:

7. I will WAIT to hear the RATE.

Transcription:

8. Did you see the RICH WITCH?

Transcription:

9. Is the grass WET YET.

Transcription:

10. Did he YELL at the WELL?

Transcription:

11. There is a LIGHT on the RIGHT.

Transcription:

12. Here is the BILL for the BEER.

Transcription:

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Class 04: English Consonants Part II

Topic 01: Nasals

In this unit you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce the following English consonants:

Lesson 1: NASALS;

Lesson 2: RETROFLEXES, LATERALS AND GLIDES.

Topic 3: Nasals

There are three nasal sounds in English (see the chart). Nasal sounds are made by blocking
the air stream and forcing the air to go through the nose. All nasal sounds are voiced. Click here to see the
chart with the Nasal phonemes that you will be learning in this lesson.

ENGLISH NASALS: /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/

The /m/ bilabial phoneme is made by closing the lips and forcing the air to go out through the
nose. The /m/ sound is voiced.

The /n/ alveolar phoneme is made by placing the blade of the tongue against the alveolar
ridge and forcing the air to go out through the nose. The /n/ sound is voiced.

The /ŋ/ velar phoneme is made by placing the back of tongue against the soft palate which is
lowered allowing air to pass through the nasal cavity. The /ŋ/ sound is voiced.

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Stop and Check

Click on the link to see and hear how the nasal phonemes are pronounced.
Then click on American English, Consonants and Nasals.

http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/

LISTEN: Nasal Consonants

Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each Nasal Consonant and to hear the sounds of
the Nasal Consonants in written words.

ENGLISH NASALS: /m/and /ŋ/

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /m/and /ŋ/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /m/and /ŋ/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 1: Minimal Pairs with /m/and /ŋ/ phonemes

Practice 1

Minimal Pairs with /m/and /ŋ/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/m /ŋ/

1. ( ) Hams ( ) Hangs

2. ( ) Clams ( ) Clangs

3. ( ) Rim ( ) Ring

4. ( ) Sam ( ) Sang

5. ( ) Brim ( ) Bring

6. ( ) Simmer ( ) Singer

7. ( ) Slims ( ) Slings

8. ( ) Swim ( ) Swing

9. ( ) Rum ( ) Rung

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 2: Pronunciation Practice with /m/and /ŋ/ phonemes


a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /m/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /ŋ/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH NASALS: /n/and /ŋ/

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /n/and /ŋ/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /n/and /ŋ/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 3: Minimal Pairs with /n/and /ŋ/ phonemes

Practice 3

Minimal Pairs with /n/and /ŋ/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/n/ /ŋ/

1. ( )Wins ( )Wings

2. ( )Clan ( )Clang

3. ( )Kin ( )King

4. ( )Thin ( )Thing

5. ( )Lawn ( )Long

6. ( )Banned ( )Banged

7. ( )Sinning ( )Singing

8. ( )Tons ( )Tongues

9. ( ) Sun ( )Sung

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given. Decide
which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

PRACTICE 4: Pronunciation Practice with /n/and /ŋ/ phonemes (Click here to


open
a-Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the sound
/n/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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b - Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /ŋ/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

Check your answers.

ENGLISH NASALS: /m/ and /n/

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /m/and /n/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /m/ and /n/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 5: Minimal Pairs with /m/and /n/ phonemes

Practice 5

Minimal Pairs with /m/and /n/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/m/ /n/

1. ( )moose ( )noose

2. ( ) motion ( )notion

3. ( )muzzled ( )nuzzled

4. ( )screaming ( )screening

5. ( )smuggle ( )snuggle

6. ( )someday ( )sunday

7. ( )comb ( )cone

8. ( )gum ( )gun

9. ( )hem ( )hen

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Check your answers.

PRACTICE 6: Pronunciation Practice with /m/and /n/ phonemes


a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /m/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /n/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Forum

Listening to different English Accents

Click on the link below to watch the video “21 Accents”. You will listen to almost the
same sentence pronounced with 21 different accents. Try to identify the different accents
of the words:

HELLO – MY – NAME – ANN – WALKER – BORN

Discuss these differences with your classmates and tutor in the forum. Which accent(s)
sounded more different or difficult to understand?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3UgpfSp2t6k&feature=related

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Class 04: English Consonants Part II


Topic 02: Approximates and the Lateral "L"

In this lesson you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce the English Approximate sounds and
the Lateral “L”.

There are three approximate sounds in English. Approximate sounds are made when one
articulator moves close to another, but not close enough to cause friction or to stop the airflow. Click here
to see the chart which shows the APPROXIMATE phonemes that you will be learning in this lesson.

ENGLISH APPROXIMATES: /w/, /r/ and /y/ and Lateral /l/

The /r/ palatal-alveolar phoneme is produced by placing (but not touching) the tongue tip
just behind the alveolar ridge. The back sides of the tongue touch the upper teeth. The /r/ sound is voiced.

The /y/ palatal semi-vowel is produced by positioning the tongue in the position of a close
front vowel and raising the soft palate. The sound glides quickly to the following vowel. The /y/ sound is
voiced.

The /w/ labio-velar semi-vowel is produced by positioning the tongue in the position of a
close vowel and raising the soft palate. The sound glides quickly to the following vowel. The /w/ sound is
voiced.

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The /l/ is a lateral sound is produced by positioning the blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge
creating a partial closure. Air then flows around the sides of the tongue. The /l/ sound is voiced.

Stop and Check

Click here to see and hear how the English Approximates are pronounced. Then click on
American English, Consonants, liquid and glide.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/

LISTEN: English Approximates


Click on each of the IPA symbols to hear the sound of each Approximate and to hear the
sound of each Approximate in written words.

ENGLISH APPROXIMATES: /w/and /r/

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /w/and /r/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /w/and /r/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 1: Minimal Pairs with /w/and /r/ phonemes

Practice 1

Minimal Pairs with /w/and /r/phonemes


Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words
given. Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/w/ /r/

1. ( )One ( )Run

2. ( )Wig ( )Rig

3. ( )Wing ( )Ring

4. ( )West ( )Rest

5. ( )Whale ( )Rail

6. ( )Wake ( )Rake

7. ( )Weed ( )Read

8. ( )Witch ( )Rich

9. ( )Wave ( )Rave

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 2: Pronunciation Practice with /w/and /r/ phonemes


a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /w/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /r/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

ENGLISH APPROXIMATES: /y/and /w/

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /y/and /w/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /y/and /w/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 3: Minimal Pairs with /y/and /w/ phonemes

Practice 3
Minimal Pairs with /y/and /w/phonemes

Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words given.
Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/y/ /w/

1. ( )Yell ( )Well

2. ( )Yelp ( )Welp

3. ( )Yet ( )Wet

4. ( )Yoke ( )Woke

5. ( )Yonder ( )Wander

6. ( )Yours ( )Wars

7. ( )Yaks ( )Waxs

8. ( )Yawn ( )Warn

9. ( )Yaht ( )Watt

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 4: Pronunciation Practice with /y/and /w/ phonemes


a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /y/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /w/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

LISTEN: Minimal Pairs with /l/and /r/


Click on the play button on the left to listen to the minimal pairs with the /l / and /r/
phonemes. Try to hear the phonemic differences in each minimal pair. Keep listening until you can
clearly hear the differences between the minimal pairs.

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PRACTICE 5: Minimal Pairs with /l/and /r/ phonemes

Practice 5
Minimal Pairs with /l/and /r/phonemes
Click on the play button on the left to listen to one of the two similar words
given. Decide which of the words it is and click on the word that that you hear.

/l/ /r/

1. ( )light ( )right

2. ( )late ( )rate

3. ( )liver ( )river

4. ( )climb ( )crime

5. ( )flee ( )free

6. ( )glass ( )grass

7. ( )bill ( )beer

8. ( )tile ( )tire

9. ( )file ( )fire

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 6: Pronunciation Practice with /l/and /r/ phonemes


a- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /l/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

b- Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains the
sound /r/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English

Task: Reviewing the Pronunciation of Consonant Clusters

PART 1 (4 points)

Follow the steps below.

1. For each sentence below, transcribe the words in upper case. Use the IPA symbols in the Material de
Apoio. For example:

Ex.

Transcription:

2. Save the transcription in a word document. Copy the sentence and paste the transcription into the
document.

3. Then, read each sentence, paying special attention to the way you pronounce the words you

transcribed. When you think you are ready, record your reading and save it.

4. Post the word document and the recording in your portfolio.

PART 2 (4 points)

1. You will receive the recording of each of the sentences made by a native speaker of English.

2. Listen to the native speaker’s recording and compare to the recording you sent to the tutor.

3. Check the pronunciation of the words in upper case, comparing it to the way the native speaker
pronounced them.

4. If you notice you have mispronounced a word, correct it. Record the sentence again. Save it and send it
to your tutor as an attachment to an email message.

1. He had PLENTY of CLOTHES to wear in the SNOW.

Transcription:
2. Did the SMALL SLIM man take the TRAIN or PLANE?

Transcription:
3. Maria likes SWEET BREAD with CRAB cakes.

Transcription:
4. He BROKE his SKATE so he didn’t SCORE.

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Transcription:
5. Bob was PROUD to be the STAR of the SPORT.

Transcription:
6. Did the FROG DRINK the GLUE?

Transcription:
7. The CROW FLEW away with the BLANKET.

Transcription:
8. If you THROW the GLOVE in the water, it will SHRINK.

Transcription:
9. She CATCHES the BUSES.

Transcription:
10. He SWITCHES the FAXES.

Transcription:
11. The ROSES are in the VASES.

Transcription:
12. They WALKED up the STAIRS.

Transcription:
13. She STARED at my bag.

Transcription:
14. I GLANCED at his WATCH.

Transcription:
15. We PAUSED and SMILED.

Transcription:
16. We IMAGINED the future.

Transcription:

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Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English

Tópico 01: Consonant Clusters at the Beginning of Words


Para escutar os áudios acesse o ambiente SOLAR.

In this unit you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce English consonant clusters. The unit
consists of four lessons – Lesson 1: Consonant Clusters at the Beginning of Words, Lesson 2: Consonant
Clusters at the End of Words – Part 1, Lesson 3: Consonant Clusters at the End of Words – Part 2, and
Lesson 4: Phonological Processes – Voicing Assimilation.

In this lesson you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce English Consonant
Clusters at the beginning of words
CONSONANT CLUSTERS IN ENGLISH

Why can’t you pronounce these words in Portuguese?

So far in this English Phonology course you have learned to recognize and orally produce
individual sounds in English: Vowels, Diphthongs and Consonants. Now you will learn how to
pronounce English consonant clusters when they occur in different positions in relation to other sounds in
words and sentences.

Every language has its own set of rules (phonotactic rules) concerning the position of sounds
in relation to other sounds in words, the vowels that can appear together, and the order in which
consonants can follow one another without intervening vowels. These rules greatly restrict the number of
sound sequences that can actully be used as words in a language. For example, you know that the words
“cgop, dtay, and gkah” cannot be words in Portuguese because the sequence of sounds does not comply
with the phonotactic rules concerning the sequencing of sounds in Portuguese words.

Similarly the phonotactic rules for the syllable structure of English can be characterized as
follows: (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)C). This means that a vowel sound (V) may be preceded by up to three
consonant sounds (C) and may be followed by up to four consonant sounds. For example the word
“strengths” pronounced as has three consonant sounds before the vowel and three consonant
sounds after the vowel.

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Consonant Letters vs. Consonant Sounds


In the chart below write the number of underlined consonant letters in the first column. Then,
listen to the words and, in the second column, write the number of consonant sounds that you hear in the
underlined part of the word (See examples).

What do you notice about the number of consonant letters and consonant sounds?

Check your answers.

Answer to the question: Sometimes there were unequal numbers of consonant letters and
sounds for written words and spoken words. It is important to distinguish clusters and digraphs.
Clusters are made of two or more consonant sounds, while a digraph is a group of two consonant letters
standing for only one sound. For example, in the word ship, the letters "s" and "h" together represent the
single consonant sound / /.

Consonant Digraphs consist of two consonants that when blended make one sound: sh / /,
ch /, th /θ/ or / /, wh /w/, ph, /f/, gh /f/, ng /ŋ/. Exceptions: The consonant blend ‘sc’ can stand for
two sounds as in scare or the ‘c’ can be silent as in science However, the consonant
cluster ‘ck’ represents one sound - /k/ as in clock .

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Further Reading

To learn more about diagraphs, go to the following website to listen to a song:


http://www.helpme2learn.com/demos/phonics2a/html/Letters%20Hanging%20Around.ht
ml

CONSONANT CLUSTERS AT THE BEGINNING OF WORDS

Consonant clusters or blends are the names given to two or three consonants that appear
together in a word. Each consonant retains its sound when blended. The term cluster refers to the written
form and the term blend refers to the spoken form.

Initial consonant clusters consist of three major categories:

 r-clusters
 l-clusters
 s-clusters

r-Clusters

LISTEN: Voiceless Stops (p,t,k) with /r/

Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless stops with /r/.

PRACTICE 1: Pronunciation Practice with Voiceless Stops (p,k,t) with /r/

Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat these words. Each word contains a voiceless stop (p/k/t)
with /r/. Click on each word to hear its pronunciation. Then repeat the word.

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LISTEN: Voiced Stops (b,d,g) with /r/


Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless stops with /r/

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PRACTICE 2: Pronunciation Practice with Voiced Stops (b,d,g) with /r/

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LISTEN: Voiceless Fricatives (/f/, /θ/, / /) with /r/

Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless fricatives with /r/.

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PRACTICE 3: Pronunciation Practice with Voiceless Fricatives (/f/, /θ/, / /)


with /r/

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l-Clusters

LISTEN: Voiceless Stops (p,k) with /l/


Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless stops with /l/.

PRACTICE 4: Pronunciation Practice with Voiceless Stops (p,k) with /l/

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LISTEN: Voiced Stops (b,g) with /l/

Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless stops with /l/.

PRACTICE 6: Pronunciation Practice with Voiceless Stops (b,g) with /l/

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LISTEN: Voiceless Fricatives (f,s) with /l/

Click on the Pictures to hear the different voiceless ficatives with /l/.

PRACTICE 7: Pronunciation Practice with Voiceless Fricatives (f,s) with /l/

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s-Clusters
Two-member initial consonant clusters: /s/ plus /C/

LISTEN: S-Clusters - sc, sk, sm, sn, sp, st, sw


Click on the Pictures to hear the different S-Clusters.

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PRACTICE 8: Pronunciation Practice with S-Clusters - sc, sk, sm, sn, sp, st,
sw
Practice your pronunciation. Listen and repeat each word concentrating on the /s/ sound and
lengthening it. (Make sure you do not insert a vowel sound before the /s/ sound.) Then pronounce each
word at normal speed.

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Forum

Dear students, in Forum 5, we’d like you to reflect about this course and about your
learning in the course. Here are some questions to help you reflect on this course:
1. In what ways has this course helped you to improve your pronunciation?
2. What were the positive aspects of this course and how have they contributed to your
learning, in relation to:
- the materials
- the interactions in the forum
- the interactions in the chats
- the portfolio activities and your tutor’s feedback
3. What were the negative aspects of this subject and your suggestions, in relation to:
- the materials
- the interactions in the forum
- the interactions in the chats
- the portfolio activities and your tutor’s feedback

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4. As the course went along, what have you done (in terms of study strategies) to improve
your pronunciation? What (if there is anything) could/should you have done differently?
5. Do you have any extra comments, critics or suggestions for the next editions of this
course?
We look forward to hearing from you!

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Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English

Tópico 02: Consonant Clusters at the End of Words

Part 1: Two-member final consonant clusters


In Lessons 2 and 3 you will learn to aurally recognize and orally produce English
Consonant Clusters at the end of words. Lesson 2 will focus on the recognition and production of
two-member final consonant clusters.

Voiced Bilabial Nasal: /m / plus consonant sound

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Voiceless Bilabial Stop -/p/ plus consonant sound

Voiced Bilabial Stop -/b/ plus consonant sound

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Voiceless Labiodental Fricative -/f/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Labiodental Fricative - /v/ plus consonant sound

Voiceless Interdental Fricative - /θ/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Interdental Fricative -/ð/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Alveolar Nasal - /n/ plus consonant sound

Voiceless Alveolar Stop -/t/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Alveolar Stop -/d/ plus consonant sound

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Voiceless Alveolar Fricative-/s/ plus consonant sound

Voiced Alveolar Fricative- /z/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Alveolar Lateral Approximant - /l/- plus consonant sound

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Voiced Alveolar Approximant -/r/ plus consonant sound

Voiceless Post-Alveolar Affricate - / / plus consonant sound

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Voiced Post-Alveolar Affricate -/ / plus consonant sound

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Voiceless Alveolar Fricative / / plus consonant sound

Voiced Velar Nasal- /ŋ/ plus consonant sound

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Voiceless Velar Stop-/k/ plus consonant sound

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Voiced Velar Stop-/g/ plus consonant sound

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Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English

Tópico 03: Consonant Clusters at the End of Words

Part 2: Three-member final consonant clusters


In Lessons 2 and 3 you have been learning to aurally recognize and orally produce English
Consonant Clusters at the end of words. Lesson 2 focused on the recognition and production of two-
member final consonant clusters. Lesson 3 will focus on the recognition and production of three-
member final consonant clusters.

Most three-member consonant clusters are morphologically produced, i.e., produced by the
addition of endings consisting of a single consonant.

Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /d/

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Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /s/
to words ending in /k/

Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /s/
to words ending in /p/

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Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /s/
to words ending in /t/

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Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /s/
to words ending in /θ/

Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /t/
to words ending in /k/

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Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /t/
to words ending in /s/

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Three-Member Final Consonant Clusters produced by the addition of the ending /z/

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Class 05: Consonant Clusters in English

Tópico 04: Phonological Processes - Voicing Assimilation


Phonology is not a static system in which an established unit remains unchanged in all its
occurences. Rather, it is a dynamic system in which units change as they come into contact with other
units in the system. We refer to such changes as phonological processes.

There is a universal principle that applies to all sound systems, namely, that sound units tend
to be influenced by their neighboring sounds – the position in which a sound occurs in larger units such as
syllable, morpheme, or word, and the occurrence of certain suprasegmental units such as stress and
intonation. Various changes take place when certain sound sequences are juxtaposed through the
combination of morphemes into words, and words into sentences.

Some modification processes may be explained as muscle coordination within the vocal
mechanism. Others may be due to perceptual strategies that enhance effective communication. The main
phonological processes are:

Assimilation
Dissimilation
Neutralization
Deletion
Coalescence
Epenthesis
Sandhi

For the time being we are going to focus on one of these processes – Assimilation – and
within assimilation, the focus will be on voicing assimilation.

Assimilation

One of the most common types of processes found in language is assimilation, in which a
sound takes on the characteristics of a neighboring sound. Various features of a sound may become
identical to that of a neighboring sound. There are two necessary components that define assimilation:
first, a sound that changes (the assimilating sound) and second, the sound that causes the change (the
conditioning sound).

One of the ways in which a sound may assimilate relates to the place of articulation of a
neighboring sound. A sound may change to take on the position of a preceding or following sound. One
of the most widely cited cases in English is the negative prefix “-in”. As you can observe in the examples
below, the nasal sound /n/ in / n/ changes its place of articulation according to the position of the
following sound.

A sound may also take on the manner of articulation from an adjacent sound. In more
casual and rapid speech styles, we can hear / / for /g d/ /ba / (good bye) and for
/bæd/ (bad guess).

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Voicing assimilation is the process in which a segment agrees in voicing with another
segment. The “s” endings and the past tense suffix “-d” are examples of voicing assimilation.
Pronouncing these clusters presents a special challenge to many learners of English. In this topic, you
will listen and self monitor your pronunciation for these important endings.

“S” Endings

There are different ways of pronouncing “s” endings. The ending can sound like /s/,
/z/, or have an extra syllable with a schwa vowel - / z/.

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PRACTICE 1: Click on each word to hear how the “s” ending is pronounced.
Then, check (x) the column with the “s” sound you hear.

Check your answers.

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PRACTICE 2: Click on all the words in each column. Listen and repeat each
word. Follow the sequence of the numbers.

“ED” Endings

There are different ways of pronouncing the “ed” ending for the past tense of regular verbs. The “ed”
ending can sound like /t/, /d/, or have an extra syllable with a schwa vowel - / d/.

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PRACTICE 3: Click on each word to hear how the “ed” ending is pronounced.
Then, check (x) the column with the “ed” sound you hear.

Check your answers.

PRACTICE 4: Click on all the words in each column. Listen and repeat each
word. Follow the sequence of the numbers.

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