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9/22/2016 ProcessSafetyManagementGuidelinesforCompliance

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ProcessSafetyManagementGuidelinesforCompliance

U.S.DepartmentofLabor
RobertB.Reich,Secretary

OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration
JosephA.Dear,AssistantSecretary

OSHA3133
1994(Reprinted)

Thisinformationalbookletprovidesageneric,nonexhaustiveoverviewofOSHAstandardsrelatedtopics.Thispublicationdoesnotitselfalterordeterminecompliance
responsibilities,whicharesetforthinOSHAstandardsthemselvesandtheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAct.Moreover,becauseinterpretationsandenforcementpolicy
maychangeovertime,foradditionalguidanceonOSHAcompliancerequirements,thereadershouldconsultcurrentadministrativeinterpretationsanddecisionsbythe
OccupationalSafetyandandHealthReviewCommissionandthecourts.

Materialcontainedinthispublicationisinthepublicdomainandmaybereproduced,fullyorpartially,withoutpermissionoftheFederalGovernment.Sourcecreditis
requestedbutnotrequired.

Thisinformationwillbemadeavailabletosensoryimpairedindividualsuponrequest.Voicephone:(202)2198045TelecommunicationsDevicefortheDeaf(TDD)message
referralphone:18003262577

Purpose
Application
Exceptions
ProcessSafetyInformation
HazardsoftheChemicalsUsedintheProcess
TechnologyoftheProcess
EquipmentintheProcess
EmployeeInvolvement
ProcessHazardAnalysis
OperatingProcedures
EmployeeTraining
Contractors
PreStartupSafetyReview
MechanicalIntegrityofEquipment
ProcessDefenses
WrittenProcedures
InspectionandTesting
QualityAssurance
NonroutineWorkAuthorizations
ManagingChange
IncidentInvestigation
EmergencyPreparedness
ComplianceAudits
Planning
Staffing
ConductingtheAudit
EvaluationandCorrectiveAction
Conclusion
Appendix
StateswithApprovedPlans
OSHAConsultationProjectDirectory
OSHAAreaOffices

Illustrations
Figure1.ProcessFlowDiagram
Figure2.RequestforChangeForm
Figure3.IncidentInvestigationReport

Purpose

Themajorobjectiveofprocesssafetymanagement(PSM)ofhighlyhazardouschemicalsistopreventunwantedreleasesofhazardouschemicalsespeciallyintolocations
thatcouldexposeemployeesandotherstoserioushazards.Aneffectiveprocesssafetymanagementprogramrequiresasystematicapproachtoevaluatingthewhole
chemicalprocess.Usingthisapproach,theprocessdesign,processtechnology,processchanges,operationalandmaintenanceactivitiesandprocedures,nonroutine
activitiesandprocedures,emergencypreparednessplansandprocedures,trainingprograms,andotherelementsthataffecttheprocessareallconsideredintheevaluation.
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Application

Thevariouslinesofdefensethathavebeenincorporatedintothedesignandoperationoftheprocesstopreventormitigatethereleaseofhazardouschemicalsneedtobe
evaluatedandstrengthenedtoensuretheireffectivenessateachlevel.Processsafetymanagementistheproactiveidentification,evaluationandmitigationorpreventionof
chemicalreleasesthatcouldoccurasaresultoffailuresinprocesses,procedures,orequipment.

Theprocesssafetymanagementstandardtargetshighlyhazardouschemicalsthathavethepotentialtocauseacatastrophicincident.Thepurposeofthestandardasa
wholeistoaidemployersintheireffortstopreventormitigateepisodicchemicalreleasesthatcouldleadtoacatastropheintheworkplaceandpossiblyinthesurrounding
community.

Tocontrolthesetypesofhazards,employersneedtodevelopthenecessaryexpertise,experience,judgement,andinitiativewithintheirworkforcetoproperlyimplement
andmaintainaneffectiveprocesssafetymanagementprogramasenvisionedintheOccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration(OSHA)standard.

TheOSHAstandardisrequiredbytheCleanAirActAmendments,asistheEnvironmentalProtectionAgency'sRiskManagementPlan,whichwillbeproposedin1992.
Employerswhomergethetwosetsofrequirementsintotheirprocesssafetymanagementprogramwillbetterassurefullcompliancewitheachaswellasenhancetheir
relationshipwiththelocalcommunity.

AlthoughOSHAbelievesprocesssafetymanagementwillhaveapositiveeffectonthesafetyofemployeesandwillofferotherpotentialbenefitstoemployers,suchas
increasedproductivity,smallerbusinessesthatmayhavelimitedresourcestothematthistime,mightconsideralternativeavenuesofdecreasingtherisksassociatedwith
highlyhazardouschemicalsattheirworkplaces.Onemethodthatmightbeconsideredisreducinginventoryofthehighlyhazardouschemical.Thisreductionininventorywill
resultinreducingtheriskorpotentialforacatastrophicincident.Also,employers,includingsmallemployers,mayestablishmoreefficientinventorycontrolbyreducing,to
belowtheestablishedthreshold,thequantitiesofhighlyhazardouschemicalsonsite.Thisreductioncanbeaccomplishedbyorderingsmallershipmentsandmaintainingthe
minimuminventorynecessaryforefficientandsafeoperation.Whenreducedinventoryisnotfeasible,theemployermightconsiderdispersinginventorytoseverallocations
onsite.Dispersingstorageintolocationssothatareleaseinonelocationwillnotcauseareleaseinanotherlocationisalsoapracticalwaytoreducetheriskorpotentialfor
catastrophicincidents.

Exceptions

ThePSMstandarddoesnotapplytothefollowing:

Retailfacilities
Oilorgaswelldrillingorservicingoperations
Normallyunoccupiedremotefacilities
Hydrocarbonfuelsusedsolelyforworkplaceconsumptionasafuel(e.g.propaneusedforcomfortheating,gasolineforvehiclerefueling),ifsuchfuelsarenotapart
ofaprocesscontaininganotherhighlyhazardouschemicalcoveredbythisstandardor
Flammableliquidstoredinatmospherictanksortransferred,whicharekeptbelowtheirnormalboilingpointwithoutbenefitofchillingorrefrigeratingandarenot
connectedtoaprocess.

ProcessSafetyInformation

HazardsoftheChemicalsUsedintheProcess

Completeandaccuratewritteninformationconcerningprocesschemicals,processtechnology,andprocessequipmentisessentialtoaneffectiveprocesssafetymanagement
programandtoaprocesshazardanalysis.Thecompiledinformationwillbeanecessaryresourcetoavarietyofusersincludingtheteamperformingtheprocesshazard
analysisasrequiredbyPSMthosedevelopingthetrainingprogramsandtheoperatingprocedurescontractorswhoseemployeeswillbeworkingwiththeprocessthose
conductingtheprestartupreviewsaswellaslocalemergencypreparednessplanners,andinsuranceandenforcementofficials.

Theinformationtobecompiledaboutthechemicals,includingprocessintermediates,needstobecomprehensiveenoughforanaccurateaccurateassessmentofthefire
andexplosioncharacteristics,reactivityhazards,thesafetyandhealthhazardstoworkers,andthecorrosionanderosioneffectsontheprocessequipmentandmonitoring
tools.Currentmaterialsafetydatasheet(MSDS)informationcanbeusedtohelpmeetthisbutmustbesupplementedwithprocesschemistryinformation,includingrunaway
reactionandoverpressurehazards,ifapplicable.

TechnologyoftheProcess

Processtechnologyinformationwillbeapartoftheprocesssafetyinformationpackageandshouldincludeemployerestablishedcriteriaformaximuminventorylevelsfor
processchemicalslimitsbeyondwhichwouldbeconsideredupsetconditionsandaqualitativeestimateoftheconsequencesorresultsofdeviationthatcouldoccurif
operatingbeyondtheestablishedprocesslimits.Employersareencouragedtousediagramsthatwillhelpusersunderstandtheprocess.

Ablockflowdiagramisusedtoshowthemajorprocessequipmentandinterconnectingprocessflowlinesandflowrates,streamcomposition,temperatures,andpressures
whennecessaryforclarity.Theblockflowdiagramisasimplifieddiagram.

Processflowdiagramsaremorecomplexandshowallmainflowstreamsincludingvalvestoenhancetheunderstandingoftheprocessaswellaspressuresand
temperaturesonallfeedandproductlineswithinallmajorvesselsandinandoutofheadersandheatexchangers,andpointsofpressureandtemperaturecontrol(see
Figure1forasampleprocessflowdiagram).Also,informationonconstructionmaterials,pumpcapacitiesandpressureheads,compressorhorsepower,andvesseldesign
pressuresandtemperaturesareshownwhennecessaryforclairity.Inaddition,processflow
diagramsusuallyshowmajorcomponentsofcontrolloopsalongwithkeyutilities.

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EquipmentintheProcess

Pipingandinstrumentdiagrams(P&IDs)maybethemoreappropriatetypediagramstoshowsomeoftheabovedetailsaswellasdisplaytheinformationforthepiping
designerandengineeringstaff.TheP&IDsaretobeusedtodescribetherelationshipsbetweenequipmentandinstrumentationaswellasotherrelevantinformationthatwill
enhanceclarity.ComputersoftwareprogramsthatdoP&IDsorotherdiagramsusefultotheinformationpackagemaybeusedtohelpmeetthisrequirement.

Theinformationpertainingtoprocessequipmentdesignmustbedocumented.Inotherwords,whatcodesandstandardswerereliedontoestablishgoodengineering
practice?ThesecodesandstandardsarepublishedbysuchorganizationsastheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,theAmericanPetroleumInstitute,American
NationalStandardsInstitute,NationalFireProtectionAssociation,AmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials,TheNationalBoardofBoilerandPressureVesselInspectors,
NationalAssociationofCorrosionEngineers,AmericanSocietyofExchangeManufacturersAssociation,andModelBuildingCodegroups.

Forexistingequipmentdesignedandconstructedmanyyearsagoinaccordancewiththecodesandstandardsavailableatthattimeandnolongeringeneralusetoday,the
employermustdocumentwhichcodesandstandardswereusedandthatthedesignandconstructionalongwiththetesting,inspection,andoperationarestillsuitablefor
theintendeduse.Wheretheprocesstechnologyrequiresadesign
thatdepartsfromtheapplicablecodesandstandards,theemployermustdocumentthatthedesignandconstructionaresuitablefortheintendedpurpose.

EmployeeInvolvement

Section304oftheCleanAirActAmendmentsstatesthatemployersaretoconsultwiththeiremployeesandtheirrepresentativesregardingtheireffortsindevelopingand
implementingtheprocesssafetymanagementprogramelementsandhazardassessments.Section304alsorequiresemployerstotrainandeducatetheiremployeesandto
informaffectedemployeesofthefindingsfromincidentinvestigationsrequiredbytheprocesssafetymanagementprogram.Manyemployers,undertheirexistingsafetyand
healthprograms,alreadyhaveestablishedmethodstokeepemployeesandtheirrepresentativesinformedaboutrelevantsafetyandhealthissuesandmaybeabletoadapt
thesepracticesandprocedurestomeettheirobligationsunderPSM.

Employerswhohavenotimplementedanoccupationalsafetyandhealthprogrammaywishtoformasafetyandhealthcommitteeofemployeesandmanagement
representativestohelptheemployermeetthePSMobligations.Suchacommitteecanbeasignificantallyinhelpingtheemployerimplementandmaintainaneffective
processsafetymanagementprogramforallemployees.

ProcessHazardAnalysis

Aprocesshazardanalysis(PHA),orevaluation,isoneofthemostimportantelementsoftheprocesssafetymanagementprogram.APHAisanorganizedandsystematic
efforttoidentifyandanalyzethesignificanceofpotentialhazardsassociatedwiththeprocessingorhandlingofhighlyhazardouschemicals.APHAprovidesinformationthat
willassistemployersandemployeesinmakingdecisionsforimprovingsafetyandreducingtheconsequencesofunwantedorunplannedreleasesofhazardouschemicals.

APHAanalyzespotentialcausesandconsequencesoffires,explosions,releasesoftoxicorflammablechemicals,andmajorspillsofhazardouschemicals.ThePHAfocuses
onequipment,instrumentation,utilities,humanactions(routineandnonroutine),andexternalfactorsthatmightaffecttheprocess.

TheselectionofaPHAmethodologyortechniquewillbeinfluencedbymanyfactorsincludinghowmuchisknownabouttheprocess.Isitaprocessthathasbeenoperated
foralongperiodoftimewithlittleornoinnovationandextensiveexperiencehasbeengeneratedwithitsuse?Or,isitanewprocessoronethathasbeenchanged
frequentlybytheinclusionofinnovationfeatures?Also,thesizeandcomplexityoftheprocesswillinfluencethedecisionastotheappropriatePHAmethodologytouse.All
PHAmethodologiesaresubjecttocertainlimitations.Forexample,thechecklistmethodologyworkswellwhentheprocessisverystableandnochangesaremade,butitis
notaseffectivewhentheprocesshasundergoneextensivechange.Thechecklistmaymissthemostrecentchangesandconsequentlytheywouldnotbeevaluated.Another
limitationtobeconsideredconcernstheassumptionsmadebytheteamoranalyst.ThePHAisdependentongoodjudgementandtheassumptionsmadeduringthestudy
needtobedocumentedandunderstoodbytheteamandreviewerandkeptforafuturePHA.

TheteamconductingthePHAneedstounderstandthemethodologythatisgoingtobeused.APHAteamcanvaryinsizefromtwopeopletoanumberofpeoplewithvaried
operationalandtechnicalbackgrounds.Someteammembersmaybepartoftheteamforonlyalimitedtime.Theteamleaderneedstobefullyknowledgeableintheproper
implementationofthePHAmethodologytobeusedandshouldbeimpartialintheevaluation.Theotherfullorparttimeteammembersneedtoprovidetheteamwith
expertiseinareassuchasprocesstechnologyprocessdesignoperatingproceduresandpracticesalarmsemergencyproceduresinstrumentationmaintenance
procedures,bothroutineandnonroutinetasks,includinghowthetasksareauthorizedprocurementofpartsandsuppliessafetyandhealthandanyotherrelevant

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subjects.Atleastoneteammembermustbefamiliarwiththeprocess.

Theidealteamwillhaveanintimateknowledgeofthestandards,codes,specifications,andregulationsapplicabletotheprocessbeingstudied.Theselectedteammembers
needtobecompatibleandtheteamleaderneedstobeabletomanagetheteamandthePHAstudy.Theteamneedstobeabletoworktogetherwhilebenefitingfromthe
expertiseofothersontheteamoroutsidetheteamtoresolveissuesandtoforgeaconsensusonthefindingsofthestudyandrecommendations.

TheapplicationofaPHAtoaprocessmayinvolvetheuseofdifferentmethodologiesforvariouspartsoftheprocess.Forexample,aprocessinvolvingaseriesofunit
operationsofvaryingsizes,complexities,andagesmayusedifferentmethodologiesandteammembersforeachoperation.Thentheconclusionscanbeintegratedintoone
finalstudyandevaluation.

AmorespecificexampleistheuseofaPHAchecklistforastandardboilerorheatexchangerandtheuseofaHazardandOperabilityPHAfortheoverallprocess.Also,for
batchtypeprocesseslikecustombatchoperations,agenericPHAofarepresentativebatchmaybeusedwherethereareonlysmallchangesofmonomerorother
ingredientratioandthechemistryisdocumentedforthefullrangeandratioofbatchingredients.Anotherprocesswheretheemployermightconsiderusingagenerictypeof
PHAisagasplant.Oftentheseplantsaresimplymovedfromsitetosite,andtherefore,agenericPHAmaybeusedforthesemovableplants.Also,whenanemployerhas
severalsimilarsizegasplantsandnosourgasisbeingprocessedatthesite,agenericPHAisfeasibleaslongasthevariationsoftheindividualsitesareaccountedforin
thePHA.

Finally,whenanemployerhasalargecontinuousprocesswithseveralcontrolroomsfordifferentportionsoftheprocess,suchasforadistillationtowerandablending
operation,theemployermaywishtodoeachsegmentseparatelyandthenintegratethefinalresults.

Smallbusinessescoveredbythisruleoftenwillhaveprocessesthathavelessstoragevolumeandlesscapacityandmaybelesscomplicatedthanprocessesatalarge
facility.Therefore,OSHAwouldanticipatethatthelesscomplexmethodologieswouldbeusedtomeettheprocesshazardanalysiscriteriainthestandard.Theseprocess
hazardanalysescanbedoneinlesstimeandwithfewerpeoplebeinginvolved.Alesscomplexprocessgenerallymeansthatlessdata,P&IDs,andprocessinformationare
neededtoperformaprocesshazardanalysis.

Manysmallbusinesseshaveprocessesthatarenotunique,suchasrefrigeratedwarehousesorcoldstoragelockersorwatertreatmentfacilities.Whereemployer
associationshaveanumberofmemberswithsuchfacilities,agenericPHA,evolvedfromachecklistorwhatifquestions,couldbedevelopedandeffectivelyusedby
employerstoreflecttheirparticularprocessthiswouldsimplifycomplianceforthem.

WhentheemployerhasanumberofprocessesthatrequireaPHA,theemployermustsetupaprioritysystemtodeterminewhichPHAstoconductfirst.Apreliminary
hazardanalysismaybeusefulinsettingprioritiesfortheprocessesthattheemployerhasdeterminedaresubjecttocoveragebytheprocesssafetymanagementstandard.
Considerationshouldbegivenfirsttothoseprocesseswiththepotentialofadverselyaffectingthelargestnumberofemployees.Thisprioritysettingalsoalsoshouldconsider
thepotentialseverityofachemicalrelease,thenumberofpotentiallyaffectedemployees,theoperatinghistoryoftheprocess,suchasthefrequencyofchemicalreleases,
theageoftheprocess,andanyotherrelevantfactors.Together,thesefactorswouldsuggestarankingorderusingeitheraweightingfactorsystemorasystematicranking
method.Theuseofapreliminaryhazardanalysiswillassistanemployerindeterminingwhichprocessshouldbeofthehighestpriorityforhazardanalysisresultinginthe
greatestimprovementinsafetyatthefacilityoccurringfirst.

DetailedguidanceonthecontentandapplicationofprocesshazardanalysismethodologiesisavailablefromtheAmericanInstituteofChemicalEngineers'Centerfor
ChemicalProcessSafety,345E.47thStreet,NewYork,NewYork10017,(212)7057319.Also,seethediscussionofvariousmethodsofprocesshazardanalysiscontainedin
theAppendixtothispublication.

OperatingProcedures

Operatingproceduresdescribetaskstobeperformed,datatoberecorded,operatingconditionstobemaintained,samplestobecollected,andsafetyandhealthprecautions
tobetaken.Theproceduresneedtobetechnicallyaccurate,understandabletoemployees,andrevisedperiodicallytoensurethattheyreflectcurrentoperations.The
processsafetyinformationpackagehelpstoensurethattheoperatingproceduresandpracticesareconsistentwiththeknownhazardsofthechemicalsintheprocessand
thattheoperatingparametersarecorrect.Operatingproceduresshouldbereviewedbyengineeringstaffandoperatingpersonneltoensuretheiraccuracyandthatthey
providepracticalinstructionsonhowtoactuallycarryoutjobdutiessafely.Alsotheemployermustcertifyannuallythattheoperatingproceduresarecurrentandaccurate.

Operatingproceduresprovidespecificinstructionsordetailsonwhatstepsaretobetakenorfollowedincarryingoutthestatedprocedures.Thespecificinstructionsshould
includetheapplicablesafetyprecautionsandappropriateinformationonsafetyimplications.Forexample,theoperatingproceduresaddressingoperatingparameterswill
containoperatinginstructionsaboutpressurelimits,temperatureranges,flowrates,whattodowhenanupsetconditionoccurs,whatalarmsandinstrumentsarepertinent
ifanupsetconditionoccurs,andothersubjects.Anotherexampleofusingoperatinginstructionstoproperlyimplementoperatingproceduresisinstartinguporshutting
downtheprocess.Inthesecases,differentparameterswillberequiredfromthoseofnormaloperation.Theseoperatinginstructionsneedtoclearlyindicatethedistinctions
betweenstartupandnormaloperations,suchastheappropriateallowancesforheatingupaunittoreachthenormaloperatingparameters.Also,theoperatinginstructions
needtodescribethepropermethodforincreasingthetemperatureoftheunituntilthenormaloperatingtemperaturesarereached.

Computerizedprocesscontrolsystemsaddcomplexitytooperatinginstructions.Theseoperatinginstructionsneedtodescribethelogicofthesoftwareaswellasthe
relationshipbetweentheequipmentandthecontrolsystemotherwise,itmaynotbeapparenttotheoperator.

Operatingproceduresandinstructionsareimportantfortrainingoperatingpersonnel.Theoperatingproceduresareoftenviewedasthestandardoperatingpractices(SOPs)
foroperations.Controlroompersonnelandoperatingstaff,ingeneral,needtohaveafullunderstandingofoperatingprocedures.IfworkersarenotfluentinEnglish,then
proceduresandinstructionsneedtobepreparedinasecondlanguageunderstoodbytheworkers.Inaddition,operatingproceduresneedtobechangedwhenthereisa
changeintheprocess.Theconsequencesofoperatingprocedurechangesneedtobefullyevaluatedandtheinformationconveyedtothepersonnel.Forexample,
mechanicalchangestotheprocessmadebythemaintenancedepartment(likechangingavalvefromsteeltobrassorothersubtlechanges)needtobeevaluatedto
determinewhetheroperatingproceduresandpracticesalsoneedtobechanged.Allmanagementofchangeactionsmustbecoordinatedandintegratedwithcurrent
operatingprocedures,andoperatingpersonnelmustbealertedtothechangesinproceduresbeforethechangeismade.Whentheprocessisshutdowntomakeachange,
thentheoperatingproceduresmustbeupdatedbeforerestartingtheprocess.

Trainingmustincludeinstructiononhowtohandleupsetconditionsaswellaswhatoperatingpersonnelaretodoinemergenciessuchaspumpsealfailuresorpipeline
ruptures.Communicationamongoperatingpersonnelandworkerswithintheprocessareaperformingnonroutinetasksalsomustbemaintained.Thehazardsofthetasks
aretobeconveyedtooperatingpersonnelinaccordancewithestablishedproceduresandtothoseperformingtheactualtasks.Whenthewokiscompleted,operating
personnelshouldbeinformedtoprovideclosureonthejob.

EmployeeTraining

Allemployees,includingmaintenanceandcontractoremployeesinvolvedwithhighlyhazardouschemicals,needtofullyunderstandthesafetyandhealthhazardsofthe
chemicalsandprocessestheyworkwithsotheycanprotectthemselves,theirfellowemployees,andthecitizensofnearbycommunities.Trainingconductedincompliance
withtheOSHAHazardCommunicationstandard(Title29CodeofFederalRegulations(CFR)Part1910.1200)willinformemployeesaboutthechemicalstheyworkwithand
familiarizethemwithreadingandunderstandingMSDSs.However,additionaltraininginsubjectssuchasoperatingproceduresandsafeworkpractices,emergency
evacuationandresponse,safetyprocedures,routineandnonroutineworkauthorizationactivities,andotherareaspertinenttoprocesssafetyandhealthneedtobecovered
bytheemployer'strainingprogram.

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Inestablishingtheirtrainingprograms,employersmustclearlyidentifytheemployeestobetrained,thesubjectstobecovered,andthegoalsandobjectivestheywishto
achieve.Thelearninggoalsorobjectivesshouldbewritteninclearmeasurabletermsbeforethetrainingbegins.Thesegoalsandobjectivesneedtobetailoredtoeachof
thespecifictrainingmodulesorsegments.Employersshoulddescribetheimportantactionsandconditionsunderwhichtheemployeewilldemonstratecompetenceor
knowledgeaswellaswhatisacceptableperformance.

Handsontraining,whereemployeesactuallyapplylessonslearnedinsimulatedorrealsituations,willenhancelearning.Forexample,operatingpersonnel,whowillworkin
acontrolroomoratcontrolpanels,wouldbenefitbybeingtrainedatasimulatedcontrolpanel.Upsetconditionsofvarioustypescouldbedisplayedonthesimulator,and
thentheemployeecouldgothroughtheproperoperatingprocedurestobringthesimulatorpanelbacktothenormaloperatingparameters.Atrainingenvironmentcouldbe
createdtohelpthetraineefeelthefullrealityofthesituationbutundercontrolledconditions.Thistypeofrealistictrainingcanbeveryeffectiveinteachingemployeescorrect
procedureswhileallowingthemalsotoseetheconsequencesofwhatmighthappeniftheydonotfollowestablishedoperatingprocedures.Othertrainingtechniquesusing
videosortrainingalsocanbeveryeffectiveforteachingotherjobtasks,duties,orimpartingotherimportantinformation.Aneffectivetrainingprogramwillallowemployees
tofullyparticipateinthetrainingprocessandtopracticetheirskillsorknowledge.

Employersneedtoevaluateperiodicallytheirtrainingprogramstoseeifthenecessaryskills,knowledge,androutinesarebeingproperlyunderstoodandimplementedby
theirtrainedemployees.Themethodsforevaluatingthetrainingshouldbedevelopedalongwiththetrainingprogramgoalsandobjectives.Trainingprogramevaluationwill
helpemployerstodeterminetheamountoftrainingtheiremployeesunderstoodandwhetherthedesiredresultswereobtained.If,aftertheevaluation,itappearsthatthe
trainedemployeesarenotatthelevelofknowledgeandskillthatwasexpected,theemployershouldrevisethetrainingprogram,provideretraining,orprovidemore
frequentrefreshertrainingsessionsuntilthedeficiencyisresolved.Thosewhoconductedthetrainingandthosewhoreceivedthetrainingalsoshouldbeconsultedastohow
besttoimprovethetrainingprocess.Ifthereisalanguagebarrier,thelanguageknowntothetraineesshouldbeusedtoreinforcethetrainingmessagesandinformation.

Carefulconsiderationmustbegiventoensurethatemployees,includingmaintenanceandcontractemployees,receivecurrentandupdatedtraining.Forexample,ifchanges
aremadetoaprocess,affectedemployeesmustbetrainedinthechangesandunderstandtheeffectsofthechangesontheirjobtasks.Additionally,asalreadydiscussed,
theevaluationoftheemployee'sabsorptionoftrainingwillcertainlydeterminetheneedforfurthertraining.

Contractors

Employerswhousecontractorstoperformworkinandaroundprocessesthatinvolvehighlyhazardouschemicalshavetoestablishascreeningprocesssothattheyhireand
useonlycontractorswhoaccomplishthedesiredjobtaskswithoutcompromisingthesafetyandhealthofanyemployeesatafacility.Forcontractorswhosesafety
performanceonthejobisnotknowntothehiringemployer,theemployermustobtaininformationoninjuryandillnessratesandexperienceandshouldobtaincontractor
references.Inaddition,theemployermustensurethatthecontractorhastheappropriatejobskills,knowledge,andcertifications(e.g.,forpressurevesselwelders).
Contractorworkmethodsandexperienceshouldbeevaluated.Forexample,doesthecontractorconductingdemolitionworkswingloadsoveroperatingprocessesordoes
thecontractoravoidsuchhazards?

Maintainingasiteinjuryandillnesslogforcontractorsisanothermethodemployersmustusetotrackandmaintaincurrentknowledgeofactivitiesinvolvingcontract
employeesworkingonoradjacenttoprocessescoveredbyPSM.Injuryandillnesslogsofboththeemployer'semployeesandcontractemployeesallowtheemployerto
havefullknowledgeofprocessinjuryandillnessexperience.Thislogcontainsinformationusefultothoseauditingprocesssafetymanagementcomplianceandthoseinvolved
inincidentinvestigations.

Contractemployeesmustperformtheirworksafely.Consideringthatcontractorsoftenperformveryspecializedandpotentiallyhazardoustasks,suchasconfinedspace
entryactivitiesandnonroutinerepairactivities,theirworkmustbecontrolledwhiletheyareonornearaprocesscoveredbyPSM.Apermitsystemorworkauthorization
systemfortheseactivitiesishelpfulforallaffectedemployers.Theuseofaworkauthorizationsystemkeepsanemployerinformedofcontractemployeeactivities.Thus,the
employerhasbettercoordinationandmoremanagementcontrolovertheworkbeingperformedintheprocessarea.Awellrunandwellmaintainedprocess,where
employeesafetyisfullyrecognized,benefitsallofthosewhoworkinthefacilitywhethertheyareemployeesoftheemployerorthecontractor.

PreStartupSafetyReview

Fornewprocesses,theemployerwillfindaPHAhelpfulinimprovingthedesignandconstructionoftheprocessfromareliabilityandqualitypointofview.Thesafe
operationofthenewprocessisenhancedbymakinguseofthePHArecommendationsbeforefinalinstallationsarecompleted.P&IDsshouldbecompleted,theoperating
proceduresputinplace,andtheoperatingstafftrainedtoruntheprocess,beforestartup.Theinitialstartupproceduresandnormaloperatingproceduresmustbefully
evaluatedaspartoftheprestartupreviewtoensureasafetransferintothenormaloperatingmode.

Forexistingprocessesthathavebeenshutdownforturnaroundormodification,theemployermustensurethatanychangesotherthan"replacementinkind"madetothe
processduringshutdowngothroughthemanagementofchangeprocedures.P&IDswillneedtobeupdated,asnecessary,aswellasoperatingproceduresandinstructions.
Ifthechangesmadetotheprocessduringshutdownaresignificantandaffectthetrainingprogram,thenoperatingpersonnelaswellasemployeesengagedinroutineand
nonroutineworkintheprocessareamayneedsomerefresheroradditionaltraining.Anyincidentinvestigationrecommendations,complianceaudits,orPHA
recommendationsneedtobereviewedtoseewhataffecttheymayhaveontheprocessbeforebeginningthestartup.

MechanicalIntegrityofEquipment

Employersmustreviewtheirmaintenanceprogramsandschedulestoseeifthereareareaswhere"breakdown"isusedratherthanthemorepreferableongoing
mechanicalintegrityprogram.Equipmentusedtoprocess,store,orhandlehighlyhazardouschemicalshastobedesigned,constructed,installed,andmaintainedto
minimizetheriskofreleasesofsuchchemicals.Thisrequiresthatamechanicalintegrityprogrambeinplacetoensurethecontinuedintegrityofprocessequipment.

Elementsofamechanicalintegrityprogramincludeidentifyingandcategorizingequipmentandinstrumentation,inspectionsandtestsandtheirfrequencymaintenance
procedurestrainingofmaintenancepersonnelcriteriaforacceptabletestresultsdocumentationoftestandinspectionresultsanddocumentationofmanufacturer
recommendationsforequipmentandinstrumentation.

ProcessDefenses

Thefirstlineofdefenseanemployerhasistooperateandmaintaintheprocessasdesignedandtocontainthechemicals.Thisisbackedupbythesecondlineofdefense
whichistocontrolthereleasedchemicalsthroughventingtoscrubbersorflares,ortosurgeoroverflowtanksdesignedtoreceivesuchchemicals.Thisalsowouldinclude
fixedfireprotectionsystemslikesprinklers,waterspray,ordelugesystems,monitorguns,dikes,designeddrainagesystems,andothersystemstocontrolormitigate
hazardouschemicalsonceanunwantedreleaseoccurs.

WrittenProcedures

Thefirststepofaneffectivemechanicalintegrityprogramistocompileandcategorizealistofprocessequipmentandinstrumentationtoincludeintheprogram.Thislist
includespressurevessels,storagetanks,processpiping,reliefandventsystems,fireprotectionsystemcomponents,emergencyshutdownsystemsandalarms,and
interlocksandpumps.Forthecategorizationofinstrumentationandthelistedequipment,theemployershouldsetprioritiesforwhichpiecesofequipmentrequirecloser
scrutinythanothers.

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InspectionandTesting

Themeantimetofailureofvariousinstrumentationandequipmentpartswouldbeknownfromthemanufacturer'sdataortheemployer'sexperiencewiththeparts,which
theninfluenceinspectionandtestingfrequencyandassociatedprocedures.Also,applicablecodesandstandardssuchastheNationalBoardinspectionCode,orthosefrom
theAmericanSocietyforTestingandMaterials,AmericanPetroleumInstitute,NationalFireProtectionAssociation,AmericanNationalStandardsinstitute,AmericanSociety
ofMechanicalEngineers,andothergroupsprovideinformationtohelpestablishaneffectivetestingandinspectionfrequency,aswellasappropriatemethodologies.

Theapplicablecodesandstandardsprovidecriteriaforexternalinspectionsforsuchitemsasfoundationandsupports,anchorbolts,concreteorsteelsupports,guywires,
nozzlesandsprinklers,pipehangers,groundingconnectionsprotectivecoatingsandinsulation,andexternalmetalsurfacesofpipingandvessels.Thesecodesandstandards
alsoprovideinformationonmethodologiesforinternalinspectionandafrequencyformulabasedonthecorrosionrateofthematerialsofconstruction.Also,internaland
externalerosionmustbeconsideredalongwithcorrosioneffectsforpipingandvalves.Wherethecorrosionrateisnotknown,amaximuminspectionfrequencyis
recommended(methodsofdevelopingthecorrosionrateareavailableinthecodes).Internalinspectionsneedtocoveritemssuchasthevesselshell,bottomandhead
metallicliningsnonmetallicliningsthicknessmeasurementsforvesselsandpipinginspectionforerosion,corrosion,crackingandbulgesinternalequipmentliketrays,
baffles,sensorsadscreensforerosion,corrosionorcrackingandotherdeficiencies.Someoftheseinspectionsmaybeperformedbystateorlocalgovernmentinspectors
understateandlocalstatutes.However,eachemployermustdevelopprocedurestoensurethattestsandinspectionsareconductedproperlyandthatconsistencyis
maintainedevenwheredifferentemployeesmaybeinvolved.Appropriatetrainingmustbeprovidedtomaintenancepersonneltoensurethattheyunderstandthepreventive
maintenanceprogramprocedures,safepractices,andtheproperuseandapplicationofspecialequipmentoruniquetoolsthatmayberequired.Thistrainingispartofthe
overalltrainingprogramcalledforinthestandard.

QualityAssurance

Aqualityassurancesystemhelpsensuretheuseofpropermaterialsofconstruction,theproperfabricationandinspectionprocedures,andappropriateinstallation
proceduresthatrecognizefieldinstallationconcerns.Thequalityassuranceprogramisanessentialpartofthemechanicalintegrityprogramandwillhelpmaintainthe
primaryandsecondarylinesofdefensedesignedintotheprocesstopreventunwantedchemicalreleasesortocontrolormitigatearelease."Asbuilt"drawings,together
withcertificationsofcodedvesselsandotherequipmentandofconstruction,mustbeverifiedandretainedinthequalityassurancedocumentation.

Equipmentinstallationjobsneedtobeproperlyinspectedinthefieldforuseofpropermaterialsandproceduresandtoensurethatqualifiedcraftworkersdothejob.The
useofappropriategaskets,packing,bolts,valves,lubricantsandweldingrodsneedstobeverifiedinthefield.Also,proceduresforinstallingsafetydevicesneedtobe
verified,suchasthetorqueontheboltsonrupturediscinstallations,uniformtorqueonflangebolts,andproperinstallationofpumpseals.Ifthequalityofpartsisa
problem,itmaybeappropriatefortheemployertoconductauditsoftheequipmentsupplier'sfacilitiestobetterensureproperpurchasesofrequiredequipmentsuitablefor
intendedservice.Anychangesinequipmentthatmaybecomenecessarywillneedtobereviewedformanagementofchangeprocedures.

NonroutineWorkAuthorizations

Nonroutineworkconductedinprocessareasmustbecontrolledbytheemployerinaconsistentmanner.Thehazardsidentifiedinvolvingtheworktobeaccomplishedmust
becommunicatedtothosedoingtheworkandtothoseoperatingpersonnelwhoseworkcouldaffectthesafetyoftheprocess.Aworkauthorizationnoticeorpermitmust
followaprocedurethatdescribesthestepsthemaintenancesupervisor,contractorrepresentative,orotherpersonneedstofollowtoobtainthenecessaryclearancetostart
thejob.Theworkauthorizationproceduresmustreferenceandcoordinate,asapplicable,lockout/tagoutprocedures,linebreakingprocedures,confinedspaceentry
procedures,andhotworkauthorizations.Thisprocedurealsomustprovideclearstepstofollowoncethejobiscompletedtoprovideclosureforthosethatneedtoknowthe
jobisnowcompletedandthatequipmentcanbereturnedtonormal.

ManagingChange

Toproperlymanagechangestoprocesschemicals,technology,equipmentandfacilities,onemustdefinewhatismeantbychange.Intheprocesssafetymanagement
standard,changeincludesallmodificationstoequipment,procedures,rawmaterials,andprocessingconditionsotherthan"replacementinkind."Thesechangesmustbe
properlymanagedbyidentifyingandreviewingthempriortoimplementingthem.Forexample,theoperatingprocedurescontaintheoperatingparamaters(pressurelimits,
temperatureranges,flowrates,etc.)andtheimportanceofoperatingwithintheselimits.Whiletheoperatormusthavetheflexibilitytomaintainsafeoperationwithinthe
establishedparameters,anyoperationoutsideoftheseparametersrequiresreviewandapprovalbyawrittenmanagementofchangeprocedure.Managementofchange
alsocoverschangesinprocesstechnologyandchangestoequipmentandinstrumentation.Changesinprocesstechnologycanresultfromchangesinproductionrates,raw
materials,experimentation,equipmentunavailability,newequipment,newproductdevelopment,changeincatalysts,andchangesinoperatingconditionstoimproveyieldor
quality.Equipmentchangescanbeinmaterialsofconstruction,equipmentspecifications,pipingprearrangements,experimentalequipment,computerprogramrevisions,
andalarmsandinterlocks.Employersmustestablishmeansandmethodstodetectbothtechnicalandmechanicalchanges.

Temporarychangeshavecausedanumberofcatastrophesovertheyears,andemployersmustestablishwaystodetectbothtemporary,andpermanentchanges.Itis
importantthatatimelimitfortemporarychangesbeestablishedandmonitoredsinceotherwise,withoutcontrol,thesechangesmaytendtobecomepermanent.Temporary
changesaresubjecttothemanagementofchangeprovisions.Inaddition,themanagementofchangeproceduresareusedtoensurethattheequipmentandproceduresare
returnedtotheiroriginalordesignedconditionsattheendofthetemporarychange.Properdocumentationandreviewofthesechangesareinvaluableinensuringthat
safetyandhealthconsiderationsareincorporatedintooperatingproceduresandprocesses.Employersmaywishtodevelopaformorclearancesheettofacilitatethe
processingofchangesthroughthemanagementofchangeprocedures.Atypicalchangeformmayincludeadescriptionandthepurposeofthechange,thetechnicalbasis
forthechange,safetyandhealthconsiderations,documentationofchangesfortheoperatingprocedures,maintenanceprocedures,inspectionandtesting,P&IDs,electrical
classification,trainingandcommunications,prestartupinspection,duration(ifatemporarychange),approvals,andauthorization.Wheretheimpactofthechangeisminor
andwellunderstood,achecklistreviewedbyanauthorizedperson,withpropercommunicationtootherswhoareaffected,maysuffice.(SeeFigure2forasamplerequest
forchangeformthatcanbehelpfulinguidingthisprocedure.)

Foramorecomplexorsignificantdesignchange,however,ahazardevaluationprocedurewithapprovalsbyoperations,maintenance,andsafetydepartmentsmaybe
appropriate.ChangesindocumentssuchasP&IDs,rawmaterials,operatingprocedures,mechanicalintegrityprograms,andelectricalclassificationsshouldbenotedsothat
theserevisionscanbemadepermanentwhenthedrawingsandproceduremanualsareupdated.Copiesofprocesschangesmustbekeptinanaccessiblelocationtoensure
thatdesignchangesareavailabletooperatingpersonnelaswellastoPHAteammemberswhenaPHAisbeingpreparedorbeingupdated.

IncidentInvestigation

Incidentinvestigationistheprocessofidentifyingtheunderlyingcausesofincidentsandimplementingstepstopreventsimilareventsfromoccurring.Theintentofan
incidentinvestigationisforemployerstolearnfrompastexperiencesandthusavoidrepeatingpastmistakes.TheincidentsOSHAexpectsemployerstorecognizeandto
investigatearethetypesofeventsthatresultedinorcouldreasonablyhaveresultedinacatastrophicrelease.Theseeventsaresometimesreferredtoas"nearmisses,"
meaningthataseriousconsequencedidnotoccur,butcouldhave.(SeeFigure3forsampleincidentinvestigationreportform.)

Employersmustdevelopinhousecapabilitytoinvestigateincidentsthatoccurintheirfacilities.Ateamshouldbeassembledbytheemployerandtrainedinthetechniquesof
investigationincludinghowtoconductinterviewsofwitnesses,assembleneededdocumentation,andwritereports.Amultidisciplinaryteamisbetterabletogatherthefacts
oftheeventandtoanalyzethemanddevelopplausiblescenariosastowhathappened,andwhy.Teammembersshouldbeselectedonthebasisoftheirtraining,
knowledgeandabilitytocontributetoateamefforttofullyinvestigatetheincident.

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Employeesintheprocessareawheretheincidentoccurredshouldbeconsulted,interviewedormadeamemberoftheteam.Theirknowledgeoftheeventsrepresentsa
significantsetoffactsabouttheincidentthatoccurred.Thereport,itsfindings,andrecommendationsshouldbesharedwiththosewhocanbenefitfromtheinformation.The
cooperationofemployeesisessentialtoaneffectiveincidentinvestigation.Thefocusoftheinvestigationshouldbetoobtainfactsandnottoplaceblame.Theteamandthe
investigativeprocessshouldclearlydealwithallinvolvedindividualsinafair,open,andconsistentmanner.

EmergencyPreparedness

Eachemployermustaddresswhatactionsemployeesaretotakewhenthereisanunwantedreleaseofhighlyhazardouschemicals.Emergencypreparednessisthe
employer'sthirdlineofdefensethatwillbereliedonalongwiththesecondlineofdefense,whichistocontrolthereleaseofchemical.Controlreleasesandemergency
preparednesswilltakeplacewhenthefirstlineofdefensetooperateandmaintaintheprocessandcontainthechemicalsfailstostoptherelease.Inpreparingforan
emergencychemicalrelease,employerswillneedtodecidethefollowing:

Whethertheywantemployeestohandleandstopsmallorminorincidentalreleases
Whethertheywishtomobilizetheavailableresourcesattheplantandhavethembroughttobearonamoresignificantrelease
Whetheremployerswanttheiremployeestoevacuatethedangerareaandpromptlyescapetoapreplannedsafezonearea,andthenallowthelocalcommunity
emergencyresponseorganizationstohandlethereleaseor
Whethertheemployerwantstousesomecombinationoftheseactions.

Employerswillneedtoselecthowmanydifferentemergencypreparednessorthirdlinesofdefensetheyplantohave,developthenecessaryemergencyplansand
procedures,appropriatelytrainemployeesintheiremergencydutiesandresponsibilities,andthenimplementtheselinesofdefense.

Employers,ataminimum,musthaveanemergencyactionplanthatwillfacilitatethepromptevacuationofemployeeswhenthereisanunwantedreleaseofahighly
hazardouschemical.Thismeansthattheemployer'splanwillbeactivatedbyanalarmsystemtoalertemployeeswhentoevacuate,andthatemployeeswhoarephysically
impairedwillhavethenecessarysupportandassistancetogetthemtoasafezone.Theintentoftheserequirementsistoalertandmoveemployeesquicklytoasafezone.
Delayingalarmsorconfusingalarmsaretobeavoided.Theuseofprocesscontrolcentersorbuildingsassafeareasisdiscouraged.Recentcatastrophesindicatethatlives
arelostinthesestructuresbecauseoftheirlocationandbecausetheyarenotnecessarilydesignedtowithstandoverpressuresfromshockwavesresultingfromexplosions
intheprocessarea.

Whenthereareunwantedincidentalreleasesofhighlyhazardouschemicalsintheprocessarea,theemployermustinformemployeesoftheactions/procedurestotake.If
theemployerwantsemployeestoevacuatethearea,thentheemergencyactionplanwillbeactivated.Foroutdoorprocesses,wherewinddirectionisimportantforselecting
thesaferoutetoarefugearea,theemployersshouldplaceawinddirectionindicator,suchasawindsockorpennant,atthehighestpointvisiblethroughouttheprocess
area.Employeescanmoveupwindofthereleasetogainsafeaccesstoarefugeareabyknowingthewinddirection.

Iftheemployerwantsspecificemployeesinthereleaseareatocontrolorstoptheminoremergencyorincidentalrelease,theseactionsmustbeplannedinadvanceand
proceduresdevelopedandimplemented.Handlingincidentalreleasesforminoremergenciesintheprocessareamustincludepreplanning,providingappropriateequipment

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forthehazards,andconductingtrainingforthoseemployeeswhowillperformtheemergencyworkbeforetheyrespondtohandleanactualrelease.Theemployer'straining
program,includingtheHazardCommunicationstandardtraining,istoaddress,identify,andmeetthetrainingneedsforemployeeswhoareexpectedtohandleincidentalor
minorreleases.

Preplanningformoreseriousreleasesisanimportantelementintheemployer'slineofdefense.Whenaseriousreleaseofahighlyhazardouschemicaloccurs,the
employer,throughpreplanning,willhavedeterminedinadvancewhatactionsemployeesaretotake.Theevacuationoftheimmediatereleaseareaandotherareas,as
necessary,wouldbeaccomplishedundertheemergencyactionplan.Iftheemployerwishestouseplantpersonnelsuchasafirebrigade,spillcontrolteam,ahazardous
materialsteamoremployeestorenderaidtothoseintheimmediatereleaseareaandtocontrolormitigatetheincident,refertoOSHA'sHazardousWasteOperationsand
EmergencyResponse(HAZWOPER)standard(Title79CFRPart1910.120).Ifoutsideassistanceisnecessary,suchasthroughmutualaidagreementsbetweenemployers
andlocalgovernmentemergencyresponseorganizations,theseemergencyrespondersarealsocoveredbyHAZWOPER.Thesafetyandhealthprotectionrequiredfor
emergencyrespondersistheresponsibilityoftheiremployersandoftheonsceneincidentcommander.

Respondersmaybeworkingunderveryhazardousconditionstherefore,theobjectiveistohavethemcompetentlyledbyanonsceneincidentcommanderandthe
commander'sstaff,properlyequippedtodotheirassignedworksafely,andfullytrainedtocarryouttheirdutiessafelybeforetheyrespondtoanemergency.Drills,training
exercises,orsimulationswiththelocalcommunityemergencyresponseplannersandresponderorganizationsisonemeanstoobtainbetterpreparedness.Thisclose
cooperationandcoordinationbetweenplantandlocalcommunityemergencypreparednessmanagersalsowillaidtheemployerincomplyingwiththeEnvironmental
ProtectionAgency'sRiskManagementPlancriteria.(1)

Aneffectivewayformediumtolargefacilitiestoenhancecoordinationandcommunicationduringemergencieswithintheplantandwithlocalcommunityorganizationsisby
establishingandequippinganemergencycontrolcenter.Theemergencycontrolcentershouldbelocatedinasafezonesothatitcouldbeoccupiedthroughouttheduration
ofanemergency.Thecentershouldserveasthemajorcommunicationslinkbetweentheonsceneincidentcommanderandplantorcorporatemanagementaswellaswith
localcommunityofficials.Thecommunicationsequipmentintheemergencycontrolcentershouldincludeanetworktoreceiveandtransmitinformationbytelephone,radio,
orothermeans.Itisimportanttohaveabackupcommunicationsnetworkincaseofpowerfailureorifonecommunicationmeansfails.Thecenteralsoshouldbeequipped
withtheplantlayoutcommunitymapsutilitydrawings,includingwaterforfireextinguishingemergencylightingappropriatereferencematerialssuchasagovernment
agencynotificationlist,companypersonnelphonelist,SARATitleIIIreportsandmaterialsafetydatasheets,emergencyplansandproceduresmanualalistingthelocation
ofemergencyresponseequipmentandmutualaidinformationandaccesstometeorologicaldataandanydispersionmodelingdata.

ComplianceAudits

Anauditisatechniqueusedtogathersufficientfactsandinformation,includingstatisticalinformation,toverifycompliancewithstandards.Employersmustselectatrained
individualorassembleatrainedteamtoaudittheprocesssafetymanagementsystemandprogram.Asmallprocessorplantmayneedonlyoneknowledgeablepersonto
conductanaudit.Theauditincludesanevaluationofthedesignandeffectivenessoftheprocesssafetymanagementsystemandafieldinspectionofthesafetyandhealth
conditionsandpracticestoverifythattheemployer'ssystemsareeffectivelyimplemented.Theauditshouldbeconductedorledbyapersonknowledgeableinaudit
techniqueswhoisimpartialtowardsthefacilityorareabeingaudited.Theessentialelementsofanauditprogramincludeplanning,staffing,conductingtheaudit,evaluating
hazardsanddeficienciesandtakingcorrectiveaction,performingafollowupanddocumentingactionstaken.

Planning

Planningisessentialtothesuccessoftheauditingprocess.Duringplanning,auditorsshouldselectasufficientnumberofprocessestogiveahighdegreeofconfidencethat
theauditreflectstheoveralllevelofcompliancewiththestandard.Eachemployermustestablishtheformat,staffing,scheduling,andverificationmethodsbeforeconducting
theaudit.Theformatshouldbedesignedtoprovidetheleadauditorwithaprocedureorchecklistthatdetailstherequirementsofeachsectionofthestandard.Thenames
oftheauditteammembersshouldbelistedaspartoftheformataswell.Thechecklist,ifproperlydesigned,couldserveastheverificationsheetthatprovidestheauditor
withthenecessaryinformationtoexpeditethereviewoftheprogramandensurethatallrequirementsofthestandardaremet.Thisverificationsheetformatcouldalso
identifythoseelementsthatwillrequireanevaluationoraresponsetocorrectdeficiencies.Thissheetalsocouldbeusedfordevelopingthefollowupanddocumentation
requirements.

Staffing

Theselectionofeffectiveauditteammembersiscriticaltothesuccessoftheprogram.Teammembersshouldbechosenfortheirexperience,knowledge,andtrainingand
shouldbefamiliarwiththeprocessesandauditingtechniques,practices,andprocedures.Thesizeoftheteamwillvarydependingonthesizeandcomplexityoftheprocess
underconsideration.Foralarge,complex,highlyinstrumentedplant,itmaybedesirabletohaveteammemberswithexpertiseinprocessengineeringanddesignprocess
chemistryinstrumentationandcomputercontrolselectricalhazardsandclassificationssafetyandhealthdisciplines.maintenanceemergencypreparednesswarehousing
orshippingandprocesssafetyauditing.Theteammayuseparttimememberstoprovidetheexpertiserequiredandtocomparewhatisactuallydoneorfollowedwiththe
writtenPSMprogram.

ConductingtheAudit

Aneffectiveauditincludesareviewoftherelevantdocumentationandprocesssafetyinformation,inspectionofthephysicalfacilities,andinterviewswithalllevelsofplant
personnel.Utilizingtheauditprocedureandchecklistdevelopedinthepreplanningstage,theauditteamcansystematicallyanalyzecompliancewiththeprovisionsofthe
standardandanyothercorporatepoliciesthatarerelevant.Forexample,theauditteamwillreviewallaspectsofthetrainingprogramaspartoftheoverallaudit.Theteam
willreviewthewrittentrainingprogramforadequacyofcontent,frequencyoftraining,effectivenessoftrainingintermsofitsgoalsandobjectivesaswellastohowitfits
intomeetingthestandard'srequirements.Throughinterviews,theteamcandetermineemployees'knowledgeandawarenessofthesafetyprocedures,duties,rules,and
emergencyresponseassignments.Duringtheinspection,theteamcanobserveactualpracticessuchassafetyandhealthpolicies,procedures,andworkauthorization
practices.Thisapproachenablestheteamtoidentifydeficienciesanddeterminewherecorrectiveactionsorimprovementsarenecessary.

EvaluationandCorrectiveAction

Theauditteam,throughitssystematicanalysis,shoulddocumentareasthatrequirecorrectiveactionaswellaswheretheprocesssafetymanagementsystemiseffective.
Thisprovidesarecordoftheauditproceduresandfindingsandservesasabaselineofoperationdataforfutureaudits.Itwillassistindeterminingchangesortrendsin
futureaudits.

Correctiveactionisoneofthemostimportantpartsoftheauditandincludesidentifyingdeficiencies,andplanning,followingup,anddocumentingthecorrections.The
correctiveactionprocessnormallybeginswithamanagementreviewoftheauditfindings.Thepurposeofthisreviewistodeterminewhatactionsareappropriate,andto
establishpriorities,timetables,resourceallocationsandrequirements,andresponsibilities.Insomecases,correctiveactionmayinvolveasimplechangeinproceduresora
minormaintenanceefforttoremedytheproblem.Managementofchangeproceduresneedtobeused,asappropriate,evenforaseeminglyminorchange.Manyofthe
deficienciescanbeactedonpromptly,whilesomemayrequireengineeringstudiesormoredetailedreviewofactualproceduresandpractices.Theremaybeinstances
wherenoactionisnecessarythisisavalidresponsetoanauditfinding.Allactionstaken,includinganexplanationwhennoactionistakenonafinding,needtobe
documented.

Theemployermustassurethateachdeficiencyidentifiedisaddressed,thecorrectiveactiontobetakenisnoted,andtheresponsibleauditpersonorteamisproperly
documented.Tocontrolthecorrectiveactionprocess,theemployershouldconsidertheuseofatrackingsystem.Thistrackingsystemmightincludeperiodicstatusreports
sharedwithaffectedlevelsofmanagement,specificreportssuchascompletionofanengineeringstudy,andafinalimplementationreporttoprovideclosureforaudit

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findingsthathavebeenthroughmanagementofchange,ifappropriate,andthensharedwithaffectedemployeesandmanagement.Thistypeoftrackingsystemprovidesthe
employerwiththestatusofthecorrectiveaction.Italsoprovidesthedocumentationrequiredtoverifythatappropriatecorrectiveactionsweretakenondeficiencies
identifiedintheaudit.

Conclusion

OSHAbelievestheprecedingdiscussionofPSMshouldhelpsmallemployerstocomplymoreeasilywiththenewrequirementsthestandardimposes.Theendresultcanonly
besafermorehealthfulworkplaceforallemployeesagoalweallshare.

AppendixMethodsofProcessHazardsAnalysis

OnJuly17,1990,OSHAissuedaproposedruleforthemanagementofhazardsassociatedwithprocessesusinghighlyhazardouschemicals.Thisrule,calledtheProcess
SafetyManagementstandard,wasfinalizedonFebruary24,1992.Inanappendixtotheproposedrule,OSHAdiscussedseveralmethodsofprocesshazardanalysis.That
discussion,whichmaybehelpfulforthosedoingjobhazardanalyses,follows:

Whatif.Forrelativelyuncomplicatedprocesses,reviewtheprocessfromrawmaterialstoproduct.Ateachhandlingorprocessingstep,"whatif"questionsareformulated
andanswered,toevaluatetheeffectsofcomponentfailuresorproceduralerrorsontheprocess.

Checklist.Formorecomplexprocesses,the"whatif"studycanbebestorganizedthroughtheuseofa"checklist,"andassigningcertainaspectsoftheprocesstothe
committeemembershavingthegreatestexperienceorskillinevaluatingthoseaspects.Operatorpracticesandjobknowledgeareauditedinthefield,thesuitabilityof
equipmentandmaterialsofconstructionisstudied,thechemistryoftheprocessandthecontrolsystemsarereviewed,andtheoperatingandmaintenancerecordsare
audited.Generally,achecklistevaluationofaprocessprecedesuseofthemoresophisticatedmethodsdescribedbelow,unlesstheprocesshasbeenoperatedsafelyfor
manyyearsandhasbeensubjectedtoperiodicandthoroughsafetyinspectionsandaudits.

WhatIf/Checklist.Thewhatif/checklistisabroadlybasedhazardassessmenttechniquethatcombinesthecreativethinkingofaselectedteamofspecialistswiththe
methodicalfocusofapreparedchecklist.Theresultisacomprehensivehazardanalysisthatisextremelyusefulintrainingoperationpersonnelonthehazardsofthe
particularoperation.

Thereviewteamisselectedtorepresentawiderangeofproduction,mechanical,technical,andsafetydisciplines.Eachpersonisgivenabasicinformationpackage
regardingtheoperationtobestudied.Thispackagetypicallyincludesinformationonhazardsofmaterials,processtechnology,procedures,equipmentdesign,
instrumentationcontrol,incidentexperience,andprevioushazardreviews.Afieldtouroftheoperationalsoisconductedatthistime.

Thereviewteammethodicallyexaminestheoperationfromrecieptofrawmaterialstodeliveryofthefinishedproducttothecustomer'ssite.Ateachstep,thegroup
collectivelygeneratesalistingof"whatif"questionsregardingthehazardsandsafetyoftheoperation.

Whenthereviewteamhascompletedlistingitsspontaneouslygeneratedquestions,itsystematicallygoesthroughapreparedchecklisttostimulateadditionalquestions.

Subsequently,answersaredevelopedforeachquestion.Thereviewteamthenworkstoachieveaconsensusoneachquestionandanswer.Fromtheseanswers,alistingof
recommendationsisdevelopedspecifyingtheneedforadditionalactionorstudy.Therecommendations,alongwiththelistofquestionsandanswers,becomethekey
elementsofthehazardassessmentreport.

HazardandOperabilityStudy(HAZOP).HAZOPisaformallystructuredmethodofsystematicallyinvestigatingeachelementofasystemforallofthewaysinwhichimportant
parameterscandeviatefromtheintendeddesignconditionstocreatehazardsandoperabilityproblems.Thehazardandoperabilityproblemsaretypicallydeterminedbya
studyofthepipingandinstrumentdiagrams(orplantmodel)byateamofpersonnelwhocriticallyanalyzeeffectsofpotentialproblemsarisingineachpipelineandeach
vesseloftheoperation.

Pertinentparametersareselected,forexample,flow,temperature,pressure,andtime.Thentheeffectofdeviationsfromdesignconditionsofeachparameterisexamined.
Alistofkeywords,forexample,"moreof,""lessof,""partof,"areselectedforuseindescribingeachpotentialdeviation.

Thesystemisevaluatedasdesignedandwithdeviationsnoted.Allcausesoffailureareidentified.Existingsafeguardsandprotectionareidentified.Anassessmentismade
weighingtheconsequences,causes,andprotectionrequirementsinvolved.

FailureModeandEffectAnalysis(FMEA).TheFMEAisamethodicalstudyofcomponentfailures.Thisreviewstartswithadiagramoftheoperation,andincludesall
componentsthatcouldfailandconceivablyaffectthesafetyoftheoperation.Typicalexamplesareinstrumenttransmitters,controllers,valves,pumps,rotometers,etc.
Thesecomponentsarelistedonadatatabulationsheetandindividuallyanalyzedforthefollowing:

Potentialmodeoffailure,(i.e.,open,closed,on,off,leaks,etc)
Consequenceofthefailureeffectonothercomponentsandeffectsonwholesystem
Hazardclass,(i.e.,high,moderate,low)
Probabilityoffailure
Detectionmethodsand
Remarks/compensatingprovisions.

Multipleconcurrentfailuresarealsoincludedintheanalysis.Thelaststepintheanalysisistoanalyzethedataforeachcomponentormultiplecomponentfailureand
developaseriesofrecommendationsappropriatetoriskmanagement.

FaultTreeAnalysis.Afaulttreeanalysiscanbeeitheraqualitativeoraquantitativemodelofalltheundesirableoutcomes,suchasatoxicgasreleaseorexplosion,that
couldresultfromaspecificinitiatingevent.Itbeginswithagraphicrepresentation(usinglogicsymbols)ofallpossiblesequencesofeventsthatcouldresultinanincident.
Theresultingdiagramlookslikeatreewithmanybrancheslistingthesequentialevents(failures)fordifferentindependentpathstothetopevent.Probabilities(usingfailure
ratedata)areassignedtoeacheventandthenusedtocalculatetheprobabilityofoccurrenceoftheundesiredevent.

Thistechniqueisparticularlyusefulinevaluatingtheeffectofalternativeactionsonreducingtheprobabilityofoccurrenceoftheundesiredevent.

StateswithApprovedPlans

COMMISSIONER
AlaskaDepartmentofLabor
1111West8thStreet
Room306
Juneau,AK99801
(907)4652700

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DIRECTOR
IndustrialCommissionofArizona
800W.Washington
Phoenix,AZ85007
(602)5425795

DIRECTOR
CaliforniaDepartmentofIndustrialRelations
455GoldenGateAvenue
4thFloor
SanFrancisco,CA94102
(415)7034590

COMMISSIONER
ConnecticutDepartmentofLabor
200FollyBrookBoulevard
Wethersfield,CT06109

DIRECTOR
HawaiiDepartmentofLaborandIndustrialRelations
830PunchbowlStreet
Honolulu,Hi96813
(808)5868844

COMMISSIONER
IndianaDepartmentofLabor
StateOfficeBuilding
402WestWashingtonStreet
RoomW195
Indianapolis,IN46204
(317)2322378

COMMISSIONER
IowaDivisionofLaborServices
1000E.GrandAvenue
DesMoines,IA50319
(515)2813447

SECRETARY
KentuckyLaborCabinet
1049U.S.Highway,127South
Frankfort,KY40601
(502)5643070

COMMISSIONER
MarylandDivisionofLaborandIndustry
DepartmentofLicensingandRegulation
501St.PaulPlace,2ndFloor
Baltimore,MD212022272
(410)3334179

DIRECTOR
MichiganDepartmentofLabor
VictorOfficeCenter
201N.WashingtonSquare
P.O.Box30015
Lansing,MI48933
(517)3739600

DIRECTOR
MichiganDepartmentofPublicHealth
3423NorthLoganStreet
Box30195
Lansing,MI48909
(517)3358022

COMMISSIONER
MinnesotaDepartmentofLaborandIndustry
443LafayetteRoad
St.Paul,MN55155
(612)2962342

DIRECTOR
NevadaDepartmentofIndustrialRelations
CapitolComplex
1370S.CurryStreet
CarsonCity,NV89710
(702)6873032

SECRETARY
NewMexicoEnvironmentalDepartment

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OccupationalHealthandSafetyBureau
1190St.FrancisDrive
PO.Box26110
SantaFe,NM87502
(505)8272850

COMMISSIONER
NewYorkDepartmentofLabor
StateOfficeBuildingCampus12
Room457
Albany,NY12240
(518)4572741

COMMISSIONER
NorthCarolinaDepartmentofLabor
4WestEdentonStreet
Raleigh,NC27601
(919)7330360

ADMINISTRATOR
DepartmentofConsumerandBusinessServices
LaborandIndustriesBuilding
350WinterStreet,NE,Room430
Salem,OR97310
(503)3783272

SECRETARY
PuertoRicoDepartmentofLaborandHumanResources
PrudencioRiveraMartinezBuilding
505MunozRiveraAvenue
HatoRey,PR00918
(809)7542119

COMMISSIONER
SouthCarolinaDepartmentofLabor
3600ForestDrive
P.O.Box11329
Columbia,SC292111329
(803)7349594

COMMISSIONER
TennesseeDepartmentofLabor
710JamesRobertsonParkway
Suite"A"2ndFloor
Nashville,TN372430659

COMMISSIONER
IndustrialCommissionofUtah
P.O.Box146600
SaltLakeCity,UT841106600
(801)5306898

COMMISSIONER
VermontDepartmentofLaborandIndustry
120StateStreet
Montpelier,VT05620
(802)8282288

COMMISSIONER
VirginIslandsDepartmentofLabor
2131HospitalStreet
ChristianstedSt.Croix,VI008404666
(809)7731994

COMMISSIONER
VirginiaDepartmentofLaborandIndustry
PowersTaylorBuilding
13South13thStreet
Richmond,VA23219
(804)7862377

DIRECTOR
WashingtonDepartmentofLaborandIndustries
GeneralAdministrationBuilding
P.O.Box44001
Olympia,WA985044001
(206)9564213

ADMINISTRATOR
OccupationalSafetyandHealthAdministration
HerschlerBuilding,2ndFloorEast
122West25thStreetCheyenne,WY82002

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(307)7777672

OSHAConsultationProjectDirectory

StateTelephone

Alabama....................................................................(205)3483033
Alaska.......................................................................(907)2694939
Arizona......................................................................(602)5425795
Arkansas...................................................................(501)6824522
California...................................................................(415)7034441
Colorado....................................................................(303)4916151
Connecticut...............................................................(203)5664550
Delaware...................................................................(302)5773908
DistrictofColumbia....................................................(202)5766339
Florida.......................................................................(904)4883044
Georgia.....................................................................(404)8948274
Guam........................................................................(671)6474202
Hawaii.......................................................................(808)5869116
Idaho.........................................................................(208)3853283
Illinois........................................................................(312)8142337
Indiana......................................................................(317)2322688
Iowa..........................................................................(515)2815352
Kansas......................................................................(913)2964386
Kentucky...................................................................(502)5646895
Louisiana...................................................................(504)3429601
Maine........................................................................(207)6246460
Maryland....................................................................(410)3334218
Massachusetts...........................................................(617)9697177
Michigan.................................................................(517)3228250(H)
................................................................................(517)3221809(S)
Minnesota...................................................................(612)2972393
Mississippi.................................................................(601)9873981
Missouri.....................................................................(314)7513403
Montana.....................................................................(406)4446418
Nebraska....................................................................(402)4714717
Nevada.......................................................................(702)4865016
NewHampshire..........................................................(603)2712024
NewJersey................................................................(609)2923923
NewMexico................................................................(505)8272877
NewYork....................................................................(518)4572481
NorthCarolina.............................................................(919)7332360
NorthDakota..............................................................(701)2215188
Ohio...........................................................................(614)6442631
Oklahoma...................................................................(405)5281500
Oregon.......................................................................(503)3783272
Pennsylvania...............................................................(412)3572396
PuertoRico.................................................................(809)7542171
RhodeIsland..............................................................(401)2772438
SouthCarolina............................................................(803)7349599
SouthDakota...............................................................(605)6884101
Tennessee..................................................................(615)7417036
Texas.........................................................................(512)4403834
Utah...........................................................................(801)5306868
Vermont......................................................................(802)8282765
Virginia.......................................................................(804)1868707
VirginIslands..............................................................(809)7721315
Washington.................................................................(206)9655443
WestVirginia..............................................................(304)5587890
Wisconsin.................................................................(608)2668579(H)
..................................................................................(608)2661818(S)
Wyoming....................................................................(307)7777786

(H)Health
(S)Safety

OSHAAreaOffices

AreaTelephone
Albany,NY.......................................................................(518)4644338
Albuquerque,NM.............................................................(505)2485302
Allentown,PA...................................................................(610)7760592
Anchorage,AK.................................................................(907)2715152
Appleton,WI....................................................................(414)7344521
Austin,TX........................................................................(512)9165783
Avenel,NJ........................................................................(908)7503270
Baltimore,MD..................................................................(410)9622840
Bangor,ME......................................................................(207)9418177
BatonRouge,LA..............................................................(504)3890474
Bayside,NY......................................................................(718)2799060
Bellevue,WA....................................................................(206)5537520

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Billings,MT......................................................................(406)2477494
Birmingham,AL...............................................................(205)7311534
Bismarck,ND...................................................................(701)2504521
Boise,ID...........................................................................(208)3341867
Bowmansville,NY...........................................................(716)6843891
Braintree,MA...................................................................(617)5656924
Bridgeport,CT..................................................................(203)5795581
CalumetCity,IL...............................................................(708)8913800
CarsonCity,NV...............................................................(702)8856963
Charleston,WV................................................................(304)3475937
Cincinnati,OH..................................................................(513)8414132
Cleveland,OH..................................................................(216)5223818
Columbia,SC...................................................................(803)7655904
Columbus,OH..................................................................(614)4695582
Concord,NH.....................................................................(603)2251629
CorpusChristi,TX...........................................................(512)8883420
Dallas,TX.........................................................................(214)3202400
Denver,CO.......................................................................(303)8445285
DesPlaines,IL..................................................................(847)8034800
DesMoines,IA.................................................................(515)2844794
Englewood,CO................................................................(303)8434500
Erie,PA.............................................................................(814)8335758
FortLauderdale,FL..........................................................(954)4240242
FortWorth,TX.................................................................(817)4282470
Frankfort,KY...................................................................(502)2277024
Guaynabo,PR....................................................................(787)2771560
Harrisburg,PA..................................................................(717)7823902
Hartford,CT.....................................................................(860)2403152
HasbrouckHeights,NJ.....................................................(201)2881700
Honolulu,HI.....................................................................(808)5412685
Houston,TX.....................................................................(281)2860583
Houston,TX.....................................................................(281)5912438
Indianapolis,IN................................................................(317)2267290
Jackson,MS......................................................................(601)9654606
Jacksonville,FL................................................................(904)2322895
KansasCity,MO..............................................................(816)4839531
Lansing,MI......................................................................(517)3771892
LittleRock,AR.................................................................(501)3246291
Lubbock,TX.....................................................................(806)4727681
Madison,WI.....................................................................(608)2645388
Marlton,NJ.......................................................................(609)7575181
Methuen,MA....................................................................(617)5658110
Milwaukee,WI.................................................................(414)2973315
Minneapolis,MN..............................................................(612)6645460
Mobile,AL........................................................................(334)4416131
Nashville,TN....................................................................(615)7815423
NewYork,NY..................................................................(212)4662482
Norfolk,VA......................................................................(757)4413820
NorthAurora,IL...............................................................(630)8968700
NorthSyracuse,NY..........................................................(315)4510808
OklahomaCity,OK..........................................................(405)2315351
Omaha,NE.......................................................................(402)2213182
Parsippany,NJ..................................................................(201)2631003
Peoria,IL..........................................................................(309)6717033
Philadelphia,PA................................................................(215)5974955
Phoenix,AZ......................................................................(602)6402007
Pittsburgh,PA...................................................................(412)3954903
Portland,OR.....................................................................(503)3262251
Providence,RI..................................................................(401)5284669
Raleigh,NC......................................................................(919)8564770
SaltLakeCity,UT............................................................(801)4870073
Sacramento,CA................................................................(916)5667470
SanDiego,CA..................................................................(619)5572909
Savannah,GA...................................................................(912)6524393
Smyrna,GA......................................................................(770)9848700
Springfield,MA................................................................(413)7850123
St.Louis,MO...................................................................(314)4254249
Tampa,FL.........................................................................(813)6261177
Tarrytown,NY..................................................................(914)5247510
Toledo,OH.......................................................................(419)2597542
Tucker,GA........................................................................(770)4936644
Westbury,NY....................................................................(516)3343344
Wichita,KS......................................................................(316)2696644
WilkesBarre,PA..............................................................(717)8266538
Wilmington,DE................................................................(302)5736115

RelatedPublications

OSHA2056AllAboutOSHA

OSHA3084ChemicalHazardCommunication

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9/22/2016 ProcessSafetyManagementGuidelinesforCompliance
OSHA3047ConsultationServicesfortheEmployer

OSHA3088HowtoPrepareforWorkplaceEmergencies

OSHA2098OSHAInspections

OSHA3021OSHA:EmployeeWorkplaceRights

OSHA3077PersonalProtectiveEquipment

OSHA3132ProcessSafetyManagement

OSHA3079RespiratoryProtection

HazardCommunicationStandard,Title29,CodeofFederalRegulations(CFR)Part1910.1200.

ProcessSafetyManagementofHighlyHazardousChemicalsStandard,Title29,CodeofFederalRegulations(CFR)Part1910.119FR57,P.6356.Thiscontainstheactualtext
ofthePSMrule.(AsinglefreecopyoftheabovematerialscanbeobtainedfromOSHAPublicationsOffice,RoomN3101,Washington,DC20210,(202)5239667).

OSHA3104HazardCommunicationAComplianceKit(AreferenceguidetostepbysteprequirementsforcompliancewiththeOSHAstandard.)

OSHA3071JobHazardAnalysis

(OSHA3104andOSHA3071areavailablefromtheSuperintendentofDocuments,U.S.GovernmentPrintingOffice,Washington,DC20402,(202)7833238.OSHA3104
GPOOrderNo.929022000009,$18domestic$22.50foreign.OSHA3071GPOOrderNo.029016001425,$1.00.)

U.S.GOVERNMENTPRINTINGOFFICE:19940154969:QL3

Footnote1EPAisrequiredbytheCleanAirActAmendmentsof1990todevelopregulationsthatwillrequirecompanies!omakeavailabletothepublicinformationonthe
waythecompaniesmanagetherisksofthechemicalstheyhandle.Theseregulationswillbedevelopedin1992.TheOSHAPSMstandard,whichmeetssimilarCleanAir
AmendmentrequirementsandtheforthcomingEPArules,willapplyonlytospecifiedchemicalsinlistedquantities.OSHAandEPA'slistswillnotnecessarilybeidentical.

FreedomofInformationAct|Privacy&SecurityStatement|Disclaimers|ImportantWebSiteNotices|International|ContactUs

U.S.DepartmentofLabor|OccupationalSafety&HealthAdministration|200ConstitutionAve.,NW,Washington,DC20210
Telephone:800321OSHA(6742)|TTY

www.OSHA.gov

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