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Disciplina

Fonologia Suprassegmental da Língua Inglesa

Coordenador da Disciplina

Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Edição 2012.2

Suprassegmental da Língua Inglesa Coordenador da Disciplina Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Edição 2012.2
Suprassegmental da Língua Inglesa Coordenador da Disciplina Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Edição 2012.2

Copyright © 2010. Todos os direitos reservados desta edição ao Instituto UFC Virtual. Nenhuma parte deste material poderá ser reproduzida, transmitida e gravada por qualquer meio eletrônico, por fotocópia e outros, sem a prévia autorização, por escrito, dos autores.

Créditos desta disciplina

Coordenação

Coordenador UAB Prof. Mauro Pequeno

Coordenador Adjunto UAB Prof. Henrique Pequeno

Coordenador do Curso Profª. Sâmia Alves Chaves

Coordenador de Tutoria Prof. João Tobias Lima Sales

Coordenador da Disciplina Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Conteúdo

Autor da Disciplina Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira

Colaborador Prof. Jáder Martins Rodrigues Júnior

Setor TecnologiasDigitais - STD

Coordenador do Setor Prof. Henrique Sergio Lima Pequeno

Transição Didática Adriana Narciso Elen Cristina S. Bezerra Elicélia Lima Gomes Fátima Silva e Souza José Adriano de Oliveira Karla Colares Thiago Alencar

Centro de Produção I - (Material Didático)

Gerente: Nídia Maria Barone

Subgerente: Paulo André Lima

Formatação Camilo Cavalcante Damis Iuri Garcia Elilia Rocha Emerson Oliveira Givanildo Pereira José Almir da Silva José André Loureiro Lucas Kalsovik Luís José Moreira Tercio Carneiro da Rocha

Publicação João Ciro Saraiva

Design, Impressão e 3D Andrei Bosco Eduardo Ferreira Everton Serpa Fred Lima Iranilson Pereira Marllon Lima Onofre Paiva

Gerentes

Audiovisual: Jay Harriman

Desenvolvimento: Wellington Wagner Sarmento

Suporte: Paulo de Tarso Cavalcante

Sumário

Class 01: Word Stress

 

01

Topic

01: Stress

01

Topic

02: Stress

Patterns

05

Topic 03: Stress in Words with Suffixes

11

Class 02: Sentence Stress

15

Topic 01: The Rhythm of English

15

Topic 02: Content and Function Words

19

Topic

03: Reduced Forms

24

Task: Listening Comprehension and Oral Production

27

Class 03: Connected Speech (Part 1)

29

Topic

01: Linking

 

29

Topic

02: Elision

34

Topic

03: Epenthesis

37

Class 04: Connected Speech (Part 2)

41

Topic 01: Progressive Assimilation

41

Topic 02: Regressive Assimilation

48

Topic 03: Coalescent Assimilation

51

Class 05: Intonation

 

54

Topic

01:

Focus

54

Topic

02:

Rising-Falling Intonation

59

Topic

03:

Rising Intonation

67

Topic

04: Nonfinal Intonation

73

Topic 05: More Functions of Intonation

81

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 01: STRESS

VERSÃO TEXTUAL As you must have already realized, English pronunciation may be considered a bit
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
As you must have already realized, English pronunciation may be
considered a bit hard at times, which makes it essential for learners to
work on this aspect of the language since the very beginning of the
learning process. However, in order to communicate effectively in
English, it is not enough to know how to produce the sounds of the
language correctly. You also need to know how to place stress in words
and in sentences appropriately.

In Portuguese, we sometimes use stress marks ( -- the acute accent ( ´ ), the circumflex accent ( ^ )) to call attention to a syllable. For example, in the word “lâmpada”, which syllable is stressed?

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER .

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER .

In English, however, there are no stress marks, but that does not mean there are no stressed syllables. For example, the word important has three syllables, but they are not pronounced the same way. The second syllable is more prominent than the other two: imPORTant! Although, there is no stress mark in the word, there is a stressed syllable: PORT.

mark in the word, there is a stressed syllable: PORT . Word Stress When a word

Word Stress

When a word has more than one syllable, one of the syllables is normally more prominent than the others. This syllable is said to be stressed. Stressed syllables are often longer and louder than unstressed ones. In our lessons we will represent stressed syllables with capital letters.

1

As you could hear, the first syllable in the words above is longer and louder

As you could hear, the first syllable in the words above is longer and louder than the second, that is to say, the first syllable is stressed. When you speak English, it is imperative that you stress words correctly. Otherwise, there may be some kind of miscommunication.

In our next topic we will take a look at some of the stress patterns in English which can be helpful for the prediction of the placement of stress.

STOP TO READ When you do not know which syllable should receive the stress in
STOP TO READ
When you do not know which syllable should receive the stress in a given
word, look up the phonetic transcription of the word in your dictionary. In
dictionaries the stress is normally marked with this symbol (') being
placed just before the stressed syllable of the word. Look at and listen to
the examples below:
Long words often have two stressed syllables. The strongest syllable in the
word receives primary stress and the second strongest syllable receives
secondary stress. Primary stress is marked with the symbol ('), whereas
secondary stress is marked with the symbol (,). Look at and listen to the
following examples:
PRACTICE 1 Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the following words and identify the stressed
PRACTICE 1
Listen carefully to the pronunciation of the following words and identify
the stressed syllable.
PRACTICE 2
Listen to the pronunciation of the words below. Then, write the words in
the correct column according to their stressed syllable.
WORDS STRESSED ON THE FIRST
SYLLABLE
WORDS STRESSED ON THE SECOND
SYLLABLE
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

3

PRACTICE 3 Now click on the link below and practice identifying the stress in English
PRACTICE 3 Now click on the link below and practice identifying the stress in English
PRACTICE 3
Now click on the link below and practice identifying the stress in English
words.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm)
FURTHER READING Click on the links below to read more about WORD STRESS in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about WORD STRESS in English.
http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress
(http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/articles/word-stress)
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress.htm)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

4

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 02: STRESS PATTERNS

LASS 01: W ORD S TRESS T OPIC 02: S TRESS P ATTERNS There are no

There are no fast and infallible rules for stressing words in English. Therefore, stress patterns must often be learned with each word. However,

patterns must often be learned with each word. However, Two-Syllable Words The words below illustrate the

Two-Syllable Words

The words below illustrate the stress pattern followed by most two-syllable nouns and verbs in English. Listen to how they are pronounced and identify the stressed syllable in each one of them.

nouns and verbs in English. Listen to how they are pronounced and identify the stressed syllable

5

Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable nouns in English? Which syllable tends to

Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable nouns in English?

Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable verbs?Which syllable tends to be stressed in two-syllable nouns in English?

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-syllable nouns the first syllable is more likely to receive the stress, whereas in two-syllable verbs the second syllable tends to be stressed.

syllable is more likely to receive the stress, whereas in two-syllable verbs the second syllable tends
two-syllable verbs the second syllable tends to be stressed. S TOP TO R EAD About 90

STOP TO READ

About 90 percent of all English nouns of two syllables are stressed on the first syllable, and more than 60 percent of all English verbs are stressed on the second syllable (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008).

Three-Syllable Words

LISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE FOLLOWING THREE-SYLLABLE WORDS AND IDENTIFY THE STRESSED SYLLABLE.

Three-Syllable Words L ISTEN CAREFULLY TO THE FOLLOWING THREE - SYLLABLE WORDS AND IDENTIFY THE STRESSED
N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS .

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS .
N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . Compounds The placement of stress in English

Compounds

The placement of stress in English compound words ( -- a noun, an adjective or a verb made of two or more words) is very regular. Compound words are sometimes written as one word, sometimes as two words, and sometimes they are joined by a hyphen. The way in which they are written does not interfere with their stress pattern, though (AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S., 2008).

Let us listen to examples of compound words in English and try to identify where the stress falls. Then let us decide which generalizations can be made regarding the stress in compounds.

identify where the stress falls. Then let us decide which generalizations can be made regarding the

7

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th edition).

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from

Oxford

Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.)

(7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.) (The definitions used in this section were extracted from

(The definitions used in this section were extracted from

ADVANCED LEARNERS DICTIONARY (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.)

OXFORD

extracted from A DVANCED L EARNER ’ S D ICTIONARY (7th edition). Oxford: Oxford University Press,

8

Based on the pronunciation of the compound words presented, answer the following questions.

In two-word noun compounds, does the stress usually fall on the stressed syllable of the first noun or the second noun?

In two-word adjective compounds, where does the stress often fall?

In verbs with a prefix and a base, where is the stress often placed?stressed syllable of the first noun or the second noun? In two-word adjective compounds, where does

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In two-word noun compounds, it is the first noun which usually

receives the major stress, such as in: DRUGstore, ARMchair, BUS

driver,

CLASSroom, AIRplane, TEAspoon, and NIGHTclub.

In two-word adjective compounds, it is the second word which often receives the major stress, such as in: well BUILT, good-NAtured, fat- FREE, narrow-MINDed, strong-WILLED, bad-TEMPered, and self- CONfident.

In verbs with a prefix and a base, it is the base which usually receives the major stress, such as in: outRUN, overLOOK, underVAlue, upSET, downLOAD, foreSEE, and withDRAW.

STOP TO READ Adjective compounds actually take two stress patterns. When the adjective compound is
STOP TO READ
Adjective compounds actually take two stress patterns. When the adjective
compound is used attributively ( -- preceding a noun) , it receives major
stress on the first word. On the other hand, when the adjective compound
occurs in predicative position ( -- after a link verb) , major stress is placed
on the second word (CELCE-MURCIA et al, 1996). Listen to the examples
below:
PRACTICE 1
Click on the links below and practice identifying the stress in English
words.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/word-stress-quiz.htm)
http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm
(http://www.soundsofenglish.org/hollys_corner/wordstress/ex3.htm)
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just click on
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S. Teaching American English

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

AVERY, P.; EHRLICH, S. Teaching American English Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

10

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 01: WORD STRESS

TOPIC 03: STRESS IN WORDS WITH SUFFIXES

S TRESS T OPIC 03: S TRESS IN W ORDS WITH S UFFIXES S TRESS P

STRESS PATTERN 1

The same stress pattern applies to all the suffixes ( -- morphemes which are added to the end of a word and which change the meaning or function of the word) below.

and which change the meaning or function of the word) below. Listen to the pronunciation of

Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to

identify where the stress is placed.

of the word) below. Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to identify
of the word) below. Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to identify
of the word) below. Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to identify
of the word) below. Listen to the pronunciation of the following words and try to identify

11

Based on the pronunciation of the words above, answer the question below:

Which syllable receives the major stress when the word ends in -ic , - ical

Which syllable receives the major stress when the word ends in -ic, -ical, - ity, -ify, -ogy, -tion, -sion, -ian, -ial, -ous, -ious, -eous, -graph?

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

The syllable immediately before the suffixes above always receives the major stress.

Stress Pattern 2

The following examples illustrate the stress pattern of words ending in the suffixes -ee, -eer, -ese, -esque, -ique, or -ette.

LISTEN TO HOW THEY ARE PRONOUNCED.

, -ique , or -ette . L ISTEN TO HOW THEY ARE PRONOUNCED . N OW
, -ique , or -ette . L ISTEN TO HOW THEY ARE PRONOUNCED . N OW

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . We should stress the syllable which contains

We should stress the syllable which contains the suffix.

STOP TO READ Some suffixes are considered neutral, that is to say, they do not
STOP TO READ
Some suffixes are considered neutral, that is to say, they do not affect the
stress pattern of the root word ( -- the word without a prefix or a suffix) .
The suffixes below are considered neutral:

12

PRACTICE 1: ODD WORD OUT A. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and
PRACTICE 1: ODD WORD OUT A. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and
PRACTICE 1: ODD WORD OUT
A. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the syllable immediately before the
suffix:
B. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the suffix:
C. Listen to the pronunciation of the words below and choose the one
which does not receive the stress on the same syllable as its root word:
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
A. TRAINEE
B. EDUCATION
C. FATALITY
PRACTICE 2
Now click on the links below and practice identifying the stress pattern in
English words.
http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/
(http://www.roadtogrammar.com/wordstress/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/americanenglishfile/1/c_pronunc
(http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/americanenglishfile/1/c_pronun

Concerning word stress, what should English learners do when they learn new words? If you don’t know where the stress falls in a given word, what can you do to find that out? How can the information in class 1 help you to speak English better? Which of the topics presented in this class were you unfamiliar with? Give examples of words whose pronunciation you have learned by reading this class and doing the exercises. How did you think they were pronounced?

SUGGESTED READING Click on the link below to read some considerations about the importance of
SUGGESTED READING
Click on the link below to read some considerations about the importance
of good pronunciation. Then comment on your impressions of these
considerations in the forum.
http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm
(http://www.antimoon.com/how/pronuncwhy.htm)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

14

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 01: THE RHYTHM OF ENGLISH

VERSÃO TEXTUAL In the previous class, you read and learned about stressed and unstressed syllables
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
In the previous class, you read and learned about stressed and
unstressed syllables in words. In this class, we will see how the
combination of stressed and unstressed syllables contributes to the
creation of the rhythm in English.

The Rhythm of English

Many Brazilian learners of English often find it difficult to understand native speakers of the language because they usually speak very fast. Do you think so too? Well, one of the reasons that can explain this rapid flow of speech is the very nature of the rhythm of English – English is a stress-timed language.

rhythm of English – English is a stress-timed language. In other words, the length of an

In other words, the length of an utterance in English depends not on the number of syllables but rather on the number of stresses (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL, 1996).

THE WORD/PHRASE PAIRS BELOW ILLUSTRATE WHAT IS SAID ABOVE. LISTEN AND PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO
THE WORD/PHRASE PAIRS BELOW ILLUSTRATE WHAT IS SAID ABOVE.
LISTEN AND PAY CAREFUL ATTENTION TO THE RHYTHM PATTERNS IN
EACH PAIR.
(The examples above were extracted from GRANT, L. Well said. Boston:
Heinle & Heinle, 2001, pp. 78.)

15

EXERCISE 1. Listen to the pairs above again. Do the word and the phrase in
EXERCISE
1. Listen to the pairs above again. Do the word and the phrase in each pair
have the same rhythm pattern or different ones? Do they take a similar
amount of time to be said or do the phrases take longer to be said than the
words?
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.
In each pair, the rhythm pattern of the word is the same as that of
the phrase. And both the word and the phrase take almost the same
amount of time to be pronounced.
2. Now listen one more time and mark the stressed syllable of the word
and the stressed syllable of the phrase in each pair.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWER.
1. engiNEER
He was HERE.
2. overTHROW
In a ROW.
3. conVERT
He’s HURT.
4.
preSENTed
She SENT it.
5. PERmit
LEARN it.
6.
volunTEER
She can HEAR.
SENT it. 5. PERmit LEARN it. 6. volunTEER She can HEAR. We can learn that, just

We can learn that, just like words, phrases and sentences in English have stressed and unstressed syllables.

We can learn that, in spoken English, some words are stressed and other

words are not.

If you stress every word and syllable equally, you may sound angry, impatient, or rude without meaning to.

you may sound angry, impatient, or rude without meaning to. PRACTICE 1 LISTEN TO THE WORDS
PRACTICE 1 LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND THE PHRASES BELOW. THEN MATCH THE WORD AND
PRACTICE 1
LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND THE PHRASES BELOW. THEN MATCH THE
WORD AND THE PHRASE WITH THE SAME RHYTHM PATTERN.
(The words and phrases in this exercise were extracted from AVERY, P.;
EHRLICH, S. Teaching American pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2008, pp. 82.)
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. C
2. D
3. A
4. F
5. E
6. B
PRACTICE 2
LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN PRACTICE 1 AGAIN AND
IDENTIFY THE STRESSED SYLLABLE IN BOTH THE WORDS AND THE
PHRASES.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

17

P RACTICE 3 L ISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN EXERCISE 1 AGAIN AND
P RACTICE 3 L ISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN EXERCISE 1 AGAIN AND

PRACTICE 3

LISTEN TO THE WORDS AND PHRASES IN EXERCISE 1 AGAIN AND REPEAT. LISTENING AND REPEATING IS IMPORTANT PRACTICE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING.

FURTHER READING Click on the links below to read more about stress and the rhythm
FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress and the rhythm of
English.
http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/esl-articles/199810.htm)
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=52)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation : a

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1996.

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 02: CONTENT AND FUNCTION WORDS

In English stressed syllables are normally more prominent than stressed syllables in Portuguese. Similarly, unstressed syllables in English are much weaker than unstressed syllables in Portuguese. Also, in spoken English some words are more important than other words. The more important words are called content words ((or lexical words)) , and the less important words are called function words ((or grammar words)) . When we speak English we have to stress content words and unstress function words. We do not normally do this in Portuguese, so we have to remember that native speakers of English do it and that is one of the main reasons why many Brazilian learners of English often think they speak too fast.

learners of English often think they speak too fast. EXERCISE 1. Listen carefully to the sentences
EXERCISE 1. Listen carefully to the sentences below and mark the words which are stressed
EXERCISE
1. Listen carefully to the sentences below and mark the words which are
stressed (content words). If the content word has more than one syllable,
mark the syllable which receives the stress.
Her house is quite big, but it doesn’t have a garden.
They usually listen to the radio in the morning.
London is famous for its red buses.
What newspaper do you read?
They can dance very well but they can’t sing.
Where does your husband work?
How was the weekend?
She’s not Polish. She’s German.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

19

Her HOUSE is QUITE BIG, but it DOESN’T HAVE a GARden. They Usually LISten to
Her HOUSE is QUITE BIG, but it DOESN’T HAVE a
GARden.
They Usually LISten to the RAdio in the MORning.
LONdon is FAmous for its RED BUSes.
WHAT NEWSpaper do you READ?
They can DANCE VEry WELL but they CAN’T SING.
WHERE does your HUSband WORK?
HOW was the WEEKend?
She’s NOT POlish. She’s GERman.
Notice that the words house, quite, big, doesn’t,
have, red, what, read, dance, well, can’t, sing,
where, work, how,and not have only one syllable.
Remember that, in English, we count syllables according
to the number of vowel sounds in a word. For example,
house
has only one vowel sound –
only one syllable.
– so it has
2. Now that you have checked your work, write (S) for the kinds of words
which are stressed in the previous exercise and (U) for the kinds of
words which are unstressed.
adjectives
nouns
adverbs
personal pronouns
articles
prepositions
auxiliary verbs
verbs
conjunctions
Wh-question words
negative
contractions/not
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

20

As you can see from the tasks above, English words can be divided into two groups:

Content words express independent meaning.

Content words are usually stressed.

Content words include: adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns,

and question words. They also include demonstrative pronouns ( this,

these, those) and possessive pronouns ( mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs).

that,

Function words have little or no meaning in themselves and mainly serve the purpose of expressing grammatical relationships.

Function words are usually unstressed.

Function words include: articles ( a,

an, the), auxiliary verbs (e.g.

can,

do, did), conjunctions (e.g. but, and, so), personal pronouns (e.g. I, me, my, you, your, he, him), and prepositions (e.g. at, in, from, with).

They also include relative pronouns (e.g.

that, who,

which), demonstrative

adjectives, and possessive adjectives (e.g.

my, your,

his).

and possessive adjectives (e.g. my , your , his ). S TOP TO R EAD Listeners

STOP TO READ

Listeners of English expect certain words to be strong (stressed) and others to be weak (unstressed). The strong words are the ones listeners pay attention to the most. The contrast between stronger words with weaker words is an important part of clear communication in English (GRANT, 2001:81). For learners of English to produce sentences that have the appropriate stress patterns and the appropriate English rhythm, it is necessary that they know which words are stressed and which are not stressed.

PRACTICE 1 Listen to the sentences below and mark the words which receive sentence stress.
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the words which receive sentence
stress. If the word receives sentence stress and has more than one syllable,
remember to mark the stressed syllable of the word.
1. Nice to meet you.
2. Where did you go for your last vacation?
3. We’ve never traveled abroad.
4. I can play the guitar and the flute.
5. He likes pizza but he doesn’t like bread.
6. France is bigger than Italy.
7.They saw a movie and had dinner at a fancy restaurant.
8. I will call her right now.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. NICE to MEET you.

21

2. WHERE did you GO for your LAST VAcation? 3. We’ve NEver TRAveled aBROAD. 4.
2. WHERE did you GO for your LAST VAcation?
3. We’ve NEver TRAveled aBROAD.
4. I can PLAY the GUItar and the FLUTE.
5. He LIKES PIzza but he DOESN’T LIKE BREAD.
6. FRANCE is BIGGer than Italy.
7. They SAW a MOvie and HAD DInner at a FANcy
REStaurant.
8. I will CALL her RIGHT NOW.
The words nice, meet, where, go, last, play, flute, likes,
doesn’t, like, bread, France, saw, had, call, right, and now
have only one syllable.
PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and classify the words which receive
sentence stress into adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, or
question words. Remember that these are the kinds of words which are
normally stressed in spoken English.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and practice saying them out loud.in spoken English. NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. P RACTICE 3 Click on the

PRACTICE 3

Click on the link below and practice the rhythm and pronunciation of sentences in English.1 again and practice saying them out loud. P RACTICE 3 P RACTICE 4 http://www.manythings.org/lar/

PRACTICE 4

http://www.manythings.org/lar/ (http://www.manythings.org/lar/)

FURTHER READING Click on the links below to read more about stress in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about stress in English.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress.htm)
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress-rules.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/sentence-stress-rules.htm)
22
VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) GRANT, L. Well said . Boston: Heinle

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

23

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TOPIC 03: REDUCED FORMS

As you were presented in the previous topic, function words in spoken English are usually weak. Many function words have only one syllable, and

because they are usually very weak, they have a strong pronunciation and a weak pronunciation. For example, the conjunction ‘and’ is pronounced

in isolation, but it is commonly pronounced talking naturally.

isolation, but it is commonly pronounced talking naturally. or when people are It is very important
or
or

when people are

It is very important to know the weak pronunciation of one-syllable function words as it helps you understand English better when it is spoken fast and it allows you to work on the production of more appropriate and natural English utterances.

Listed below you will find the strong and the weak forms of some one- syllable function words. Listen and repeat.

of some one- syllable function words. Listen and repeat. STOP TO READ In connected speech, where
STOP TO READ In connected speech, where function words are normally unstressed, they are pronounced
STOP TO READ
In connected speech, where function words are normally unstressed, they
are pronounced in their weak form. In the weak form of most one-syllable
function words, the vowel is reduced to
above.
, as you can see in the chart
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and mark the pronunciation of the
underlined function words that you hear.
1. It’s A book.
[eɪ]
[ə]
2.She’s AT home.
[æt]
[ət]

24

3. Did you pass OR fail? [ɔːr] [ər] 4. Let’s call THEM again. [ðem] [əm]
3.
Did you pass OR fail?
[ɔːr]
[ər]
4. Let’s call THEM again.
[ðem]
[əm]
5. Think OF all we have.
[ɔːv]
[əv]
6. He’s THE boss.
[ðiː]
[ðə]
7.
Sally must HAVE left.
[hæv]
[əv]
8. Buy some milk AND eggs.
[ænd]
[ən]
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. [ə]
2. [ət]
3. [ər]
4. [əm]
5. [əv]
6. [ðə]
7. [əv]
8. [ən]
PRACTICE 2 Write the phonetic transcriptions below into phrases. Then check your answers, listen to
PRACTICE 2
Write the phonetic transcriptions below into phrases. Then check your
answers, listen to and practice saying them.
1. /ə glæss ə mɪlk/
2. /ˈlemən ən aɪs/
3. /əz swiːt əz ˈʃʊgər/
4. /gɪv ɪm ə breɪk/
5. /ðeɪ əv ˈfɪnɪʃt/
6. /ɪts fər bɪl/
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
Click on the link below to read more about reduced forms in English.
Click on the link below to read more about reduced forms in English.
http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html
(http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/ReducedForms.html)
VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
(http://www.wordwebonline.com/) F ORUM Based on what you have read about the rhythm of

FORUM

Based on what you have read about the rhythm of English in this class, discuss the following questions with your partners and your tutor:

What did you already know about the rhythm of English before reading this class? In your opinion, what are the most important topics presented in this class? Do you think the rhythm of English is very different from that of Brazilian Portuguese? In what way(s)? How do you intend to use what you have learned in order to understand and speak English better? How can we teach our students about the rhythm of English from the very beginning?

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

26

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 02: SENTENCE STRESS

TASK: LISTENING COMPREHENSION AND ORAL PRODUCTION

T ASK : L ISTENING C OMPREHENSION AND O RAL P RODUCTION P ART I -

PART I - LISTENING COMPREHENSION

PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY

Listen to the dialogue below and mark the words which are stressed (content words). If the content word has more than one syllable, mark the syllable which receives the stress. Then, write the dialogue with the stressed syllables in capital letters on a Word document and send it to your portfolio for your teacher’s assessment.

Para escutar o áudio acesse o ambiente Solar.

assessment. Para escutar o áudio acesse o ambiente Solar. RECEPTIONIST: Good evening, sir. How can I
assessment. Para escutar o áudio acesse o ambiente Solar. RECEPTIONIST: Good evening, sir. How can I

RECEPTIONIST: Good evening, sir. How can I help you?

JACK: Good evening. I have a reservation. My name’s Jack Gray.

RECEPTIONIST:

JACK: That’s right.

RECEPTIONIST: All right. Here’s your key. You’re in room 201 on the second floor.

JACK: Thank you. What time’s breakfast?

RECEPTIONIST: From seven to nine, in the hotel restaurant on the first floor.

JACK: Thanks. Where’s the elevator?

RECEPTIONIST: The elevators are over there. Do you need any help with your bags?

JACK: No, thanks. Good night.

RECEPTIONIST: Good night, sir.

PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY The phrases and sentences below all appear in
PART II - ORAL PRODUCTION
PORTFOLIO ACTIVITY
The phrases and sentences below all appear in lesson 2. Go back
to each topic to listen to their pronunciation again (as many
times as necessary) and record them. Then, send the recording
to your portfolio for your teacher’s assessment. Make sure to
stress content words and unstress function words. Also, try to
produce the weak form of one-syllable function words as
studied in topic 3.
1. He was here.

27

2. She sent it. 3. Her house is quite big. 4. London is famous for
2. She sent it.
3. Her house is quite big.
4. London is famous for its red buses.
5. What newspaper do you read?
6. How was the weekend?
7. She’s not Polish. She’s German.
8. Nice to meet you.
9. I can play the guitar and the flute.
10. He likes pizza but he doesn’t like bread.
11. It’s a book.
12. She’s at home.
13. Did you pass or fail?
14. Let’s call them again.
15. Think of all we have.
16. a glass of milk
17. lemon and ice
18. as sweet as sugar
19. Give him a break.
20. They have finished.
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

28

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 01: LINKING

Speech is a continuous stream of sounds. This means that when we speak naturally, we do not pronounce a word, make a pause, then say the next word in the sentence, pause again, and so on.

In rapid speech, when one word is linked with the next, sounds come together. And when sounds come together in speech, they are influenced by one another. As a result, some sounds are lost, some sounds are added, some sounds take on different characteristics, and some are spoken almost simultaneously.

In classes 3 and 4, you will be presented with some of the major adjustments which take place in connected speech: linking, elision, epenthesis, and assimilation.

Learning about these adjustments is not only important to help learners of English to improve their oral production, but it is also crucial in helping them to improve their listening comprehension (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL,

1996).

LINKING

Linking can be defined as the connecting of the final sound of one word or syllable to the initial sound of the next. When words are properly linked, there is a smooth transition from one word to the next. Linking occurs in different phonological contexts.

Let us see the most common of these contexts. Click in the boxes to open.

V ERSÃO T EXTUAL DO F LASH Linking consonants to vowels When a word ends

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

Linking consonants to vowels

When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word beginning with a vowel sound, the consonant is often produced as if belonged to both syllables or as if belonged to the next word.

Linking consonants to consonants

When a word ends in a stop consonant and is followed by a word that begins with a consonant, the stop consonant is not released.

Linking identical consonants

When a word ends in a consonant sound and is followed by a word beginning with the same consonant sound, the two consonants are normally pronounced as one long consonant.

Linking vowels to vowels

29

When a word ends in a tense vowel and is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the words are usually linked by the I glide (or semi-vowel) ending the tense vowel.

STOP TO READ People do not speak in separate words, they speak in logical connected
STOP TO READ
People do not speak in separate words, they speak in logical connected
groups of words. These groups are often called thought groups. A thought
group can be defined as a portion of a sentence separated from the rest by
a pause or pauses. In the examples below, the thought groups are
separated by a diagonal line:
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
Please call / if you have to cancel.
Whatever you do, / do well.
Experts say / that what you name your child / can make a huge
difference.
It is not possible to make a clear set of rules to divide sentences into
thought groups. A speaker is normally free to group words according to
personal preference.
(The examples above were extracted from GRANT, 2001: 124-134.)
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
linking occurs.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1. She has a lot of friends.
2. What time is it?
3. This is my uncle, John.
4. We live in a big house with a big garden.
5. He left home at eight and got to work at nine.
6. We haven’t talked to each other in ages.
7. English is spoken all over the world.
8. I had a really bad day yesterday.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

30

Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat. Listening and repeating is important

Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat. Listening and repeating is important practice for language learning.P RACTICE 2 Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and identify the types

PRACTICE 2

Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 and identify the types of linking which occur: Type 1 = linking consonants to vowels ; Type 2 = linking a stop consonant Type 1 = linking consonants to vowels; Type 2 = linking a stop consonant to a consonant; Type 3 = linking identical consonants; Type 4 = linking vowels to vowels. For example, in ‘has a’ in sentence 1 we link the final consonant of ‘has’ to the following vowel sound (type 1).

PRACTICE 3

PRACTICE 4 Listen to the song “When I need you” by Celine Dion and identify
PRACTICE 4
Listen to the song “When I need you” by Celine Dion and identify
occurrences of linking.
CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO LISTEN TO THE SONG.
http://letras.terra.com.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html
(http://letras.terra.com.br/celine-dion/70030/traducao.html)
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

31

Listen again to the song “When I need you” by Celine Dion and sing it

Listen again to the song “When I need you” by Celine Dion and sing it out loud to practice the occurrences of linking in itP RACTICE 5 Discuss your answers to Practice 3 with your classmates and your teacher

PRACTICE 5

Discuss your answers to Practice 3 with your classmates and your teacher in the forum.to practice the occurrences of linking in it P RACTICE 5 F ORUM FURTHER READING Click

FORUM

FURTHER READING Click on the links below to read more about linking in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about linking in English.
http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm
(http://www.englishclub.com/pronunciation/linking.htm)
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=7)
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=50)
32
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54 (http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54)
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=54)
http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55
(http://www.pronuncian.com/lessons.aspx?Lesson=55)
VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation : a

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1996.

GRANT, L. Well Said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

33

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 02: ELISION

In the previous topic, you learned about the process of linking in connected speech. In this topic, you will learn about another type of adjustment which happens in spoken English – the process of elision (also known as deletion).

English – the process of elision (also known as deletion). The most typical phonological contexts in

The most typical phonological contexts in which elision occurs are:

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH Context 1: Elision of /t/ when the sequence /nt/ occurs between
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
Context 1: Elision of /t/ when the sequence /nt/ occurs between two
vowels.
Context 2: Elision of /t/ or /d/ when they occur in a sequence of
three consonants.
Context 3: Elision of /t/ or /d/ in word-final position, when it is
preceded by a single consonant and is followed by a word beginning
with a consonant.
Context 4: Elision of an unstressed
the stressed syllable multisyllabic words
when it is preceded by
Context 5: Elision of /v/ in the preposition of before words beginning
with a consonant.
Context 6: Elision of initial /h/ and /ð/ in pronominal forms in
connected speech.

Knowing the phonological contexts in which deletion often occurs might help you better understand spoken English./h/ and /ð/ in pronominal forms in connected speech. S TOP TO R EAD P RACTICE

STOP TO READ

PRACTICE 1 RACTICE 1

Listen to the phrases and sentences below and identify occurrences of

ELISION.

34

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH 1.We love winter. 2.He suffers from partial blindness. 3.They’re leaving next
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1.We love winter.
2.He suffers from partial blindness.
3.They’re leaving next Monday.
4.Can I have an aspirin?
5. Children love to make sand castles on the beach.
6. We only need a handful of rice.
7. He’s a really fast driver.
8. What a waste of time!
9. Can you help her with the homework?
10. I don’t like history much.
NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
PRACTICE 2
Go back to the sentences in Practice 1 again and identify the phonological
contexts where elision occurs.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

35

P RACTICE 3 Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat them out
P RACTICE 3 Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat them out

PRACTICE 3

Now listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat them out loud to practice the occurrences of elision in them. Remember that repeating is important for effective language learning.

VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 03: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 1)

TOPIC 03: EPENTHESIS

In topics 1 and 2, you learned about linking and deletion in connected speech. In this topic, you will learn about the process of epenthesis.

this topic, you will learn about the process of epenthesis. M OST C OMMON T YPES

MOST COMMON TYPES OF EPENTHESIS

The most important type of epenthesis in English occurs in certain

morphophonological sequences such as the regular plural and the regular

past tense. In these cases, an epenthetic schwa

the regular past tense. In these cases, an epenthetic schwa is added to break up sequences

is added to break up

sequences of sibilants ( -- characterized by a hissing sound, similar to a long “s”) or alveolar stops ( -- the sounds <b>/t/</b> and <b>/d/</b>) , respectively.

and <b>/d/</b>) , respectively. ■ The Regular Plural The nouns below all end in a

The Regular Plural

The nouns below all end in a sibilant sound. Listen to their pronunciation and identify the six sibilant sounds in English.

and identify the six sibilant sounds in English. N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS
N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . As you can see from above,

NOW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

N OW CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . As you can see from above, the

As you can see from above, the six English sibilants

are and
are
and

37

In nouns that end in hissing, sibilant sounds, we add the syllable /əz/ (or ) when forming their plural. Let us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above.

us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above. The Plural Rule is also
us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above. The Plural Rule is also
us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above. The Plural Rule is also

The Plural Rule is also applicable to: the third person singular present tense ending, the contracted form of “is” and “has”, and the possessive ‘s.us hear the pronunciation of the plural of the nouns above. S TOP TO R EAD

STOP TO READ

The Regular Past Tense

To regular verbs that end in /t/ or /d/, we add the syllable /əd/ ( or

when forming their past. Let us hear the pronunciation of the past of the verbs below.

)
)
us hear the pronunciation of the past of the verbs below. ) S TOP TO R

STOP TO READ

When a verb does not end in /t/ or /d/ , the –ed ending is pronounced as a result of the process /t/ or /d/, the –ed ending is pronounced as a result of the process of assimilation, which will be studied in our next class.

Try to pronounce the verbs and nouns below based on what you have learned in this class. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and repeat.the process of assimilation , which will be studied in our next class. P RACTICE 1

PRACTICE 1

1. washes (v.)

2. watches (v.)

38

3. misses (v.) 4. uses (v.) 5. laces (n.) 6. fixes (v.) 7. mirages (n.)
3. misses (v.)
4. uses (v.)
5. laces (n.)
6. fixes (v.)
7. mirages (n.)
8. catches (v.)
9. bridges (n.)
10. crashes (v.)
CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.
(v.) CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS. P RACTICE 2 Try to pronounce

PRACTICE 2

Try to pronounce the following past tense verbs based on what you have learned about epenthesis. Then listen to their pronunciation, check and repeat.

1. wanted

2. pretended

3. started

4. handed

5. waited

6. tested

7. landed

39

8. surrounded 9. deleted 10. permitted CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.
8. surrounded
9. deleted
10. permitted
CLICK HERE TO CHECK THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE WORDS.
VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

40

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 01: PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

In the previous class, you learned about the processes of linking, deletion and epenthesis in connected speech. In this class, you will learn about another type of adjustment which happens in spoken English – the process of assimilation.

happens in spoken English – the process of assimilation. Assimilation is a universal feature of spoken

Assimilation is a universal feature of spoken language. It occurs when a particular sound takes on ( -- to begin to have a particular quality) the characteristics of an adjacent sound. In English, the process of assimilation frequently occurs, both within words and between words.

There are three types of assimilation in English: progressive assimilation, regressive assimilation, and coalescent assimilation. In this topic, you will learn about progressive assimilation. Regressive assimilation and coalescent assimilation will be dealt with in topics 2 and 3 respectively.

PROGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Progressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is affected by the sound which precedes it.

Examples of this type of assimilation include:

For the regular

present simple verbs, the contraction of

an auxiliary verb, and

( -- the word without the –s ending ) conditions the voiced or voiceless

pronunciation of the suffix:

plural of nouns, the

third person singular form of

‘is’, the contraction of

‘has’ as

stem word

/z/ (the

possessive ‘s: the final sound of the

/s/ (the

voiceless form) or

voiced form). For example:

stem word /z/ (the possessive ‘s : the final sound of the /s/ (the voiceless form)

41

For the the final sound of the stem word conditions the voiced or voiceless pronunciation

For the

the final sound of the stem word conditions the voiced or voiceless

pronunciation of the suffix:

simple past and

past participle forms of

/t/ (the

regular verbs:

/d/ (the

voiceless form) or

voiced form).

For example:

: /d/ (the voiceless form) or voiced form). For example: STOP TO READ As you studied
STOP TO READ As you studied in class 3, in words that end in sibilant
STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in sibilant sounds, the –s
ending is pronounced /əz/ (or
epenthesis.
) as a result of the process of
STOP TO READ
As you studied in class 3, in words that end in /t/ or /d/, the –ed ending is
pronounced /əd/ (or
) as a result of the process of epenthesis.

Similarly to linking , the amount of assimilation that occurs in speech depends on numerous variables, such linking, the amount of assimilation that occurs in speech depends on numerous variables, such as the formality of the situation, the rate of speech, and the style of the speaker (CELCE-MURCIA ET AL,

STOP TO READ

1996).

Practice identifying the pronunciation of –s endings as a result of the process of progressive assimilation .Is the –s ending –s endings as a result of the process of progressive assimilation.Is the –s ending in the words below pronounced /s/ or /z/?

PRACTICE 1

42

1. likes (v.)

2. moves (v.)

3. puts (v.)

4. plays (v.)

5. cabs (n.)

6. pens (n.)

7. pencils (n.)

8. cups (n.)

9. Kate’s

10. Ted’s

11. Philips

12. Sara’s

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

a) (

) /s/

b)

(

) /z/

(Abbreviations: v.= verb; n.= noun)

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

1. /S/

The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the

s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

2. /Z/

The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

3. /S/

The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the –s ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

4. /Z/

The voiced /eɪ/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

5. /Z/

The voiced /b/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

43

 

6.

/Z/

The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the –s ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

 

7.

/Z/

The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

 

8.

/S/

The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the

s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

 

9.

/S/

The voiceless /t/ conditions the voiceless form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

 

10.

/Z/

The voiced /d/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

 

11.

/S/

The voiceless /p/ conditions the voiceless form of the

s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /s/.

 

12.

/Z/

The voiced /ə/ conditions the voiced form of the –s

ending, causing it to be pronounced /z/.

of the –s ending , causing it to be pronounced /z/. P RACTICE 2 Now listen

PRACTICE 2

Now listen carefully to the words from Practice 1 in the sentences below. Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of –s endings.

1. She LIKES apples.

2. He MOVES a lot.

3. Sue PUTS everything in the wrong place.

4. John PLAYS American football quite well.

5. In New York the CABS are yellow.

6. Those PENS aren’t mine.

7. Whose PENCILS are these?

8. Two CUPS of coffee, please.

44

9. KATE’S a good teacher. 10. TED’S a doctor. 11. PHILLIP’S uncle got married. 12.
9. KATE’S a good teacher.
10. TED’S a doctor.
11. PHILLIP’S uncle got married.
12. SARA’S already done her homework.
PRACTICE 3
Practice identifying the pronunciation of –ed endings as a result of the
process of progressive assimilation. Is the –ed ending in the words
below pronounced /t/ or /d/?
1.
liked
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
2.
lived
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
3.
kissed
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
4.
opened
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
5.
called
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
6.
tried
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
7. played
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
8. finished
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
9.
used
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
10. repaired
a) (
) /t/
b)
(
) /d/
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. /T/
The voiceless /k/ conditions the voiceless form of the –
ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.
2. /D/
The voiced /v/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed
ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.
3. /T/
The voiceless /s/ conditions the voiceless form of the –
ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.

45

4.

/D/

The voiced /l/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

5.

/D/

The voiced /aɪ/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed

ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

6.

/D/

The voiced /n/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

7.

/D/

The voiced /eɪ/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed

ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

8.

/T/

The voiceless /ʃ/ conditions the voiceless form of the

ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /t/.

9.

/D/

The voiced /z/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

10. /D/ The voiced /r/ conditions the voiced form of the –ed ending, causing it to be pronounced /d/.

form of the –ed ending , causing it to be pronounced /d/. P RACTICE 4 Now

PRACTICE 4

Now listen carefully to the verbs from Practice 3 in the sentences below. Then listen again and repeat them to work on your pronunciation of –ed endings.

1. I LIKED it very much.

2. We LIVED in San Francisco for a long time.

3. They KISSED under the moonlight.

4. The door OPENED but no one came in.

5. He CALLED us but we weren’t home.

6. She TRIED again and again but didn’t succeed.

7. The children PLAYED a lot this morning.

46

8. The movie FINISHED an hour ago. 9. He USED a computer to do his
8. The movie FINISHED an hour ago.
9. He USED a computer to do his homework.
10. The mechanic REPAIRED our car.
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation : a

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

CELCE-MURCIA et al. Teaching Pronunciation: a Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge:

Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

47

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 02: REGRESSIVE ASSIMILATION

Regressive assimilation occurs when a certain sound is affected by the sound which follows it.

Examples of this type of assimilation include:

In

voiced /v/ and /z/ to become voiceless /f/ and /s/ respectively.

have to and

has to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding

have to and has to , the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding In combination /zd/ to

In

combination /zd/ to become the voiceless combination /st/.

used to, the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding voiced

used to , the voiceless /t/ causes the preceding voiced In rapid native-speaker speech, the sibilant

In rapid native-speaker speech, the sibilant sound /ʃ/ causes the preceding

sibilants

/s/ or

/z/ to become identical to it. For example:

/s/ or /z/ to become identical to it. For example: The stop consonant while the stop

The stop consonant

while the stop

cases, there is a change in the place of articulation, but there is no change in the voiced or voiceless quality of the segment. For example:

/t/ may assimilate to a following initial

/b/ or

/p/ or

/k/,

/d/ may assimilate to a following

/g/. In both

/t/ may assimilate to a following initial /b/ or /p/ or /k/ , /d/ may assimilate

48

The final nasal consonant /n/ may adjust its place of articulation and become /m/ when

The final nasal consonant

/n/ may adjust its place of articulation and

become

/m/ when it is followed by a

bilabial (/p/, /b/, /m/), or it may

become

/ŋ/ when it is followed by a

velar (/k/, /g/).

/ŋ/ when it is followed by a velar (/k/, /g/). PRACTICE 1 Listen to the sentences
PRACTICE 1 Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
regressive assimilation occurs.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of regressive assimilation in the sentences.

VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

50

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 04: CONNECTED SPEECH (PART 2)

TOPIC 03: COALESCENT ASSIMILATION

VERSÃO TEXTUAL Coalescent assimilation is a type of reciprocal assimilation: the first sound and second
VERSÃO TEXTUAL
Coalescent assimilation is a type of reciprocal assimilation: the
first sound and second sound in a sequence come together and
mutually condition the creation of a third sound with characteristics
from both original sounds.

The most common type of coalescent assimilation is referred to as palatalization. Palatalization occurs when the final alveolar consonants /s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ or the final alveolar consonant sequences /ts/ and /dz/ are followed by initial palatal /j/ and then become palatalized fricatives (/ʃ/ and /ʒ/) and affricates (/ʧ/ and /ʤ/). Let us look at and listen to some examples in the following chart.

look at and listen to some examples in the following chart. PRACTICE 1 Listen to the
PRACTICE 1 Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences below and identify the places where the process of
coalescent assimilation occurs.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1. Why don’t you call later?
2. Can I kiss you goodbye?
3. Would you like a cup of coffee?
4. When did your wife get back?
5. Did you tell them what you saw?
6. Last year Gina bought a new car.

51

7. Is that your son? He’s so big! 8. He never takes your advice. 9.
7. Is that your son? He’s so big!
8. He never takes your advice.
9. Where is your mom?
10. I truly loved you but I don’t anymore.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
but I don’t anymore. CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. P RACTICE 2 Listen to the

PRACTICE 2

Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 again and repeat them. Pay careful attention and give special emphasis to the occurrences of coalescent assimilation in the sentences.

FURTHER READING Click on the link below to read more about connected speech in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to read more about connected speech in English.
http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-into.htm
(http://www.personal.reading.ac.uk/~llsroach/phon2/asscoareli-
into.htm)
into.htm) F ORUM Based on what you have read about linking, elision,

FORUM

Based on what you have read about linking, elision, epenthesis and assimilation, as well as on your experiences with the English language, discuss the following questions with your partners:

52

Which of the adjustments presented in classes 3 and 4 were you already familiar with?

How can learners of English benefit from studying the adjustments of

connected speech in an explicit way, both in terms of listening and speaking?

What strategies can you use in order to put these adjustments into practice?

VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

53

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 01: FOCUS

In class 2, you learned that in spoken English content words ( -- adjectives, adverbs, main verbs, negatives, nouns, question words, demonstrative pronouns, and possessive pronouns.) are stressed and function words ( -- articles, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions, personal pronouns, prepositions, relative pronouns, demonstrative adjectives, and possessive adjectives) are unstressed. However, there is one word or one syllable (when the word has more than one syllable) which receives more stress or emphasis than the others. This word is called the focus word and it is the most prominent word in the phrase.

VERSÃO TEXTUAL

When a conversation begins or a topic is introduced, the focus is usually the last content word or stressed syllable of the last content word (GRANT, 2001:95). When this happens, the focus considered neutral.

Now listen to the examples below. The sentences and phrases illustrate the placement of focus on the last content word (or its stressed syllable). The syllables in bold capital letters are stressed, and the large dot (●) is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus.

is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different
is placed above the word or syllable that receives focus. O BSERVATION Listen to the different

OBSERVATION

Listen to the different ways in which the sentence “He finished his report” is said in the dialogues below and compare the different meanings that are created because of the change in focus.

54

The dialogues above illustrate how intonation depends on context. By putting special emphasis on a
The dialogues above illustrate how intonation depends on context. By
putting special emphasis on a given word, we may convey different
meanings and intentions. Listen to the dialogues again and identify
which word (or syllable, if the word has more than one syllable) in
‘John finished his report’ is the most prominent.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Focus maintains the natural flow of communication between speakers and listeners. When focus is not appropriately used, there is usually some kind of misunderstanding.is the most prominent. CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. S TOP TO R EAD The

STOP TO READ

The sentences and phrases in the dialogues below all take neutral placement of focus. Identify the words (or syllables) which are stressed and then predict which one is the most prominent. Then listen and practice.When focus is not appropriately used, there is usually some kind of misunderstanding. S TOP TO

PRACTICE 1

55

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
PRACTICE 2 It is extremely important to distinguish between content words and function words to
PRACTICE 2
It is extremely important to distinguish between content words and
function words to produce the rhythm of English appropriately. Let us
revise this aspect we have studied before by doing the exercises on the
links below.
http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm
(http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words1.htm)
http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.htm
(http://esl.about.com/library/speaking/blpronounce_stress_words2.htm)
PRACTICE 3
In the dialogues below, there is shift of focus to words other than the last
content word in some phrases/sentences. Listen to each one of the
dialogues and identify where this shift happens.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

57

VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)
GRANT, L. Well said. Boston: Heinle & Heinle, 2001.
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

58

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 02: RISING-FALLING INTONATION

In the previous topic, you were presented with the concept of focus and its importance to English pronunciation. Now you will learn more about intonation.

pronunciation. Now you will learn more about intonation. More specifically, intonation is the combination of musical

More specifically, intonation is the combination of musical tones on which we pronounce the syllables that make up our speech, and it is often referred to as the melody of language.

and it is often referred to as the melody of language. If you listen to someone

If you listen to someone speak, you will notice that their voice goes up and down. This movement of the voice up or down is called pitch. These pitch changes contribute significantly to intelligible communication as different pitch patterns can signal a wide variety of meanings.

In our course, we will use a simplified system which divides intonation into four types: normal, high, low and extra-high. In order to show the movements of the voice up or down, lines will be drawn at four different

levels and arrows

will be used to represent the four types of intonationlines will be drawn at four different levels and arrows (tones) we will work with. Look

(tones) we will work with. Look at and listen to the examples below.

we will work with. Look at and listen to the examples below. Then listen again and

Then listen again and repeat, trying to make your voice follow the tones.

Look at and listen to the examples below. Then listen again and repeat, trying to make
Look at and listen to the examples below. Then listen again and repeat, trying to make

59

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH 1. GOOD MORNing. Extra high High morn- Normal Good Low ing
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1. GOOD MORNing.
Extra high
High morn-
Normal Good
Low ing
2. JOHN CALLED me.
Extra high
High called
Normal John
Low me
3. I'd LIKE a SOda.
Extra high
High so-
Normal I'd like a
Low -da.
SOda. Extra high High so- Normal I'd like a Low -da. S TOP TO R EAD

STOP TO READ

The most prominent word or syllable is the word or syllable with the greatest pitch change. When we have neutral focus, it is usually the last content word (or its stressed syllable) that has the greatest change in pitch.

INTONATION PATTERNS

Each speaker has his or her own variety of tones. However, native speakers and proficient speakers of English usually make their voices rise and fall at nearly the same places under similar circumstances. It is at the end of sentences that English intonation is used most uniformly. In this position, there are two basic types of intonation: rising-falling intonation (also known as falling intonation) and rising intonation. The first type will be introduced in this topic, whereas the latter will be dealt with in topic 3.

RISING-FALLING INTONATION

60

In other words, what comes immediately before the high note is spoken on a normal

In other words, what comes immediately before the high note is spoken on a normal tone, and what comes after the high note is spoken on a low tone (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985). The last content word (or the stressed syllable of the last content word) normally receives the high note.

Listen to the examples below.

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH 4. We DON'T beLIEVE it. Extra high High -lieve Normal We
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
4. We DON'T beLIEVE it.
Extra high
High -lieve
Normal We don't be-
Low it.
5. WHY is she ANgry?
Extra high
High an-
Normal Why is she
Low -gry
6. You NEED to STUdy
Extra high
High stu-
Normal You need to
Low -dy.
STUdy Extra high High stu- Normal You need to Low -dy. The movement from one tone

The movement from one tone to another usually happens between syllables, as the examples above show. However, the voice sometimes rises ( -- goes up) and falls ( -- goes down) below normal within the same syllable. This movement is known as a slide. A slide happens when the last sentence stress and the high note fall on the last syllable.

61

Look at and listen to the examples below.

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH 7. The FILM is GOOD Extra high High goo- Normal The
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
7. The FILM is GOOD
Extra high
High goo-
Normal The film is
Low -ood.
8. THIS is mySON!
Extra high
High so-
Normal This is my
Low -on.

Notice that this movement up and down within the same syllable causes the vowel of the syllable to be lengthened ( -- to become longer) . Listen to examples 7 and 8 again and pay careful attention to the lengthening of the vowel.

and pay careful attention to the lengthening of the vowel. In English, rising-falling intonation is usually

In English, rising-falling intonation is usually used at the end of:

rising-falling intonation is usually used at the end of: THIS IS MY SON. DECLARATIVE SENTENCES YOU
THIS IS MY SON. DECLARATIVE SENTENCES YOU NEED TO STUDY. COMMANDS BRING YOUR DICTIONARY NEXT
THIS IS MY SON.
DECLARATIVE
SENTENCES
YOU NEED TO STUDY.
COMMANDS
BRING YOUR DICTIONARY NEXT CLASS.
DON’T FORGET TO TAKE YOUR UMBRELLA.

62

WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? WH - QUESTIONS ( -- questions that begin with an interrogative word,
WHAT’S THE PROBLEM?
WH - QUESTIONS
( -- questions that begin
with an interrogative
word, such as
<em>what</em>,
<em>who</em>,
<em>when</em>, etc)
WHERE DO YOU LIVE?
STOP TO READ
The fall of your voice to a low tone indicates that the thought is completed.
For this reason, it is considered a type of vocal full stop. Clear rising-falling
intonation signals certainty and completeness (PRATOR & ROBINNETT,
1985).
PRACTICE 1
Identify where your voice is more likely to rise and fall in the sentences
below. Where is there a slide and why?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1. Who wrote it?
Extra high
High wrote
Normal Who
Low it?
2. She wants a sandwich.
Extra high
High sand
Normal She wants a

63

Low -wicn.

3.Try to keep the street clean

Extra high

High clea-

Normal Try to keep the street

Low -ean.

4.

Jack is in his bedroom.

Extra high

High bed-

Normal Jack is in his

Low -room.

5.

Where's the police station?

Extra high

High -lice

Normal Where's the po-

Low station?

6.

What's he talking about?

Extra high

High talk

Normal What's he

Low -ing about?

7.

We never have meat.

Extra high

High mea-

Normal We never have

Low -eat

8.

Peter's married to my sister

Extra high

High sis-

Normal Peter's married to my

Low -ter.

9.

I can't see well without my glasses.

64

Extra high High glass- Normal I can't see well without my/p> Low -es. 10. Don't
Extra high
High glass-
Normal I can't see well without my/p>
Low -es.
10. Don't forget to call us.
Extra high
High call
Normal Don't forget to
Low us.
Answer: There is a slide in sentences 3 and 7 because the syllable
that receives the high tone is the last syllable in the sentence.
PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use rising-
falling intonation.
PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words
in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed
in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable,
also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember
why they are content words.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
1. WHO WROTE it?
2. She WANTS a SANDwich.
3. TRY to KEEP the STREET CLEAN.
4. JACK is in his BEDroom.
5. WHERE’S the poLICE STAtion?
6. WHAT’S he TALKing about?
7. We NEver HAVE MEAT.
8. PEter’s MArried to my SISter.
9. I CAN’T SEE WELL without my GLASSes.
10. DON’T forGET to CALL us.
WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?
■ Who, where and what are wh- words.
■ Wrote, wants, try, keep, talking, have, see, and forget are main verbs.
■ Sandwich, street, bedroom, police station, meat, sister, and glasses
are nouns.
■ Clean is an adjective.
■ Never and well are adverbs.
■ Can’t and don’t are negative contractions.

65

TO REVISE SENTENCE STRESS, GO BACK TO CLASS 2.
TO REVISE SENTENCE STRESS, GO BACK TO CLASS 2.
FURTHER READING Click on the link below to read more about intonation in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the link below to read more about intonation in English.
http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm
(http://home.cc.umanitoba.ca/~krussll/138/sec3/inton.htm)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

66

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 03: RISING INTONATION

In English, two types of intonation are most common at the end of a sentence: rising-falling intonation and rising intonation. In the previous topic, you learned that rising-falling intonation is used for declarative sentences, commands, and wh- questions. In this lesson, you will study rising intonation.

questions. In this lesson, you will study rising intonation. In English, rising intonation is used at

In English, rising intonation is used at the end of questions that do not begin with a wh- word, i.e., questions that can be answered by ‘yes’ or ‘no’. These yes/no questions begin with auxiliary verbs, such as can, would, may, should, is, am, are, have, has, do, does, did, among others.

When rising intonation is used, the voice normally goes up to a high note on the last sentence stress, just like in rising-falling intonation. The difference is that,in the rising intonation pattern, the syllables that follow the rise of the voice are pronounced on the high note as well, i.e., they do not fall to a low note (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985).

do not fall to a low note (PRATOR & ROBINNETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below.

Listen to the examples below.

& ROBINNETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below. V ERSÃO T EXTUAL DO F LASH 1.
V ERSÃO T EXTUAL DO F LASH 1. Are you Bra ZI lian? Extra high

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. Are you BraZIlian?

Extra high

High zilian?

Normal Are you Bra-

67

Low 2. Can IHELPyou? Extra high High help you? Normal Can I Low 3. Did
Low
2. Can IHELPyou?
Extra high
High help you?
Normal Can I
Low
3. Did youSEEhim at the PARty
Extra high
High party?
Normal Did you see him at the
Low
Extra high High party? Normal Did you see him at the Low S TOP TO R

STOP TO READ

When the speaker leaves the voice high at the end of the sentence, he or she creates in the listener a feeling of incompleteness, suggesting that something else must be said. This sensation of incompleteness contrasts with the sense of completeness created by the rising-falling intonation pattern.

Listen to the sentences below and answer the following questions:

a)What type of end-of-sentence intonation is used?

b)Do the sentences mean the same thing?

VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH

1. What time does the class finish?

2. What time does the class finish?

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . a) In sentence 1, the speaker uses

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

a) In sentence 1, the speaker uses rising-falling intonation. In sentence

2, the speaker uses rising intonation.

b) They have different meanings. In sentence 1, the speaker is asking a

true question, i.e., he or she really wants to learn what time the class finishes. But in sentence 2, the question is an echo question, i.e., it is a question about what was said previously, and it means “Is that what you just said?” or “Please, repeat what you said”.

S TOP TO R EAD As you learned in topic 2, wh- questions are usually

STOP TO READ

As you learned in topic 2, wh- questions are usually given rising-falling intonation. However, they take on a new meaning if they are said with rising intonation – they are echo questions, which normally mean “Is that what you said?” or “Please, repeat what you said.”

PRACTICE 1 Identify where your voice is more likely to rise in the questions below.
PRACTICE 1
Identify where your voice is more likely to rise in the questions below.
Remember that the voice normally goes up to a high note on the last
sentence stress.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
1. Does your wife work?
Extra high
High work?
Normal Does your wife
Low
2. Did you have a vacation?
Extra high
High vacation?
Normal Did you have a
Low
3. Will you help me with the bags
Extra high
High bags?
Normal Will you help me with the

69

 

Low

4.

Is it raining

Extra high

High raining?

Normal Is it

 

Low

5.

Was the weather cold in London?

Extra high

High London?

Normal Was the weather cold in

 

Low

6.

Have you ever been abroad?

Extra high

High -broad?

Normal Have you ever been a-

 

Low

7.

Has she lost her credit card?

Extra high

High credit card?

Normal Has she lost her

 

Low

8.

Would you like a cup of coffe?

Extra high

High coffe?

Normal Would you like a cup of

 

Low

9.

Should I go to the doctot?

Extra high

High doctor?

Normal Should I go to the

 

Low

10. Is it going to be exciting

70

Extra high High -citing? Normal Is it going to be ex- Low PRACTICE 2 Listen
Extra high
High -citing?
Normal Is it going to be ex-
Low
PRACTICE 2
Listen to the sentences in Practice 1 and repeat. Be sure to use rising
intonation.
PRACTICE 3
Go back to the sentences in practice 1 again and identify the content words
in each one of them. Remember that content words are normally stressed
in spoken English. When the content word has more than one syllable,
also identify the syllable that receives sentence stress. Then, remember
why they are content words.
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
WHY ARE THEY CONTENT WORDS?
■ Wife, vacation, bags, weather, London, credit card, cup, coffee,
doctor are nouns.
■ Work, have (sentence 2), help, raining, been, lost, like, go, going are
main verbs. Remember that the present and past forms of ‘to be’ are
normally unstressed.
■ Cold is an adjective.
■ Ever and abroad are adverbs.
■ Cold is an adjective. ■ Ever and abroad are adverbs. P RACTICE 4 Click on

PRACTICE 4

Click on the link below, listen to the fable “The Fox and the Grapes” by Aesop, and practice marking sentence stress and intonation in English. After you check your answers, listen to the fable again and repeat.

71

http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-the-fox-and- the-grapes
http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-the-fox-and-
the-grapes (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-
the-fox-and-the-grapes)
PRACTICE 5
Click on the link below to practice intonation in questions and answers in
English. Listen to and repeat all the questions and answers, paying careful
attention to their intonation.
http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-in-questions-
and-answers (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-intonation-
in-questions-and-answers)
FURTHER READING Click on the links below to read more about rising intonation in English.
FURTHER READING
Click on the links below to read more about rising intonation in English.
http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation
(http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/rising-intonation)
http://www.dce.kar.nic.in/new%20files/English%206.pdf (Visite a aula
online para realizar download deste arquivo.)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

72

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 04: NONFINAL INTONATION

In topics 2 and 3, you studied the raising and lowering of the voice at the end of a sentence, where appropriate intonation is most conventional and, thus, easiest to predict. In this topic, you will be presented with nonfinal intonation.

COMPLEX SENTENCES

Complex sentences ( -- sentences that have one independent clause and at least one dependent (subordinate) clause ) often have two separate intonation patterns: a nonfinal intonation contour on the first phrase and a final intonation contour on the second.

Listen to the examples below. On which words does the voice go up?

1. When you get there, don’t forget to call me.

2. If you need any help, let me know.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . Answer : The voice rises on the

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . Answer : The voice rises on the words

Answer: The voice rises on the words there, call, help and know.

In the examples above, the first group is ended by a high note on its final stress, then the voice goes down to normal. The second group starts at normal level and ends with the voice rising on the last content word (or its last syllable) and lowering to below normal. A fall at the end of the sentence to the lowest pitch indicates that the thought is complete, whereas a fall that

73

does not reach the lowest pitch indicates that the speaker still has more to say.

SERIES WITH AND

Listen to the sentences below. What types of intonation patterns do you hear? On which words does the voice go up and down?

1. She bought bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries.

2. We went to Paris, London, Rome, and Madrid.

3. They saw Kate, Susan, Bill, and Jack.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . ANSWER: We can hear the rising and

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

ANSWER: We can hear the rising and the rising-falling intonation patterns. Rising intonation is used on all members of the series except the last one, whereas rising-falling intonation is used on the last member.

is used on all members of the series except the last one, whereas rising-falling intonation is

74

IMPORTANT: Notice that in sentences 2 and 3 the last sentence stress is also the

IMPORTANT: Notice that in sentences 2 and 3 the last sentence stress is also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in series with ‘and’.

ALTERNATIVES WITH OR

In sentences containing alternatives with ‘or’, we have the same intonation pattern as in series with ‘and’: rising intonation followed by rising-falling intonation.

Listen to the sentences below and try to identify the rising and falling of the voice.

1. We can have soup, spaghetti or steak.

2. Jane might wear her black dress or her new jeans.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS .

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS .

75

IMPORTANT: Notice that in both sentences the last sentence stress is also the last syllable,

IMPORTANT: Notice that in both sentences the last sentence stress is also the last syllable, so the voice rises and falls within the same syllable.

Listen to the sentences again and repeat to practice intonation in alternatives with ‘or’.

CONTRASTS AND COMPARISONS

In contrasts and comparisons, both ideas being contrasted or compared receive special attention. One of the ideas will usually have a nonfinal intonation pattern whereas the other one will have a final intonation pattern. Also, one of the stressed elements is pronounced on a high note and the other one on an extra-high note. Normally, it does not make any difference which element is given the extra-high note. This difference in level between the two high notes emphasizes the idea of contrast. Listen and check.

extra-high note. This difference in level between the two high notes emphasizes the idea of contrast.
extra-high note. This difference in level between the two high notes emphasizes the idea of contrast.

76

In questions with ‘or’ where the speaker wants the hearer to make a choice, this contrastive extra-high note is obligatory. For example:

this contrastive extra-high note is obligatory. For example: However, in questions with ‘or’ that are meant
this contrastive extra-high note is obligatory. For example: However, in questions with ‘or’ that are meant

However, in questions with ‘or’ that are meant to be interpreted as a double question and are to be answered ‘yes’ or ‘no’, the intonation pattern should be the same as of one or two yes/no questions (PRATOR & ROBINETT,

1985).

Look at and listen to the examples below:

be the same as of one or two yes/no questions (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Look at
be the same as of one or two yes/no questions (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Look at

77

Notice that in questions with ‘or’ intended to be answered ‘yes’ or ‘no’, no extra-high note is given on either of the elements.

DIRECT ADDRESS

The most conventional pattern used in pronouncing names and titles addressed directly to the person you are speaking to is rising intonation. The direct address should begin on a low note and then rise to normal. Direct address may come at the beginning, at the end or in any other position in the sentence, and it does not have any influence on the intonation of the rest of the sentence (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985).

Listen to the examples below.

(PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below. Click here to check . 1. Mother
(PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below. Click here to check . 1. Mother
(PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985). Listen to the examples below. Click here to check . 1. Mother

Click here to check

.
.

1. Mother to Billy:

Stop talking and listen carefully, Billy.

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . Listen to Billy’s mother talk to him.

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

Listen to Billy’s mother talk to him. How does she feel?

. Listen to Billy’s mother talk to him. How does she feel? Billy’s mother sounds angry.
. Listen to Billy’s mother talk to him. How does she feel? Billy’s mother sounds angry.
. Listen to Billy’s mother talk to him. How does she feel? Billy’s mother sounds angry.

Billy’s mother sounds angry. If your voice does not rise at all when you address someone directly, your hearer may think you are irritated (PRATOR & ROBINETT, 1985).

PRACTICE 1 Listen to the sentences and repeat. Practice using appropriate intonation in English. VERSÃO
PRACTICE 1
Listen to the sentences and repeat. Practice using appropriate intonation
in English.
VERSÃO TEXTUAL DO FLASH
When we met her, she was crying. (complex sentence)
On my last birthday I got a CD, a pair of jeans, and a blouse. (series
with ‘and’)
Are you coming today or tomorrow? (question with ‘or’)
English is easier than German. (comparison)
Did you talk to Gina or Ann? (double question)
We can have pizza or spaghetti. (alternatives with ‘or’)
PRACTICE 2
Click on the link below and practice different kinds of intonation patterns
in English
http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-rising-
intonation (http://usefulenglish.ru/phonetics/listening-for-falling-and-
rising-intonation)
VOCABULARY SEARCH
If you have any questions about the vocabulary present in this topic, just
click on one of the links below.
http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php
(http://michaelis.uol.com.br/moderno/ingles/index.php)
http://www.merriam-webster.com/ (http://www.merriam-webster.com/)
http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?cc=global
(http://www.oup.com/elt/catalogue/teachersites/oald7/lookup?
cc=global)
http://www.wordwebonline.com/ (http://www.wordwebonline.com/)
79
R EFERENCES (C LICK HERE TO OPEN ) PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual

REFERENCES (CLICK HERE TO OPEN)

PRATOR, C. H.; ROBINNETT, B. W. Manual of American English Pronunciation (4th edition). Orlando: Holt, Rineliart and Winston, Inc., 1985.

Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual
Responsável: Profª. Silvia Regina Chaves Barreira
Universidade Federal do Ceará - Instituto UFC Virtual

80

FONOLOGIA SUPRASSEGMENTAL DA LÍNGUA INGLESA

CLASS 05: INTONATION

TOPIC 05: MORE FUNCTIONS OF INTONATION

The meanings of the intonation patterns you have learned so far are considered grammatical meanings, i.e., these patterns help convey concepts such as affirmation, negation, general interrogation, among others.

In this topic you will be presented with some patterns of intonation which express emotions and attitudes. These patterns are normally felt to be more difficult to learn once they are variable, i.e., they depend on the ideas the speaker wishes to convey.

Listen to the dialogues below and identify the attitude or emotion of the second speaker. Click here

the attitude or emotion of the second speaker. Click here Dialogue 1 A: Kevin’s lost the
Dialogue 1 A: Kevin’s lost the car keys. B: Kevin’s lost the car keys? Dialogue
Dialogue 1 A: Kevin’s lost the car keys. B: Kevin’s lost the car keys? Dialogue
Dialogue 1 A: Kevin’s lost the car keys. B: Kevin’s lost the car keys? Dialogue
Dialogue 1 A: Kevin’s lost the car keys. B: Kevin’s lost the car keys? Dialogue

Dialogue 1

A: Kevin’s lost the car keys.

B: Kevin’s lost the car keys?

Dialogue 2

A: She’s won a million dollars.

B: She’s won a million dollars?

Dialogue 3

A: They moved out of Manhattan.

B: Where?

Dialogue 4

A: They moved out of Manhattan.

B: Where?

Dialogue 3 A: They moved out of Manhattan. B: Where? Dialogue 4 A: They moved out
Dialogue 3 A: They moved out of Manhattan. B: Where? Dialogue 4 A: They moved out
Dialogue 3 A: They moved out of Manhattan. B: Where? Dialogue 4 A: They moved out
Dialogue 3 A: They moved out of Manhattan. B: Where? Dialogue 4 A: They moved out
In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker showing surprise? In which dialogue(s) is the second

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker showing surprise?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker asking for clarification?

In which dialogue(s) is the second speaker seeking more information?

81

C LICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS . In dialogue 2, the second speaker is

CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.

In dialogue 2, the second speaker is showing surprise.

In dialogues 1 and 3, the second speaker is asking for clarification.

In dialogue 4, the second speaker is seeking more information.

Now let us look at each one of the situations above.

SHOWING SURPRISE

You can show surprise by using rising intonation to echo ( -- to repeat what someone else just said, especially because you find it surprising) a statement. Your voice normally goes up on the stressed syllable of the last content word.

Listen to the dialogues below: Click here

Listen to the dialogues below: Click here 1. A: She’s won a million dollars. B: She’s
1. A: She’s won a million dollars. B: She’s won a million dollars? I don’t
1. A: She’s won a million dollars.
B: She’s won a million dollars? I don’t
believe it!
2. A: Peter is my son.
B: Peter is your son? But you’re so
young!
3. A: Amanda and Tom got married.
B: Amanda and Tom got married? Are
you sure?
CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS.
married? Are you sure? CLICK HERE TO CHECK YOUR ANSWERS. O BSERVATION Listen to the dialogues

OBSERVATION

Listen to the dialogues again and identify the syllable where the pitch rises in the echo statement showing surprise.

82

Notice that ‘dollars’, ‘son’, and ‘married’ are the last content words in the sentence. Also notice that the voice goes up on the first syllable in ‘dollars’ and ‘married’ as these are the stressed syllables in the words.