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Discussion 1

Explain the steps to conduct needs analysis to develop a new programme.

Basically need Analysis is the process of identifying and evaluating needs in a community or
other defined population of people. The identification of needs is a process of describing
problems of a target population and possible solutions to these problems. A need has been
described as a gap between what is and what should be. (Witkin et al., 1995). Need analysis
emphasize on the future, or what the things should be done, instead of what was done as the
focus of most program evaluations.

Steps and Examples:

The following steps are based on McKillip, 1998 suggestion to conduct needs analysis.

1. First, you identify the audience and purposes for the analysis (what McKillip, 1998, calls the
users and uses).

2. Second, you fully describe the target population and service environment. Altschuld et al.
(2000) point out three levels of target groups and their respective needs: Level 1 (Primary)
targets are the direct recipients of the services; Level 2 (Secondary) targets include the
individuals or groups who deliver the services; and Level 3 (Tertiary) involves the resources
and inputs into the solutions (e.g., buildings, salaries, facilities, etc.).

3. The third step is need identification where descriptions of the problems (beyond the general
level noted in step 1) and possible solutions are generated. This is where you illustrate the
gaps between expected/ideal and actual outcomes. You want to gather information from
more than one level of target, although you should focus on the primary targets. For example,

if you only asked school personnel about the perceived needs of the rural youth,
you might get a different set of answers than you would if you asked the youth themselves.

4. The fourth step is called needs assessment by McKillip (1998). This is the time to evaluate
the
identified needs. Which are the most important? For example, an after-school program might
want to increase academic achievement of youth by offering extra activities that take time the
youth otherwise might have spent finishing their homework.

5. Finally, you communicate your results to the audience identified in the first step.
Discussion 2
To what extent is needs analysis important to the development of a new programme? Relate
your answer to the context of your past teaching experience during practicum.

In my opinion, needs analysis would help teachers to develop new ways of teaching and
overcome the problems to teach. It is very important to first identify and justify the actual
problem. While setting the outcomes/objectives is often the starting point of solving the problem,
it is often much more important to make certain that the outcomes/objectives are the right ones
and that their accomplishment will lead to both individual competence as well as organisational
success. Based on my experience, if we want any programmes and learning materials to be
effective, efficient, and engaging, the design therefore should be based on learners needs.
Other than that, by analyzing the information from various sources and evaluating the suitable
ways, we would be able to ensure the successful of learners performances.
-Having proper and competent knowledge in the curriculum is one of the teacher factors that is
important in selection of content in the curriculum. Without having competent knwoledge, nothing can
be done with the curriculum and teachers would not be able to implement the curriculum properly and
would particularly influence the teaching and learning process in the school based on the curriculum.

Discussion 3

Recognising the wider challenges of the 21st century, the United Nations Eductional, Scientific
and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) in 2009 identified four "21st Century Competencies", are
reommended them to member nations as needing to underpin all curricula. These
competencies are the 'four Cs' of:

- Communication

- Critical thinking and problem-solving

- Collaboration

- Creativity

Based on the recommendations made by the UNESCO, to what extent do you think the
Malaysian curriculum has adopted these recommendations?
Discussion 4
Read the notes in Topic 4 of TSL 3143 module carefully. Briefly discribe THREE teacher factors
that influence the selection of content in curriculum implementation in schools. Support your
answers with relevant examples.

From my reading, the three teacher factors that can influence the selection of content in
curriculum implementation in schools are, professional knowledge, professional attitudes, and
professional support. The first factor professional knowledge indicates Knowledge and
understanding which teachers possess of the new curriculum. For example, different ways of
teaching to foster student learning. Teacher should be more competence in using 21 st century
learning among the student to promote effective teaching and learning process such as using
ICT in the classroom. Besides that, on teacher professional attitudes, it would show the teacher
attitudes teachers toward the new curriculum. For example, keen to teach the subject. A teacher
should shows their commitment and interest to make sure that our curriculum can be
implemented successfully and the students would get all of the benefit through teaching and
learning process. The third factor is on professional support that teacher get within the school
and outside the school. For example, opportunities to receive ongoing curriculum professional
support. Support from the school administrators and other teachers would ensure the
effectiveness for the teacher to implement the curriculum successfully. This is because, the
collaboration among teachers and staff would give more ideas in the strength and weaknesses
of that particular curriculum. other than that, teachers are also encouraged to upgrade their
teaching qualifications through distant education and in-service training in local or foreign
university which was under the MOEs continuous professional development course to ensure
that the teachers' knowledge with the new content in curriculum and so they can give feedbacks
to the ministry of education on which topic is suitable or not to be implemented.
From my reading, the three teacher factors that can influence the selection of content in
curriculum implementation in schools are, professional knowledge, professional attitudes, and
professional support. The first factor professional knowledge indicates Knowledge and
understanding which teachers possess of the new curriculum. For example, different ways of
teaching to foster student learning. Teacher should be more competence in using 21st century
learning among the student to promote effective teaching and learning process such as using
ICT in the classroom. Besides that, on teacher professional attitudes, it would show the teacher
attitudes teachers toward the new curriculum. For example, keen to teach the subject. A teacher
should shows their commitment and interest to make sure that our curriculum can be
implemented successfully and the students would get all of the benefit through teaching and
learning process. The third factor is on professional support that teacher get within the school
and outside the school. For example, opportunities to receive ongoing curriculum professional
support. Support from the school administrators and other teachers would ensure the
effectiveness for the teacher to implement the curriculum successfully. This is because, the
collaboration among teachers and staff would give more ideas in the strength and weaknesses
of that particular curriculum. other than that, teachers are also encouraged to upgrade their
teaching qualifications through distant education and in-service training in local or foreign
university which was under the MOEs continuous professional development course to ensure
that the teachers' knowledge with the new content in curriculum and so they can give feedbacks
to the ministry of education on which topic is suitable or not to be implemented.