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MED PHYS 1E03

Diagnos3c Medical Imaging


using X-Rays

What are X-Rays?


What are X-Rays?
MED PHYS 1E03

X-ray source

Recording device (film,


flat panel digital
detector)
What are X-Rays?
MED PHYS 1E03

X-ray source

Recording device (film,


flat panel digital
detector)
The wave equa3on
MED PHYS 1E03

Travelling waves sa3sfy a dieren3al equa3on called the linear wave equa3on.

Take par3al deriva3ves of wave func3on for a travelling wave WRT t and x

y2 (x, t ) = A sin(kx t + )
2 y 2
2
= k A sin (kx t + )
x
2 y 2
2
= A sin (kx t + )
t
Comparing we see
2 2
y 1 y
2
= 2 2
x v t
Electromagne3c Waves
MED PHYS 1E03

2 y 1 2 y
Remember the wave equa3on
2
= 2 2
x v t
Maxwell showed the 3me dependent electric and magne3c elds also sa3sfy the equa3on.

2E 2E
2
= 0 0 2
x t
2B 2B
2
= 0 0 2
x t
1
Comparing we get v= 3 108 m
0 0 s
Electromagne3c Waves
MED PHYS 1E03

Solu3ons to these equa3ons are: E = E0 sin (kx t )


B = B0 sin (kx t )

The changing E and B elds are in phase


E and B are perpendicular to one another
E and B are perpendicular to direc3on of travel
This is a transverse EM wave.
.

Electromagne3c Spectrum
MED PHYS 1E03

Radio waves 15cm to 2000m

Microwaves 1mm to 15cm

Infrared radia3on 700nm to 1mm

Visible light 400nm to 700nm

Ultraviolet radia3on 10 nm to 400nm

X radia3on approx 1nm 0.01nm

Gamma radia3on from 0.01nm


.

Electromagne3c Spectrum
MED PHYS 1E03

Speed of light c= 3x108 m/s

Energy E = hf = hc/

Planck's constant
h=6.62x10-34
What are X-Rays?
MED PHYS 1E03

X-Ray Photons
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

Light frequency, f
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

-ve V +ve

Light frequency, f

A B
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

-ve V +ve

Light frequency, f

A B

M
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

How does the measured current, i, vary as a func3on of the applied


poten3al, V ?

i
V
A B
i(a)max a
i
M

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

Current reaches a maximum value when all the ejected electrons from plate A
reach plate B. It does not increase past this satura3on point even if V
con3nues to be increased.

i(a)max a

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

If V is decreased to zero, there are s3ll electrons with enough kine3c energy
to go from plate A to plate B.

i(a)max a

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

To reduce the current to zero, the poten3al dierence must be reversed to


the value Vs. This is known as the stopping poten3al

i(a)max a

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

The kine3c energy of the fastest ejected electrons is given by;

KEmax = eVs
i

i(a)max a

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

This value of maximum KE turns out to be independent of the intensity of


the incident light.

i(a)max a

i(b)max b

V
Vs -ve 0 +ve
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

What happens to the value of the stopping poten3al if we vary the


frequency of the incident light ?

Vs

frequency
f0
The Photoelectric Eect
MED PHYS 1E03

The stopping poten3al increases with increasing incident light frequency.


The maximum KE of the ejected electrons increases with frequency (energy).
However, there is a cut o frequency below which the photoelectric eect
does not occur.

Vs
These features
cannot be
explained by
our wave like
descrip3on of
electromagne3c
waves.

frequency
f0
Waves or par3cles
MED PHYS 1E03

1.
Wave theory requires the
oscilla3ng electric vector, E,
will increase as the intensity of
the light is increased. The force
on the ejected electron is eE so
the kine3c energy of the
electrons should also increase
with an increase in the
intensity of light.
However, the maximum KE is
independent of light intensity !
Waves or par3cles
MED PHYS 1E03

1.
Wave theory requires the
oscilla3ng electric vector, E,
will increase as the intensity of
the light is increased. The force
on the ejected electron is eE so
the kine3c energy of the
electrons should also increase
with an increase in the
intensity of light.
However, the maximum KE is
independent of light intensity !
Waves or par3cles
MED PHYS 1E03

2.
Wave theory predicts the
photoelectric eect should
occur for any frequency of
light, provided it is intense
enough to eject the
electron.
This is not the case, there is
a cut o frequency below
which no electrons are
ejected, no maher how
intense the incident light.
Waves or par3cles
MED PHYS 1E03

2.
Wave theory predicts the
photoelectric eect should
occur for any frequency of
light, provided it is intense
enough to eject the
electron.
This is not the case, there is
a cut o frequency below
which no electrons are
ejected, no maher how
intense the incident light.
Waves or par3cles
MED PHYS 1E03

3.
If the light intensity
were to be very weak,
and we assume the
energy is absorbed
over the wave front, it
should take a
measurable 3me to
absorb enough energy
for the electron to be
ejected.
No such 3me lag has
been measured.
Quantum Theory
MED PHYS 1E03

Einstein proposed the following:


Energy is quan3sed into concentrated bundles, known as PHOTONS
Each bundle is localised in a small volume of space and moves with
velocity c.
The energy of the bundle is related to frequency E=hf
In the photoelectric process all this energy is absorbed by the electron
(called a photoelectron). Hence the electron has a maximum kine3c
energy

KEmax = hf wo
Where h is Plancks constant and wo is the work func3on of the material,
i.e. the work required to remove the electron from the surface of the
plate.
Quantum Theory
MED PHYS 1E03

1. 1.
Wave theory requires the Doubling the intensity of the
oscilla4ng electric vector, E, light merely doubles the
will increase as the intensity of number of photons. This in
the light is increased. The force turn will increase the number
on the ejected electron is eE so of emihed electrons.
the kine4c energy of the However, it does not change
electrons should also increase the energy (hf) of the
with an increase in the individual electrons
intensity of light.
However, the maximum KE is
independent of light intensity !
Quantum Theory
MED PHYS 1E03

2.
2. From the equa3on
Wave theory predicts the
KEmax = hf wo
photoelectric eect should
occur for any frequency of When the kine3c energy of
light, provided it is intense the electron is zero
enough to eject the
electron. hf 0 = w0
This is not the case, there is At this frequency, f0, there is just enough
a cut o frequency below energy to liberate the electron but none lem
which no electrons are to give it and kine3c energy.
ejected, no maEer how If the frequency is reduced further there is
intense the incident light. not enough energy to overcome the work
func3on no maher how many photons there
are.

Quantum Theory
MED PHYS 1E03

3.
3. With photons the energy is
If the light intensity concentrated bundles not over a
were to be very weak, wave front.
and we assume the
energy is absorbed Hence it only takes one photon to
over the wave front, it be absorbed to immediately eject
should take a an electron
measurable 4me to
absorb enough energy
for the electron to be
ejected.
No such 4me lag has
been measured.
Maher Waves
MED PHYS 1E03

In summary, electromagne3c radia3on has par3cle like proper3es as well


as wave like proper3es.
In some cases it behaves like a wave, in others like a par3cle.
Louise de Broglie postulated that this wave par3cle behavior should also
apply to maher
A par3cle will therefore have an associated maher wave.
The energy is again related to frequency and also the momentum, p, is
related to wavelength
h
p=

Hence par3cle concepts of energy and momentum are connected through


Plancks constant to wave concepts like frequency and wavelength.