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Cerro Dragn: History and Future Challenges for an Integrally Managed Field*

Javier Gomez 1

Search and Discovery Article #20313 (2015)**


Posted June 30, 2015

*Adapted from oral presentation given at AAPG Latin America Region, Geoscience Technology Workshop, Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: The Role of New Technologies
and Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina, May 11-12, 2015
**Datapages 2015 Serial rights given by author. For all other rights contact author directly.
1
Reservoir Engineering, PanAmerican Energy LLC (jegomez@pan-energy.com)

Abstract

The Cerro Dragn Field, covering 860,000 acres, was acquired in 1958 from Amoco and produces oil and gas using primary and secondary water
injection. The waterflood was started in 1969, and since 2008 there were about 200 wells drilled per year, with a current total of 3190 producers and
647 injection wells.

Production is from Middle to Late Cretaceous fluvial and alluvial (braided stream) sandstones with an average of 20% porosity and 10-50 mD.
Individual reservoirs of 3-15 feet thick are stacked to 600 to 1200 feet vertically, each having different fluid contacts. Due to the high clay content,
the reservoir is sensitive to formation damage. The trap is combination structural (tilted horst blocks and faulted anticlines) and stratigraphic
(pinchouts). Formation water is low salinity (<4000 ppm), and oil is 20-30 API with high viscosity (20 cp).

Summary

Pan American Energy has made a significant investment effort in exploration, development, infrastructure and technology. Cerro Dragon is today
one of the most productive areas in Argentina with more than 1 billion barrels of accumulated oil.

Cerro Dragon is a mature field, discovering new opportunities based on studies and technology application.

Waterflooding is one of the key drivers for production increase and reserves replacement.

75% of Cerro Dragon is under waterflooding. Injection volumes exceed 170 Mm3/d (1 MMbbld). All produced water is treated and re-injected.

The challenge is to continue developing water flood projects and to increase recovery factors through studies and new technology application,
managing complexity and uncertainties.
References Cited

Barredo, S., and L. Stinco, 2010, Geodinmica de las cuencas sedimentarias: su importancia en la localizacin de sistemas petroleros en Argentina:
Petrotecnia. Instituto Argentino del Petrleo y del Gas, Argentina, v. 2, p. 48-68.

Galloway, William E., and David K. Hobday, 1996, Terrigenous Clastic Depositional Systems: Applications to Fossil Fuel and Groundwater
Resources: Springer-Verlag, 489 p.
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Cerro Dragn
History and Future Challenges for an
Integrally Managed Field

Javier E. Gmez (Pan American Energy LLC)


Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

General Description Acquisition Date: 1958 (Amoco) WF started in 1969


Area: 860,000 acres 3190 prod & 647 inj
Intracratonic
Basin related to Produces by primary and Two hundred wells (200) per
Altantic Opening
secondary (water injection) year have been drilled since
Gas production 2008

From Barredo & Stinco, 2010


Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

General Description

Reservoir: Mid to late Cretaceous


sandstones. Average 20 % porosity, 10-50 md
permeability. High clay, lithic content sensitive
to formation damage, Environment of
Deposition: Fluvial and alluvial braided
stream. Migration through faults.
Trap: Tilted horst blocks, faulted anticlines,
combination structural/stratigraphic,
stratigraphic pinchouts.
Pay Distribution: 600 to 1200 stacked
individual reservoirs 3 to 15 thick, each with
different fluid contacts. Wells require
stimulation to break past formation damage
caused during drilling and testing.
Fluid: low salinity (<4,000 ppm) fm water,
20-30 API, high viscosity 20 cp
Argentina Daily Production
Production & Reserves
(Feb 2015)
Oil: 529 kbopd Gas: 4,07 bcfgd
7; 1% 22; 4% 0,28; 7%
28; 5% 0,92; 23%

0,01; 0%

209; 40% 0.54 bcfgd


(13%)
0,54; 13%
263 kbopd CD: 0,3 bcfgd
263; 50% 2,33; 57%
(50%) (56%)
CD: 96 kbopd
(37%)
AUSTRAL
CUYANA
Argentina Proved Reserves@2013 GOLFO SAN JORGE
NEUQUINA
(Nat. Sec. of Energy)
NOROESTE

Oil: 2330 mmbbl Gas: 11,6 tcf


29; 1% 85; 4%
141; 6%
1,1; 9%
3,9; 34%
494; 21%

1580 mmbbl 4,9; 42%


(68%) 1.7 tcf
1580; 68%
CD: 905 mmbbl (15%) 0,0; 0%
1,7; 15%
From Barredo & Stinco, 2010 (57%) CD: 1.1 tcf
(65%)
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Waterflooding Progression 2014
642 Inyectores
169.500 m3/d agua iny.
8.061 m3/d petrleo
65 proyectos
20.000 200.000
2010 2013
Cerro Dragn Area 582 Inyectores
18.000 Oil Secondary Production & Water Injection
159.000 m3/d agua iny. 180.000
7.800 m3/d petrleo
57 proyectos
16.000 160.000
Sec.Prod. (m3opd) 2005 2009
Water.Inj. (m3wpd) 450 Inyectores
14.000 140.000
132.000 m3/d agua iny.
7.500 m3/d petrleo
12.000 49 proyectos 120.000

m3opd

m3wpd
10.000 2002 2004 100.000
369 Inyectores
94,000 m3/d agua iny.
8.000 5,500 m3/d petrleo 80.000
45 proyectos
1979 2001
6.000 212 Inyectores 60.000
1969 1978 48,000 m3/d agua iny.
56 Inyectores 2.500 m3/d petrleo
4.000 15.000 m3/d agua iny. 40.000
33 proyectos
500 m3/d petrleo
5 proyectos
2.000 20.000

0 0

01-1969

01-1971

01-1973

01-1975

01-1977

01-1979

01-1981

01-1983

01-1985

01-1987

01-1989

01-1991

01-1993

01-1995

01-1997

01-1999

01-2001

01-2003

01-2005

01-2007

01-2009

01-2011

01-2013

01-2015
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Injection Evolution 10000

Qwi = 6800 m3/d


Qwi = 5200 m3/d

Qo = 706 m3/d
1000

100

PP = 60

Time structure PI = 16

10

4
-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-0

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2
e

e
en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en

en
qo[m/DC] ql[m/DC] qwi[m/DC] PWP IWP Bsica 2006
Campaa 2010 Reserva 2010 Qwi[m3/DC] qlP[m/DC] NP prod NP Iny

Selective injection (up to 20 mandrels per well)


Well head pressure measurement
Injection rate measurement by layer
Water quality control
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Injection Conformance Conformance Computation -> Layer -> Well -> Project

What does Conformance mean?

It is said that water injection is on


conformance when it is injected the
defined rate in the corresponding layer.

Injection rate comes from the simulation


study.

Why we consider it important?

Conformance computation and


monitoring is an important surveillance
tool to detect deviations, assure a good
waterflooding management and an
efficient swept.
Waterflood ing Stud ies
Through a WF Common Value Process, using an Analytical Simulation

Infor- Primary WF Economic


Development Incremental
mation History History Analysis Evaluation
Plan
analysis Revision match

0 0
FRCh- l 02
tE.O~5 e w
-- ~[ ~ c
[ ~-.!~~
- _. :J tf~ <t ow
W.BC

-1-=' _. .........-:::: 4' ow.c


::1~'
--.~~
$ OW.c.sc
t i $
fl WC

WC-C
WC-BC
0 ""

Dual Water - TRE Y CR 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4 00 5.00 1 6.00 7.00

\ -:. . 1,000

_.- -:-
_ ........ ~E
"
' ,', ,. 0 ' ' , ,
\
. . 0... .
o I r-+
~
f-

I 00- S o
~ 0
0
0

.....
0
f-
r- - r- ~
15J.;;;~x
692
J
rf: r--..... R'r
~ r--...-- 1='
0 +

~ o
:...- l-
---r-----: ~'
==
- f- - r-
- 1-"- 0
0

r---.:-
~ I--
0 0' . ' I <Y

I - I I- I I-<
L- f-- I I
I I

'" "
E~pon&roc l al (Rio Chico)
Waterflood ing Stud ies
Infor- Primary WF Economic
Development Incremental
mation History History Analysis Evaluation
Plan
analysis Revision match

Handles incompressible fluid


displacement, therefore contemplates no
transients pressure changes.
Inj
Oil saturation of each reservoir depends o lJ[ Dftv~l~ianr.~
]J P ert". PJOdU(i OI

... 6I'rlf. lllett'H

on its evolution and past production


mechanism. Prod

Saturation is considered
homogeneous inside flow element
and it evolves inside the element
during the WF development.
1 ,-- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- -- ~ - --- : - --- ~- :.- :;:.: -.: -.: -.;.-...- - - - L-
- - _- - -_ - -'' ~
- -:::~"'---_-'--'-_--'--_--'-~-'---'------'

Delayed response by the presence M~ ........- ~ ..- ~- -- -- -- -- -- ~N~~*-MOV/~; ~-~~ --


,. .... L ____ .J _______________________________ .

of an initial gas saturation is I ;~


....
M1 < M2
/ / /

modeled by empirical filling curve / /


/ /

F/

that depends on the initial saturation r


/
(
I'
of gas. !:.Wio MOV/!:.! = iw 1 WiD
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

WF Studies Results
WF Project Studies
80000 80%

70000 70%

60000 60%

50000 50%
OOIP [Mm3]

40000 40%

[%]
71.366

62.723

30000 30%

50.721
10%
5% 8%
5%
6%
39.996

4%
10%
20000 4% 4%
9%
20%
3% 4%
4% 5% 7% 8%
31.221

6% 2% 4%
30.553

3% 7% 2% 2%
1% 5% 6%

27.145
2%
7%

23.718
3% 3% 4%

23.204
3%
4% 3% 2%
21.708

20.360
3%

19.484
2%
10000 10%
17.406

9%
17.070
16.721

2%
17% 17%
16% 5%

12.401
15% 16% 15% 15%

10.530
14% 13%
12% 13%
12% 11% 12% 12%

8.372
8.236

10% 10%
6.092

8%
5% 6%

0 0%
Project 10

Project 11

Project 12

Project 13

Project 14

Project 15

Project 16

Project 17

Project 18

Project 19

Project 20
Project 1

Project 2

Project 3

Project 4

Project 5

Project 6

Project 7

Project 8

Project 9

OOIP P1 FR OOIP Total Actual FR OOIP Total COA FR OOIP Total DES
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Water Injection Growth Plan


Average WI Growth 13000 m3/d per year
New Facilities: Water Injection Plants and Batteries

300.000
350.000
CD 2013
LTP Water
- CDinjection per plantde agua por PIAS (m3wpd)
+ AF - Inyeccion
CG-9 PIA-CT3 PIA-VH3 PIA-Z3 PIA-Z2

PIA-VM2 PIA-VH2 PIA-VH PIA-RE2 PIA-RE1


300.000
250.000
PIA-O3 PIA-O2 PIA-O1 PIA-MC4 PIA-MC2

PIA-MC1 PIA-LMS3 PIA-LMS2 PIA-LM PIA-HU2

PIA-ES3 PIA-CG8 PIA-CD2 PIA-B2 PIA-AG3


250.000
200.000
PIA-AG2 Mariana

150.000
200.000

150.000
100.000

50.000
100.000

50.0000
Dec/
Qwi @ 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028
2014
Dic/2013
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Water Injection Facilities


Injection Plant is designed for full capacity, but it is constructed by stages (8000 m3/d wi each)
according to waterflooding projects expansion

GS HG Almacenamiento y Bombeo de Crudo


HL
IQ PC Rebalse a Pileta

PT01-TK-361 A/B PT01-F-361 A/B

Medicin A Oleoducto
PT01-V-291 A
De PT01-P-781

PT01-DG-471 A PT01-P-361 A/B


De Batera AS DR
GS
IQ

Reproceso

IQ PT01-TK-471 A
Separacin Primaria
IQ

Separacin Secundaria

GS Almacenamiento y Bombeo de
IQ
Agua de Inyeccin
HL

Rebalse a Pileta
PT01-TK-491 A SC
PC
De Acueducto

PT01-F-491 A/B PC PC
FC A Inyeccin
AS
PT01-P-492 A/B

PT01-P-291 Transferencia

Bba. De Transferencia

PT01-V-291 A PT01-DG-471 A PT01-TK-471 A PT01-TK-491 A PT01-P-291 PT01-F-491 A/B PT01-P-492 A/B PT01-TK-361 A/B PT01-P-361 A/B PT01-F-361 A/B
Free Water Knock Tanque Tanque Skimmer Tanque Stock de Bomba de Filtros Tipo Bombas de Tanques de Bombas de Filtros Canasto
Out Desgasificador Agua Desarenado Canasto Inyeccin Transferencia Transferencia
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

TargeT Logging
Define the reservoir dynamic behavior producing all together
Identify the layers with high WOR
Evaluate the production of perforated layer without test, evolution of stimulated zones and
detect possible future stimulations
Identify cross flow in static/dynamic conditions
Determinate if the cemented layers are still hermetic
Obtain information for WF Surveillance
[ftMD] PZ-1005
5000

Intake 5250 ft

12-18 perforated zones 5500


4 5
6
21
24
36
37

Water Cut > 95%


Each zone placed on 6000
21 23 34 35

production test
6500
21
21
7 13
21

7000

This is the 1st time PLT 7 12


7
11
15 16
14
17
18 19
20

Data can be recorded in 7500


7
10

wells that dont flow


naturally in
5 casings 8000
7
9
21 22

7
8
04-02-2007 22-02-2007 01-08-2007 20-09-2009 03-11-2011
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

TargeT Logging

PZ-1005
10000 Well

700 bbl

Water
1000

Oil
100 13 bbl

Declination

10 14
WOR

1
2010 2011 2012
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Pulsating Injection
PPT produces a pulsing injection that dilates the matrix pore space through an elastic response. It
causes not only the current pore network to increase in porosity and permeability but also opens
up additional pore spaces to liquid flow.

Therefore, Pressure Pulses can enhance the water conformance, reduce the front instabilities and
overcome capillary.

Injection range from Injection range from 40


40 to 1600 m3/d. m3/d to 240 m3/d.
Setting in the tool in Setting in the tool in front
front of the layer with of the layer, hung on the
connection cable up tubing nipple (WL
to the surface (WO operation)
operation).
The operation frequency
Frequency auto-adjusts in relation
adjustment from the with the pressure
Surface Panel from difference between the
10 to 20 pulse/min. reservoir pressure and
WHBP
Pressure range from
250 to 1500 psi.
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Pulsating Injection

The layer E1 has individual injection.


Isolated geological block .
E1 has the best cumulative oil and
cumulative water injection in the zone. Individual oil test without fracture job.

So 57 %. Low pressure water admission (200 psi).

Good connectivity producers injectors, 30 days Tracer Transit Time (between


without barriers or faults. injector and producer)

Low current Recovery Factor= 7.5 %


(prim + sec).

One layer injection/production WF Project

E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
E1
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Pulsating Injection Pilot Results

Project
40

35

30
Qo [m3/d]

Qo historico
25
Linea Base
Pronstico
20 con WaveFront
con WaveFront

15

10
may-10
sep-10

may-11
sep-11

may-12
sep-12

may-13
sep-13

may-14
sep-14

may-15
sep-15

may-16
sep-16

may-17
sep-17
ene-10

ene-11

ene-12

ene-13

ene-14

ene-15

ene-16

ene-17
WOR Project
70
Fecha

RAP [m3/m3]
60

50

40

30

20

10

Fecha
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

EOR

Bright Water gel treatment in 7


injection wells
15 associated producers inside the
patterns
24 layers treated

Production response underperformance (after 18


months)
BW treatment volume could be less than the needed
Only one fall off test showed some change un flow
path after treatment
Some mechanical problems impacted injection
Opportunities: Better static and dynamic
characterization, BW volume estimation, economic
feasibility
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Cyclic Injection
The methodology pretends to take advantage, through a secondary recovery process, of viscous as
well as capillary drives
Improve production efficiency, reducing WOR
Reduce the volume of injected water for the development of the plan
Improve the final recovery factor
10 injector wells PE-883
PE-802
PE-741
PE-708
PE-810
PE-725
PE-818
PE-823
PE-874 PE-825
PE-727 PE-6 LOCPE-18 PE-25
PE-871 PE-718 PE-709
PE-835
22 producer wells PE-740 PE-701
PE-821
PE-705
PE-836
PE-717 LOCPE-32 PE-833
PE-39
PE-726 PE-834
PE-44 PE-19 PE-5
PE-714 PE-703

Average WOR before project: 20 (Wcut: 95%) PE-734


PE-733 PE-728 PE-46
PE-713 PE-815

PE-40 PE-37 PE-22

Annual oil decline: 7%. PE-875 PE-806


PE-820

PE-736 PE-712
PE-711
PE-715

PE-804 PE-9 PE-721 PE-722


LOCPE-11
PE-803

Injection started in 1992. PE-813 PE-702 PE-706


PE-731

PE-10 PE-2

PE-846

E-IVProject
Project PE-847

Pore Volume of the block (thousand barrels) 29,514 PE-883 PE-741


PE-708
PE-810
PE-725
PE-818
PE-802 PE-823
PE-874 PE-825
Initial Oil Saturation 0,43 PE-871
PE-740
PE-727
PE-718 PE-709
PE-701
PE-6 LOCPE-18 PE-25
PE-835
PE-705
PE-836
Initial Water Saturation 0,57 PE-821
PE-726
PE-717
PE-44
LOCPE-32
PE-19
PE-833
PE-39 PE-834
PE-5
PE-714 PE-703

Residual Oil Saturation 0,27 PE-734


PE-733
PE-713 PE-815

PE-728 PE-46
PE-40 PE-37
Mobile Oil Saturation 0,16 PE-875 PE-806
PE-820
PE-22
PE-711
PE-715

Mobile Oil (reservoir thousand barrels) 4,724 PE-804


PE-736 PE-712
PE-9 PE-721
LOCPE-11 PE-722
PE-803

Injected Water to Date (thousand barrels) 59,529 PE-813 PE-702 PE-706


PE-731

PE-10 PE-2

Injected Water to Date in PV 2 PE-846

Injected Water to Date in MOVs 12.6 PE-847


Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Cyclic Injection

Results show that is possible to take advantage of capillary forces, without giving up the benefits of
viscous drive
Cyclic Injection reduces to a great extent the power consumption, by managing much smaller
volumes of injected water and with less produced fluid. Volumes of water not injected in the closure
cycle can be used for flooding new reservoirs in the same project or in neighboring zones
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Summary

Pan American Energy has made a significant investment effort in exploration,


development, infrastructure and technology. Cerro Dragon is today one of the most
productive areas in Argentina with more than 1 billion barrels of oil accumulated.

Cerro Dragon is a mature field, discovering new opportunities based on studies and
technology application.

Waterflooding is one of the key drivers for production increase and reserves
replacement.

75% of Cerro Dragon is under waterflooding. Injection volumes exceed 170 Mm3/d
(1 MMbbld). All produced water is treated and injected.

The challenge is to continue developing WF projects and to increase RF through


studies and new technology application, managing complexity and uncertainties.
Extending Mature Fields Life Cycles: the Role of New
Technologies & Integrated Strategies, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Thank you!!