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Module 1: Basic Concepts of Information Technology

GENERAL CONCEPTS

HARDWARE - All the electronics, mechanical, electrical properties of a computer can be


referred to as the hardware. The physical things that we see in the computer; i.e. casing,
keyboard, the printed circuit boards, printer, etc.

SOFTWARE - These are programs that make a computer run or accomplish a given task.
Examples are application programs like MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint or Antivirus.
Other programs are system programs that are used in carrying a specific task.

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) This term is the general term for all the
hardware, software and services associated with computer use. In addition to computers
and the programs that they run, IT encompasses the networks that connect the
computers and the people who make them work.

Types of Computers

Mainframe computers are large computers that are typically used to run the
operations of an entire department or company

Network computers are computers that fit on an individual desktop, but they might
not have much storage capacity. Instead, they rely on devoices elsewhere on the
network to store information for them.

Personal computers are computers that fit on or under an individual desktop and
that store their own information. This type is probably they type of computer that
youre most familiar with.

Laptop computers - are portable computers ranging in size from a briefcase to a small
notepad. They typically fold up to protect their screens when not in use.

Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) - are very small computers that fit in a shirt
pocket. They have limited storage capacity and screen sizes.

HARDWARE

Main Parts of a Personal Computer

INPUT DEVICES - These are devices use to enter information into the computer.
Examples are keyboard, mouse, scanner, floppy, and hard disk.

PROCESSOR - This is the part of the computer that does the processing (logical and
mathematical). It consists of a high-speed microprocessor, memory, and logical unit.

OUTPUT DEVICES - These are devices that are use to get information or results from
the processor. Examples are printer, screen, plotter, CD writer, floppy, and hard disk.

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HARD DISK DRIVES - The hard disk drive is a permanent magnetic storage device
for data and the programs used to create the data.

FLOPPY DISK DRIVES - Floppy drives are also a form of magnetic storage that
functions similarly as the hard drives. The floppy disk drive spins a diskette around
at least 300 times per second.

CD-ROM DRIVE / DVD-ROM / REWRITER - A CD drive reads data from a CD that


looks much like a music CD. CDs make it possible to add features like sound and
video to programs and games since they will hold between 527 and 742 megabytes of
data depending on the number of sectors and the format used.

MEMORY

ROM (read only memory) - ROM chips contain permanently stored information. It is
NON-VOLATILE. This means that the information is stored even when the power is
turned off to the computer. ROM is where the basic instructions the computer needs
for operation is stored. These instructions include: moving data in and out of RAM
for processing, storing data permanently on magnetic media, displaying information
on a screen, and interpreting commands typed on a keyboard.

RAM (random access memory) - RAM is the main and short term memory of
the computer. RAM chips store data in rows and columns in an array of transistors
and capacitors and use a memory controller circuit to retrieve information located at
specific addresses. The chips must be constantly refreshed with electrical pulses to
keep the charges current. In RAM, data is stored as the presence or absence of an
electronic charge within a series of microchips called Ram or memory chips.

Memory size the computer memory is measured as follows:

1. BIT a single bit is equal to either a numerical 1 or 0 at any given time


2. BYTE is eight (8) bits
3. KILOBYTE(KB) is 1,024 bytes
4. MEGABYTE (MB) IS 1,024 KB or roughly 1 million bytes
5. GIGABYTE(GB) is 1s024 MB or roughly 1 billion bytes
6. TERABYTE(TB) IS 1,024 GB or roughly 1 trillion bytes

MONITOR - A display monitor is a video output device capable of displaying text


and graphics. Internal to the monitor is the CRT (cathode ray tube). A CRT is a
display device in computer monitors as well as television sets.

KEYBOARD - A keyboard is a typewriter-like set of keys used to input data and


control commands into a computer. It is an input device that connects to the
motherboard and most are of the 101/102 key variety.

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MOUSE / POINTING DEVICES - The mouse is an input device that makes computer
work easier. The mouse controls a pointer on the screen that can be moved anywhere.
The mouse is used for doing tasks such as moving, pointing to, or selecting objects on
the screen. Once the mouse pointer is in the correct position on the screen, pressing or
clicking one of the buttons will initiate an action or operation.

COMPUTER PERFORMANCE

Factors that can influence the performance of your computer:


1. CPU speed not all CPUs are the same, the faster the CPU the better the performance.
2. RAM size to perform most efficiently, your computer must keep a lot of information in
memory at once. If the computer has a limited amount of RAM, not all this information
will fit, and the computer will slow down.
3. Number of applications running Each application takes up some RAM and some of
the CPUs attention. If you have many applications open at once, the speed of each one
will slow down.
4. The exact application you have running large, complex applications will often make
the computer seems slower that small, simple ones

SOFTWARE
Operating System Software

Act as a link between you and your computer hardware. The computer works using binary
signals using ZERO and ONE. The operating system means that you dont need to work
directly with binary arithmetic. It is a program that controls the activities of the computer
by controlling the input-output operations and acting as an interface between the user and
the computer system. The OS is a set of programs that starts the computer by loading and
executing the files needed for the computer to perform well.

DOS commonly refers to Microsofts MS-DOS (Disk Operating System) is a text-only


operating system.

WINDOWS is a Graphical User Interface (GUI). A GUI allows you to use pictures
instead of text commands to perform tasks.

LINUX is a popular open-source operating system; that is available for free.


Originally used mainly by computer hobbyists, recent versions of Linux are becoming
more popular in the workplace.

SOLARIS is a graphical operating system developed by Sun Microcomputers for use


on its own computers. Youll find Solaris in some academic and business settings.

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Application Software

WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE used to write letters, reports and other


documents.
SPREADSHEET SOFTWARE used to carry out financial, engineering and other
calculations.
DATABASE SOFTWARE used to store information such as sales, customer
addresses and inventory for future use.
PRESENTATION SOFTWARE used to create slide shows and other speakers aids.
WEB BROWSING SOFTWARE used to view the contents of Web sites.
DESKTOP PUBLISHING SOFTWARE used to create newsletters, magazines and
other documents suitable for printing.
EMAIL SOFTWARE used to send, received and store electronic mail.
ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE used to track credits, debits and other accounting date.

INFORMATION NETWORKS

What is a Network - a computer network consists of two or more computers connected to


each other by a cable that allows them to share data. All computer networking, no matter
how sophisticated stems from that simple system. While the idea of connecting two
computers by a cable may not seem extraordinary, in retrospect it has proven to be a major
achievement in communications.

Computer networking arose as an answer to the need to share data in a timely fashion.
Personal computers are powerful tools that can process and manipulate large amounts of
data quickly, but they do not allow users to share that data efficiently. Before networks,
users needed either to print out documents or copy document files to a disk for others to edit
or use them. If others made changes to the document, there was no easy way to merge the
changes.

LAN and WAN

A local area network (LAN) is the basic building block of any computer network. A LAN can
range from simple (two computers connected by a cable) to complex (hundreds of connected
computers and peripherals throughout a major corporation).

A wide area network (WAN), on the other hand, has no geographical limit. It can connect
computers and other devices on opposite sides of the world. A WAN is made up of a number of
interconnected LANs. Perhaps the ultimate WAN is the Internet.

Benefits of Networks

Hardware sharing a network lets you share expensive hardware such as fast
printers and plotters so that each user does not need his own printer or plotter.

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Better communications a network enables group communication applications such


as email and instant messaging.
Application sharing a network lets users run applications from a central server,
instead of having to install them on each individual computer.
Shared knowledge a network lets you share important files and information
between users so that each user on the network has access to up-to-date information.

INTERNET AND INTRANET


An intranet is a network that connects computers belonging to a single company. It is used
for company-specific tasks such as checking inventory, sharing documents with co-workers
and sharing printers. An intranet might be created as a LAN or a WAN, depending on how
widespread the companys computers are.
The internet is a global network of computers connected into one giant WAN. It is useful for
sending email to customers, browsing Web sites and performing other tasks outside your
organization.
THE USE OF IT IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Computers at Work the workplace is one area in which youll find many computers. \It is
a great aids to productivity in many situations. Keeping track of thousands or millions of
details, performing complex calculations, and working in a consistent fashion are all
strengths of computers. Routine and tedious tasks that require tracking large amount of
information are ideal for computerization. On the other hand, computers cant do everything.
Tasks requiring judgment such as allocating medical care of even driving cannot be easily
computerized. Computers are also limited to working with the information that you give
them; if a computer is given wrong information, wrong answers will result.
Computer in Business Many businesses depend on computers for their day-to-day
operations. Some of the major areas where computers are used in business includes:
Business Administrative System, Airline Booking Systems, Insurance companies and on-line
banking
Computers in Government government at all levels, from local to state and federal,
would have difficulty operating without computers. Most public records, from census results
to voter and vehicle registrations are now stored on computers. Assessing and collecting
taxes is also a heavily computerized activity.
Computers in healthcare healthcare is increasingly dependent on computers. You will
find computers used in hospitals and other healthcare settings in a variety of ways like
healthcare activities ranging from admitting, taking patient history and providing
treatments, efficiently dispatching ambulances and other emergency vehicles, modern
diagnostic tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography
(CT) scanners .
Computers in Education - computers are also important in education. Student
information from schedules to grades is usually stored in a computer system. Computers are
also often to use to create class schedules, a process sometimes referred to as timetabling.

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HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRONMENT


Ergonomics is the science of designing equipment for a safe and comfortable working
environment.

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR A GOOD WORKING ENVIRONMENT


1. The monitor should be positioned directly in front of you at a comfortable height so
that you do not have to twist your body or crane your neck to view information.
2. The keyboard should be places in a location where you can type with your wrist flat
and straight and your elbows at a 90-degree angle.
3. Your chair should be adjustable for a comfortable height and provide adequate lumbar
support.
4. If you use a mouse, a good quality mouse mat will help you position the cursor
onscreen accurately without excessive arm movements.
5. Lighting should be adequate to view any documents you re working with but must not
reflect excessive glare form the monitor. If impossible to lower the lights to this level,
you should install a glass monitor filter to cut down on the glare.
6. Computer-oriented workplace should have sufficient ventilation to provide fresh air at
all times.
7. You should take frequent breaks, stretching and moving away from computer at least
once every 30-60 minutes.
Health Problems of Computers
What could go wrong if you ignore ergonomic recommendations?
Improper keyboard positioning and failure to take adequate breaks can cause a
variety of problems including bursitis, tendonitis and perhaps the most serious
common disorder associated with computers Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS).
Working without a glare shield or with a monitor that is not properly aligned can lead
to serious eyestrain.
Poor gesture or unadjustable seating can contribute to back strain.
Environmentally Friendly Computing
Things that you can do to ease the impact of your computing on the environment:
Computers make it easy to print a lot of pages of output that you dont really need for
a long term. You should recycle excess printouts.
Rather than discard used printer toner cartridges, you can send them to a service that
will recycle and refill them. In addition to making less garbage, this approach will
also save your money.
Consider purchasing a monitor that consumes less power when youre not actively
using the computer.

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INFORMATION SECURITY

The goal of information security is to protect the intangible information assets of your
organization. Consider all the information that stored on computers in your organization:
financial records and projections, plans for future product launches, customer lists, perhaps
even confidential information such as medical or payroll records. These are all things that
you need to protect.

Part of information security is ensuring that information is kept private from those who
should not have access. You should require people to type passwords to use their computers.
There should be password policy that should specifies which passwords are acceptable. Some
typical rules for a password are as follows:
Passwords must be at least seven characters long.
Words in the dictionary are not allowed as passwords
Passwords must contain characters from at lest three of these four classes: uppercase
letters, lowercase letters, numerals and symbols.
Password must be changed at least once every 60 days
Passwords cannot be written down.

COMPUTER VIRUSES
A computer virus is a software program that can spread from computer to computer across
a network without any human intervention. Viruses can also perform a variety of destructive
activities on your computer, from deleting files to sending email in your name. There are
several ways in which a virus can enter a computer system: the user of the computer double-
clicking on an attachment to an email message, viruses can also be transmitted on diskettes,
zip disks or other removable media, some viruses take advantage of errors in other software
to spread themselves; for example, a malicious web page might download a virus to your
computer by exploiting an error in your web browser.

Avoiding Virus
Things you can do to protect yourself from computer virus:
Install antivirus software and run scans on a regular basis.
Keep your antivirus software up-to-date.
If you are using email application that recognizes richly formatted email, turn off any
preview function that automatically displays new messages. Open an email that
comes from people you recognize.
Email can contain attach files which are documents or programs that are delivered
along with the email message. These attached files are one of the most common

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vectors of virus infection. You should never open an attached file unless you were
specifically expecting to receive it.

COPYRIGHT AND LAW

Copyright is a legal term that refers to the right of a creator of a work to enjoy the
exclusive profits of that work for a period of time. Computers have made copyright law
difficult to enforce. You should understand the basic concepts of copyright as well as the
issues involved with copyrighted material on computer networks.
Software licensing - Copyright applies to software as well as to books, movies and music.
The creator of a piece of software has the right to determine how that software can be shared.
The standard practice in the software industry is to license a piece of software to the user
under specific circumstances. Many software programs assign a unique product ID or license
number to legitimate users. Often you can retrieve this number by selecting from the help
menu of the application

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Module 2
Using Computer and Managing Files

COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT

First Step with the Computer

Starting the Computer

1) First check all cables to make sure they are securely connected. Also check your
electrical outlets to make sure that all equipment is properly plugged in.
2) Locate the ON and OFF switch for each piece of your equipment: monitor, CPU,
printer and other peripherals.
3) Turn on the Monitor; then the CPU; the printer and any other peripherals.

Shutting down the Computer

1) Save your work and close any open software applications.


2) Click the Start Button on the Window Taskbar to display the list of options.
3) Select Turn Off (Shut down) Computer; click turn off (shutdown)
4) If necessary, turn off the monitor, printer and any other peripherals that are not
automatically shut down by the system.

Options for Powering Down Your Computer

OPTION EXPLANATION
Standby Switches the system to Standby mode, which reduces (or even
turns off) the power to most of the devices, except memory.
Anything in current memory is not automatically saved. If power
is lost, the current memory is also lost. Be sure to save your work
before switching to Standby mode
Turn Off Shuts down the operating system and turns of the CPU
Restart Shuts down the operating system and then starts it
automatically.
Cancel Dismisses the current dialog box without taking any action

BASIC INFORMATION AND OPERATION


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Learning About your System

1) Right-click the Start Button and select Explorer on the taskbar to open the Windows
Explorer.
2) Go to Help Menu and select About Windows (you will see details about the OS
installed )
3) After viewing the information, click OK to close the dialog box.

Modifying your System

1) To change the Date & Time : Go to Control Panel,; double click the Date, Time,
Language and Regional Options; Click the change date and time link to display the
date & time properties dialog box; Click the date & time tab if necessary; Change a
date component by selecting the appropriate value from the control.
2) To change Audio Capabilities : Click the Sounds, Speech and Audio Devices link in
the Control Panel Window; Click the Adjust the System Volume in the next window;
Adjust the slider control accordingly and close the dialog box.
3) To Change the Display Options : In the control panel window, click the Appearance
and Themes link and then click the Change the Screen Resolution link to open the
Display Properties Dialog Box; There are five tabs/button to select : Themes,
Desktop, Screen Saver, Appearance & Settings Tab, Click any of the Tabs (if
necessary) to work with it; then Click OK>

Please note that display options determine the specific colors and the size of the each element
onscreen. You can adjust the settings, but you should know the most software applications
inherit these options. That means any changes you make affect most everything you might
seeeven elements within a software Application. There are three types of display options
that you might want to adjust:

Color determine the number of colors your monitor can display.

Resolution determine the size of individual elements.

Screen Saver Display a graphic or animation when the computer is inactive.

Preparing Disk Storage Medium

Format means to prepare the disk to store electronic data.

Formatting erases everything on a diskette, so use care when formatting your diskettes. In
addition, never try to reformat your hard drive. Doing so deletes everything on your hard
drive: all your data, software applications and even your operating system. You wont be
able to access your computer at all.

To format a floppy diskette, follow these steps:


1) Insert the floppy diskette into the appropriate drive.
2) Open My Computer and select (dont double-click) drive A in the Devices with
Removable Storage section.

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3) Choose Format from the File Menu ( window dialog box will appear)
4) Click Start (after formatting the diskette, click Close Button)

WORKING WITH SOFTWARES

Install, Uninstall a Software Application

Installing Software

1) Insert the CD-ROM or the floppy disk in the appropriate drive. If the software
automatically initiates the install process, simply follow the instructions.

2) If not, open the control panel (go to Start and Choose Control panel)
3) Click the Add or Remove Program link
4) Click the Add New Program options in the Add or Remove Programs window, then
click the CD or floppy button in the next window

The software installation process kicks infollow the instructions. We recommend that
you accept the default (or typical) installation option unless you have specific reasons not
to.

Uninstalling a Software

1) Open the Control Panel


2) Click the Add or Remove Program Link.
3) Click on the Application that you want to uninstall
4) Click on the Change/Remove button and follow the instructions to remove the
application.

TEXT EDITING APPLICATION

WordPad

With WordPad, you can create and edit simple text documents or documents with complex
formatting and graphics. You can link or embed information from other documents into a
WordPad document.

You can save your WordPad files as a Word document, text file, rich text file, text file for MS-
DOS, or Unicode. These formats provide you greater flexibility when working with other
programs. Documents that use multiple languages should be saved as rich text files.

To create, open, or save a WordPad document


You can create, open, and save WordPad documents by clicking the File menu, and then
clicking New, Open, or Save.

Create a new document

On the File menu, click New. Click the document type you want to create, click OK, and then
begin typing. You can also insert the current date and time into your document. Click where

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you want the date and time to appear, then on the Insert menu, click Date and Time. Click
the format you want.

Open a document

On the File menu, click Open. In Look in, click the drive that contains the document you
want to open. Locate the document, click it, and then click Open. If you do not see the
document you want, you can click a different file type in Files of type. You can open a
document you opened recently by clicking its name on the File menu.

Save changes to a document


On the File menu, click Save. To save the file with a new name, on the File menu, click Save
As, type a different name in File name, and then click Save. Documents that use multiple
languages should be saved as rich text files.

You can set the default document type WordPad uses when saving a document. On the File
menu, click Save As. In save as type, select the document format you wish to set as the
default. Select the Save in this format by default check box, and then click Save. This
saves the current document in the selected file format, and also sets the default file format
for future documents. You can change the default file type in which your documents are
saved at any time.

DESKTOP

When you start Windows, the large area you see is called the DESKTOP. It is your
workspace on the computer screen. Icons and shortcuts to your favorite programs,
documents and printers can be added to your desktop for easy access.

Initially, the windows desktop consists of the Background, Recycle Bin, the Start Button, the
Taskbar, and the current system time. The background you see on your desktop is called the
Wallpaper. The wallpaper is a graphical image that can be acquired through the use of a
scanner or a digital camera.

You may find it convenient to put commonly used items onto your desktop. The most
common item is the SHORTCUT, which is an ICON that can be clicked to start programs,
open documents or view web pages.

WORKING WITH ICONS

Icon is a small image displayed onscreen that represent objects or files that you can
manipulate or a set of commands that you can execute. To open the file or execute the

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commands, you simply click the icon. Your operating system comes with a few icons already
on the desktop and you can add your own.

Recognizing Common Icons

Display file and folder Stores and manages documents

Quickly launch an application Folder File

Stores deleted items until you permanently remove them from your computer

WORKING WITH WINDOWS

Almost every Windows-compliant application relies on the window to communicate


information with the user. Through this window, the user views existing data and enters
new data. Each window has a number of common elements such as:

Title bar - The strip across the top of a window. The title bar contains a description
or a name for the current object or application.
Menu bar The thin grey strip below the applications title bar that lists number of
options. Clicking one of these options displays a drop-down list of menu commands
that are appropriate for the current environment
Toolbar The grey strip beneath the menu bar with a line of icons. A window can
host any number of toolbars, with tools that are usually group by function.
Status bar The bar at the bottom of the application window just above the Windows
taskbar. This bar displays status and statistical information about the current
application or process.
Scrollbar - Used to view information that extends off screen to the right or below the
regular screen.

MANAGING FILES

Files and folders overview

Almost all Windows 2000 & XP tasks involve working with files and folders. The work you do
with files and folders falls into three categories:

Organizing and managing files and folders

You can perform basic file and folder tasks, such as creating, deleting, copying, and moving
files and folders, and more advanced tasks, such as changing file and folder properties and
managing shared folders.

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Searching for files and folders

You can narrow the focus of your file and folder searches by including additional search
criteria, such as the date, type, file size, or case sensitivity. You can also broaden the scope of
your file searches by using wildcard characters, and specifying literal text or regular
expressions.

Securing your files and folders

You can secure files and folders using Windows 2000 Professional security features, such as
user and group accounts, Group Policy, shared folder and printer permissions, auditing, and
user rights. If you have an NTFS drive installed, you can set file and folder permissions and
encrypt files and folders.

To open a file or folder

1. Open My Computer, and then double-click the drive that contains the file.
2. Double-click the file or folder you want to open.

To open My Computer, double-click its icon on the desktop.


To open a file or folder by using Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs,
point to Accessories, click Windows Explorer, and then double-click the file or
folder you want to open.

If the file you want to open is not associated with a particular program, you can select
the program used to open the file by right-clicking the file, clicking Open With, and
then selecting the name of the program.
You can use commands on the View menu to change the way files are displayed. You
can also use the View tab in the Folder Options dialog box to change file and folder
settings.

To save a file

1. On the File menu of the program you are working in, click Save.
2. If you haven't saved your file before, type a name for the file in File name.

Note: To save a copy of a file under a different name or in a different location, on the File
menu, click Save As, and then specify a file name and location where you want to save the file.

To create a new folder

1. Open Windows Explorer.


2. Click the drive or folder in which you want to create a new folder.
3. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Folder.
4. Type a name for the new folder, and then press ENTER.

Note

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To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.
You can also create a new folder by right-clicking a blank area in the right pane of
Windows Explorer or on the desktop, pointing to New, and then clicking Folder.

To copy or move a file or folder

1. Open Windows Explorer.


2. Click the drive or folder you want to work with.
3. Click the file or folder you want to copy or move.
4. On the Edit menu, click Copy. Or, click Cut to move the item.
5. Open the folder or disk where you want to copy or move the item.
6. On the Edit menu, click Paste.

Notes

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.
To select consecutive files or folders to copy or move, click the first item, press and
hold down SHIFT, and then click the last item.
To select files or folders that are not consecutive, press and hold down CTRL, and then
click each item.

To copy a file or folder to a floppy disk

1. Insert the floppy disk into the disk drive.


2. Open Windows Explorer.
3. Click the file or folder you want to copy.
4. On the File menu, point to Send To, and then click 3 1/2 Floppy (A).

Notes

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.
You can also copy a file or folder to a floppy disk by right-clicking the file or folder,
pointing to Send To, and then clicking 3 1/2 Floppy (A).

To change the name of a file or folder

1. Open Windows Explorer.


2. Click the file or folder you want to rename.
3. On the File menu, click Rename.
4. Type the new name, and then press ENTER.

Notes

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.

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You do not need to open the file or folder to rename it.


A file name can contain up to 215 characters, including spaces. However, it is not
recommended that you create file names with 215 characters. Most programs cannot
interpret extremely long file names. File names cannot contain the following
characters:
\/:*?"<>|
You can also rename a file or folder by right-clicking it and then clicking Rename.
The name of system folders such as Documents and Settings, Winnt, or System32
cannot be changed because they are required for Windows to run properly.

To delete a file or folder

1. Open Windows Explorer.


2. Click the file or folder you want to delete.
3. On the File menu, click Delete.

Notes

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.
Deleted files remain in the Recycle Bin until you empty it unless you press and hold
down SHIFT while dragging an item to the Recycle Bin. Then the item is deleted from
your computer without being stored in the Recycle Bin.
If you want to retrieve a file you have deleted, double-click Recycle Bin on the
desktop, right-click the file you want to retrieve, and then click Restore.
You can also delete files or folders by right-clicking the file or folder and then clicking
Delete.

To delete or restore files in the Recycle Bin

1. On the desktop, double-click Recycle Bin.


2. Do one of the following:
o To restore an item, right-click it, and then click Restore.
o To restore all of the items, on the Edit menu, click Select All, and then on the
File menu, click Restore.
o To delete an item, right-click it, and then click Delete.
o To delete all of the items, on the File menu, click Empty Recycle Bin.

Notes

Deleting an item from the Recycle Bin permanently removes it from your computer.
Items deleted from the Recycle Bin cannot be restored.
You can also delete items by dragging them into the Recycle Bin. If you press SHIFT
while dragging, the item is deleted from your computer without being stored in the
Recycle Bin.
Restoring an item in the Recycle Bin returns that item to its original location.
To retrieve several items at once, hold down CTRL, and then click each item that you
want to retrieve. When you have finished selecting the items that you want to
retrieve, on the File menu, click Restore.

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If you restore a file that was originally located in a deleted folder, the folder is
recreated in its original location, and then the file is restored in that folder.
The following items are not stored in the Recycle Bin and cannot be restored:
o Items deleted from network locations.
o Items deleted from removable media (such as 3.5-inch disks).
o Items that is larger than the storage capacity of the Recycle Bin.

To search for a file or folder

1. Click Start, point to Search, and then click For Files or Folders.
2. In Search for files or folders named, type all or part of the file name or folder you
want to find.
3. To search for files containing specific text, in Containing text, type the text you want
to find.
4. In Look in, click the drive, folder, or network you want to search.
5. To specify additional search criteria, click Search Options, and then click one or
more of the following options to narrow your search:
o Select Date to look for files that were created or modified on or between
specific dates.
o Select Type to look for files of a specific type, such as a text or WordPad
document
o Select Size to look for files of a specific size.
o Select Advanced Options to specify additional search criteria.
6. Click Search Now.

Notes

If you get too many results, try entering additional search criteria to make your
search more specific.
To clear the search criteria fields and begin a new search, click New.
Under Advanced Options, Search slow files refers to files that reside on removable
storage media, such as optical or tape backup. These files may need to be copied to a
faster storage medium before the contents can be searched.

To create a shortcut in a folder

1. Open Windows Explorer.


2. In the Folders list, click the folder in which you want to create the shortcut.
3. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Shortcut.
4. Follow the instructions on your screen.

Notes

To open Windows Explorer, click Start, point to Programs, point to Accessories,


and then click Windows Explorer.
Folders can also be opened by double-clicking the folder in the details pane on the
right.

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A shortcut is a quick way to start a frequently used program or open a file or folder
without having to go to its installed location. For information about creating shortcuts
on the desktop or Start menu, see Related Topics.

The Different File Types

TYPE APPLICATION OR COMMON NAME EXTENSION


Word Microsoft Word .doc
Processing
Generic .txt ; .rtf
WordPerfect .wpd
Spreadsheet Microsoft Excel .xls
Microsoft Works .wks
Lotus 1-2-3 .wk1 ; .wk2 ;
.wk3
Database Microsoft Access .mdb ; .adp
dBase .dbf
Presentation Microsoft PowerPoint .ppt
Image Bitmap .bmp
JPEG .jpg
Audio Wave .wav
Video Windows Media .wma
MPEG .mpg
Compressed PKZip .zip
Temporary A special file created by the system .tmp

VIRUSES

A computer virus can put you out of business quick. If your computer is infected by a virus
you cant do too much to combat these hideous files and protect your system. So you need to
focus on prevention.

Technically, virus is a file that replicates itself. But most computer viruses also have other
effects. They might delete files on your hard drive, hijack your internet connection or cause
programs to stop working. Some viruses send email from your account to spread them.
Either installs back doors on your computer, so that malicious users can control your
computer remotely. Viruses are destructive and you should avoid them at all costs.

Protecting your System

Regardless of how careful you are, you can become infected with a virus. The best way to
protect yourself is with special software. There are a number of software programs know as
virus-scanning applications on the market that are designed to scan your incoming email and

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your system for viruses, When a virus is found, the software deals with it before it can infect
your system.

Scanning for Viruses

Most virus-scanning software is enables all the time. That way, it can check for infected files
every time you download email.

On a regular basis, youll also want to check your system, just to make sure its clean. An
undetected virus could be causing problems you dont yet know about. At the very least, it is
a ticking time bomb. Run scans often by launching your virus-scanning software and
choosing the appropriate scan options

The Importance of Regular Updates

Malicious developers are releasing new viruses that attack vulnerable systems every day. To
be truly effective, the scanning software must be current. That means youll probably need to
download new virus-detecting files on a regular basis.

PRINT MANAGEMENT

Installing a New Printer

1) Connect the printer to the CPU as instructed in your documentation.


2) Open the Control Panel and click the printers and Other Hardware link.
3) Under Pick a Task, click the Add Printer link (Add Printer wizard will be launch and
will ask you few questions about your new printer and then integrate the printer with
your system. Just answer each question and click Next to continue)

Print Outputs

To print a document

1. Open the document you want to print.


2. On the File menu of the program you are using, click Print.

To specify your default printer

1. Open Printers.
2. If you have more than one printer installed on your computer, right-click the printer
you want to use as the default printer, and then click Set as Default Printer.

A check mark appears next to the printer icon in the Printers folder.

To view documents waiting to print

1. Open Printers.
2. Double-click the printer for which you want to view the documents waiting to print.

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Module 3
Word Processing

GETTING STARTED

MICROSOFT WORD is general purpose word processing software. You can use MS Word
to create a simple document such as letters and memos, even a professional looking
publication such as newsletter or books

OPENING A WORD PROCESSING APPLICATION


(MICROSOFT WORD)

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PARTS OF THE MS WORD WINDOW

MINIMIZE
TITLE BAR

CLOSE

MENU BAR
STANDAR
D

CLICK TO RESTORE
SELECT DIFF FORMATTING
TAB STOPS TOOLBAR
RULER
LEFT
MARGIN &
INDENTS

HELP

RULER
NEWBLANK
DOCUMENT VERTICA
L SCROLL
BAR

HORIZONTAL
SCROLL BAR

STATUS BAR

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THE MENUS

FILE EDIT MENU VIEW MENU

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INSERT FORMAT TOOLS


MENU MENU MENU

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WINDOW
TABLE MENU
MENU HELP
MENU

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STANDARD TOOLBAR

NEW OPEN SAVE PERMISSION E-MAIL

PRINT PRINT PREVIEW SPELLING&GRAMMAR


RESEARCH

CUT COPY PAST FORMAT PAINTER


UNDO

REDO INSERT HYPERLINK TABLES & BORDERS


INSERT TABLE

INSERT MS EXCEL WORKSHEET COLUMNS


DRAWING

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DOCUMENT MAP SHOW/HIDE ZOOM


HELP

FORMATTING TOOLBARS

STYLES & FORMATTING STYLES FONTS

FONT SIZE

BOLD ITALIC UNDERLINE ALIGN


LEFT

CENTER ALIGN RIGHT JUSTIFY


DISTRIBUTED

LINE SPACING LEFT TO RIGHT RIGHT TO LEFT


NUMBERING

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BULLETS DECREASE INDENT INCREASE INDENT

OUTSIDE BORDER HIGHLIGHT FONT


COLOR

OPENING, CLOSING AND CREATING DOCUMENTS

Open a file

1. In your Microsoft Office program, click File, and then click Open.
2. In the Look in list, click the drive or folder, that contains the file you want to open.
3. In the folder list, locate and open the folder that contains the file.
4. Click the file, and then click Open.

Other ways of opening files:

Click the Open button on the Standard Toolbar; or press CTRL + O

SWITCHING BETWEEN OPEN DOCUMENTS

Each time you open a Word document, a Word button appears on the taskbar containing the
name of the document you open. To switch between word documents, just click the button at
the task bar or click Window on the menu bar then click the document you want to edit.

OPEN SEVERAL DOCUMENTS AT ONCE

1. Click the Open button on the Tool bar


2. In the Folder lists, double click folders until you open the folder that contains the
document you want.
3. To select non-adjacent files in a single folder, click the name of one file, hold down
CTRL Key and click the name of each additional file; to select adjacent files, click the
name of the first file, and hold down SHIFT Key then click the name of the last file.
4. Click Open

Creating a New Document

You can create a new document using any of the following methods:

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Click the New button on the toolbar or


Choose New from File Menu, or
Press CTRL + N

Whenever you open the MS Word program, a new blank document is automatically created
and named Document 1. You can see its file name at the top left corner of the title bar.

You type your text at the left of the blinking insertion point: Type the word FACE
FOREVER

1. Click the Save button or click Save on the File Menu.

2. A Dialog Box will appear.

A DIALOG BOX is a
window in which
you provide
information to a
program

3. By default you will be saving your file in the My Documents folder.

When you save a new document, MS word initially fills the filename box with the first sentence
or word you typed on your document. To change the filename, Type the new filename

4. Type the word Batch 1 as your filename


5. Click the Save button.

Closing a Document

Before closing a document always remember to save your file first.

Click File on the menu bar, then click Close

Or; Click the Close button on the upper right corner of your window

SAVING AND RENAMING DOCUMENTS

Save a Document

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To quickly save a document, click Save on the Standard toolbar. To save a document in a
different location or format, use the procedures below.

Save a copy of a file

On the File menu, click Save As.

1. In the File name box, enter a new name for the file.
2. Click Save.

To save the copy in a different folder, click a different location in the Save in list or a
different folder in the folder list, or both. To save the copy in a new folder, click Create
New Folder

Save a file to another format

1. On the File menu, click Save As.


2. In the File name box, enter a new name for the file.
3. Click the Save as type list, and then click the file format that you want the file saved
in.
4. Click Save.

Save files automatically when I work

1. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Save tab.
2. Select the Save AutoRecover info every check box.
3. In the minutes box, enter the interval for how often you want to save files. The more
frequently your files are saved, the more information is recovered if there is a power
failure or similar problem while a file is open.

Note AutoRecover is not a replacement for regularly saving your files. If you choose not to
save the recovery file after opening it, the file is deleted and your unsaved changes are lost. If
you save the recovery file, it replaces the original file (unless you specify a new file name).

Speed up saving a file

1. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Save tab.
2. To save only the changes to a file, select the Allow fast saves check box, and then
continue to save as you work on the file.
3. To save a complete file, clear the Allow fast saves check box when you finish working
on the file, and then save it one last time. A full save occurs when this check box is
cleared.

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Save a Word document as a Web page or a frames page

1. On the File menu, click Save as Web Page.


2. If you want to save the document in a different folder, locate and open the folder.
3. In the File name box, type a name for the document.
4. Click Save.

Save a document as an XML file

1. On the File menu, click Save As.


2. In the Save as type box, click XML Document.
3. In the File name box, type the document name.
4. Click Save.

Note: To save all open documents at the same time, hold down SHIFT and click Save All on
the File menu. Microsoft Word saves all open documents and templates at the same time. If
any open documents have never been saved, the Save As dialog box appears so that you can
name them.

Renaming a Document

There are two ways to approach a renaming task. But you have to remember that you might
end up with one file (losing original file ) or end up with two (the original and the new one).

To Rename a document and retain both copies:

1. Open the original file and choose Save As from the File Menu
2. Overwrite the current filename in the File Name Control
3. Click Save

To Rename the file and overwrite the original file:

1. Click the Open button from the standard toolbar


2. In the Open dialog box, right click the file in the list
3. Select the Rename from the pop up menu
4. Enter the new name and press Enter.

GETTING HELP

Most application provides an extensive Help feature that you can quickly access. Most of the
time youll find Help on the main menu bar. Open the menus drop down list to learn what
options your software offers.

There are three options youll probably use frequently:

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1) Microsoft Word Help Provides Wed enabled access to a number of useful articles and
other Help options. Alternately, you press F1; or (?) from the formatting toolbar.

2) Whats This? Display a screen tip for the specified option. Select an item, such as a
control or a menu command, and press Shift + F1 to change the cursor to an arrow with
question mark. Click on any part of the Word with this cursor to view a short explanation of
the element.

3) Office On the Web Connects to Microsofts online Office site, which gives you access to
an extensive library of articles and useful hints.

ADJUST SETTINGS

Word is very flexible and allows you to determine a number of environmental settings.

Viewing Modes

To view your documents into different perspective, go to View Menu and select any of the
following view modes:

Normal - A view that shows text formatting and a simplified page layout.
Normal view is convenient for most editing and formatting task.
Print Layout - A view of a document or other object as it will appear when you
print it. For example, items such as headers, footnotes, columns, and text boxes
appear in their actual positions. This view is useful for editing headers and footers, for
adjusting margins, and for working with columns and drawing objects. If you'd like to
type and edit text in this view, you can save screen space by hiding white space at the
top and bottom of the page.
Web Layout - A view of a document as it will appear in a Web browser. In Web
layout view, backgrounds are visible, text is wrapped to fit the window, and graphics
are positioned just as they are in a Web browser.
Outline - : A view that shows the headings of a document indented to represent
their level in the document's structure.

Zooming In

The Zoom Tool on the formatting toolbar lets you quickly zoom in or out of the current
document. Simply select a value from the controls drop down list or; Go to View Menu and
select Zoom, then click the desired percentage of zoom.

WORKING WITH TEXT AND DATA

Data comes in all shapes and sizes which includes plain text and other special characters and
symbols.

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Inserting Text & Special Characters

Once you have a document to work with, inserting data is the simplest thing youll do.
Simply grab your keyboard and start typing.

Inserting normal text is easy, but the keyboard doesnt offer every character you might need.
When you need to insert a special character or symbol, position the cursor at the point within
your document where you want to insert the special character or symbol, then do the
following steps :

1. Go to Insert Menu and choose Symbol to display the symbol dialog box

Click to Click to see


View special
Symbols characters

This button will


be replaced by
CLOSE button
after clicking
insert button
2. Select the desired symbol then click Insert button followed by Close button.

Edit Data

You can edit a document by inserting new characters or by replacing existing characters
with new ones. To insert new characters, follow these steps:

1. Words default is Insert Mode. You can tell whether the document is in the right mode
by checking the status bar for the OVR icon. If it is dimmed, you are in Insert mode, if
not, just press the Insert from the keyboard to make the OVR icon active.
2. Position the cursor where you want to add the new characters
3. Start typing.

If you just want to insert characters without replacing the existing one, position the cursor
where do you want to add characters then start typing.

Using Undo & Redo

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Editing does not always involve adding or replacing new text. For instance you might decide
to italicize or bold a word or phrase or you might delete characters altogether. Occasionally,
you even change your mind and then sometimes you even change your mind again! That is
when the Undo and Redo buttons come in handy. The Undo button acts as a sort of cancel
feature and the Redo button cancels the last cancel action. The Undo button tracks your
actions and any time you want to cancel an action, you simply click Undo. Alternately you
can choose Undo Typing from the Edit Menu or press CTRL+Z.

Select Data

The easiest way to select data is to simply drag the mouse pointer over the text. But there
are a number of shortcuts that can make selection easier.

Number of Keystrokes and Mouse Combination for Selecting Text

KEYSTROKE RESULTS

DoubleClick Selects the word under the cursor.

Triple Click Selects the paragraph containing the cursor.

Click in left Margin Selects the line that you clicked next to.

Ctrl + Click Selects the sentence under the cursor.


Selects text that you drag the mouse over, as long as you
Click + Drag
hold the button down.
Shift + Right Arrow Selects the next character.

Shift + Left Arrow Selects the previous character.


Selects all the previous characters in the current line and the
Shift + Up Arrow
previous line up to the point of insertion
Selects all the characters to the right of the insertion point
Shift + Down Arrow and up to that point in the next line. The insertion point is
the point where the text entry cursor is currently displayed.
CTRL+Shift+Right Selects from the insertion point to the end of the current
Arrow word.
Ctrl + Shift + Left Selects from the insertion point to the beginning of the
Arrow current word.
Shift + End Selects form the insertion point to the end of the current line.
Selects from the insertion point to the beginning of the
Shift + Home
current line.
Ctrl+Shift+Down Selects from the insertion point to the end of the current
Arrow paragraph.
Ctrl+Shift+Up Selects from insertion point to the beginning of the current
Arrow paragraph.
Shift + PageDown Selects one screen down from the insertion point.

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Shift + Page Up Selects one screen up from the insertion point .


Selects form the insertion point the beginning of the
Ctrl + Shift + Home
document.
Ctrl + Shift + End Selects from the insertion point to the end of the document.

Ctrl + A Selects the entire document.

COPY, MOVE & DELETE

Move or Copy text

1. Select the item you want to move or copy.


2. To move the item, Click Cut on the Standard toolbar or To copy the item, click Copy
on the Standard toolbar.
3. Go to the document where you want the item to be moved or copied
4. Click Paste on the Standard toolbar.

Or using the Menu bar,

1. Select the item you want to move or copy


2. Go to Edit Menu and click Cut for Moving or Copy for Copying.
3. Go to the document where you want it to be moved or copied
4. Go back to Edit Menu and click Paste.

Copying or Sending a File to 3 Floppy Disk

Right-click the file, move your mouse down to Send To, then click 3 Floppy A.

Delete a Text or File

To delete a text, just select the text you want to delete and click the Delete button on the
Keyboard. To delete a file, do the following steps:

1) On the Standard Toolbar, click Open


2) From the dialog box, locate and open the folder that contains the file you want to
delete
3) Right Click the file to be deleted then click delete from the Shortcut Menu

Search and Replace

It is easy to find a specific word or phrase in a small document. But the larger the document
is, the harder this visual task becomes. When you need to find something, use the Find
Command.

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Search for specific Word or Phrase

1. To find a specific word or phrase in the current document, choose Find from the Edit menu
or Press CTRL + F.

2. Enter the word or phrase in Find and Replace dialog box

3. And Click Find Next (Word highlights the first occurrence of the entered text

Replace

Using Find features can easily Replace text. After finding the text; select the Replace from
the Edit Menu and enter the replace word in the Find and Replace dialog box and click
Replace or Replace All to quickly replace all the words in the whole document.

Finding a File

When you want to open a file and you forget the exact filename, you can use the Open
Window Panel to search for the file.

1. Click the Open icon in the toolbar


2. In the Look In box click the Drop down arrow then click the drive where the file might
be located.

FORMATTING A DOCUMENT

The Formatting Toolbar is the toolbar used for formatting your documents. Using the
formatting toolbar, you can change the font, font size, text color, text background and many
more.

If you do not see your Formatting Toolbar on your screen, click View on the Menu bar, move
your mouse down to Toolbars then click Formatting.

Text Formatting

1. Select the text you want to format


2. To change the font, click the arrow beside the font box then select the font
3. To change the font size, click the size box then choose among available sizes.
4. To use Italic, click italic Button.

Or, Go to Format Menu, then click Font, a dialogue box will appear with different options.
You can also apply Subscript or Superscript, using color and many more.

Copy Character and Paragraph Formats

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1. To copy paragraph formatting, select the paragraph that has the formatting you want
to copy; or to copy character formatting, select the text that has the formatting you
want to copy.
2. Click the Format Painter on your Toolbar
3. Select the paragraph or text you want to apply the formatting.

SETTING THE DEFAULT FONT

1. Click Format on the menu bar then click Font


2. In the Font Tab, click the font you want to set as default
3. Click the Default button
4. Click YES when prompted by a question do you want to change the default font?
Font Dialogue box,
gives you different
options such as
font, font style,
2 size, underline, etc.
1

Using Styles

To apply a style to existing text, select the text which can be a character, a word a line or an
entire paragraph. Then Choose a Style from the Style controls drop down list on the
Formatting toolbar. The text will take on the attributes of the chosen styles.

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FORMATTING A PARAGRAPH

1. Select the paragraph you want to format


2. Click Format on the menu bar then click Paragraph
3. Click the Alignment arrow & select the one you wish to apply {LEFT, RIGHT,
CENTERED, ETC}
4. Click OK

Or if you want to use Indentation & Line Spacing

5. Click First line by .5 in the Indentation (Special)


2
6. Click Double in Line Spacing
7. Click Ok

4&7

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BORDERS & SHADING

To put borders:

1. Select the paragraph or page you want to add border


2. Click Format on the menu bar then click Borders & shading. A dialogue box will
appear with the following options: BORDER, PAGE BORDER, SHADING
3. Click the Borders tab
4. Click Box,
5. Click OK

3
2

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3) To put
shading, follow
4 step 1 & 2,
then click
Shading Tab

4) Select the
color in Fill Box

6 5) Click OK

5
4&7

ABOUT BULLETED AND NUMBERED LISTS

Bulleted and numbered lists in Microsoft Word are easy to create. You can quickly add
bullets or numbers to existing lines of text, or Word can automatically create lists as you
type.

1. On the Format menu, click Bullets and Numbering,


2. Click the tab for the type of list you want to modify.
3. Click the list format you want.

OUTLINE NUMBERED NUMBERED

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BULLETTED LIST STYLES

Setting a TAB STOP

1. Select the paragraph or click any part of the paragraph where you want to set the Tab
Stop.

2. Click the Tab Stops at the left of the horizontal ruler until it changes to the type of
Tab you want.

3. Click the horizontal ruler where you want to set a Tab Stop.

4. To set precise measurements for Tabs, follow these steps:

a) Click Format on the menu bar then click Tabs.

b) On the dialog box, click the Tab Stop Position then type the desired tab stop
position

c) Click the Set button.

Clearing Tabs

1. To clear a single tab, click the individual tab position from the TAB dialog box
2. Click the Clear button.
3. To clear all tabs, click the Clear All button
4. Click OK when finished.

DOCUMENT FORMATTING
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Page Set Up

Using Page Set Up, you can change the margin, paper size & orientation before printing your
document. If you want to change the margin, follow the steps below:

1. Click File on the Menu Bar, then Click Page Set Up (a dialog box will appear)
2. Click the corresponding Margin Box then type the desired distance (inch)
3. Then Click OK

If you want to change the paper orientation & size, just select it from the Page Set up
dialog box and apply the desired set up for your document.

Your document can be preview while changing its settings

Active TAB

Margin Tab-
allows you set
the top, bottom,
left & right
margin.
- to change the
paper orientation
: Landscape or
portrait

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HEADERS & FOOTERS

Headers and footers help you maintain consistency from page to page. Youll use them to
display page numbers, document names and locations or any other important information
about your document.

Header text appears at the top of every printed page inyour document while footer text
appears at the bottom of the page. To put a header or footers,

1. Go to View Menu and select headers & footers (a header & footer toolbar will appear)
2. Type the text in header portion; switch to footer by clicking the icon on the Header &
Footer Toolbar.
3. After entering all the text, click the close button to close it.

If you want to modify a header or footer, you can open it from the View Menu again; or double
click either the header or footer and the header & footer toolbar will become active.

WORKING WITH TABLES

Tables are often used to organize and present information. It is made up or rows and
columns of cells that you can fill with texts and graphics.

Creating a Table

1. Click the Tables & Borders button on the toolbar


2. As Tables & Borders toolbar appear, the mouse button turns into a Pencil pointer
3. Drag the pencil pointer to create the outline of the table, then release the mouse
button
4. To draw a column, drag the pencil pointer from the top table boundary down to the
bottom boundary.
5. Repeat the same procedure to add another column.
6. To create a row, drag the pencil pointer from the left table boundary to the right table
boundary. Repeat the same process until you arrive at the desired number of rows.

To Insert Data on the Table

1. Click the Draw table button to turn it off.


2. Click on the first cell on the table then type the desired content
3. Press the tab or right arrow key on your keyboard to move to the next cell. You will
notice that the height of the row automatically adjusts depending upon the length of
the text you typed in the cell table.
Pressing TAB when you are in the last cell will add another row into the table.
Pressing Shift + Tab will move to the previous cell
Pressing the UP or Down arrow key on your keyboard will move to the next or
previous row

Creating a Table Using the Menu Bar

1. Go to Table at the Menu Bar

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2. Select Insert then Click Table, a dialog box will appear


3. Type the number of Columns & Rows you want to insert
4. Click OK

Inserting Rows, Column or Cell

1. Select the reference cell


2. Click Table on the menu bar, Select Insert then click the available/selected options

Moving a Table

1. Move your mouse pointer over the table until you see a little Move Box at the top left
of the table.
2. Drag the move box the desired location

Positioning a Table

You can also position or move a table without dragging the Move box.

1. Click anywhere on the Table


2. Click Table on the Menu Bar, then click Table Properties
3. Click the Table tab then make the necessary selection on the available Alignment
options

One of the great features of MS Word is the ability to wrap the text around the table. To do
this:

1. Click Around in the Text Wrapping Options


2. Click the Positioning button, (the table positioning dialog box will appear)
3. Make the necessary changes for the desired Horizontal or Vertical Position relative to
Page, paragraph or Margin
4. Click OK when finished

Formatting Table Borders and Lines

To highlight and improve the appearance of your table you can format its borders and lines

1. Click the Draw Table button


2. Click the Line Style Box then click the desired line style
3. Click the border line of your table that you want to format

Removing Borders from a Table

To remove all borders from a table, highlight the table

1. Click Format on the menu bar then click Borders and Shading
2. Click the Borders Tab
3. Click None in the Setting option
4. Click OK

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SPELLING AND GRAMMAR

Correcting the Spelling

As you type your text, MS Word automatically checks the spelling of the words you typed. It
underlines the misspelled word, duplicated word, word that are not separated by space and
words that are not found in its built in dictionary.

Right Click the word that are marked in red then click the appropriate correction.

Repeated word

Misspelled
word

Automatic Spelling Correction

To add words that you commonly mistyped follow these steps::

1. Click Tools on the menu bar then click AutoCorrect


2. Click the Replace box then type the mis-spelled word
3. Click the With box and type the right spelling for the word
4. Click OK

INSERTING PICTURE TO A DOCUMENT

Inserting a Clip Art

A Clip Art is a ready made drawing object or picture stored on the ClipArt Gallery. To insert
a clipart follow these steps:

1. Click In your document where you want to insert your Clip Art.
2. Click Insert on the Menu Bar, point to Picture then click ClipArt
3. Click to any of the available category
4. Click OK

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MAIL MERGE

A mail merge is a process of merging two documents into a new document. You start with
two documents known as the main document and the data source document. The main
document is usually a form letter or something similar. The data source contains the data
you need to personalize each letter such as names, addresses and other information pertinent
to the recipient of the finished document.

Steps to follow:

1. Open the main document. You can either create a new document or open a letter that
you have already written.
2. Click Tools on the menu bar then click Mail Merge (the mail merge Helper dialog box
will appear)
3. Click Create button, then click Form letter
4. Click Active window (this will convert your letter to a form letter); or Click New main
document button (if you want to create a new form document)
5. Click Get Data button then click Create Data Source.
6. Choose the appropriate fields for the document.
7. When the list is ready, click OK and Save the data source file when you prompted to
do so.
8. Click Edit Data Source to display the data form and you may now enter the required
data.
9. Click the Add New button and type the next record.
10. Click OK when finished.
11. Insert each field in the appropriate location of your document by clicking the Insert
merge Field button, and then click the field name.
12. Click the View Merged Data button to view the merged data.
13. Click the Start Mail merge button on the toolbar (the merge dialog box will appear)
14. Click the Merge button.

PRINTING

One of the most important features of a word processor is being able to print or make a hard
copy of your document. Before printing you can see onscreen exactly how the printed
document will look on the paper. Just click the Print Preview from the standard toolbar or go
to File Menu.

To print your document,

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1. Click File on the menu bar then click Print


2. Click the arrow in the Printer Name then select a printer
3. Click to select any of the available options in the Page Range box.
4. Make the necessary selection then click OK when finished.

Print all the


Select from Change the
pages in the
multiple printer
document printers properties

Print selected
parts of the
Enter no.
of copies

Print just the


current page
Print a range
of paper

Module 4
Spreadsheets

GETTING STARTED

Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program designed to create, organize and analyze data. It is
a very powerful tool for day to day business activities such as preparing a simple invoice,
making an office form or managing a complex accounting ledger. With Microsoft Excel, these
activities have been greatly facilitated.

Learning the basics of Excel is analogous to investing in easy and simple tools that can make
us more efficient in our work thus enhance our productivity.

Using MS Excel, you can do the following:


Design business forms
Create a Chart
Sort List

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Prepare Monthly Sales and Expense Reports


Prepare Product Inventory
Make Loan Payment Schedule

OPENING MICROSOFT EXCEL

1. Click Start
2. Point/click Program
3. Click Microsoft Excel

You can also start Excel and create a new blank worksheet by following these steps:

1. Click Start
2. Click New Office Document
3. On the General Tab, click Blank Worksheet
4. Click OK

Terms to be Familiar With

WORKBOOK The file in which you work and stores your date. It
contains one or more worksheets
WORKSHEET CELLS The intersections of rows and columns. They are
referenced individually by their cell names or cell
addresses.

Parts of the Microsoft Excel window:

Formula Bar -Appears below the toolbars and displays the contents of the active cell
in a workbook.
Name Box - Appears above the Column A heading and displays the name of the
current or active cell.
Active cell - The current selected cell.
Worksheet tabs Appear at the bottom of the workbook and allow you to move from
one worksheet to another.

Tab Scrolling buttons- Appear to the left of the sheet tabs and allow you to scroll the
display of the worksheet tabs one at a time or display the first or last grouping of
sheet tabs within a workbook.
Task pane Appears to the right of the workbook window on as-needed basis.

Saving a Workbook

Both save and Save As commands can be used to save a file to disk. However the Save and
Save As commands are used in slightly different situations.

On the File menu, click Save.

Note If you're saving the file for the first time, you'll be asked to give it a name.

Save a copy of a file


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1. On the File menu, click Save As.


2. In the File name box, enter a new name for the file.
3. Click Save.

To save the copy in a different folder, click a different drive in the Save in drop-down list or a
different folder in the folder list, or both. To save the copy in a new folder, click

Switch between workbooks

1. Click Window on the menu bar to display the open workbook window
2. Click from the list of open window the workbook you want to switch to.

Closing a Workbook

Before closing a workbook always remember to save your file first.

Click File on the menu bar then click Close, or


Click the close button on the upper right corner of your window.

You can close all open workbooks without exiting the program by holding down SHIFT and
click Close All on the File Menu
When you forgot to save your file while closing your workbook, a dialog box and will ask you
whether to save your file. You may select from the options given.

CELLS

Entering Data

To enter data into an Excel spreadsheet:


1) Either create anew workbook or open an existing workbook.
2) Select the cell in which you want to enter data.
3) Type the data you want the cell to contain

4) Either press Enter or Tab to place the data into the cell and move the insertion point
to a new cell.
Press enter to move down to one cell or Press Tab to move right one cell

Select Cells

To select cell, move your pointer directly above the cell that you want to select then
click it.
To select ranges of cells, click the cell then drag to highlight the cell you want to
select.
To select range of adjacent rows or columns, click the first row you want to select then
hold the Shift Key from the keyboard then click the last row/columns.
To select range of adjacent rows or columns, click the first row/column then press
CTRL key on the keyboard then click the other rows/column you want to select.
To select an entire row, click the row heading

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ROWS AND COLUMNS

Insert Rows

Click the row where you want to insert new rows; Choose Insert Menu and select Rows

Insert Columns

Click the column where you want to insert new column; Choose Insert Menu and select
columns.

Insert Cells

Click the existing cell that you would like to insert a cell next to.
Choose Insert menu and select Cells
In the Insert dialog box, select the appropriate option and then click \OK to insert the
new cell. The following are the options available in the Insert dialog box:
Shift Cells Right
Shift Cells Down
Entire Row
Entire Column

Delete Cells, rows and columns

Select the existing cell. Row or column that you want to delete
Choose Edit Menu and select delete
Columns and rows will delete automatically but if you have selected a cell for
deletion, the Delete Dialog ox will open with these options:
Shift Cells Left
Shift Cells Up
Entire Row
Entire Column

FIND, REPLACE AND GO TO CELL DATA

Find Cell Data

Go to Edit Menu, select Find to pen the Find and Replace dialog box
In the Find What Field, type the value you want to find
Click Find Next to find each instance of the value in the workbook
In the Find and Replace dialog box, Click Close when you are finished.

Replace Cell Data


Go to Edit Menu, select Replace to open the Find and Replace dialog box
In the Find What field, type the value you want to find
In the replace With field, type the new value that will replace the existing value.
Click Find Next to find each instance of the value in the workbook
Click Replace to replace any instance you want to change
In the Find And Replace dialog box, click Close when you are finished

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Go to Specific Cell Data


Go to Edit Menu and select Go to open the Go To dialog box
From the Go To list, select the name of the cell you want to go to, or type the cell
reference in the Reference field
Click OK to go to the cell and close the Go To dialog box.

DUPLICATE, MOVE, DELETE DATA

Move or copy characters or datas within a cell

Select the characters you want to move or copy


Go to Edit Menu then click cut (to move) then click the new location; go to Edit again
and click paste;

Go to Edit Menu then click cut (to copy) then click the new location; go to Edit again
and click paste

Copy only values formulas or cell formats

Click the cell containing the data you want to copy then click copy on the toolbar
Right-click the location where you want to copy the cell contents then click Paste
Special
The Paste Special dialog box will appear; Click among the available selection
If you want to paste values, click Values; If you want to paste the formulas, click
Formulas
Click OK

FORMATTING

Formatting a worksheet includes making changes to cell contents to make it stand out. This
way you make your worksheet more attractive and professional.

Formatting Text

Changing Font style and size

Select the cell or range of cells you want to format; go to Format Menu
Select Cells and the dialog box will appear; Click the Font Tab then select your
desired Font, font style or size and click OK

Text Alignment

Select the cell or range of cells you want to format; go to Format Menu
Select Cells and the dialog box will appear; Click the alignment Tab then click the
desired alignment.
Click OK.

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Adding Borders

Select the cell you want to add borders; Click the Format Menu, then click Cells
Click the border Tab, and select the kind of borders you want; then click OK

To clear or remove the borders, click the NONE button on the border window,

Number Formats

Right-click the cell you want to format then click Format Cells
Click the Number Tab, then click Number on the category box.
Click the up arrow on the Decimal places box to increase or decrease Decimal Places
Click to check the Use 1000 separator to add comma
Click any of the available Negative Number option format to your negative numbers
Click OK

You can also apply quick number formats by using the Formatting Toolbars

PERCENT STYLE INCREASE DECIMAL


applies the percent style to Increases the number of digits
the selected cell displayed after the decimal point in
the selected cells
COMMA STYLE DECREASE DECIMAL
applies the comma style to Decreases the number of digits
the selected cell displayed after the decimal point in
the selected cells

FORMULAS AND FUNCTIONS

A formula is an equation that performs operations on worksheet data. It can perform


mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. A
formula in MS Excel always begins with an equal sign (=). The equal sign tells Excel that the
succeeding characters constitute a formula.

Entering A Formula

Click the cell you want a formula to be entered


Type (=) equal sign, Enter(type) a Formula
Press enter

Editing A Formula
Double click the cell that contains the formula
Use the back space or delete key to delete formula entry then type the changes you
want.

Copy a Formula using the windows clipboard

Right click the cell containing the formula you want to copy, then click Copy

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Select the cell where you want to paste the formula you copied, then right click the
selected cells
Click Paste Special ; Click Formulas; Click OK

Calculate subtotal and grand total

Select the range of cells you want to make a Sub total and Grand total for
Click Data on the menu bar then click subtotals
From the dialog box, click one from the selection .At each change in
Click sum in the use Function box
Click to check among the available selections in the Add subtotal to box
Click OK

Functions

Functions are pre-designed formulas you can use to performs a variety of calculations, from
adding, counting, etc. Excel includes hundreds of functions you can use for financial,
engineering and other mathematical equations.

Common Sample Functions

FUNCTION DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE


SUM Adds values or ranges of cells =SUM (argument)

AVERAGE Displays the average value in the argument =AVERAGE(arguments)

COUNT Calculate the number of values in the argument =COUNT (arguments)


Calculates loan payment based on an interest
PMT =PMT(argument)
rates, length of loan and the principal amount

CHART
Chart is a visual representation of a selected data on a worksheet. It is a very useful tool to
show trends in data, comparison and patterns. Excel generates chart based on the data you
select

Creating a Chart

1. Select a range of data you want to chart (include row and column labels)
2. Click Insert on the menu bar then click Chart or Chart wizard button
3. Click to select the Chart Type
4. Click to select the Chart Sub Type
5. Click the Press and Hold to View Sample button to view a sample of your chart
6. Click Next
7. Select the appropriate button to plot the data series
8. Click back if you change your mind and make the necessary changes
9. Click Chart Type (column); Click Chart Sub-type; Click Next; Click Next
10. Type the Chart Title
11. Type the Label for x-axis (optional); Type the Label for Y-axis (optional)
12. Click Data labels Tab
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13. Click the Show Value button to display the values on the chart
14. Click Next; Click an option where you would like to place the chart
15. Click Finish

PRINTING A WORKSHEET

Page Set up

Click File on the menu bar then click Page set up


Click to choose either Portrait or Landscape to determine page orientation
Click Fit to (radio button) then enter the number of pages you want your work to fit
(if you want to fit your work to your desired number of pages)
Click the arrow and choose the type of print quality you want on the Print Quality
box
Click Adjust to on the scaling option and enter the % on the appropriate box or click
the up or down arrow to enlarge or reduce the size of the printed characters.
Click the arrow beside the paper size box, then choose the paper size you want (if
you are printing on a short bond paper choose 8 x 11)
Click the Margin tab
Click and enter the margin you want to the specific box or click the up or down arrow
to increase or decrease margin.
Click either one of the 2 selections on the center on page to center page horizontally or
vertically.
Click the arrow beside the Header box then select from the available choises of
header. Click none if you dont want to put a header (Do the same process for your
Footer)
Click the Sheet tab
Click to check Gridlines if you want the gridlines to be printed
Click to check the Row and Column heading if you want to include rows and heading
on your print output.
If you want to include comments on your print output click the arrow beside the
comment box and choose a selection
Click the page border if you are printing more than one page
Click the Options buttons ( the printer set up window will appear; you can select
among the available choices on the set up window.
Click OK when finished.

Printing a Selected Range

Select the range oc cells you want to print


Click File on the menu bar then click Print
Click the arrow beside the Printer name box then choose a printer
Click Selection in the Print What option
To Preview the document, click the Preview button
Click OK button to Print

Previewing a Worksheet

You can also preview the worksheet before printing by following these steps:

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Click the Print Preview button or Click File Menu then click Print Preview

The preview window will appear showing how your worksheet will look like when printed.

Click anywhere on the page to zoom in and click again to zoom out.
Click the Margin button to show margin
You can adjust margin by dragging it into a new location when the mouse pointer
turns into double-header arrowhead.
Click the Set up to view the Page set up dialogue box
You can also adjust the column width by dragging it when the mouse pointer turns
into a double headed arrowheads.. After realeasing the mouse button, the column
width is adjusted.

Module 5
Presentation

Introduction into Microsoft PowerPoint

Microsoft PowerPoint is a powerful tool to create professional looking presentations and slide
shows.

Starting Microsoft PowerPoint

Two Ways
1. Double click on the Microsoft PowerPoint icon on the desktop.

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2. Click on Start --> Programs --> Microsoft PowerPoint

Creating & Opening a Presentation

After you open up Microsoft PowerPoint, a screen pops up asking if you would like to create a
New Presentation or Open An Existing Presentation.

or

AutoContent Wizard
o Creates a new presentation by prompting you for information about content,
purpose, style, handouts, and output. The new presentation contains sample
text that you can replace with your own information. Simply follow the
directions and prompts that are given by Microsoft PowerPoint.
Design Template
o Creates a new presentation based on one of the PowerPoint design templates
with different backgrounds and text formatting. Preview each design by
highlighting the template name on the list and press OK after you have chosen
the design.
Blank Presentation
o Creates a new, blank presentation with no preset graphics or formatting.

Opening An Existing Presentation

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1. Select Open An Existing Presentation


2. Click on your presentation in the white box below
o If you do not see your presentation in the white box, select More Files and hit
OK.
o Locate your existing Presentation and hit the Open button

Create a Blank Presentation

After you select Blank Presentation a window pops up asking you to select the layout of the
first slide.

NOTE: If you already know what you want in


your next slide, it is a very good idea to choose
Pre-Designed Slide Layouts (Left toone of the pre-designed layouts from above.
Right)
However if you do not, then you can still insert
Title Slide what you want in throughout your Presentation
Bulleted List anytime you desire. Just choose Blank Slide and
Two Column Text insert items as you see fit.
Table
Text & Chart
Chart & Text
Organizational Chart
Chart
Text & Clip Art
Clip Art & Text
Title Only
Blank Slide

Different Views That PowerPoint Demonstrates

There are different views within Microsoft PowerPoint that allow you to look at your
presentation from different perspectives. You can select the page view by clicking the
buttons at the bottom of the page or from the menu.

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The Screen Layout

The Power Point screen layout in Normal View:

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Normal View Slide View


This screen is split into three sections The slide view displays each slide on the
showing the presentation outline on the screen and is helpful for adding images,
left, the slide in the main window, and formatting text, and adding background
notes at the bottom. styles.

Outline View Slide Sorter View


The presentation outline is displayed on the A small image of each slide is displayed in
majority of the screen with small windows Slide Sorter view. Slides can easily be
for the slide and notes. This view is ordered and sorted from this screen.
recommended for editing text.

Click the Slide Show button to view the full-screen slide show.

Slide Manipulation

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Inserting A New Slide


1. Select Insert>New Slide from the menu or Click the new slide button on the
standard toolbar.
2. Click the page layout you want for the new slide.

Formatting A Slide Background


o You can format your slide to make it look however you would like, whether it
be a background color, picture, or a design template built into Microsoft
PowerPoint. The next step will show you how to apply a Design Template, but
the other items mentioned above can be accomplished the same way.

Applying a Design Template

1. Select Format from the menu


2. Select Slide Design

3. Click the Design you wish to apply

Changing Slide Layouts

1. Select Format>Slide Layout from the menu


2. Click the Design you wish to apply
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Reordering Slides
To reorder a slide in Slide Sorter View, simply click on the slide you wish to
move and drag it to the new location. In Normal or Outline View, click the
slide icon beside the number of the slide you want to move and drag the icon to
a new location.

Hide Slides

If you do not want a slide to appear during the slide show, but do not want to
delete the slide as it may be used later, the slide can be hidden by selecting
Slide Show>Hide Slide from the menu bar. To add the slide back to the slide
show, select Slide Show>Hide Slide again.

Create a Custom Slide Show

The Custom Slide Show feature allows you to select the slides you want to display in the slide
show if not all the slides should be used.

Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.

Click the New... button in the Custom Shows window.

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In the Define Custom Show window, type a name for the slide in the Slide show
name field.

Add slides to the custom show by highlighting them in the Slides in presentation
window and clicking the Add >> button. Those slides will then appear in the Slides
in custom show window.
To remove slides from the custom show, highlight their names in the Slides in
custom show window and click the Remove button.
To reorder slides in the custom show, highlight the slide that should be moved and
click the up and down arrows to change its order in the show.
Click OK when finished.
Click the Show button on the Custom Shows window to preview the custom slide
show and click Close to exit.

Edit a Custom Slide Show

Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.


Edit the show by highlighting the name in the Custom shows box and clicking the
Edit... button.
To delete a show, highlight the name and click Remove.
Create a copy of a show by clicking the Copy button. The copy can then be renamed
by clicking the Edit... button.
Click the Show button to preview the custom slide show and click Close to exit.

Adding Contents

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Bulleted Lists on Design Templates

Bulleted lists allow you to clearly display the main points of your presentation on
slides. The text boxes on design templates already include bulleted lists. Click the
place holder on the slide to begin adding text and press the ENTER key to return to
the next line and add a new bulleted item. To go to the next line without adding
another bullet, hold down the SHIFT key while pressing ENTER.

Bulleted List from a Text Box

If you are not creating a bulleted list from an existing placeholder on a design
template, or if you would like to add an additional bulleted list, follow these steps to
create a new list:

In slide view, create a text box by selecting Insert|Text Box from the menu bar.
"Draw" the text box on the slide by holding down the left mouse button while you
move the mouse until the box is the size you want it.

Choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the menu bar.

Change the Size of the bullet by changing the percentage in relation to the text.
Choose a color for the bullet from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a larger
selection.
Select one of the seven bullet types shown and click OK.
- OR -
Click the Picture button to view the Picture Bullet window. Select one of the
bullets and click OK.
- OR -

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Click the Customize button to select any character from the fonts on the computer.
Select a symbol font such as Wingdings or Webdings from the Bullets from drop-
down menu for the best selection of icons. Click on the characters in the grid to see
them larger. Click OK when you have chosen the bullet you want to use.

Click OK on the Bullets and Numbering window and use the same methods
described in the "Bulleted Lists on Design Templates" to enter text into the
bulleted list.

Numbered List

Follow these steps to create a numbered list:

1. Create a text box.


2. With the text box selected, choose Format|Bullets and Numbering from the
menu bar.
3. Click the Numbered tab at the top of the Bullets and Numbering window.

4. Change the size of the numbers by changing the percentage in relation to the
text.

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5. Choose a color for the numbers from the Color menu. Click More Colors for a
larger selection.
6. Change the Start at value if the numbers should not begin with 1.
7. Select one of the the seven list types shown and click OK.
Resizing a Text Box

Select a text box by clicking on it with the mouse. A border with eight handles will
appear around the text box. The four handles on the corners will resize the length
and the width of the box at once while the handles on the sides will resize only in
one direction. Click one of the handles and drag it with the mouse. Release the mouse
button when it is the size you want it to be. Move the text box by clicking and
dragging the thick, dotted border with the mouse.

Text Box Properties

Change the colors, borders, and backgrounds of a text box from the Format
AutoShape dialog box.

1. Activate the textbox by clicking on it and select Format|Text Box from the menu
bar.
2. Under the Colors and Lines tab, select a Fill color that will fill the background
of the text box. Check the Semitransparent box if you want the slide background
to show through the color.
3. Select a Line color that will surround the box as well as a Style or Weight for the
thickness of the line and a Dashed property if the line should not be solid.

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4. Click the Text Box tab.

5. Change the Text anchor point to reposition the text within the text box.
6. Set Internal margins to the distance the text should be to the text box edges.
7. Click OK to add the changes to the text box.
Delete a Text Box

To delete a text box from a template, simply click the border of the text box and press
the DELETE key on the keyboard.

Adding Notes

From Normal View, notes can be added to the slide. These notes will not be seen on
your presentation, but they can be printed out on paper along with the slide the notes
refer to by selecting Print What: Notes Pages on the Print menu.

Video

To add a video to your presentation select Insert|Movies and Sounds|Movie from


File or to insert an animation from Microsoft's gallery choose Insert|Movies and
Sounds|Movie from Gallery. Select the video file and click OK.

Audio

To add sound to your presentation select Insert|Movies and Sounds|Sound from


Gallery or Sound from File. Select a sound file and click OK.

Adding Text

If the slide layout includes text boxes, simply click on the text box to add text. To add a text
box to the slide, select Insert|Text Box from the menu bar and draw the text box with the
mouse. Set text editing options by selecting Tools|Options from the menu bar and clicking
the Edit tab.

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Formatting Text

Select the text that will be formatted by highlighting the text either on the outline or on the
slide. Choose Format|Font from the menu bar or right-click on the highlighted selection
and select Font from the popup shortcut menu or. Select a font face, size, style, effect, and
color from the Font dialog box. Click the Preview button to see how the changes will appear
on the slide before making a decision.

Replace Fonts

Design templates have a preset font that you may want to change or you may want to change
the font used on for the entire presentation for a number of reasons. This can be
accomplished quickly using the Replace Fonts feature. Select Format|Replace Font from
the menu bar. Choose the font you want to Replace from the first drop-down menu and the
font it should be replaced With from the second menu, and click the Replace button.

Line Spacing

Change the amount of space between lines in a text box by selecting Format|Line Spacing
from the menu bar.

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Line spacing - Select the amount of vertical space between lines. A value of "1" is
equal to single spacing and "2" is double spacing. Values between and above these
numbers are valid as well.

Before paragraph and After paragraph - This value will determine the amount of
vertical space before and after each paragraph in a text box.

Change Case

Change the case of the characters in a paragraph by selecting Format|Change Case from
the menu bar without having to retype the text.

Sentence case - Capitalizes the first letter of the first word in each sentence.
Lowercase and Uppercase - Changes the case of all the letters.
Title case - Capitalizes the first letter of every word and reduces the rest to
lowercase.
Toggle case - The opposite of Title case, it makes the first letter of every word
lowercase and capitalizes the remaining letters.

Spell Check

Correct the spelling in the presentation by selecting Tools|Spelling from the menu bar or
by pressing the F7 key on the keyboard.

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1. The spell checker will prompt you to make corrections of the first word that is
spelled wrong.
2. If the word is spelled correctly, click Ignore or Ignore All if the same word
appears several times during the presentation. If this word will appear in many
presentations (such as your name), click Add to add the word to the dictionary and
you won't be prompted by a misspelling again.
3. If the word is spelled wrong, highlight one of the the Suggestions or type your
own revision in the Change to box. Click Change to correct this occurrence of the
word or Change All to correct all occurrences of the word in the presentation.
4. Click Close to abort the spelling check early.
5. When the spell checker has read through the entire presentation, you will be
prompted by a window telling you that the spelling check is complete. Click OK.

Spelling Options

Select Tools|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and Style tab.

Check spelling as you type - If this box is checked, Power Point will check the
spelling of every word as you type. Misspelled words will be underlined with wavy red
lines.
Hide spelling errors in this document - Check this box to remove the wavy red
lines from words that are spelled wrong.
Always suggest corrections - If this box is checked, suggestions for misspelled
words will appear when you activate the spell checker.
Ignore words in UPPERCASE - Power Point recommends that you don't type slide
titles in all uppercase letters so it will treat words like this and other all-uppercase
acronyms as misspelled. Check this box to ignore this suggestion and acronyms that
are typically typed in all caps.

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Ignore words with numbers - Check to ignore words that are combinations of
letters and numbers.

Color Schemes

The colors of pre designed slide templates can be changed and a color scheme can be added to
blank presentations. This page explains how to add color schemes and background images to
slides.

1. Select Format>Slide Design>Color Scheme from the menu bar.


2. Click one of the preset color scheme thumbnail images in the Color schemes box.

3. Click the Preview button to see how the scheme will appear on the slide.
4. To make changes to the color scheme, click the Custom tab on the dialog box.

5. Change the colors of the slide elements by selecting the color swatch beside the
name of the element and clicking the Change color button.

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6. Highlight one of the colors from the Text and Line Color window or select the
Custom tab to view more color choices and click OK when finished.

7. When you have finished all color formatting, click Apply to All to apply the color
scheme to all the slides in the presentation or Apply to add the scheme only to the
current slide.

Backgrounds

Follow these steps to add background colors and patterns to a slide:

1. Select Format|Background from the menu bar.

2. Select a color from the drop-down menu below the Background fill preview or choose
More Colors... for a larger selection.
3. Select Fill Effects from the drop-down menu to add gradients, texture, patterns, or a
picture to the background.

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4. Gradient tab
a. Select One color if the color chosen will fade into the background and select
the color from the Color 1 drop-down menu. Choose Two colors if the
gradient will use two colors and select those colors from the Color 1 and Color
2 drop-down menus. Preset provides a selection of color combinations. Select
one from the Preset colors drop-down menu.
b. Select the type of gradient from Shading styles.
c. Click one of the four Variants of the styles chosen.

5. Texture tab
From the Texture window, select a repeating background by scrolling through the
thumbnail images or

click Other Texture... to select an image from a file.

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6. Pattern tab
Select a two-tone pattern by clicking one of the pattern swatches and selecting the
Foreground and Background colors.

7. Picture tab
Click the Select Picture button to choose a picture from a file. After the picture is
selected, a preview and description will be shown in this window.
8. Click OK to apply the changes made from the Fill Effects windows.
9. Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to make changes only to
the current slide.

Graphics

The Drawing Toolbar provides many commands for creating and editing graphics. The
toolbar is located at the bottom of the Power Point screen or it can be activated by selecting
View|Toolbars|Drawing from the menu bar.

Menu -
Grouping - Images can be grouped together so they become one image and can
be moved together or the same formatting changes can be applied to both at
once. Select all the images that will be grouped by holding down the SHIFT
key and clicking once on each image. Then select Group from the Draw menu.
The images can be ungrouped by selecting Ungroup from the same menu. The
rectangles in the image to the left are separate images with their own sets of
handles and they are grouped together in the image to the right:

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Order - The order of overlapping images can be changed using this feature. In
the example of two rectangles below, the green rectangle is selected and the
Send Backward command was used to move the image below the blue
rectangle. Send Backward and Bring Forward will move elements by one layer.
Send to Back and Bring to Front move the elements to the back or top of a
series of several overlapping graphics.

Nudge - Use the nudge actions to move an object slightly in one direction.
Align or Distribute - Select a group of objects and choose one of the the
commands from the Align or Distribute menu to change the position of the
objects in relation to one another.
Rotate or Flip - Rotate an object 90 degrees or flip the object over its x- or y-
axis.
Select objects - Deactivate all drawing functions.
Free rotate - This button will place green handles on certain objects so they can be
arbitrarily rotated. Click and drag the handles to rotate the objects.

AutoShapes menu - Click the small down arrow to the right of the "AutoShapes"
text to select a shape.
Line and Arrow - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add lines. Hold down the
SHIFT key to draw a straight line. Use the end points of the completed line to stretch
and reposition the line.
Rectangle and Oval - Click and drag the mouse on the slide to add rectangles and
ovals. Hold down the SHIFT key to add squares and circles.
Text box - Click to draw a text box on the slide.
Word art - Click to add WordArt.
Picture - Click to add a clip art image to the slide.
Fill color - Choose a fill color for rectangles, ovals, and clip art.
Line color - Select a border color for shapes and pictures.
Font color - Highlight text on the slide and click the small down arrow next to the
Font color icon to select a color.
Line style - Highlight a line or arrow that has been drawn and click this button to
select a thickness or style for the line.
Dash style - Highlight a line or arrow and select a dash style.
Arrow style - Change the arrow head style for an existing arrow or change a line to
an arrow.

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Shadow - Select a text box to add shadow to text or choose any other object on the
slide to add a drop shadow.
3D - Add a three-dimensional effect to text and other objects.

Adding Clip Art

To add a clip art image to a slide, follow these steps:

1. Select Insert|Picture|Clip Art from the menu bar or click the Picture button on
the Drawing toolbar..

2. To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips and enter
keywords describing the image you want to find.
- OR -
Click one of the category icons.
3. Click once on the image to want to add to the slide and a selection bar will appear.
4. Click once on the image you want to add to the slide and the following popup menu
will appear:

a. Insert Clip to add the image to the slide.


b. Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the slide. Drag the
bottom, right corner of the preview window to resize the image and click the "x"
close button to end the preview.

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c. Add Clip to Favorites will add the selected image to your favorites directory
that can be chosen from the Insert ClipArt dialog box.
d. Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have chosen.

5. Click the Close button in the top, right corner of the Insert Clip window to stop
adding clip art to the slide.

Add An Image from a File

To add a photo or graphic from a file:

1. Select Insert|Picture|From File from the menu bar.


2. Click the down arrow button on the right side of the Look in: window to find the
image on your computer.
3. Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.

Editing A Graphic

Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Several handles
will appear around the graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image. The
handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the handles on the straight lines will
stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture toolbar.

Auto Shapes

The AutoShapes toolbar allows you to draw a number of geometrical shapes, arrows, flow
chart elements, stars, and other graphics on a slide. Activate the AutoShapes toolbar by
selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu
bar. Click the buttons on the toolbar to view the options for drawing each shape.

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Lines - After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight
line, arrow, or double-ended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the
respective button. Click in the slide where you would like the line to begin and click
again where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform shape, select curved
lines from the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the slide where
the line should appear, and click the mouse every time a curve should begin. End
creating the graphic by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To
scribble, click the last button in the second row, click the mouse in the slide and hold
down the left button while you draw the design. Let go of the mouse button to stop
drawing.

Connectors - Draw these lines to connect flow chart elements.

Basic Shapes - Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select
from many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use
the drag-and-drop method to draw the shape in the slide. When the shape has been
made, it can be resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific to
each shape can be modified using the yellow diamond handles.

Block Arrows - Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and three-
dimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the slide and use the open box and
yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can also be
rotated by first clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar . Click and
drag the green handles around the image to rotate it. The tree image below was
created from an arrow rotated 90 degrees.

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Flow Chart - Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the
slide and use the line menu to draw connections between the elements.

Stars and Banners - Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls.

Call Outs - Select from the speech and thought bubbles, and line call outs. Enter
the call out text in the text box that is made.

More AutoShapes - Click the More button to choose from a list of clip art categories.

Each of the submenus on the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just click
and drag the gray bar across the top of the submenus off of the toolbar and it will become a
separate floating toolbar.

WordArt

Add headlines in striking colors and shapes to your presentation using Word Art.

1. Select Insert|Picture|WordArt from the menu bar or click the Word Art
button on the Drawing toolbar.
2. Choose a Word Art style from the listing and click OK.

3. Enter the text in the Edit WordArt Text box and choose the font, size, and style
for the text. Click OK.

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4. Use the white box handles around the word art to resize it on the slide.
5. Drag the yellow diamond handle to change the shape of the text. To revert back to
no shape, double-click the diamond.

Action Buttons

Use the action button toolbar to add functioning buttons to slides in a presentation.

1. Select Slide Show|Action Buttons from the menu bar. Click the bar across the
top of the button menu and drag it off the menu so it becomes a floating toolbar.

2. Click one of the button faces and draw the button on the slide using the mouse.
The Action Settings menu will then appear.

3. Set the actions under either the Mouse Click or Mouse Over tabs. Actions
specified for Mouse Click will execute when the button is clicked on the slide while
actions for Mouse Over will occur when the mouse pointer hovers over the button.
4. Select an action for the button by choosing a Hyperlink to destination.
5. If you want a sound to be played when the button is clicked, check the Play sound
box and choose a sound from the drop-down menu.

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6. Click OK when finished.

7. The button on the slide can be resized using the white box handles and the depth
of the button can be changed by dragging the yellow diamond.

Slide Animation

Several animations for slide objects are available through the drop-down menus on the menu
bar. First, select the text box or graphic that will be animated. Select Slide Show|Preset
Animation and choose from one of the options. To select a different animation or turn the
animation off, select the appropriate choice from the same menu. For more options, follow the
procedure below:

1. Select Slide Show|Custom Animation from the menu bar.


2. Select the object on the slide that will be animated from the Check to animate slide
objects list.
3. Under the Effects tab, select the animation type (or select "No Effect" to turn an
animation off) and direction from the drop-down menus and select a sound if you wish.
4. Select an After animation effect if the text should change colors after the animation
executes.
a. Color palette - Select one of the color swatches or click More Colors for a
larger selection. The text will change to the selected color when the mouse is
clicked during the slide show.
b. Don't Dim - This option erases all After Animation effects.
c. Hide After Animation - Text will be immediately erased after the animation
is completed.
d. Hide on Next Mouse click - The text will be erased when the mouse is
clicked.
5. Choose the style of displaying the text under the Introduce text section. The drop-
down menu provides options for displaying the characters for each bulleted item.
Select "All at once" for the text to appear immediately, "by Word" for the text to
appear one word at a time, or "by Letter" for a typewriter effect that displays one
letter at a time.

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6. Click the Order & Timing tab to alter the order that the objects appear on the slide.
Highlight the object in the Animation order box and click the Move arrows to move
the object's position within the animation sequence. Under Start animation, choose
"On mouse click" to activate the animation by clicking the mouse or "Automatically"
for the animation to execute after a set number of seconds.

7. Click the Preview button at any time to preview the animation on the slide and click
OK when finished.

Animation Preview

Select Slide Show|Animation Preview from the menu bar to view the Animation Preview
window. Click anywhere within this window with the mouse to preview the animations that
have been set. To hide the window, click the x close button in the top, right corner.

Slide Transitions

Add transition effects when changing slides by following these steps:

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1. Select Slide Show|Slide Transition from the menu bar.


2. From the Effect section, choose a transition from the drop-down menu and notice
the preview after the transition is selected. Select a speed for the transition as
well.
3. Under Advance, check "On mouse click" for the slide transition to occur by
clicking the mouse or using keystrokes or check "Automatically after" and a
number of seconds if the transition should occur automatically.
4. Select a Sound if necessary and check the Loop until next sound if it should
keep repeating until the next sound is played.
5. Click Apply to All if the transition effects should be added to every slide or Apply
if the effects should be added only to the current slide.

Slide Show Options

Select Tools|Options and click the View tab to choose from several more slide show
options.

Popup menu on right mouse click - Check this box if you want to be able to access
the shortcut menu during a presentation.
Show popup menu button - Check this box to activate the menu button that
appears in the bottom, left corner of the screen during a presentation.

End with black slide - Insert a blank, black slide to the end of the presentation.

Slide Master

Change the style of all slides in the presentation by changing the properties on the Slide
Master. Each Design Template has its own Slide Master that can be altered. If you create
slides from scratch, a consistent style can be added to the presentation by formatting the
Slide Master.

1. Select View|Master|Slide Master from the menu bar.

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2. Format the master slide just as you would format a regular slide by formatting
text, formatting lists, adding background patterns and effects, and setting footers.
3. Click the Close button on the Master toolbar to quit editing the master slide and
return to the presentation.

Headers and Footers

Add the date and time, slide numbers, and other footer text to the master slide from the
Header and Footer window.

1. Select View|Header and Footer... from the menu bar.

2. Check the Date and time box to add this feature to the slide. Select Update
automatically to always display the current date and time or click Fixed and
enter a date that will not change in the text field provided.
3. Check the Slide number box to add this feature to the slides.
4. Click the Footer box and add other text to the footer area of the slide.
5. Check the Don't show on title slide box to hide these features on the title slide
of the presentation.
6. Click the Notes and Handouts tab to make the same changes to notes and
handouts pages.
7. Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to add only to the
current slide.
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Slide Numbers

To add the slide numbers in a fixed position on the slide, use the Header and Footer
window detailed above. The slide number can otherwise be added anywhere on the slide by
placing the cursor where the slide number should appear and selecting Insert|Slide
Number from the menu bar. The text of the slide number can the formatting just as regular
text style is changed.

Date and Time

A date and/or time can also be added using the Header and Footer window or anywhere
else on the slide. Place the cursor where the date and time should appear on the slide and
select Insert|Date and Time from the menu bar. Select a format from the Available
formats box and click Update automatically if this feature should always be updated to
reflect the current date and time. Click OK to finish.

Navigating While In Your Slide Show

Forward Navigation
o Simply click on the left Mouse Button or hit the Enter Button on your keyboard
Reverse Navigation
o Hit the Backspace on the keyboard
Exiting the show
o Hit the Esc Button on the keyboard

Page Setup

Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to access options for printing the presentation
slides. Select the format the printed slides will be used for from the Slides sized for drop-
down menu or enter a specific print size using the Width and Height boxes. Select the page
orientation for the slides and for other print material from the presentation in the
Orientation section.

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Print

Select File|Print from the menu bar to print the presentation.

Print range - Select All to print all the slides in the presentation, Current slide to print
only the current slide, or enter slide numbers in the Slides field to print only certain slides.

Copies - Enter the number of copies of each slide specified in Print range and check the
Collate box if necessary.

Print What -

Slides prints a full-page slide on each page.


Handouts prints as many slides as you designate on each page.
Notes Page prints one slide with that slide's notes on each page
Outline view prints the outline of the presentation

Click OK to print.

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Keyboard Shortcuts

Keyboard shortcuts can save time and the effort of switching from the keyboard to the mouse
to execute simple commands. Print this list of Power Point keyboard shortcuts and keep it by
your computer for a quick reference.

Note: A plus sign indicates that the keys need to be pressed at the same time.

Action Keystroke Action Keystroke


Document actions Formatting
Open a presentation CTRL+O Select all CTRL+A
New presentation CTRL+N Copy CTRL+C
Save As F12 Cut CTRL+X
Save CTRL+S Paste CTRL+V
Print CTRL+P Undo CTRL+Z
Help F1 Redo CTRL+Y
Bold CTRL+B
Presentation actions Italics CTRL+I
Begin slide show F5 Underline CTRL+U
ENTER or Left justified CTRL+L
Next slide Down arrow Center justified CTRL+E
key
Right justified CTRL+R
BACKSPACE
Previous slide or ALT+SHIFT+Left
Promote list item
Up arrow key arrow
Activate pen tool CTRL+P ALT+SHIFT+Right
Demote list item
arrow or TAB
Erase pen strokes E
Deactivate pen tool CTRL+A
Editing
Show/Hide black screen B
Find CTRL+F
Show/Hide white screen W
Replace CTRL+H
Show/Hide pointer & button A
Insert hyperlink CTRL+K
End slide show ESC
New slide CTRL+M
Spell checker F7
Macros ALT+F8

Run the slide show and press the F1 key to view all keyboard shortcuts applicable when
running a slide show.

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Design Tips

Use contrasting colors for the text and the background so the text will be easy to read.

Use font size large enough to be seen from the back of the room where the
presentation will be held. A font size of 24-point or larger is recommended.

Use short phrases and sentences to convey your message.

Use simple slide transitions. Too many different transitions will distract your
audience from the subject of the presentation.

Avoid cluttering the slides with too much text or graphics. Your audience should hear
what you have to say and not be distracted by a busy screen.

Keep text simple and easy to read by not using many different text effects such as
bold, italics, underlining, larger font size for emphasis within a sentence, or a
different font all on the same slide.

Presentation Basics

Begin the slide show by clicking the Slide Show button on the bottom of the screen.

Move to the next slide by pressing the SPACE BAR, ENTER, PAGE DOWN, or
right arrow keys or by clicking the left mouse button.

Go back to the previous slide by pressing BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, or the left arrow
key.

To end the slideshow before it is complete press ESC on the keyboard.

A pen tool is available for drawing on the screen with the mouse. Press CTRL+P or
click the right mouse button at any time and a popup window will appear. Choose Pen
and the pointer will change to a pen that allows you to draw freehand on the screen
using the mouse. Press the E key to erase all pen strokes. Press CTRL+A to disable
the pen feature and revert the pen back to a pointer arrow.

If you would like to use the pen to draw on a blank screen during a presentation, press
the B or W keys, or select Screen/Black Screen from the popup menu and the screen
will turn black. Press B or W again or choose Next from the popup menu to return to
the presentation when you are finished drawing.

To hide the pointer and button from the screen press the A key.

Be sure to preview the slide show using a projector if one will be used during the
presentation. Words or graphics that are close to the edge of the screen may be cut off
by the projector.

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Module 6
Database

Microsoft Access Description

Microsoft Access is a powerful program to create and manage your databases. It has many
built in features to assist you in constructing and viewing your information. Access is much
more involved and is a more genuine database application than other programs such as
Microsoft Works.

First of all you need to understand how Microsoft Access breaks down a database. Some
keywords involved in this process are: Database File, Table, Record, Field, Data-type. Here is
the Hierarchy that Microsoft Access

Database File: This is your main file that


encompasses the entire database and that is saved
to your hard-drive or floppy disk.
Example) StudentDatabase.mdb

Table:A table is a collection of data about a specific


topic. There can be multiple tables in a database.
Example #1) Students
Example #2) Teachers

Field:Fields are the different categories within a


Table. Tables usually contain multiple fields.
Example #1) Student LastName
Example #2) Student FirstName

Datatypes:Datatypes are the properties of each


field. A field only has 1 datatype.
FieldName) Student LastName
Datatype) Text

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Starting Microsoft Access

Two Ways
1. Double click on the Microsoft Access icon on the desktop.

2. Click on Start --> Programs --> Microsoft Access

Creating New, and Opening Existing Databases

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The above picture gives you the option to:

Create a New Database from scratch

Use the wizard to create a New Database


Open an existing database
o The white box gives you the most recent databases you have used. If you do not
see the one you had created, choose the More Files option and hit OK.
Otherwise choose the database you had previously used and click OK.

Create a database using the Database Wizard

1. When Microsoft Access first starts up, a dialog box is automatically displayed with
options to create a new database or open an existing one. If this dialog box is
displayed, click Access Database Wizards, pages, and projects and then click OK.

If you have already opened a database or closed the dialog box that displays when
Microsoft Access starts up, click New Database on the toolbar.
2. On the Databases tab, double-click the icon for the kind of database you want to
create.
3. Specify a name and location for the database.
4. Click Create to start defining your new database

Create a database without using the Database Wizard

1. When Microsoft Access first starts up, a dialog box is automatically displayed with
options to create a new database or open an existing one. If this dialog box is
displayed, click Blank Access Database, and then click OK.

If you have already opened a database or closed the dialog box that displays when
Microsoft Access starts up, click New Database on the toolbar, and then double-click
the Blank Database icon on the General tab.
2. Specify a name and location for the database and click Create. (Below is the screen
that shows up following this step)

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Tables

A table is a collection of data about a specific topic, such as students or contacts. Using a
separate table for each topic means that you store that data only once, which makes your
database more efficient, and reduces data-entry errors.

Tables organize data into columns (called fields) and rows (called records).

Create a Table from scratch in Design view

1. If you haven't already done so, switch to the Database Window You can press F11 to
switch to the Database window from any other window.

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2. Double-Click on "Create table in Design view". (DESIGN VIEW)

3. Define each of the fields in your table.


1. Under the Field Name column, enter the categories of your table.
2. Under Data Type column, enter the type you want for you categories.

The attribute of a variable or field that determines what kind of data it can hold. For
example, in a Microsoft Access database, the Text and Memo field data types allow the field
to store either text or numbers, but the Number data type will allow the field to store
numbers only.

Number data type fields store numerical data that will be used in mathematical calculations.

Use the Currency data type to display or calculate currency values. Other data types are
Date/Time, Yes/No, Auto Number, and OLE object (Picture).

3. Under the Description column, enter the text that describes what you field is.
(This field is optional).

Enter the following items:

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Primary Key

One or more fields (columns) whose value or values uniquely identify each record in a
table. A primary key does not allow Null values and must always have a unique value.
A primary key is used to relate a table to foreign keys in other tables.
NOTE: You do not have to define a primary key, but it's usually a good idea. If you
don't define a primary key, Microsoft Access asks you if you would like to create one
when you save the table.
For our tutorial, make the Soc Sec # field the primary key, meaning that every
student has a social security number and no 2 are the same.
o To do this, simply select the Soc Sec # field and select the primary key button

o After you do this, Save the table

Switching Views

To switch views form the datasheet (spreadsheet view) and the design view, simply click the
button in the top-left hand corner of the Access program.

Datasheet View Design View

Displays the view, which allows you to enter fields,


Displays the view, which allows you to
data-types, and descriptions into your database
enter raw data into your database table.
table.

Entering Data

Click on the Datasheet View and simply start "chugging" away by entering the data
into each field. NOTE: Before starting a new record, the Soc Sec # field must have
something in it, because it is the Primary Key. If you did not set a Primary Key then it
is OK.

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Manipulating Data

Adding a new row


o Simply drop down to a new line and enter the information
Updating a record
o Simply select the record and field you want to update, and change its data with
what you want
Deleting a record
o Simply select the entire row and hit the Delete Key on the keyboard

Advanced Table Features w/Microsoft Access

1. Assigning a field a specific set of characters


1. Example) Making a Social Security Number only allows 9 characters.
1. Switch to Design View
2. Select the field you want to alter
3. At the bottom select the General Tab

4. Select Field Size


5. Enter the number of characters you want this field to have

Formatting a field to look a specific way (HINT: You do not need to assign a
field a specific set of characters if you do this)
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6. Example: Formatting Phone Number w/ Area Code (xxx) xxx-xxxx

6. Switch to Design View


7. Select the field you want to format
8. At the bottom select the General Tab
9. Select Input Mask Box and click on the ... button at the right.
10. Select Phone Number option.

11. Click on Next


12. Leave !(999) 000-0000 the way it is. This is a default.
13. Click Next
14. Select which option you want it to look like
15. Click Next
16. Click Finish
2. Selecting a value from a dropdown box with a set of values that you assign to
it. This saves you from typing it in each time
1. Example)Choosing a city that is either Auburn, Bay City, Flint, Midland, or
Saginaw
1. Switch to Design View
2. Select the field you want to alter (City)
3. At the bottom select the Lookup Tab
4. In the Display Control box, select Combo Box
5. Under Row Source Type, select Value List
6. Under Row Source, enter the values how you want them displayed,
separated by a column. (Auburn, Bay City, Flint, Midland, Saginaw)

NOTE:This will not alphabetize them for you, so you will have to do that yourself. It should
look something like this:

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7. Select in the datasheet view and you should see the change when you go
to the city field.

Relationships

After you've set up multiple tables in your Microsoft Access database, you need a way of
telling Access how to bring that information back together again. The first step in this
process is to define relationships between your tables. After you've done that, you can create
queries, forms, and reports to display information from several tables at once.

A relationship works by matching data in key fields - usually a field with the same name in
both tables. In most cases, these matching fields are the primary key from one table, which
provides a unique identifier for each record, and a foreign key in the other table. For
example, teachers can be associated with the students they're responsible for by creating a
relationship between the teacher's table and the student's table using the TeacherID fields.

Having met the criteria above, follow these steps for creating relationships between tables.

1. In the database window view, at the top, click on Tools ---> Relationships
2. Select the Tables you want to link together, by clicking on them and selecting the Add
Button
3. Drag the primary key of the Parent table (Teacher in this case), and drop it into the
same field in the Child table (Student in this case.)

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4. Select Enforce Referential Integrity

o When the Cascade Update Related Fields check box is set, changing a primary
key value in the primary table automatically updates the matching value in all
related records.
o When the Cascade Delete Related Records check box is set, deleting a record in
the primary table deletes any related records in the related table
5. Click Create and Save the Relationship

Forms

A form is nothing more than a graphical representation of a table. You can add, update,
delete records in your table by using a form. NOTE: Although a form can be named different
from a table, they both still manipulate the same information and the same exact data.
Hence, if you change a record in a form, it will be changed in the table also.

A form is very good to use when you have numerous fields in a table. This way you can see all
the fields in one screen, whereas if you were in the table view (datasheet) you would have to
keep scrolling to get the field you desire.

Create a Form using the Wizard

It is a very good idea to create a form using the wizard, unless you are an advanced user and
know what you are doing. Microsoft Access does a very good job of creating a form using the
wizard. The following steps are needed to create a basic form:
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1. Switch to the Database Window. You can do this by pressing F11 on the keyboard.
2. Click on the Forms button under Objects on the left side of screen
3. Double click on Create Form Using Wizard
4. On the next screen select the fields you want to view on your form. Most of the time
you would select all of them.
5. Click Next
6. Select the layout you wish
7. Click Next
8. Select the style you desire...HINT: if you plan on printing your form, I suggest you use
a light background to save on printer toner and ink
9. Click Next
10. Give you form a name, and select Open the Form and enter information
11. Select Finish
12. You should see your form. To adjust the design of your form, simply hit the design
button (same as with the tables), and adjust your form accordingly

Reports

A report is an effective way to present your data in a printed format. Because you have
control over the size and appearance of everything on a report, you can display the
information the way you want to see it.

Create a Report using the Wizard

As with the Form, it is a very good idea to create a report using the wizard, unless you are an
advanced user. Microsoft Access does a very good job using the wizard to create reports.

1. Switch to the Database Window. You can do this by pressing F11 on the keyboard.
2. Click on the Reports button under Objects on the left side of screen
3. Double click on Create Report Using Wizard
4. On the next screen select the fields you want to view on your form. Most of the time
you would select all of them.
5. Click Next
6. Select if you would like to group your files. Keep repeating this step for as many
groupings as you would like.
7. Click Next
8. Select the layout and the paper orientation you desire
9. Click Next
10. Select the style you desire...HINT: if you plan on printing your report, I suggest you
use a light background to save on printer toner and ink
11. Click Next
12. Give you report a name, and select Preview the Report
13. Select Finish
14. You should see your report. To adjust the design of your report, simply hit the design
button (same as with the tables), and adjust your report accordingly

Creating Mail Merge Labels using a Wizard

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Microsoft Access lets you create Mailing Labels for your database that you have. To do this do
the following:

1. Switch to the Database Window. You can do this by pressing F11 on the keyboard.
2. Click on the Reports button under Objects on the left side of screen
3. Click on New

4. Select Label Wizard and the table you would like to get your information from.

5. Click OK
6. Select the layout of your labels
7. Click Next
8. Select the font size and color you want on each label
9. Click Next
10. Select how you want your label to look
11. Click Next
12. Select how you want your labels sorted
13. Give your label report a name and preview it

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Module 7
Information and Communication

TERMS AND DEFINITIONS

Internet
A collection of computers throughout the world which are mostly connected using telephone
lines for the purpose of sharing information.

World Wide Web


It is one of the protocols that let you link to many sites in the internet. The basic unit is the
web page. A page can be one or many screens as it displays in your monitor. Within the page
are links to related pages and other web sites.

Anti Virus Program


Software that monitors a computer for viruses and eliminates them before damage occurs.

Archive
A repository for software, data or other materials to be saved and preserved.

Bandwidth
Literally, the frequency width of a transmission channel in hertz, megahertz, etc. It is often
used as an expression of the amount of data that can be sent through a circuit. The greater
the bandwidth, the greater the amount of data that can travel in a given time period.

Bitmap
A graphic which is defined by specifying the colors of dots or pixels which make up the
picture. Common types of bitmap graphics are GIF, JPEG, Photoshop, PCX, TIFF, BMP,
PNG and TGA.

Bounce
The return of an e-mail message because of an error in its address or delivery.

Chain Letter
It is a form of spam which asks you to distribute the letter to many people. They are against
the policies of most internet service providers and almost always are hoaxes. Many of them
promise quick ways to make money, usually on the basis of pyramid schemes, which are
illegal.

Chat
A form of real-time electronic communications where participants type what they want to
say, and it is repeated on the screens of all other participants in the same chat.

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Cookies
Bits of information that a Web site store on your computers hard drive. In most cases these
data helps the site remember useful things about your computer from session to session,
such as a particular color configuration. A cookie can send the Web site information such as
the type of computer you have and the browser that you use. It can also record the number of
times that you visit the site and the time that you spend there. However, do not worry too
much about security or loss of privacy. Cookies cannot tell the Web site your name or e-mail
address unless you specifically register at the site.

Cyberspace
A term coined by author William Gibson in his novel Neuromancer. It represents the totality
of all connected computer networks and their contents in a future world. It has become a
slang term for the Internet and information in it.

Download
To transfer a file from another system to your own computer system via a modem over
telephone or cable lines.

E-mail
Electronic mail is a way to send messages to others via the Internet in electronic form.

FAQ
Acronym for Frequently Asked Questions. FAQ files are collections of common questions and
answers for a particular subject area.

Firewall
Software or hardware that limits certain kinds of access to a computer from a network or
other outside source.

Hacker
The current popular meaning of the term is to describe those who break into systems, destroy
data, steal copyright software and perform other destructive or illegal acts with computers
and networks.

Homepage
Think of a homepage as the starting point of a website. It is the navigation center for the
website with links to other places within the site. The homepage can give you overviews of
what you will find at the website.

HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language)


The language and format that the web browser understands. The standard for adding tags to
a text file so that the file can be interpreted by a Web browser.

Surf
To explore the nets without any specific purpose than to see what is out there.

Upload
To transfer a file from your computer system to another system via a modem over telephone
or cable lines.

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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)


The global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web.

Username
A distinct name used to gain access to a computer sytem.

GETTING STARTED WITH INTERNET EXPLORER

With an Internet connection and Internet Explorer, you can find and view information about
anything on the Web.

Finding the information you want on the Internet

You can find information on the Web in a variety of ways:

Click the Search button on the toolbar to gain access to a number of search providers.
Type a word or phrase in the Search box.
Type go, find, or? Followed by a word or phrase in the Address bar. Internet Explorer
starts a search using its predetermined search provider.
After you go to a Web page, you can search for specific text on that page by clicking
the Edit menu, and then clicking Find (on this page).

To change your home page

Your home page is the page that appears every time you open Internet Explorer. Choose a
page that you want to view frequently, or one that you can customize to get quick access to all
the information you want, such as the msn.com home page.

1. Go to the page you want to appear when you start Internet Explorer.
2. On the Tools menu, click Internet Options.
3. Click the General tab.
4. Under Home page, click Use Current.

Sharing bookmarks and favorites

Favorites, known as bookmarks in Netscape Navigator, are a convenient way to organize and
link to Web pages that you visit frequently.

Internet Explorer automatically imports all your Netscape bookmarks. On the Favorites
menu, click the Imported Bookmarks folder to view them.

If you use Internet Explorer on several computers, you can easily share favorite items among
computers by importing them. Also, if you use both Internet Explorer and Netscape
Navigator, you can keep your favorites and bookmarks up-to-date with each other by
importing them between programs.

To import bookmarks or favorites, on the File menu, click Import and Export.

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To export favorites to bookmarks or favorites on the same or another computer, on the


File menu, click Import and Export.

Finding pages you've recently visited

There are several ways to find Web sites and pages you've viewed in the last few days, hours,
or minutes.

To find a page you've seen in the last few days

1. On the toolbar, click the History button.

The History bar appears, containing links for Web sites and pages visited in previous
days and weeks.

2. In the History bar, click a week or day, click a Web site folder to display individual
pages, and then click the page icon to display the Web page.

To sort or search the History bar, click the arrow next to the View button at the top of
the History bar.

To find a page that you just visited

To return to the last page you viewed, click the Back button on the toolbar.
To view one of the last nine pages you visited in this session, click the arrow to the
side of the Back or Forward button, and then click the page you want from the list.

To enter Web information more easily

The AutoComplete feature saves previous entries you've made for Web addresses, forms, and
passwords. Then, when you type information in one of these fields, AutoComplete suggests
possible matches. These matches can include folder and program names you type into the
Address bar, and search queries, stock quotes, or information for just about any other field
you fill in on a Web page.

1. In the Address bar, a field on a Web page, or a box for a user name or password, start
typing the information.

If you've typed a similar entry before, AutoComplete lists possible matches as you
type.

2. If a suggestion in the list matches what you want to enter in that field, click the
suggestion.

If no suggestion matches what you are typing, continue typing.

Tips for Netscape users

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Whether you are switching from Netscape Navigator or just want to use more than one
browser, it's easy to learn and use Internet Explorer. From keyboard shortcuts to bookmarks,
you can make the transition simple and fast.

Keep unique and separate settings for Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator. If
you installed another Web browser after installing Internet Explorer and Internet
Tools, some of your Internet Explorer settings may have changed.
Compare terms in Navigator and Internet Explorer. If you've used Navigator in the
past, you may find that words for common actions or features are different in Internet
Explorer.

FIRST STEPS WITH EMAIL

Outlook Express is a software you can use to compose, send, receive and manage your e-
mail. You can also use Outlook Express to join newsgroups, to trade ideas and information.

Parts of the Outlook Express Windows

Preview Pane display the contents of the message currently selected in the message list.

Contact List display the names of all the people in your Address book.

Message List display the list of all the messages from the currently selected group in the
folder list.

Folder List contain all the folders in Outlook Express

Sending an E-mail

1. Click New Mail button on your toolbar


2. In the To: box, type the Email name of each recipient
3. Type your message then click Send button

Resend a message

1. In Mail, in the Navigation Pane (Navigation Pane: The column on the left side of
the Outlook window that includes panes such as Shortcuts or Mail and the shortcuts
or folders within each pane. Click a folder to show the items in the folder.), click Sent
Items.
2. Open the message you want to resend.
3. On the Actions menu, click Resend This Message.
4. Click Send.

Notify me when new messages arrive

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1. On the Tools menu, click Options.


2. Click E-mail Options, and then click Advanced E-mail Options.
3. Do one or more of the following:

Display a desktop alert when messages arrive

1. Under When new items arrive in my Inbox, select the Display a New Mail
Desktop Alert (default Inbox only) check box.
2. To specify the duration or transparency of the alert, click Desktop Alert Settings,
and then select the options you want.

Send a message without the recipient's name showing

1. In a message, click To.


2. In the Type name or select from list box, type the name or click Advanced, and
then click Find.
3. In the Name list, click the name, and then click Bcc (Bcc: An abbreviation for blind
carbon copy. If you add a recipient's name to this box in a message, a copy of the
message is sent to that recipient, and the recipient's name is not visible to other
recipients of the message.).
4. Click Send.

About using Word as your e-mail editor

In previous versions of Microsoft Outlook, the default e-mail editor was the Outlook editor.
You could change the editor to Microsoft Word if you wanted. In this version, the default e-
mail editor is Word, so you can take advantage of features such as:

AutoCorrect As you write automatically correct common typos, such as transposed


letters and extra or missing letters.
Automatic spelling and grammar checking Check your spelling and grammar
while you work. Misspelled or misused words are underlined and alternatives appear,
eliminating the need to check spelling and grammar before you send a message.
Automatic Bullets and Numbering Add bullets and numbering to call out
important points. Use a picture or other graphic as a bullet, or create a hierarchical
list that has numbered items.
Tables Use tables to organize your information. When you use Word as your e-mail
editor and HTML as the default message format, Outlook preserves table formatting,
even for recipients who do not use Word.
Conversion of e-mail names and Internet addresses Automatically convert e-
mail names and Internet addresses to hyperlinks (hyperlink: Colored and underlined
text or a graphic that you click to go to a file, a location in a file, a Web page on the
World Wide Web, or a Web page on an intranet. Hyperlinks can also go to newsgroups
and to Gopher, Telnet, and FTP sites.). Smart hyperlink formatting can even convert
hyperlinks whose URLs contain spaces.
Themes Use Word themes to provide visual consistency and to make your messages
stand out.
Autoformat Format your message automatically as you type, and add formatting to
plain text messages that you receive.

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In addition, you can now set some options in Outlook that you could previously work with
only in Word. For example, you can now create and set a default signature or stationery from
Outlook if Word is set as your e-mail editor. You can also specify some spell checker options
and fonts for new messages and messages you forward or reply to. If you change these options
from Word, they change the equivalent settings in Outlook, and vice versa.

Even if you turn off Word as your e-mail editor, you can use it just for viewing messages that
you receive, which can preserve formatting that might otherwise be lost.

About Cc and Bcc

CC is an abbreviation for carbon copy. If you add a recipient's name to this box in a
message, a copy of the message is sent to that recipient, and the recipient's name is visible to
other recipients of the message.

BCC is an abbreviation for blind carbon copy. If you add a recipient's name to this box in a
message, a copy of the message is sent to that recipient, and the recipient's name is not
visible to other recipients of the message. If the Bcc box isn't visible when you create a new
message, you can add it.

Create a message

1. On the File menu, point to New, and then click Mail Message.
2. Enter recipient names in the To: , Cc:, or Bcc: boxes (To, Cc, and Bcc boxes: A
message is sent to the recipients in the To box. Recipients in the Cc (carbon copy) and
Bcc (blind carbon copy) boxes also get the message; however, the names of the
recipients in the Bcc box aren't visible to other recipients.). Separate names with a
semicolon (;).

To select recipient names from a list in the Address Book, click the To or Cc button.

3. In the Subject box, type the subject of the message.


4. In the message body, type the message.
5. Click Send

Saving your Draft E mail

You can save a draft of your message to work on it later by following these steps:

1. Click File on the menu bar then click Save


2. Click OK button.

Your message will be saved on the Draft Folder. If you want to continue working on your
message just click the Drafts folder then double click the draft message on the message list.

About the Address Book

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The Address Book is a collection of address books or address lists. You can use the Address
Book to look up and select names, e-mail addresses, and distribution lists when you address
messages.

When you type a name in the To, Cc, or Bcc box (To, Cc, and Bcc boxes: A message is sent to
the recipients in the To box. Recipients in the Cc (carbon copy) and Bcc (blind carbon copy)
boxes also get the message; however, the names of the recipients in the Bcc box aren't visible
to other recipients.) of an e-mail message, Microsoft Outlook automatically checks to see if
the name you typed matches a name in the Address Book. If there is a match, the name is
resolved the Display Name and e-mail address are filled in allowing you to send the
message. If there is no match, the Check Names dialog box prompts you for more
information or you can create a contact by clicking New Contact. If more than one name
contains the letters you typed, you can select a name from the list.

In addition to using the Address Book to address messages, you can look up names and other
information, such as office locations and telephone numbers, by typing the name in the Find
a contact box on the Standard

When you first open the Address Book, the default address book (usually your Global Address
List) is displayed. You can change the default address book and also set other Address Book
preferences, such as which address book to check first when sending a message and the
location to store personal addresses.

Insert an attachment

Do one of the following:

Insert a file

1. Create or open the item in which you want to insert a file attachment. For messages,
you must be creating a new message to insert an attachment.
2. Click in the body of the item, and then click Insert File.
3. Select the file that you want to attach, and then click Insert.
4. In a new message, click Send, and in any other type of item, click Save and Close.

Insert an Outlook item

1. Create or open the item in which you want to insert an item. For messages, you must
be creating a new message to insert an attachment.
2. Click in the body of the item.
3. If Microsoft Word is your e-mail editor, click the down arrow next to the paper clip
icon, and then click Insert Item. Otherwise, on the Insert menu, click Item.
4. Select the message or other item that you want to attach, and then click OK.
5. In a new message, click Send. In any other type of item, click Save and Close.

Open an attachment

Do one of the following:

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Open an attachment from within an item

1. Open (or preview) the item that contains the attachment you want to open.
2. Double-click the icon for the attachment.

Open an attachment without opening the item

1. Right-click the item that contains the attachment.


2. On the shortcut menu, point to View Attachments, and then click the name of the
attachment that you want to view.

How to remove unsafe attachments

You have inserted an attachment file type that is blocked by Microsoft Outlook for security
reasons. These file types, such as .exe, .bat, .scr, and .js, are blocked because they can
potentially contain viruses.

Recipients who use Microsoft Office Outlook 2003 or earlier versions of Outlook that have
been updated with a security patch will not be able to open the attachment. By removing the
attachments with these file extensions from your message before you send your message; the
recipients can save and open your attachments.

Deleting a Message

To delete a message, select it in the message window and click delete

Restoring Deleted Mail

When you delete a message, Outlook Express moves it to the Deleted Items Folder. If you
want to get the message back, you can just drag it from the Deleted items folder to any other
folder.

Empty the Deleted Items Folder

To empty the contents of the deleted items folder, right-click it in the Folders pane and
choose Empty Deleted Items Folder or Choose Empty Deleted Items Folder from the Edit
Menu. Once you empty this folder, these messages really are gone.

Prepare to Print

As with most files, you can print email and Outlook Express is extremely flexible in this area.

1. Select Print from the File Menu or press Crtl+P to set options. Other wise, click the Print
tool on the toolbar to print the selected message or messages in their entirety.

Outlook Express Keyboard Shortcut

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CTRL + P Print a selected message


CTRL + M Send and Receive mail
CTRL + D Delete a mail
CTRL + I Go to your Inbox
CTRL + F Forward an e-mail
CTRL + R Reply to E-mail
CTRL + N Open a new message
CTRL + SHIFT + B Open the address book
CTRL + SHIFT + R Reply to All

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