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Disciplina

Fonologia Suprassegmental da Lngua Inglesa


Coordenador da Disciplina

Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Edio 2012.2
Copyright 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edio ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poder ser reproduzida,
transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrnico, por fotocpia e outros, sem a prvia autorizao, por escrito, dos autores.

Crditos desta disciplina

Coordenao

Coordenador UAB
Prof. Mauro Pequeno
Coordenador Adjunto UAB
Prof. Henrique Pequeno
Coordenador do Curso
Prof. Smia Alves Chaves
Coordenador de Tutoria
Prof. Joo Tobias Lima Sales
Coordenador da Disciplina
Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Contedo

Autor da Disciplina
Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Colaborador
Prof. Jder Martins Rodrigues Jnior

Setor TecnologiasDigitais - STD

Coordenador do Setor
Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno

Centro de Produo I - (Material Didtico)


Gerente: Ndia Maria Barone
Subgerente: Paulo Andr Lima
Transio Didtica Formatao Design, Impresso e 3D
Adriana Narciso Camilo Cavalcante Andrei Bosco
Elen Cristina S. Bezerra Damis Iuri Garcia Eduardo Ferreira
Eliclia Lima Gomes Elilia Rocha Everton Serpa
Ftima Silva e Souza Emerson Oliveira Fred Lima
Jos Adriano de Oliveira Givanildo Pereira Iranilson Pereira
Karla Colares Jos Almir da Silva Marllon Lima
Thiago Alencar Jos Andr Loureiro Onofre Paiva
Lucas Kalsovik
Lus Jos Moreira
Tercio Carneiro da Rocha

Publicao
Joo Ciro Saraiva

Gerentes
Audiovisual: Jay Harriman
Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento
Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante
Sumrio
Class 01: Word Stress ............................................................................................................................... 01
Topic 01: Stress ...................................................................................................................................... 01
Topic 02: Stress Patterns ........................................................................................................................ 05
Topic 03: Stress in Words with Suffixes ................................................................................................ 11

Class 02: Sentence Stress .......................................................................................................................... 15


Topic 01: The Rhythm of English .......................................................................................................... 15
Topic 02: Content and Function Words ................................................................................................. 19
Topic 03: Reduced Forms ...................................................................................................................... 24
Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production............................................................................27

Class 03: Connected Speech (Part 1) ....................................................................................................... 29


Topic 01: Linking ................................................................................................................................... 29
Topic 02: Elision .................................................................................................................................... 34
Topic 03: Epenthesis .............................................................................................................................. 37

Class 04: Connected Speech (Part 2) ....................................................................................................... 41


Topic 01: Progressive Assimilation ....................................................................................................... 41
Topic 02: Regressive Assimilation ........................................................................................................ 48
Topic 03: Coalescent Assimilation ........................................................................................................ 51

Class 05: Intonation .................................................................................................................................. 54


Topic 01: Focus ...................................................................................................................................... 54
Topic 02: Rising-Falling Intonation ....................................................................................................... 59
Topic 03: Rising Intonation.................................................................................................................... 67
Topic 04: Nonfinal Intonation ............................................................................................................... 73
Topic 05: More Functions of Intonation ................................................................................................ 81
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 01: STRESS

VERSO TEXTUAL

As you must have already realized, English pronunciation may be


considered a bit hard at times, which makes it essential for learners to
work on this aspect of the language since the very beginning of the
learning process. However, in order to communicate effectively in
English, it is not enough to know how to produce the sounds of the
language correctly. You also need to know how to place stress in words
and in sentences appropriately.

In Portuguese, we sometimes use stress marks ( -- the acute accent ( ), the


circumflex accent ( ^ )) to call attention to a syllable. For example, in the
word lmpada, which syllable is stressed?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

In English, however, there are no stress marks, but that does not mean there
are no stressed syllables. For example, the word important has three
syllables, but they are not pronounced the same way. The second syllable is
more prominent than the other two: imPORTant! Although, there is no
stress mark in the word, there is a stressed syllable: PORT.

Word Stress

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is normally
more prominent than the others. This syllable is said to be stressed. Stressed
syllables are often longer and louder than unstressed ones. In our lessons we
will represent stressed syllables with capital letters.
1
As you could hear, the first syllable in the words above is longer and louder
than the second, that is to say, the first syllable is stressed. When you speak
English, it is imperative that you stress words correctly. Otherwise, there
may be some kind of miscommunication.

In our next topic we will take a look at some of the stress patterns in English
which can be helpful for the prediction of the placement of stress.

STOP TO READ
When you do not know which syllable should receive the stress in a given
word, look up the phonetic transcription of the word in your dictionary. In
dictionaries the stress is normally marked with this symbol (') being
placed just before the stressed syllable of the word. Look at and listen to
the examples below:

Long words often have two stressed syllables. The strongest syllable in the
word receives primary stress and the second strongest syllable receives
secondary stress. Primary stress is marked with the symbol ('), whereas
secondary stress is marked with the symbol (,). Look at and listen to the
following examples:

2
PRACTICE 1
Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the following words and identify
the stressed syllable.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the pronunciation of the words below. Then, write the words in
the correct column according to their stressed syllable.

WORDS STRESSED ON THE FIRST WORDS STRESSED ON THE SECOND


SYLLABLE SYLLABLE

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

3
PRACTICE 3
Now click on the link below and practice identifying the stress in English
words.

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm)

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about WORD STRESS in English.

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress
(http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress)

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

4
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 02: STRESS PATTERNS

There are no fast and infallible rules for stressing words in English.
Therefore, stress patterns must often be learned with each word. However,

Two-Syllable Words

The words below illustrate the stress pattern followed by most two-syllable
nouns and verbs in English. Listen to how they are pronounced and identify
the stressed syllable in each one of them.

5
Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable nouns in English?

Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable verbs?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-syllable nouns the first syllable is more likely to receive the


stress, whereas in two-syllable verbs the second syllable tends to be
stressed.

STOP TO READ
About 90 percent of all English nouns of two syllables are stressed on the
first syllable, and more than 60 percent of all English verbs are stressed on
the second syllable (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008).

Three-Syllable Words

LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE FOLLOWING THREE-SYLLABLE WORDS AND


IDENTIFY THE STRESSED SYLLABLE.

6
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Compounds

The placement of stress in English compound words ( -- a noun, an adjective


or a verb made of two or more words) is very regular. Compound words are
sometimes written as one word, sometimes as two words, and sometimes
they are joined by a hyphen. The way in which they are written does not
interfere with their stress pattern, though (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008).

Let us listen to examples of compound words in English and try to identify


where the stress falls. Then let us decide which generalizations can be made
regarding the stress in compounds.

7
(The definitions used in this section were extracted from Oxford
Advanced Learners Dictionary (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2005.)

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from OXFORD


ADVANCED LEARNERS DICTIONARY (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2005.)

8
Based on the pronunciation of the compound words presented, answer the
following questions.

In two-word noun compounds, does the stress usually fall on the stressed
syllable of the first noun or the second noun?

In two-word adjective compounds, where does the stress often fall?

In verbs with a prefix and a base, where is the stress often placed?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-word noun compounds, it is the first noun which usually


receives the major stress, such as in: DRUGstore, ARMchair, BUS
driver, CLASSroom, AIRplane, TEAspoon, and NIGHTclub.

In two-word adjective compounds, it is the second word which often


receives the major stress, such as in: well BUILT, good-NAtured, fat-
FREE, narrow-MINDed, strong-WILLED, bad-TEMPered, and self-
CONfident.

In verbs with a prefix and a base, it is the base which usually receives
the major stress, such as in: outRUN, overLOOK, underVAlue,
upSET, downLOAD, foreSEE, and withDRAW.

STOP TO READ
Adjective compounds actually take two stress patterns. When the adjective
compound is used attributively ( -- preceding a noun) , it receives major
stress on the first word. On the other hand, when the adjective compound
occurs in predicative position ( -- after a link verb) , major stress is placed
on the second word (CELCE-MURCIA et al, 1996). Listen to the examples
below:

PRACTICE 1
Click on the links below and practice identifying the stress in English
words.

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm)

http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm
(http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm)

VOCABULARY SEARCH

9
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S. Teaching American English


Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

10
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 03: STRESS IN WORDS WITH SUFFIXES

STRESS PATTERN 1

The same stress pattern applies to all the suffixes ( -- morphemes which are
added to the end of a word and which change the meaning or function of the
word) below.

Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to

identify where the stress is placed.

11
Based on the pronunciation of the words above, answer the question below:

Which syllable receives the major stress when the word ends in -ic, -ical, -
ity, -ify, -ogy, -tion, -sion, -ian, -ial, -ous, -ious, -eous, -graph?

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

The syllable immediately before the suffixes above always receives the
major stress.

Stress Pattern 2

The following examples illustrate the stress pattern of words ending in the
suffixes -ee, -eer, -ese, -esque, -ique, or -ette.

LISTEN TO HOW THEY ARE PRONOUNCED.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

We should stress the syllable which contains the suffix.

STOP TO READ
Some suffixes are considered neutral, that is to say, they do not affect the
stress pattern of the root word ( -- the word without a prefix or a suffix) .
The suffixes below are considered neutral:

12
PRACTICE 1: ODD WORD OUT
A. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the syllable immediately before the
suffix:

B. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the suffix:

C. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the same syllable as its root word:

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

A. TRAINEE
B. EDUCATION
C. FATALITY

PRACTICE 2
Now click on the links below and practice identifying the stress pattern in
English words.
http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/
(http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/americanenglishfile/1/c_pronunciation/ef_stre
(http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/americanenglishfile/1/c_pronunciation/ef_str

FORUM
Based on what you have read about word stress, discuss the following
questions with your partners and your tutor:

13
Concerning word stress, what should English learners do when they
learn new words?
If you dont know where the stress falls in a given word, what can you do
to find that out?
How can the information in class 1 help you to speak English better?
Which of the topics presented in this class were you unfamiliar with?
Give examples of words whose pronunciation you have learned by
reading this class and doing the exercises. How did you think they were
pronounced?

SUGGESTED READING
Click on the link below to read some considerations about the importance
of good pronunciation. Then comment on your impressions of these
considerations in the forum.

http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm
(http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

14
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 01: THE RHYTHM OF ENGLISH

VERSO TEXTUAL

In the previous class, you read and learned about stressed and
unstressed syllables in words. In this class, we will see how the
combination of stressed and unstressed syllables contributes to the
creation of the rhythm in English.

The Rhythm of English

Many Brazilian learners of English often find it difficult to understand native


speakers of the language because they usually speak very fast. Do you think
so too? Well, one of the reasons that can explain this rapid flow of speech is
the very nature of the rhythm of English English is a stress-timed
language.

In other words, the length of an utterance in English depends not


on the number of syllables but rather on the number of stresses
(CELCE-MURCIA ET AL, 1996).

THE WORD/PHRASE PAIRS BELOW ILLUSTRATE WHAT IS SAID ABOVE.


LISTEN AND PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE RHYTHM PATTERNS IN
EACH PAIR.

(The examples above were extracted from GRANT, L. Well said. Boston:
Heinle & Heinle, 2001, pp. 78.)

15
EXERCISE
1. Listen to the pairs above again. Do the word and the phrase in each pair
have the same rhythm pattern or different ones? Do they take a similar
amount of time to be said or do the phrases take longer to be said than the
words?

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

In each pair, the rhythm pattern of the word is the same as that of
the phrase. And both the word and the phrase take almost the same
amount of time to be pronounced.

2. Now listen one more time and mark the stressed syllable of the word
and the stressed syllable of the phrase in each pair.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

1. engiNEER He was HERE.

2. overTHROW In a ROW.

3. conVERT Hes HURT.

4. preSENTed She SENT it.

5. PERmit LEARN it.

6. volunTEER She can HEAR.

We can learn that, just like words, phrases and sentences in English have
stressed and unstressed syllables.

We can learn that, in spoken English, some words are stressed and other
words are not.

STOP TO READ

16
If you stress every word and syllable equally, you may sound angry,
impatient, or rude without meaning to.

PRACTICE 1
LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND THE PHRASES BELOW. THEN MATCH THE
WORD AND THE PHRASE WITH THE SAME RHYTHM PATTERN.

(The words and phrases in this exercise were extracted from AVERY, P.;
EHRLICH, S. Teaching American pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2008, pp. 82.)

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. C 2. D 3. A 4. F 5. E 6. B

PRACTICE 2
LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN PRACTICE 1 AGAIN AND
IDENTIFY THE STRESSED SYLLABLE IN BOTH THE WORDS AND THE
PHRASES.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

17
PRACTICE 3
LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN EXERCISE 1 AGAIN AND
REPEAT. LISTENING AND REPEATING IS IMPORTANT PRACTICE FOR
LANGUAGE LEARNING.

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress and the rhythm of
English.

http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm)

http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

18
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 02: CONTENT AND FUNCTION WORDS

In English stressed syllables are normally more prominent than stressed


syllables in Portuguese. Similarly, unstressed syllables in English are much
weaker than unstressed syllables in Portuguese. Also, in spoken English
some words are more important than other words. The more important
words are called content words ((or lexical words)) , and the less important
words are called function words ((or grammar words)) . When we speak
English we have to stress content words and unstress function words. We do
not normally do this in Portuguese, so we have to remember that native
speakers of English do it and that is one of the main reasons why many
Brazilian learners of English often think they speak too fast.

EXERCISE
1. Listen carefully to the sentences below and mark the words which are
stressed (content words). If the content word has more than one syllable,
mark the syllable which receives the stress.

Her house is quite big, but it doesnt have a garden.

They usually listen to the radio in the morning.

London is famous for its red buses.

What newspaper do you read?

They can dance very well but they cant sing.

Where does your husband work?

How was the weekend?

Shes not Polish. Shes German.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

19
Her HOUSE is QUITE BIG, but it DOESNT HAVE a
GARden.

They Usually LISten to the RAdio in the MORning.

LONdon is FAmous for its RED BUSes.

WHAT NEWSpaper do you READ?

They can DANCE VEry WELL but they CANT SING.

WHERE does your HUSband WORK?

HOW was the WEEKend?

Shes NOT POlish. Shes GERman.

Notice that the words house, quite, big, doesnt,


have, red, what, read, dance, well, cant, sing,
where, work, how,and not have only one syllable.
Remember that, in English, we count syllables according
to the number of vowel sounds in a word. For example,
house has only one vowel sound so it has
only one syllable.

2. Now that you have checked your work, write (S) for the kinds of words
which are stressed in the previous exercise and (U) for the kinds of
words which are unstressed.

adjectives nouns

adverbs personal pronouns

articles prepositions

auxiliary verbs verbs

conjunctions Wh-question words

negative

contractions/not

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

20
As you can see from the tasks above, English words can be divided into two
groups:

Content words express independent meaning.


Content words are usually stressed.
Content words include: adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns,
and question words. They also include demonstrative pronouns ( this, that,
these, those) and possessive pronouns ( mine, yours, his, hers, ours,
theirs).
Function words have little or no meaning in themselves and mainly serve
the purpose of expressing grammatical relationships.
Function words are usually unstressed.
Function words include: articles ( a, an, the), auxiliary verbs (e.g. can,
do, did), conjunctions (e.g. but, and, so), personal pronouns (e.g. I, me,
my, you, your, he, him), and prepositions (e.g. at, in, from, with).
They also include relative pronouns (e.g. that, who, which), demonstrative
adjectives, and possessive adjectives (e.g. my, your, his).

STOP TO READ
Listeners of English expect certain words to be strong (stressed) and
others to be weak (unstressed). The strong words are the ones listeners
pay attention to the most. The contrast between stronger words with
weaker words is an important part of clear communication in English
(GRANT, 2001:81). For learners of English to produce sentences that have
the appropriate stress patterns and the appropriate English rhythm, it is
necessary that they know which words are stressed and which are not
stressed.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the words which receive sentence
stress. If the word receives sentence stress and has more than one syllable,
remember to mark the stressed syllable of the word.

1. Nice to meet you.

2. Where did you go for your last vacation?

3. Weve never traveled abroad.

4. I can play the guitar and the flute.

5. He likes pizza but he doesnt like bread.

6. France is bigger than Italy.

7.They saw a movie and had dinner at a fancy restaurant.

8. I will call her right now.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. NICE to MEET you.

21
2. WHERE did you GO for your LAST VAcation?

3. Weve NEver TRAveled aBROAD.

4. I can PLAY the GUItar and the FLUTE.

5. He LIKES PIzza but he DOESNT LIKE BREAD.

6. FRANCE is BIGGer than Italy.

7. They SAW a MOvie and HAD DInner at a FANcy


REStaurant.

8. I will CALL her RIGHT NOW.

The words nice, meet, where, go, last, play, flute, likes,
doesnt, like, bread, France, saw, had, call, right, and now
have only one syllable.

PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and classify the words which receive
sentence stress into adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, or
question words. Remember that these are the kinds of words which are
normally stressed in spoken English.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 3
Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and practice saying them
out loud.

PRACTICE 4
Click on the link below and practice the rhythm and pronunciation of
sentences in English.

http://www.manythings.org/lar/ (http://www.manythings.org/lar/)

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress in English.

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm)

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress-rules.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress-rules.htm)

22
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

23
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 03: REDUCED FORMS

As you were presented in the previous topic, function words in spoken


English are usually weak. Many function words have only one syllable, and
because they are usually very weak, they have a strong pronunciation and a
weak pronunciation. For example, the conjunction and is pronounced
in isolation, but it is commonly pronounced or when people are
talking naturally.

It is very important to know the weak pronunciation of one-syllable function


words as it helps you understand English better when it is spoken fast and it
allows you to work on the production of more appropriate and natural
English utterances.

Listed below you will find the strong and the weak forms of some one-
syllable function words. Listen and repeat.

STOP TO READ
In connected speech, where function words are normally unstressed, they
are pronounced in their weak form. In the weak form of most one-syllable
function words, the vowel is reduced to , as you can see in the chart
above.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the pronunciation of the
underlined function words that you hear.

1. Its A book. [e] []

2.Shes AT home. [t] [t]

24
3. Did you pass OR fail? [r] [r]

4. Lets call THEM again. [em] [m]

5. Think OF all we have. [v] [v]

6. Hes THE boss. [i] []

7. Sally must HAVE left. [hv] [v]

8. Buy some milk AND eggs. [nd] [n]

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. []
2. [t]
3. [r]
4. [m]
5. [v]
6. []
7. [v]
8. [n]

PRACTICE 2
Write the phonetic transcriptions below into phrases. Then check your
answers, listen to and practice saying them.

1. / glss mlk/
2. /lemn n as/
3. /z swit z gr/
4. /gv m brek/
5. /e v fnt/
6. /ts fr bl/

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

FURTHER READING

25
Click on the link below to read more about reduced forms in English.

http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html
(http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

FORUM
Based on what you have read about the rhythm of English in this class,
discuss the following questions with your partners and your tutor:

What did you already know about the rhythm of English before reading
this class?
In your opinion, what are the most important topics presented in this
class?
Do you think the rhythm of English is very different from that of
Brazilian Portuguese? In what way(s)?
How do you intend to use what you have learned in order to understand
and speak English better?
How can we teach our students about the rhythm of English from the
very beginning?

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

26
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

PART I - LISTENING COMPREHENSION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

Listen to the dialogue below and mark the words which are stressed
(content words). If the content word has more than one syllable, mark the
syllable which receives the stress. Then, write the dialogue with the
stressed syllables in capital letters on a Word document and send it to
your portfolio for your teachers assessment.
Para escutar o udio acesse o ambiente Solar.

RECEPTIONIST: Good evening, sir. How can I help you?

JACK: Good evening. I have a reservation. My names Jack Gray.

RECEPTIONIST:

JACK: Thats right.

RECEPTIONIST: All right. Heres your key. Youre in room 201 on the
second floor.

JACK: Thank you. What times breakfast?

RECEPTIONIST: From seven to nine, in the hotel restaurant on the first


floor.

JACK: Thanks. Wheres the elevator?

RECEPTIONIST: The elevators are over there. Do you need any help
with your bags?

JACK: No, thanks. Good night.

RECEPTIONIST: Good night, sir.

PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION


PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

The phrases and sentences below all appear in lesson 2. Go back


to each topic to listen to their pronunciation again (as many
times as necessary) and record them. Then, send the recording
to your portfolio for your teachers assessment. Make sure to
stress content words and unstress function words. Also, try to
produce the weak form of one-syllable function words as
studied in topic 3.

1. He was here.

27
2. She sent it.

3. Her house is quite big.

4. London is famous for its red buses.

5. What newspaper do you read?

6. How was the weekend?

7. Shes not Polish. Shes German.

8. Nice to meet you.

9. I can play the guitar and the flute.

10. He likes pizza but he doesnt like bread.

11. Its a book.

12. Shes at home.

13. Did you pass or fail?

14. Lets call them again.

15. Think of all we have.

16. a glass of milk

17. lemon and ice

18. as sweet as sugar

19. Give him a break.

20. They have finished.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

28
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 01: LINKING

Speech is a continuous stream of sounds. This means that when we speak


naturally, we do not pronounce a word, make a pause, then say the next word
in the sentence, pause again, and so on.

In rapid speech, when one word is linked with the next, sounds come
together. And when sounds come together in speech, they are influenced by
one another. As a result, some sounds are lost, some sounds are added, some
sounds take on different characteristics, and some are spoken almost
simultaneously.

In classes 3 and 4, you will be presented with some of the major adjustments
which take place in connected speech: linking, elision, epenthesis, and
assimilation.

Learning about these adjustments is not only important to help learners of


English to improve their oral production, but it is also crucial in helping
them to improve their listening comprehension (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL,
1996).

LINKING
Linking can be defined as the connecting of the final sound of one word or
syllable to the initial sound of the next. When words are properly linked,
there is a smooth transition from one word to the next. Linking occurs in
different phonological contexts.

Let us see the most common of these contexts. Click in the boxes to open.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Linking consonants to vowels

When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word


beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant is often produced as if
belonged to both syllables or as if belonged to the next word.

Linking consonants to consonants

When a word ends in a stop consonant and is followed by a word that


begins with a consonant, the stop consonant is not released.

Linking identical consonants

When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word


beginning with the same consonant sound, the two consonants are
normally pronounced as one long consonant.

Linking vowels to vowels

29
When a word ends in a tense vowel and is followed by a word
beginning with a vowel, the words are usually linked by the I glide (or
semi-vowel) ending the tense vowel.

STOP TO READ
People do not speak in separate words, they speak in logical connected
groups of words. These groups are often called thought groups. A thought
group can be defined as a portion of a sentence separated from the rest by
a pause or pauses. In the examples below, the thought groups are
separated by a diagonal line:

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Please call / if you have to cancel.

Whatever you do, / do well.

Experts say / that what you name your child / can make a huge
difference.

It is not possible to make a clear set of rules to divide sentences into


thought groups. A speaker is normally free to group words according to
personal preference.

(The examples above were extracted from GRANT, 2001: 124-134.)

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
linking occurs.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. She has a lot of friends.

2. What time is it?

3. This is my uncle, John.

4. We live in a big house with a big garden.

5. He left home at eight and got to work at nine.

6. We havent talked to each other in ages.

7. English is spoken all over the world.

8. I had a really bad day yesterday.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

30
PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat. Listening and
repeating is important practice for language learning.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and identify the types of linking
which occur: Type 1 = linking consonants to vowels; Type 2 =
linking a stop consonant to a consonant; Type 3 = linking
identical consonants; Type 4 = linking vowels to vowels. For
example, in has a in sentence 1 we link the final consonant of has to the
following vowel sound (type 1).

PRACTICE 4
Listen to the song When I need you by Celine Dion and identify
occurrences of linking.

CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO LISTEN TO THE SONG.

http://letras.terra.com.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html
(http://letras.terra.com.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html)

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

31
PRACTICE 5
Listen again to the song When I need you by Celine Dion and sing it out
loud to practice the occurrences of linking in it

FORUM
Discuss your answers to Practice 3 with your classmates and your teacher
in the forum.

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about linking in English.

http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm)

http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7)

http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50)

32
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54)

http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996.

GRANT, L. Well Said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

33
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 02: ELISION

In the previous topic, you learned about the process of linking in connected
speech. In this topic, you will learn about another type of adjustment which
happens in spoken English the process of elision (also known as deletion).

The most typical phonological contexts in which elision occurs are:

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Context 1: Elision of /t/ when the sequence /nt/ occurs between two
vowels.

Context 2: Elision of /t/ or /d/ when they occur in a sequence of


three consonants.

Context 3: Elision of /t/ or /d/ in word-final position, when it is


preceded by a single consonant and is followed by a word beginning
with a consonant.

Context 4: Elision of an unstressed when it is preceded by


the stressed syllable multisyllabic words

Context 5: Elision of /v/ in the preposition of before words beginning


with a consonant.

Context 6: Elision of initial /h/ and // in pronominal forms in


connected speech.

STOP TO READ
Knowing the phonological contexts in which deletion often occurs might
help you better understand spoken English.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the phrases and sentences below and identify occurrences of
ELISION.

34
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1.We love winter.

2.He suffers from partial blindness.

3.Theyre leaving next Monday.

4.Can I have an aspirin?

5. Children love to make sand castles on the beach.

6. We only need a handful of rice.

7. Hes a really fast driver.

8. What a waste of time!

9. Can you help her with the homework?

10. I dont like history much.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 again and identify the phonological
contexts where elision occurs.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

35
PRACTICE 3
Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat them out loud to
practice the occurrences of elision in them. Remember that repeating is
important for effective language learning.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

36
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 03: EPENTHESIS

In topics 1 and 2, you learned about linking and deletion in connected


speech. In this topic, you will learn about the process of epenthesis.

MOST COMMON TYPES OF EPENTHESIS

The most important type of epenthesis in English occurs in certain


morphophonological sequences such as the regular plural and the regular
past tense. In these cases, an epenthetic schwa is added to break up
sequences of sibilants ( -- characterized by a hissing sound, similar to a long
s) or alveolar stops ( -- the sounds <b>/t/</b> and <b>/d/</b>) ,
respectively.

The Regular Plural

The nouns below all end in a sibilant sound. Listen to their pronunciation
and identify the six sibilant sounds in English.

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

As you can see from above, the six English sibilants


are and

37
In nouns that end in hissing, sibilant sounds, we add the syllable /z/ (or
) when forming their plural. Let us hear the pronunciation of the plural of
the nouns above.

STOP TO READ
The Plural Rule is also applicable to: the third person singular present
tense ending, the contracted form of is and has, and the possessive s.

The Regular Past Tense

To regular verbs that end in /t/ or /d/, we add the syllable /d/ ( or )
when forming their past. Let us hear the pronunciation of the past of the
verbs below.

STOP TO READ
When a verb does not end in /t/ or /d/, the ed ending is pronounced as a
result of the process of assimilation, which will be studied in our next
class.

PRACTICE 1
Try to pronounce the verbs and nouns below based on what you have
learned in this class. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and repeat.

1. washes (v.)

2. watches (v.)

38
3. misses (v.)

4. uses (v.)

5. laces (n.)

6. fixes (v.)

7. mirages (n.)

8. catches (v.)

9. bridges (n.)

10. crashes (v.)

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.

PRACTICE 2
Try to pronounce the following past tense verbs based on what you have
learned about epenthesis. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and
repeat.

1. wanted

2. pretended

3. started

4. handed

5. waited

6. tested

7. landed

39
8. surrounded

9. deleted

10. permitted

CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

40
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 01: PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

In the previous class, you learned about the processes of linking, deletion
and epenthesis in connected speech. In this class, you will learn about
another type of adjustment which happens in spoken English the process
of assimilation.

Assimilation is a universal feature of spoken language. It occurs


when a particular sound takes on ( -- to begin to have a particular
quality) the characteristics of an adjacent sound. In English, the
process of assimilation frequently occurs, both within words and
between words.

There are three types of assimilation in English: progressive


assimilation, regressive assimilation, and coalescent assimilation.
In this topic, you will learn about progressive assimilation. Regressive
assimilation and coalescent assimilation will be dealt with in topics 2 and 3
respectively.

PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Progressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is


affected by the sound which precedes it.

Examples of this type of assimilation include:

For the regular plural of nouns, the third person singular form of
present simple verbs, the contraction of is, the contraction of has as
an auxiliary verb, and possessive s: the final sound of the stem word
( -- the word without the s ending ) conditions the voiced or voiceless
pronunciation of the suffix: /s/ (the voiceless form) or /z/ (the
voiced form). For example:

41
For the simple past and past participle forms of regular verbs:
the final sound of the stem word conditions the voiced or voiceless
pronunciation of the suffix: /t/ (the voiceless form) or /d/ (the
voiced form).

For example:

STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in sibilant sounds, the s
ending is pronounced /z/ (or ) as a result of the process of
epenthesis.

STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in /t/ or /d/, the ed ending is
pronounced /d/ (or ) as a result of the process of epenthesis.

STOP TO READ
Similarly to linking, the amount of assimilation that occurs in speech
depends on numerous variables, such as the formality of the situation, the
rate of speech, and the style of the speaker (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL,
1996).

PRACTICE 1
Practice identifying the pronunciation of s endings as a result of the
process of progressive assimilation.Is the s ending in the words
below pronounced /s/ or /z/?

42
1. likes (v.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

2. moves (v.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

3. puts (v.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

4. plays (v.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

5. cabs (n.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

6. pens (n.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

7. pencils (n.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

8. cups (n.) a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

9. Kates a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

10. Teds a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

11. Philips a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

12. Saras a) ( ) /s/ b) ( ) /z/

(Abbreviations: v.= verb; n.= noun)

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. /S/
The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the
s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

2. /Z/
The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

3. /S/
The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

4. /Z/
The voiced /e/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

5. /Z/
The voiced /b/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

43
6. /Z/
The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

7. /Z/
The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

8. /S/
The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the
s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

9. /S/
The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

10. /Z/
The voiced /d/ conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

11. /S/
The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the
s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

12. /Z/
The voiced // conditions the voiced form of the s
ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

PRACTICE 2
Now listen carefully to the words from Practice 1 in the sentences below.
Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of s
endings.

1. She LIKES apples.

2. He MOVES a lot.

3. Sue PUTS everything in the wrong place.

4. John PLAYS American football quite well.

5. In New York the CABS are yellow.

6. Those PENS arent mine.

7. Whose PENCILS are these?

8. Two CUPS of coffee, please.

44
9. KATES a good teacher.

10. TEDS a doctor.

11. PHILLIPS uncle got married.

12. SARAS already done her homework.

PRACTICE 3
Practice identifying the pronunciation of ed endings as a result of the
process of progressive assimilation. Is the ed ending in the words
below pronounced /t/ or /d/?

1. liked a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

2. lived a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

3. kissed a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

4. opened a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

5. called a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

6. tried a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

7. played a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

8. finished a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

9. used a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

10. repaired a) ( ) /t/ b) ( ) /d/

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. /T/
The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the
ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.

2. /D/
The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

3. /T/
The voiceless /s/ conditions the voiceless form of the
ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.

45
4. /D/
The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

5. /D/
The voiced /a/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

6. /D/
The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

7. /D/
The voiced /e/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

8. /T/
The voiceless // conditions the voiceless form of the
ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.

9. /D/
The voiced /z/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

10. /D/
The voiced /r/ conditions the voiced form of the ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

PRACTICE 4
Now listen carefully to the verbs from Practice 3 in the sentences below.
Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of ed
endings.

1. I LIKED it very much.

2. We LIVED in San Francisco for a long time.

3. They KISSED under the moonlight.

4. The door OPENED but no one came in.

5. He CALLED us but we werent home.

6. She TRIED again and again but didnt succeed.

7. The children PLAYED a lot this morning.

46
8. The movie FINISHED an hour ago.

9. He USED a computer to do his homework.

10. The mechanic REPAIRED our car.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for


Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

47
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 02: REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Regressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is affected by the


sound which follows it.

Examples of this type of assimilation include:

In have to and has to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding
voiced /v/ and /z/ to become voiceless /f/ and /s/ respectively.

In used to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding voiced


combination /zd/ to become the voiceless combination /st/.

In rapid native-speaker speech, the sibilant sound // causes the preceding


sibilants /s/ or /z/ to become identical to it. For example:

The stop consonant /t/ may assimilate to a following initial /p/ or /k/,
while the stop /d/ may assimilate to a following /b/ or /g/. In both
cases, there is a change in the place of articulation, but there is no change
in the voiced or voiceless quality of the segment. For example:

48
The final nasal consonant /n/ may adjust its place of articulation and
become /m/ when it is followed by a bilabial (/p/, /b/, /m/), or it may
become // when it is followed by a velar (/k/, /g/).

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
regressive assimilation occurs.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2

49
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful
attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of regressive
assimilation in the sentences.

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

50
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 03: COALESCENT ASSIMILATION

VERSO TEXTUAL

Coalescent assimilation is a type of reciprocal assimilation: the


first sound and second sound in a sequence come together and
mutually condition the creation of a third sound with characteristics
from both original sounds.

The most common type of coalescent assimilation is referred to as


palatalization. Palatalization occurs when the final alveolar
consonants /s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ or the final alveolar consonant
sequences /ts/ and /dz/ are followed by initial palatal /j/ and then become
palatalized fricatives (// and //) and affricates (// and //). Let us look at
and listen to some examples in the following chart.

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
coalescent assimilation occurs.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Why dont you call later?

2. Can I kiss you goodbye?

3. Would you like a cup of coffee?

4. When did your wife get back?

5. Did you tell them what you saw?

6. Last year Gina bought a new car.


51
7. Is that your son? Hes so big!

8. He never takes your advice.

9. Where is your mom?

10. I truly loved you but I dont anymore.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful
attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of coalescent
assimilation in the sentences.

FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to read more about connected speech in English.

http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm
(http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-
into.htm)

FORUM
Based on what you have read about linking, elision, epenthesis and
assimilation, as well as on your experiences with the English language,
discuss the following questions with your partners:

52
Which of the adjustments presented in classes 3 and 4 were you already
familiar with?
How can learners of English benefit from studying the adjustments of
connected speech in an explicit way, both in terms of listening and speaking?
What strategies can you use in order to put these adjustments into practice?

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

53
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 01: FOCUS

In class 2, you learned that in spoken English content words ( -- adjectives,


adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, question words, demonstrative
pronouns, and possessive pronouns.) are stressed and function words ( --
articles, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, personal pronouns, prepositions,
relative pronouns, demonstrative adjectives, and possessive adjectives) are
unstressed. However, there is one word or one syllable (when the word has
more than one syllable) which receives more stress or emphasis than the
others. This word is called the focus word and it is the most prominent word
in the phrase.

VERSO TEXTUAL

When a conversation begins or a topic is introduced, the focus is


usually the last content word or stressed syllable of the last content
word (GRANT, 2001:95). When this happens, the focus considered
neutral.

Now listen to the examples below. The sentences and phrases illustrate the
placement of focus on the last content word (or its stressed syllable). The
syllables in bold capital letters are stressed, and the large dot () is placed
above the word or syllable that receives focus.

OBSERVATION
Listen to the different ways in which the sentence He finished his report
is said in the dialogues below and compare the different meanings that are
created because of the change in focus.

54
The dialogues above illustrate how intonation depends on context. By
putting special emphasis on a given word, we may convey different
meanings and intentions. Listen to the dialogues again and identify
which word (or syllable, if the word has more than one syllable) in
John finished his report is the most prominent.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

STOP TO READ
Focus maintains the natural flow of communication between speakers and
listeners. When focus is not appropriately used, there is usually some kind
of misunderstanding.

PRACTICE 1
The sentences and phrases in the dialogues below all take neutral
placement of focus. Identify the words (or syllables) which are stressed
and then predict which one is the most prominent. Then listen and
practice.

55
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

56
PRACTICE 2
It is extremely important to distinguish between content words and
function words to produce the rhythm of English appropriately. Let us
revise this aspect we have studied before by doing the exercises on the
links below.

http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm
(http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm)

http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.htm
(http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.htm)

PRACTICE 3
In the dialogues below, there is shift of focus to words other than the last
content word in some phrases/sentences. Listen to each one of the
dialogues and identify where this shift happens.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

57
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

58
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 02: RISING-FALLING INTONATION

In the previous topic, you were presented with the concept of focus and its
importance to English pronunciation. Now you will learn more about
intonation.

More specifically, intonation is the combination of musical tones on which


we pronounce the syllables that make up our speech, and it is often
referred to as the melody of language.

If you listen to someone speak, you will notice that their voice goes up and
down. This movement of the voice up or down is called pitch. These pitch
changes contribute significantly to intelligible communication as different
pitch patterns can signal a wide variety of meanings.

In our course, we will use a simplified system which divides intonation into
four types: normal, high, low and extra-high. In order to show the
movements of the voice up or down, lines will be drawn at four different
levels and arrows will be used to represent the four types of intonation
(tones) we will work with. Look at and listen to the examples below.

Then listen again and repeat, trying to make your voice follow the tones.

59
VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. GOOD MORNing.

Extra high

High morn-

Normal Good

Low ing

2. JOHN CALLED me.

Extra high

High called

Normal John

Low me

3. I'd LIKE a SOda.

Extra high

High so-

Normal I'd like a

Low -da.

STOP TO READ
The most prominent word or syllable is the word or syllable with the
greatest pitch change. When we have neutral focus, it is usually the last
content word (or its stressed syllable) that has the greatest change in pitch.

INTONATION PATTERNS
Each speaker has his or her own variety of tones. However, native speakers
and proficient speakers of English usually make their voices rise and fall at
nearly the same places under similar circumstances. It is at the end of
sentences that English intonation is used most uniformly. In this position,
there are two basic types of intonation: rising-falling intonation (also known
as falling intonation) and rising intonation. The first type will be introduced
in this topic, whereas the latter will be dealt with in topic 3.

RISING-FALLING INTONATION

60
In other words, what comes immediately before the high note is spoken on a
normal tone, and what comes after the high note is spoken on a low tone
(PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985). The last content word (or the stressed
syllable of the last content word) normally receives the high note.

Listen to the examples below.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

4. We DON'T beLIEVE it.

Extra high

High -lieve

Normal We don't be-

Low it.

5. WHY is she ANgry?

Extra high

High an-

Normal Why is she

Low -gry

6. You NEED to STUdy

Extra high

High stu-

Normal You need to

Low -dy.

The movement from one tone to another usually happens between syllables,
as the examples above show. However, the voice sometimes rises ( -- goes
up) and falls ( -- goes down) below normal within the same syllable. This
movement is known as a slide. A slide happens when the last sentence stress
and the high note fall on the last syllable.

61
Look at and listen to the examples below.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

7. The FILM is GOOD

Extra high

High goo-

Normal The film is

Low -ood.

8. THIS is mySON!

Extra high

High so-

Normal This is my

Low -on.

Notice that this movement up and down within the same syllable causes the
vowel of the syllable to be lengthened ( -- to become longer) . Listen to
examples 7 and 8 again and pay careful attention to the lengthening of the
vowel.

In English, rising-falling intonation is usually used at the end of:

THIS IS MY SON.

DECLARATIVE
SENTENCES
YOU NEED TO STUDY.

COMMANDS BRING YOUR DICTIONARY NEXT CLASS.

DONT FORGET TO TAKE YOUR UMBRELLA.

62
WHATS THE PROBLEM?
WH - QUESTIONS
( -- questions that begin
with an interrogative
word, such as WHERE DO YOU LIVE?
<em>what</em>,
<em>who</em>,
<em>when</em>, etc)

STOP TO READ
The fall of your voice to a low tone indicates that the thought is completed.
For this reason, it is considered a type of vocal full stop. Clear rising-falling
intonation signals certainty and completeness (PRATOR & ROBINNETT,
1985).

PRACTICE 1
Identify where your voice is more likely to rise and fall in the sentences
below. Where is there a slide and why?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Who wrote it?

Extra high

High wrote

Normal Who

Low it?

2. She wants a sandwich.

Extra high

High sand

Normal She wants a

63
Low -wicn.

3.Try to keep the street clean

Extra high

High clea-

Normal Try to keep the street

Low -ean.

4. Jack is in his bedroom.

Extra high

High bed-

Normal Jack is in his

Low -room.

5. Where's the police station?

Extra high

High -lice

Normal Where's the po-

Low station?

6. What's he talking about?

Extra high

High talk

Normal What's he

Low -ing about?

7. We never have meat.

Extra high

High mea-

Normal We never have

Low -eat

8. Peter's married to my sister

Extra high

High sis-

Normal Peter's married to my

Low -ter.

9. I can't see well without my glasses.

64
Extra high

High glass-

Normal I can't see well without my/p>

Low -es.

10. Don't forget to call us.

Extra high

High call

Normal Don't forget to

Low us.

Answer: There is a slide in sentences 3 and 7 because the syllable


that receives the high tone is the last syllable in the sentence.

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use rising-
falling intonation.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words
in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed
in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable,
also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember
why they are content words.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. WHO WROTE it?


2. She WANTS a SANDwich.
3. TRY to KEEP the STREET CLEAN.
4. JACK is in his BEDroom.
5. WHERES the poLICE STAtion?
6. WHATS he TALKing about?
7. We NEver HAVE MEAT.
8. PEters MArried to my SISter.
9. I CANT SEE WELL without my GLASSes.
10. DONT forGET to CALL us.

WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?


Who, where and what are wh- words.
Wrote, wants, try, keep, talking, have, see, and forget are main verbs.
Sandwich, street, bedroom, police station, meat, sister, and glasses
are nouns.
Clean is an adjective.
Never and well are adverbs.
Cant and dont are negative contractions.
65
TO REVISE SENTENCE STRESS, GO BACK TO CLASS 2.

FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to read more about intonation in English.

http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm
(http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English


Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston,
Inc., 1985.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

66
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 03: RISING INTONATION

In English, two types of intonation are most common at the end of a


sentence: rising-falling intonation and rising intonation. In the previous
topic, you learned that rising-falling intonation is used for declarative
sentences, commands, and wh- questions. In this lesson, you will study
rising intonation.

In English, rising intonation is used at the end of questions that do not begin
with a wh- word, i.e., questions that can be answered by yes or no. These
yes/no questions begin with auxiliary verbs, such as can, would, may,
should, is, am, are, have, has, do, does, did, among others.

When rising intonation is used, the voice normally goes up to a high note on
the last sentence stress, just like in rising-falling intonation. The difference is
that,in the rising intonation pattern, the syllables that follow the rise of the
voice are pronounced on the high note as well, i.e., they do not fall to a low
note (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985).

Listen to the examples below.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Are you BraZIlian?

Extra high

High zilian?

Normal Are you Bra-

67
Low

2. Can IHELPyou?

Extra high

High help you?

Normal Can I

Low

3. Did youSEEhim at the PARty

Extra high

High party?

Normal Did you see him at the

Low

STOP TO READ
When the speaker leaves the voice high at the end of the sentence, he or
she creates in the listener a feeling of incompleteness, suggesting that
something else must be said. This sensation of incompleteness contrasts
with the sense of completeness created by the rising-falling intonation
pattern.

Listen to the sentences below and answer the following questions:

a)What type of end-of-sentence intonation is used?

b)Do the sentences mean the same thing?

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. What time does the class finish?

2. What time does the class finish?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

a) In sentence 1, the speaker uses rising-falling intonation. In sentence


2, the speaker uses rising intonation.

b) They have different meanings. In sentence 1, the speaker is asking a


true question, i.e., he or she really wants to learn what time the class
finishes. But in sentence 2, the question is an echo question, i.e., it is a
question about what was said previously, and it means Is that what
you just said? or Please, repeat what you said.

68
STOP TO READ
As you learned in topic 2, wh- questions are usually given rising-falling
intonation. However, they take on a new meaning if they are said with
rising intonation they are echo questions, which normally mean Is that
what you said? or Please, repeat what you said.

PRACTICE 1
Identify where your voice is more likely to rise in the questions below.
Remember that the voice normally goes up to a high note on the last
sentence stress.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Does your wife work?

Extra high

High work?

Normal Does your wife

Low

2. Did you have a vacation?

Extra high

High vacation?

Normal Did you have a

Low

3. Will you help me with the bags

Extra high

High bags?

Normal Will you help me with the

69
Low

4. Is it raining

Extra high

High raining?

Normal Is it

Low

5. Was the weather cold in London?

Extra high

High London?

Normal Was the weather cold in

Low

6. Have you ever been abroad?

Extra high

High -broad?

Normal Have you ever been a-

Low

7. Has she lost her credit card?

Extra high

High credit card?

Normal Has she lost her

Low

8. Would you like a cup of coffe?

Extra high

High coffe?

Normal Would you like a cup of

Low

9. Should I go to the doctot?

Extra high

High doctor?

Normal Should I go to the

Low

10. Is it going to be exciting

70
Extra high

High -citing?

Normal Is it going to be ex-

Low

PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use rising
intonation.

PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words
in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed
in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable,
also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember
why they are content words.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?


Wife, vacation, bags, weather, London, credit card, cup, coffee,
doctor are nouns.
Work, have (sentence 2), help, raining, been, lost, like, go, going are
main verbs. Remember that the present and past forms of to be are
normally unstressed.
Cold is an adjective.
Ever and abroad are adverbs.

PRACTICE 4
Click on the link below, listen to the fable The Fox and the Grapes by
Aesop, and practice marking sentence stress and intonation in English.
After you check your answers, listen to the fable again and repeat.

71
http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-the-fox-and-
the-grapes (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-
the-fox-and-the-grapes)

PRACTICE 5
Click on the link below to practice intonation in questions and answers in
English. Listen to and repeat all the questions and answers, paying careful
attention to their intonation.

http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-in-questions-
and-answers (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-
in-questions-and-answers)

FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about rising intonation in English.

http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation
(http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation)

http://www.dce.kar.nic.in/new%20files/English%206.pdf (Visite a aula


online para realizar download deste arquivo.)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English


Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston,
Inc., 1985.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

72
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 04: NONFINAL INTONATION

In topics 2 and 3, you studied the raising and lowering of the voice at the end
of a sentence, where appropriate intonation is most conventional and, thus,
easiest to predict. In this topic, you will be presented with nonfinal
intonation.

COMPLEX SENTENCES

Complex sentences ( -- sentences that have one independent clause and at


least one dependent (subordinate) clause ) often have two separate
intonation patterns: a nonfinal intonation contour on the first phrase and a
final intonation contour on the second.

Listen to the examples below. On which words does the voice go up?

1. When you get there, dont forget to call me.

2. If you need any help, let me know.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Answer: The voice rises on the words there, call, help and know.

In the examples above, the first group is ended by a high note on its final
stress, then the voice goes down to normal. The second group starts at
normal level and ends with the voice rising on the last content word (or its
last syllable) and lowering to below normal. A fall at the end of the sentence
to the lowest pitch indicates that the thought is complete, whereas a fall that

73
does not reach the lowest pitch indicates that the speaker still has more to
say.

SERIES WITH AND

Listen to the sentences below. What types of intonation patterns do you


hear? On which words does the voice go up and down?

1. She bought bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries.

2. We went to Paris, London, Rome, and Madrid.

3. They saw Kate, Susan, Bill, and Jack.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

ANSWER: We can hear the rising and the rising-falling intonation


patterns. Rising intonation is used on all members of the series except
the last one, whereas rising-falling intonation is used on the last
member.

74
IMPORTANT: Notice that in sentences 2 and 3 the last sentence stress is
also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in series with
and.

ALTERNATIVES WITH OR

In sentences containing alternatives with or, we have the same intonation


pattern as in series with and: rising intonation followed by rising-falling
intonation.

Listen to the sentences below and try to identify the rising and falling of the
voice.

1. We can have soup, spaghetti or steak.

2. Jane might wear her black dress or her new jeans.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

75
IMPORTANT: Notice that in both sentences the last sentence stress
is also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same
syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in alternatives


with or.

CONTRASTS AND COMPARISONS

In contrasts and comparisons, both ideas being contrasted or compared


receive special attention. One of the ideas will usually have a nonfinal
intonation pattern whereas the other one will have a final intonation pattern.
Also, one of the stressed elements is pronounced on a high note and the
other one on an extra-high note. Normally, it does not make any difference
which element is given the extra-high note. This difference in level between
the two high notes emphasizes the idea of contrast. Listen and check.

76
In questions with or where the speaker wants the hearer to make a choice,
this contrastive extra-high note is obligatory. For example:

However, in questions with or that are meant to be interpreted as a double


question and are to be answered yes or no, the intonation pattern should
be the same as of one or two yes/no questions (PRATOR & ROBINETT,
1985).

Look at and listen to the examples below:

77
Notice that in questions with or intended to be answered yes or no, no
extra-high note is given on either of the elements.

DIRECT ADDRESS

The most conventional pattern used in pronouncing names and titles


addressed directly to the person you are speaking to is rising intonation.
The direct address should begin on a low note and then rise to normal. Direct
address may come at the beginning, at the end or in any other position in the
sentence, and it does not have any influence on the intonation of the rest of
the sentence (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985).

Listen to the examples below.

Click here to check .

1. Mother to Billy:

Stop talking and listen carefully,


Billy.

78
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Listen to Billys mother talk to him. How does she feel?

Billys mother sounds angry. If your voice does not rise at all when you
address someone directly, your hearer may think you are irritated
(PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985).

PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences and repeat. Practice using appropriate intonation
in English.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

When we met her, she was crying. (complex sentence)

On my last birthday I got a CD, a pair of jeans, and a blouse. (series


with and)

Are you coming today or tomorrow? (question with or)

English is easier than German. (comparison)

Did you talk to Gina or Ann? (double question)

We can have pizza or spaghetti. (alternatives with or)

PRACTICE 2
Click on the link below and practice different kinds of intonation patterns
in English

http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-rising-
intonation (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-
rising-intonation)

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

79
REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English


Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston,
Inc., 1985.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

80
FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LNGUA INGLESA
CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 05: MORE FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION

The meanings of the intonation patterns you have learned so far are
considered grammatical meanings, i.e., these patterns help convey concepts
such as affirmation, negation, general interrogation, among others.

In this topic you will be presented with some patterns of intonation which
express emotions and attitudes. These patterns are normally felt to be more
difficult to learn once they are variable, i.e., they depend on the ideas the
speaker wishes to convey.

Listen to the dialogues below and identify the attitude or emotion of the
second speaker. Click here

Dialogue 1

A: Kevins lost the car keys.

B: Kevins lost the car keys?

Dialogue 2

A: Shes won a million dollars.

B: Shes won a million dollars?

Dialogue 3

A: They moved out of Manhattan.

B: Where?

Dialogue 4

A: They moved out of Manhattan.

B: Where?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker showing


surprise?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker asking for


clarification?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker seeking more


information?

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CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In dialogue 2, the second speaker is showing surprise.

In dialogues 1 and 3, the second speaker is asking for clarification.

In dialogue 4, the second speaker is seeking more information.

Now let us look at each one of the situations above.

SHOWING SURPRISE

You can show surprise by using rising intonation to echo ( -- to repeat what
someone else just said, especially because you find it surprising) a statement.
Your voice normally goes up on the stressed syllable of the last content word.

Listen to the dialogues below: Click here

1. A: Shes won a million dollars.

B: Shes won a million dollars? I dont


believe it!

2. A: Peter is my son.

B: Peter is your son? But youre so


young!

3. A: Amanda and Tom got married.

B: Amanda and Tom got married? Are


you sure?

Listen to the dialogues again and identify the syllable where the pitch
rises in the echo statement showing surprise.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

OBSERVATION

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Notice that dollars,
son, and married are
the last content words
in the sentence. Also
notice that the voice
goes up on the first
syllable in dollars and
married as these are
the stressed syllables in
the words.

ASKING FOR CLARIFICATION

If you want to request clarification of a whole sentence, your voice goes up


on the last content word (or on its stressed syllable). For example: Click
here

If you want clarification or repetition of a specific item in a statement, your


voice goes up on this specific item. Click here

Asking for clarification or seeking more information?

In wh- questions, if the speaker is seeking more information, the pitch falls
on the stressed syllable of the last content word. If the pitch rises, the
speaker is probably asking for clarification or repetition. When requesting
repetition, the pitch rise occurs on the wh- word (GRANT, 2001).

Listen to the dialogues below and identify the second speakers intention.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. A: I saw Kate at the mall

B: Where?

'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification

( ) request more information

2. A: I'll call you this Friday

B: When?

'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification

( ) request more information

3. A: I saw Kate at the mall

B: Where?

'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification

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( ) request more information

4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in November for a concert

B: When?

'Speaker B' wants to: ( ) request clarification

( ) request more information

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In dialogues 1 and 2, the pitch rises in the wh- word, so speaker B is


asking for clarification/repetition.

In dialogues 3 and 4, the pitch falls in the wh- question, so speaker B


wants more information.

Listen to the dialogues again and choose the correct answer to speaker Bs
question.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. A: I saw Kate at the mall.

B: Where?

A:( ) At the mall. OR ( )In front of the cinema.

2. A: I'll can you this Friday.

B: When?

A:( ) This Friday. OR ( ) Around nine.

3. A: There was a devastating earthquake in Chile.

B: Where?

A:( ) In Chile. OR ( ) In Santiago

4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in November for a concert

B: When?

A:( ) In November. OR ( ) On the 22nd.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1.A: I saw Kate at the mall.

B: Where?

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A: At the mall.

2. A: Ill call you this Friday.

B: When?

A: This Friday.

3. A: There was a devastating earthquake in


Chile.

B: Where?

A: In Santiago.

4. A: Mariah Carey is coming to Brazil in


November for a concert.

B: When?

A: On the 22nd.

TAG QUESTIONS

Tag questions are small questions that come at the end of sentences. They
can be used for two purposes: to ask for agreement or to ask a real question.
The intonation pattern in tag questions varies according to their purpose.

Listen to the sentences below and identify the intonation patterns used in the
tag questions. Click here

1. You know Brian, dont you?

2. You know Brian, dont you?

3. Sarah didnt come to the party, did she?

4. Sarah didnt come to the party, did she?

85
Which tag questions are given rising intonation? And which tag questions
receive rising-falling intonation?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

The tag questions in sentences 1 and 4 are given rising intonation,


whereas the ones in sentences 2 and 3 receive rising-falling intonation.

Listen to the examples above again and answer. Click here

1. You know Brian, dont you?

2. You know Brian, dont you?

3. Sarah didnt come to the party, did she?

4. Sarah didnt come to the party, did she?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In sentences 1 and 4, the tag questions are real questions. If the tag
question is a real question, we use rising intonation. The voice begins
on a normal note and then rises to a high note.

In sentences 2 and 3, the tag questions are meant to ask for agreement
(confirmation). If the tag question is not a real question, we use rising-
falling intonation. The voice begins on a high note and then falls to a
low note.

STOP TO READ
Notice that the intonation at the end of the affirmative or negative
sentence which precedes the tag question is always rising-falling
intonation.

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PRACTICE 1
Listen to the tag questions below and based on the intonation pattern used
decide which ones are true questions and which ones are a confirmation.

VERSO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Its a beautiful day, isnt it?

Youve never been abroad, have you?

John wasnt in class yesterday, was he?

Fiona loves Shrek, doesnt she?

Thats Bobs car, isnt it?

Fred doesnt like me, does he?

We dont have classes tomorrow, do we?

You cant die of influenza, can you?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. TRUE QUESTION

2. TRUE QUESTION

3. CONFIRMATION

4. TRUE QUESTION

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5. CONFIRMATION

6. TRUE QUESTION

7. CONFIRMATION

8. TRUE QUESTION

PRACTICE 2
Click on the links below and revise what you have studied so far about
intonation patterns in English.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2bHdXcszJ4
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2bHdXcszJ4)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qh6kUsJcu3k
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qh6kUsJcu3k)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k80wiT0t2rc
(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k80wiT0t2rc)

PRACTICE 3
Click on the link below and practice listening for intonation.

http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-fire-and-ice
(http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-fire-and-ice)

FORUM
Based on what you have learned in this course, discuss the following
questions with your partners:

Has this course contributed to your language learning process? If so, how? If
not, why not?
How can this course help you to improve your listening and speaking abilities
on a daily basis?
Of all the things that you have studied in this course, which ones do you think
are the most important? Why?
How do you intend to use what you have learned?

VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.

http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)

http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)

88
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)

http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsvel: Prof. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira


Universidade Federal do Cear - Instituto UFC Virtual

89