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A Letter To The Principal Of The Non

Traditional High School On The


Preparation Of Students With Learning
& Behavioral Disabilities For Careers and
For Life

A Compilation
A Fletchers & Manakers Contribution

By Basil Fletcher,
Portmore,
St. Catherine,
Jamaica W.I.
April 2017

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Table of Contents

Letter To The Principal Of The Non-Traditional High School...................33


Types of Learning Disabilities.....................................................................................35
Specific Learning Disabilities...................................................................................36

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)............................36

Dyscalculia.........................................................................37

Dysgraphia.........................................................................37

Dyslexia..............................................................................37

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Language Processing Disorder.....................................38

Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities..................................38

Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit........................39


Related Disorders......................................................................................................39

ADHD...................................................................................39

Dyspraxia...........................................................................40

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Executive Functioning .....................................................40

Memory..............................................................................40
Auditory Processing Disorder.....................................................................................41

Adversely affects how


sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed and
interpreted by the brain...........................................................................................41
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................41
Strategies.................................................................................................................42
7 Things I Wish People Knew About Parenting a Child With Auditory Processing
Disorder.............................................................................................................................42
About the Blogger..........................................................................................................45
Dyscalculia.......................................................................................................................46

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Affects a persons ability to
understand numbers and learn math facts........................................................46
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................46
Strategies.................................................................................................................46
Compilers Comment # 1...............................................................................................47
Is There Such a Thing as OrtonGillingham for Math?....................................................48
About the Author...........................................................................................................51
OrtonGillingham: What You Need to Know...................................................................51
At a Glance....................................................................................................................51
What OrtonGillingham Focuses On............................................................................52
Where to Find OrtonGillingham..................................................................................52
How OrtonGillingham Works......................................................................................53
Key Takeaways..............................................................................................................53
The Orton-Gillingham Approach..................................................................53
OVERVIEW............................................................................................................53
The Orton-Gillingham Approach..................................................................54
APPROACH...........................................................................................................54
APPROPRIATE FOR WHOM?........................................................................56
Dysgraphia.........................................................................................................................57

Affects a persons handwriting


ability and fine motor skills...........................................................................................57
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................57

5
Strategies.................................................................................................................58
Understanding Dysgraphia................................................................................................58
What Youll Learn.........................................................................................................58
What is dysgraphia?.......................................................................................................59
How common is dysgraphia?.........................................................................................59
What causes dysgraphia?...............................................................................................59
What are the symptoms of dysgraphia?.........................................................................60
What skills are affected by dysgraphia?........................................................................62
How is dysgraphia diagnosed?......................................................................................62
What conditions are related to dysgraphia?...................................................................63
How can professionals help with dysgraphia?...............................................................63
What can be done at home for dysgraphia?...................................................................64
What can make the journey easier?...............................................................................65
Key Takeaways..............................................................................................................65
Sources...........................................................................................................................65
About the Author...........................................................................................................66
Reviewed by..................................................................................................................66
8 Expert Tips on Helping Your Child With Dysgraphia....................................................66
Feel the letters............................................................................................................66
Write big....................................................................................................................67
Dig into clay...............................................................................................................67
Practice pinching.......................................................................................................67
Start cross-body training............................................................................................68
Build strength and stability........................................................................................68
Practice organized storytelling...............................................................................68
Speak it first...............................................................................................................69
Language Processing Disorder..........................................................................................70

Affects attaching meaning to


sound groups that form words, sentences and stories....................................................70
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................70
Strategies.................................................................................................................70
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities......................................................................................71

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Has trouble interpreting
nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have poor
coordination...................................................................................................................71
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................71
Strategies.................................................................................................................72
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit.............................................................................73

Affects the understanding of


information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy.......................................73
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................73
Strategies.................................................................................................................73
Dyspraxia...........................................................................................................................74

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Problems with movement and
coordination, language and speech................................................................................74
Signs and Symptoms.............................................................................................74
Strategies.................................................................................................................75
Executive Functioning.......................................................................................................76

Affects, planning, organization,


strategizing, attention to details and managing time and space.....................................76
Memory............................................................................................................................77

Affects storing and later


retrieving information or getting information out.........................................................77

8
How does it all work together to learn?............................................................77
Five Reasons to Use Games in the Classroom.................................................78
Teaching Strategies: What Students Might Learn from Playing Board Games.....80
Teaching Strategies: Some Classic Board Games Students Can Learn From.81
What To Ask Ourselves About Board Games........................................................82
The Benefits of Board Games........................................................................................84
LEARNING BENEFITS...............................................................................................84
TOPICS..........................................................................................................................86
RELATED......................................................................................................................86
Checker Board Math Game Multiplication Facts..................................................86
The Song:- A Deck Of Cards.........................................................................................89
How Board Games Help Kids to Develop Skills...................................................................91
Educational Value of Chess...............................................................................................92
Do the benefits of chess instruction transfer to academic and cognitive skills? A meta-
analysis .........................................................................................................................95
Highlights......................................................................................................................95
Abstract..........................................................................................................................96
Keywords.......................................................................................................................96
1. Introduction................................................................................................................96
1.1. Difficulty of transfer.........................................................................................97
1.2. The issue of transfer in chess research.......................................................98
1.3. Chess in school...............................................................................................98
2. Scope, aims, and hypotheses of the present meta-analysis........................................99
3. Method.....................................................................................................................101
3.1. Literature search............................................................................................101
3.2. Inclusion/exclusion criteria...........................................................................102
3.3. Effect size2......................................................................................................105
4. Results......................................................................................................................106
4.1. Moderator analyses......................................................................................107
4.2. Additional meta-analytic models.................................................................107
5. Discussion................................................................................................................108
5.1. Substantive results............................................................................................108
5.2. Methodological moderators.........................................................................109
5.3. Limitations of this study................................................................................110
5.4. Conclusions and recommendations for future research.........................110
References5...................................................................................................................112
Chess therapy.................................................................................................................128
Landau-Kleffner Syndrome.............................................................................................130
What is it like?.............................................................................................................130
Who gets it?.................................................................................................................130
Tell me more................................................................................................................130
How is it treated?.........................................................................................................131
What's the outlook?......................................................................................................131
Chess Therapy for Mental Health....................................................................................132

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Category(s):Anger Management, Communication Disorders Problems, Sports
Psychology...............................................................................................................134
Chess Therapy is Enjoyable and Valuable for Clearing Mental Disorders......................134
An interesting strategy.................................................................................................134
Controls for many disorders........................................................................................134
Notable for aggression.................................................................................................134
A Possible Approach Which Could Be Taken By The School Doctor or Family Doctor,
With One Day Set Aside Each Week For This Type Of Joint Consultation................135
The family physician and the psychologist in the office together: a response to
fragmentation...................................................................................................................135
Introduction and aims..................................................................................................135
(a) Differentiation between medicine and psychology and consequent need
for integration.........................................................................................................135
(b) The social position of psychology (at least in some countries)................138
Methods.......................................................................................................................139
Overview of the initiative......................................................................................139
Clinical notations and case report......................................................................140
Box 1Case report..................................................................................................140
Possible limitations of this study.........................................................................142
Conclusions and future perspectives...........................................................................143
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........................................................................................144
Contributor Information...............................................................................................144
REFERENCES............................................................................................................144
Just Perhaps The Guidance Councillor Or The Dean Of Discipline Could Be Taught To
Play Chess & And Coach Given Classes.....................................................................145
Chess helps children with learning disorders..................................................................145
Is This Beyond The Ablities Of Cumberland High School? Chess & Dance !.......................148
In Practice..............................................................................................................148
The Benefit of Movement: Dance/Movement Therapy and Down Syndrome............148
REVIEW OF LITERATURE..................................................................................149
DISCUSSION..........................................................................................................155
CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................157
REFERENCES........................................................................................................158
A review of music and movement therapies for children with autism: embodied
interventions for multisystem development.....................................................................161
Abstract........................................................................................................................162
Introduction..................................................................................................................162
Table 1..............................................................................................................................163
Multisystem effects of musical experiences................................................................167
Figure 1............................................................................................................................167
Effect of musical experiences on the development of language and
communication......................................................................................................168
Effect of musical experiences on social-emotional development and
behavioral skills.....................................................................................................170
Effect of musical experiences on the refinement of gross and fine motor
skills.........................................................................................................................171

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Musical experiences, perception-action linkages, and brain development. 173
Table 2..............................................................................................................................175
Propositions for using musical experiences in children with autism...........................178
Critical elements of musical experiences for children with autism................178
Current music therapy approaches used in children with autism and those
with other special needs......................................................................................179
Recommendations for clinicians and clinical researchers...........................................180
Recommendations for assessment of children with ASDs.............................180
Recommendations for treatment of children with ASDs.................................182
Table 3..............................................................................................................................182
Conclusions..................................................................................................................184
Conflict of interest statement...............................................................................185
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................185
References....................................................................................................................185
Formats:.......................................................................................................................197
Share............................................................................................................................198
Save items................................................................................................................198
Similar articles in PubMed......................................................................................198
Cited by other articles in PMC................................................................................198
Mixed-Ability Dance: Helping Students With Special Needs Grow and Learn............................199
Student Movement......................................................................................................200
Increased Ability......................................................................................................201
Joining the Dance....................................................................................................201
How to Start a Special Needs Dance Program......................................................................203
The Benefits of Dance Classes............................................................................203
Considerations When Starting a Special Needs Dance Program.............................204
How to Spread the Word About Your Classes.........................................................204
Several high schools hold special Snowball dance..........................................................205
Dance was part of Unified program for special needs students...............................205
Special Ed You Can Dance To.................................................................................206
Dance, Drama and Performance and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
.........................................................................................................................................209
Dance, Drama and Performance and Students with ADHD....................................211
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)..................................................212
Teaching strategies associated with ADHD / ADD..............................................212
These strategies are suggestions for inclusive teaching. This list should not be
considered exhaustive and it is important to remember that all students are
individuals and what is considered to be good practice for one student may not
necessarily be good practice for another. You may also like to contact the Disability
Specialist in your institution for further information. If you have any good practice
that you would like to add to this list, please email your suggestions to z.morton-
jones@worc.ac.uk....................................................................................................212
Strategies Attention Skills.................................................................................212
Strategies Organisational Skills and Memory...............................................213
Strategies Raising Self-Esteem.......................................................................213
Potential challenges to the achievement of learning...........................................213

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Dancing helps boys with ADHD.....................................................................................214
Dance therapy can be a successful method for reaching children and adolescents with
problems. This has been shown in a research project at Karlstad University and
the University College of Dance in Stockholm, Sweden............................................214
Is this beyond the ability of Cumberland High School and the Other High
Schools in The Municipality of Portmore Who Have Learning challenges?
Could they have combined classes to more efficiently utilize the resources
which are available or which could be made available?.................................217
Working with Special Needs Students in Art..................................................217
Special Education & the Arts............................................................................217
Feat of Clay: Pottery projects give Jackson County special-ed students hands-on
experience........................................................................................................................221
ADHD or ADD in Children.............................................................................................225
Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder in Kids............................225
What is ADHD or ADD?.............................................................................................226
Is it normal kid behavior or is it ADHD?................................................................226
The primary characteristics of ADHD.........................................................................227
The three primary characteristics of ADHD............................................................227
Which one of these children may have ADHD?..................................................227
Spotting ADHD at different ages.............................................................................228
Inattentiveness signs and symptoms of ADHD...........................................................228
Symptoms of inattention in children:......................................................................229
Hyperactivity signs and symptoms of ADHD.............................................................229
Symptoms of hyperactivity in children:..................................................................229
Impulsive signs and symptoms of ADHD...................................................................230
Symptoms of impulsivity in children:.....................................................................230
Is it really ADHD?.......................................................................................................230
A learning disability may be mistaken for ADHD...............................................231
Positive effects of ADHD in children..........................................................................231
Helping a child with ADHD........................................................................................232
Dont wait to get help for your child.......................................................................232
Parenting tips for children with ADHD...................................................................232
School tips for children with ADHD.......................................................................234
ADHD and School...........................................................................................................235
Helping Children and Teens with ADHD Succeed at School...........................235
Setting up your child for school success......................................................................236
Tips for working with teachers....................................................................................236
Communicate with school and teachers..................................................................236
Develop and use a behavior plan.............................................................................238
Find a behavior plan that works...........................................................................238
Tips for managing ADHD symptoms at school...........................................................238
Tips for teachers...................................................................................................239
Distractibility...........................................................................................................239
Interrupting..............................................................................................................239
Impulsivity...............................................................................................................240
Fidgeting and hyperactivity.....................................................................................240

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Trouble following directions...................................................................................241
Medication for ADHD: What parents should know............................................241
Tips for making learning fun.......................................................................................242
Helping children with ADHD enjoy math...............................................................242
Helping children with ADHD enjoy reading...........................................................242
How does your kid like to learn?.........................................................................243
ADHD and school: Tips for mastering homework......................................................243
Helping a child with ADHD get organized..............................................................244
Helping a child with ADHD get homework done on time......................................244
Other ways to help your child with homework.......................................................244
Look, Ma, I Can Do It!.................................................................................................256
1. Take responsibility for managing ADD in your life.......................................257
2. Dont feel that you must go to college at least not right away................257
3. Develop life skills before you leave home....................................................258
4. Follow your heart to the right job or career...................................................258
5. Take care of your brain by taking care of your body...................................258
6. On the river of life, be a boat not a log.......................................................259
Watch Out for Sex!...................................................................................................260
Get Your Teen Ready for Life.................................................................................262
Provide Only the Help Your Teen Needs....................................................262
Identify One Challenge and the Times It Occurs...................................263
Meet Resistance with Creativity..................................................................263
A Dyslexic Child in the Classroom.....................................................................264
A Guide for Teachers and Parents...................................................264
The following items should provide useful guidelines for
teachers and parents to follow and support :.........................266
In the class...............................................................................................................266
Copying from the blackboard..................................................................................267
Reading....................................................................................................................267
Spelling....................................................................................................................268
Maths.......................................................................................................................269
Handwriting.............................................................................................................270
Marking....................................................................................................................270
Homework...............................................................................................................271
Integration................................................................................................................271
Conclusion:...................................................................................................272
Strategies for Teachers......................................................................................274
Sparking new ideas for your classroom...............................................................275
Some general recommendations for teachers of beginning readers and writers. 275
General recommendations...................................................................................276
Recommendations to support reading comprehension and fluency for classroom
materials...............................................................................................................277
Supporting vocabulary while reading..................................................................278
Recommendations to support writing in school..................................................280
Recommendations for students with visual deficits............................................281
10 Teaching Tips for Dyslexia.........................................................................................281

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2. Dont ask person with dyslexia to read aloud......................................................282
5. Expect less written work..........................................................................................283
8. Accept homework created on a computer................................................................284
37 Ways to Help Students with Dyslexia Flourish in the Mainstream
Classroom....................................................................................................................290
Dyslexia is a loaded word........................................................................................292
Heres what we know to be true..............................................................................292
Explicit Instruction..................................................................................................292
Reading....................................................................................................................293
Writing.....................................................................................................................294
Math.........................................................................................................................295
Social-Emotional.....................................................................................................295
Teaching Students with ADHD........................................................................................298
Helping Students with Attention Deficit Disorder Succeed at School ...........298
Challenges of ADHD in the classroom........................................................................298
Challenges created by students with ADHD:..........................................................298
How teachers can help children with ADHD..............................................................299
Dealing with disruptive classroom behavior...........................................................300
Accommodating students with ADHD in the classroom.............................................300
Seating.....................................................................................................................300
Information delivery................................................................................................300
Student work............................................................................................................300
Organization.............................................................................................................301
Teaching techniques for students with ADHD............................................................301
Starting a lesson.......................................................................................................301
Conducting the lesson..............................................................................................302
Ending the lesson.....................................................................................................302
Source:- https://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/teaching-students-with-adhd-
attention-deficit-disorder.htm......................................................................................302
Preparing for Employment and Careers for Intellectually Disabled Students.............302
Why Employment Preparation?..........................................................................303
Preparing for Employment and Careers for Intellectually Disabled Students.........303
Areas of Preparation.....................................................................................303
Steps to Integrate Into Employment........................................................................304

......................................................................................................305
Postsecondary Programs for Students with Intellectual Disabilities: Emerging
Standards, Quality Indicators and Benchmarks...........................................................305
The Power of Inclusion: Personal Reflections on Creating Change............................306
References............................................................................................................309
The None Traditional High Schools Such As Cumberland High &
Charlie Smith High Must Learn To Provide Some-Things For
Themselves-Stop Waiting On Government!...............................................310
The Teachers At Cumberland High School and Charlie Smith High School Should
Strat The Students Out By Playing By Hear and Not Boring Them With Musical
Notes. If A Child Has Difficulty Reading Standard English How Much More

14
Difficulty He Or She Has Learning To Read Scrolls? Start By Hear And Explaining
The Notes Heard. The Reading Of Music Can Come Later....................................312
NATURAL TREATMENTS...................................................................................312
How Music Unlocked My Sons ADHD Brain...............................................................312
Rhythm of Change............................................................................................313
Source:- https://www.additudemag.com/ta-dah/......................................................315
Music and Specific Learning Difficulties - by Karen Marshall...............................316
HOW IT STARTED............................................................................................316
WHAT ARE SPECIFIC LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (SPLDS)?.................317
WHAT IS MULTI-SENSORY MUSIC TEACHING?......................................317
HOW CAN WE TEACH MUSIC IN A MULTI-SENSORY WAY?................317
AUDITORY.........................................................................................................318
VISUAL...............................................................................................................318
KINAESTHETIC................................................................................................318
HERE ARE SOME MORE GENERAL HINTS AND TIPS FOR TEACHING
DYSLEXIC STUDENTS:..................................................................................319
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES...........................................................................320
It's a Snap! 4 Ways to Use Music With Special Needs Students..............................................320
1. Music + Visual Supports = Increased Comprehension................................................321
2. Favorite Songs as a Teaching Tool............................................................................322
3. Rhythm Is Your Friend.............................................................................................322
4. Generalization Is Key...............................................................................................322
Finnish teacher unlocks music for special-needs students......................................323
Simplified, accessible music notation lets their talent, not their needs,
take center stage.................................................................................................323
By Stacy Teicher Khadaroo, Staff writer of The Christian Science
MonitorAPRIL 29, 2009.......................................................................................323
Music Reading and Students with Special Needs........................................................330
"The Big Four" by Dr. Alice M. Hammel Music Reading and Students with Special
Needs...........................................................................................................................330
Size......................................................................................................................330
Pacing..................................................................................................................331
Getting Musical With Kids Who Have Physical Disabilities......................................332
Group Music Experiences................................................................................332
Adapting Musical Instruments.........................................................................333
Respecting Different Intelligences...................................................................333
Children with Special Needs Thrive in Music Program That Teaches
Music for Music's Sake........................................................................................334
A New Jersey music school helps special needs students achieve more
than learning an instrument opening a world of opportunity...........334
Key Roles in Planning the Transition to College and Careers.....................................338
The Role of the IEP Team....................................................................................338
The Role of Transition Services..........................................................................339
The Role of Rehabilitation Services....................................................................340
Conclusion...........................................................................................................341

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References............................................................................................................341
Creating a Transition Portfolio....................................................................................341
Using Individual Supports to Customize a Postsecondary Education Experience......342
What Are Individual Supports?...........................................................................343
The Process of Creating Supports........................................................................343
Conclusion...........................................................................................................345

......................................................................................................346
Preparing Students with Intellectual Disabilities for College: Tips for Parents and
Teachers.......................................................................................................................346
Beginning in Middle School................................................................................347
During Eighth Grade............................................................................................348
Beginning in 9th Grade........................................................................................349
Conclusion...........................................................................................................350
Celebrity Quotes: Learning From Challenges.................................................351
Share & Save......................................................................................................351
Orlando Bloom, actor.......................................................................................352
Orlando Bloom, actor.......................................................................................352
Will.i.am, Grammy-winning singer and producer..................................353
Tim Tebow, former NFL quarterback..........................................................354
Whoopi Goldberg, award-winning actress and comedian.................355
Ty Pennington, host of Extreme Makeover: Home Edition.............356
Teaching Tips for Children and Adults with Autism..............................................357
Teaching young children on the autism spectrum...........................................................361
What is autism?............................................................................................................361
What is Asperger syndrome?.......................................................................................362
Signs of autism in young children...............................................................................362
Communication difficulties.........................................................................................363
Echolalia..................................................................................................................363
Non-verbal communication.....................................................................................363
Children with Asperger syndrome and communication..........................................363
How to communicate with young children on the autism spectrum.......................363
Use simple language............................................................................................363
Use symbols or pictures.......................................................................................364
Literal understanding...........................................................................................364
Repeat instructions...............................................................................................365
Always address a child by their name first..........................................................365
Introducing a young child on the autism spectrum to the nursery...............................365
Toileting problems...................................................................................................366
Dealing with toileting problems..............................................................................366
Keep a record when a child goes to the toilet..........................................................366
Rewards for using the toilet.....................................................................................366
Problems with eating...................................................................................................367
Establishing a lunchtime routine.............................................................................367
Obsessions...................................................................................................................367
Meltdowns...................................................................................................................367

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Difficulty choosing activities or toys...........................................................................368
Adapting the curriculum..............................................................................................368
Toys and play for children on the autism spectrum.....................................................369
Trying new toys/experiences...................................................................................369
Ideas for toys and activities for young children with autism...................................369
Health and safety.........................................................................................................370
Training for teachers and support staff........................................................................370
Important points:..........................................................................................................370
Books and resources for teachers of young children on the autism spectrum.............371
12 Things Id Like Teachers to Understand about Autism..............................................372
For more resources for teachers and help with inclusion and acceptance at school,
check out the Autism Speaks School Community Tool Kit here...............................375
Everyone deserves the chance to reach their full potential. We need your help to tell
lawmakers that improving education for children and young adults with autism is a
priority for our community. Sign the petition here to have your voice heard..........375
One in three teens with autism earns driver's license................................377
Large study yields insights into family decision-making around the
balance between safety and independence...........................................377
Teen with autism reluctant to drive; should this parent push?................379
A checklist of crucial driving skills.........................................................................380
Handling potential sensory overload.......................................................................381
Get expert advice.....................................................................................................381
Choosing the Right Job for People with Autism or Asperger's Syndrome...........382
Table 1.....................................................................................................................383
Table 2.....................................................................................................................383
Table 3.....................................................................................................................384
Table 4.....................................................................................................................385
The Best Tech Jobs For Individuals With Autism...........................................................386
11 Famous People With Autism.......................................................................................389
1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.....................................................................................390
2. James Durbin...........................................................................................................391
3. Daryl Hannah...........................................................................................................392
4. Tim Burton...............................................................................................................393
5. Andy Warhol............................................................................................................394
6. Dan Harmon.............................................................................................................395
7. Marty Balin..............................................................................................................396
8. Lewis Carroll...........................................................................................................397
9. Courtney Love.........................................................................................................398
10. Temple Grandin.....................................................................................................399
11. Dan Aykoyrd..........................................................................................................400
Teaching Students with Down Syndrome........................................................................401
For Educators.......................................................................................................401
Cause........................................................................................................................402
Best Practices...........................................................................................................403
Down Syndrome Characteristics - Strengths and Needs.................................................404
A Chromosomal Aberration Affecting Cognition, Physiology and Motor Strength....404

17
For Educators.......................................................................................................405
Biological Foundation of Down Syndrome.............................................................406
Physical Traits..........................................................................................................406
Neurological Traits..................................................................................................407
Social Traits.............................................................................................................407
Motor and Health Challenges..................................................................................407
Co-Morbidity...........................................................................................................408
Including children with Down syndrome (Part 1)..........................................408
Sue Buckley and Gillian Bird.....................................................................408
Getting the culture right...............................................................................................409
Why inclusion?........................................................................................................409
Developing inclusive schools..................................................................................409
Promoting mainstreaming........................................................................................410
Moving to inclusion.................................................................................................411
Whole school issues and the role of the headteacher..................................................412
School philosophy and culture.................................................................................412
Schools as agents of change....................................................................................412
Strategies for success...................................................................................................414
Valuing diversity and building self-esteem..............................................................414
Staff attitudes...........................................................................................................417
School organisation and the use of resources..........................................................419
The role of Learning Support Assistants...................................................421
Working with parents...............................................................................................422
Peer support.............................................................................................................423
Behaviour.................................................................................................................424
Staff training............................................................................................................424
Financial Resources.................................................................................................425
Conclusions..................................................................................................................426
References....................................................................................................................426
Bibliography................................................................................................................427
The Authors.........................................................................................................427
Down Syndrome: Other FAQs.........................................................................................428
Is there a cure for Down syndrome?..........................................................428
How can parents and providers help teens and young adults with
Down syndrome transition into adulthood?...........................................428
What are the health issues for adults with Down syndrome?..........430
What conditions or disorders are commonly associated with Down syndrome?............432
Life After High School..........................................................................................436
What Will Change After High School?.......................................................................436
What Does Transition Planning Involve?....................................................................436
What Kinds of Opportunities Are Available After High School for Individuals with
Down Syndrome?........................................................................................................437
Postsecondary Education.........................................................................................437
Employment.............................................................................................................438
Housing....................................................................................................................438
What Are the Components of a Transition Plan?.........................................................439

18
Who Is Responsible for Developing the Transition Plan?...........................................439
What General Skills Should the Transition Plan Address?..........................................440
Can a Transition Plan Be Changed?............................................................................440
How Do I Know if the Transition Plan Is Working?...................................................440
Transition Skills Checklist...........................................................................................440
Vocational Skills......................................................................................................440
Domestic Skills........................................................................................................441
Social & Personal Skills..........................................................................................442
Recreation & Leisure Skills.....................................................................................442
Other Useful Skills..................................................................................................442
Sample IEP Transition Goals.......................................................................................443
9 successful people with Down syndrome who prove life is worth living......................444
Famous People with Down Syndrome............................................................................446
8 Famous People with Down Syndrome....................................................448
Luke Zimmerman..........................................................................................448
Lauren Potter..................................................................................................448
Tommy Jessop.................................................................................................449
Chris Burke......................................................................................................450
Edward Barbanell..........................................................................................452
Jamie Brewer...................................................................................................452
Angela Bachiller.............................................................................................453
Michael Johnson.............................................................................................454
Myths About Down Syndrome Debunked................................................455
Myth: Down syndrome children are only born to older parents..455
Myth: Having a Down syndrome child can place strain on a
relationship......................................................................................................455
Myth: Siblings are negatively affected.................................................455
Myth: Down syndrome people have a shorter life expectancy....456
Myth: They are limited physically...........................................................456
Myth: They cannot read or write.............................................................456
Myth: They cannot attend regular school............................................456
Myth: Those with Down syndrome don't feel pain...........................456
Myth: The all look alike...............................................................................456
Myth: They are all overweight.................................................................456
Myth: They are unable to have children..............................................456
Myth: They have poor memories............................................................457
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).........................................................................457
Symptoms......................................................................................................................458
Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia....................................................................................458
Agoraphobia.......................................................................................................459
The Panic Attack Symptoms Nobody Talks About...................................................460
RELATED STORIES.............................................................................................461
RELATED STORIES.............................................................................................462
Social Anxiety Disorder................................................................................................463

19
Triumph Over Shyness: Conquering Social Anxiety Disorder, Second
Edition.................................................................................................................464
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children.......................................................................464
Practice Essentials.......................................................................................................464
Signs and symptoms............................................................................................465
Diagnosis................................................................................................................466
Management..........................................................................................................467
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children.......................................................468
Practice Essentials................................................................................................468
Signs and symptoms........................................................................................469
Diagnosis..............................................................................................................470
Management.......................................................................................................471
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children.......................................................472
Background.............................................................................................................472
Diagnostic criteria (DSM-5) in individuals older than 6 years..........474
Diagnostic criteria (DSM-5) in children aged 6 years or younger
(preschool subtype).........................................................................................476
Responding to Students with PTSD in Schools...............................................................478
Types of traumatic events that affect students.................................................478
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...............................................................479
Evidence-based treatments for students with PTSD....................................................480
Practical Approaches...................................................................................................481
Supporting school personnel following a school-wide trauma.......................481
Psychological First Aid for Schools....................................................................482
Listen, Protect, Connect (LPC): An Evidence- Informed Model. 40,41.............483
Step 1: Listen.........................................................................................................483
Step 2: Protect.......................................................................................................484
Step 3: Connect.....................................................................................................484
Step 4: Model Calm and Optimistic Behavior...................................................484
Step 5: Teach.........................................................................................................485
Talking to Parents about PTSD...........................................................................485
Clinical strategies in working with students with PTSD..................................486
Working with the parent...................................................................................487
Treatment Rationale and Psychoeducation..................................................488
Relaxation Training...........................................................................................488
Cognitive Restructuring....................................................................................489
Trauma Narrative..............................................................................................489
In Vivo Gradual Exposure to Trauma Reminders........................................490
Problem Solving................................................................................................491
Conclusions..................................................................................................................491
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................491
Notes............................................................................................................................492
Footnotes......................................................................................................................492
References....................................................................................................................492
A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children.......495
Author information.................................................................................................495

20
Abstract...................................................................................................................495
OBJECTIVE:......................................................................................................495
METHOD:...........................................................................................................495
RESULTS:..........................................................................................................495
CONCLUSIONS:...............................................................................................495
Treating adolescents with social anxiety disorder in schools..........................................496
Author information.................................................................................................496
Abstract...................................................................................................................496
Skills for social and academic success: a school-based intervention for social anxiety
disorder in adolescents.....................................................................................................496
Author information.................................................................................................496
Abstract...................................................................................................................496
News.............................................................................................................................497
Jamaicas crime stats among highest worldwide, despite
reduction................................................................................................................497
Jamaica homicides jump 20 per cent, highest level in 5 years499
Women March Against Violence.................................................................................500
Story Highlights.....................................................................................................501
JAMAICA 2016/2017..................................................................................................502
Background.........................................................................................................502
Police and security forces..................................................................................503
Violence against women and girls..................................................................503
Childrens rights.....................................................................................................503
Rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people...503
International Justice.............................................................................................504
CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT STILL ON THE RISE IN JAMAICA....................504
News.............................................................................................................................506
16,790 cases of sexual abuse against children recorded in
eight years.............................................................................................................506
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)....................................................................508
Information for Parents: Behaviors That Could Be Symptoms of OCD................509
Eating Rituals......................................................................................................509
Inability to Make Decisions............................................................................509
Extreme Separation Anxiety.........................................................................509
Unusual Secretiveness....................................................................................510
Temper Tantrums...............................................................................................510
Finding Therapist: What to Ask........................................................................510
17 Quotes That Prove OCD Is So Much More Than Being Neat..........................512
RELATED STORIES.............................................................................................513
RELATED STORIES.............................................................................................515
Bipolar Disorder.............................................................................................................521
General Info.......................................................................................................522
Co-Occurring Anxiety Disorder and Bipolar Disorder..................................524
The Course of Bipolar Disorder......................................................................525

21
Treatment...........................................................................................................526
Getting Help.......................................................................................................527
MoodNetwork.....................................................................................................527
More Steps to Reduce Anxiety and Regulate Mood....................................528
Helping Others...................................................................................................528
Helping Your Child............................................................................................529
Teaching Strategies For Children With Bipolar Disorder.........................................529
Suggestions for Teaching a Bipolar Child................................................531
Reduction in Number of Missing Children.................................................................534
Story Highlights.....................................................................................................534
THE MYSTERY OF MISSING CHILDREN IN JAMAICA.........................................535
The key problem......................................................................................................536
The problem within Jamaica....................................................................................536
Working together to bring back our children...........................................................537
Child Month Fact How Many Children Have Been Reported Missing?......................538
Stress..............................................................................................................................540
News.............................................................................................................................540
60 children murdered, 99 shot and injured in past 16 months. 540
Gunmen murder two children, man in Hanover.................................542
Understanding Dissociative Identity Disorder in Children...................................544
4 Truths About Children Showing Signs of Multiple Personality
Disorder......................................................................................................................548
About Tmara Hill, MS, LPC...............................................................................553
The Differences Between Bipolar Disorder, Schizophrenia and Multiple
Personality Disorder...................................................................................................553
Bipolar Disorder.................................................................................................554
Schizophrenia.....................................................................................................554
Multiple Personality Disorder (Dissociative Identity Disorder).........555
Contrasting the Three Very Different Disorders....................................556
Teaching and Understanding Students with Schizophrenia..................................557
How to Teach Schizophrenic Students............................................................................561
Step 1......................................................................................................................561
Step 2......................................................................................................................561
Step 3......................................................................................................................561
Schizophrenia................................................................................................................562
WHAT IS IT?.........................................................................................................562
Are People With Schizophrenia Likely To Be Violent?....................................566
What About Suicide?............................................................................................567
WHAT CAUSES SCHIZOPHRENIA?................................................................567
HOW IS IT TREATED?........................................................................................569
HOW CAN OTHER PEOPLE HELP?.................................................................575
WHAT IS THE OUTLOOK?................................................................................577
Church robbed of $700,000 in equipment ..............................................................587
by.................................................................................................................................587
News.............................................................................................................................589

22
Church robbers make off with $1M worth of equipment.............589
News.............................................................................................................................590
Robbery turns away US church group....................................................590
2nd arrest in double murder of U.S. missionaries in Jamaica.........................................592
Dissociative Disorders..................................................................................................593
Symptoms................................................................................................................594
Causes.......................................................................................................................595
Diagnosis..................................................................................................................595
Treatment.................................................................................................................596
Related Conditions................................................................................................596
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES.............................................................................................598
Assignments..............................................................................................................598
Lesson Ideas..............................................................................................................598
The Effects of DID on Children of Trauma Survivors....................................................602
Dissociative Parenting: Memory, Mistakes, and Middle School........................607
I Forgot Im Parenting with A Handicap Called Dissociative Identity
Disorder.................................................................................................................608
When I Say Memory Problems .....................................................................608
ABOUT THE AUTHOR....................................................................................608
Holly Gray..............................................................................................................608
10 thoughts on Dissociative Parenting: Memory, Mistakes, and Middle
School........................................................................................................................608
Gunmen invade Cumberland High in search of students..........................614
Gunmen invade St. Catherine school................................................................615
News.............................................................................................................................616
Gunmen invade Manchester school.........................................................616
10-year-old robbed on his way to school...............................................................616
by.................................................................................................................................616
expressed concern................................................................................................617
More students robbed in Corporate Area since JC student's killing.......618
Vere Tech students robbed at gunpoint on school's dormitory619
News.............................................................................................................................621
School plagued by theft, other problems, in need of help...........621
Robberies choking Walkerswood All-Age..............................................625
Computers, toilets, food items taken in 8th break-in since
2011.......................................................................................................................625
UPDATE - 11 year old accused of killing 14 year old in police custody 628
Brothers chopped to death by nephew in Clarendon..................................629
Women march against violence in MoBay............................................632
News.............................................................................................................................634

23
Over 1,400 perpetrators of crime against women, children
arrested Grant................................................................................................634
Jamaicans wear black to protest violence against women and children..............635
Model: Gianna Photo: Michael Gordon).................................................................638
Violence against women: the full story...............................................................638
A Self-Regulatory Model of Behavioral Disinhibition in Late Adolescence: Integrating
Personality Traits, Externalizing Psychopathology, and Cognitive Capacity..................644
Abstract........................................................................................................................644
Disinhibited Personality Traits and Externalizing Psychopathology.............645
Cognitive Capacity, Self-Regulation, and Behavioral Disinhibition...............646
The Present Study................................................................................................647
Method.........................................................................................................................649
Participants............................................................................................................649
Sample 1............................................................................................................649
Sample 2............................................................................................................650
Assessment Materials..........................................................................................650
Diagnostic interviews........................................................................................650
Table 1..............................................................................................................................650
Personality trait indicators................................................................................652
Intelligence.........................................................................................................652
Short-term memory capacity...........................................................................653
Working memory capacity...............................................................................653
Procedure...............................................................................................................654
Analyses.................................................................................................................654
Results..........................................................................................................................655
Intercorrelations among trait and problem count indicators...........................655
Table 2..............................................................................................................................656
Sample 1 Model Comparisons............................................................................657
Table 3..............................................................................................................................658
Figure 1............................................................................................................................659
Images in this article....................................................................................................660
Sample 2 Model Comparisons............................................................................660
Sample 2 Correlated Model of Behavioral Disinhibition and Cognitive
Capacity..................................................................................................................661
Figure 2............................................................................................................................661
Discussion....................................................................................................................662
Limitations and Conclusions................................................................................664
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................665
Notes............................................................................................................................665
Footnotes......................................................................................................................665
References....................................................................................................................666
Symptoms of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder....................................671
Specific Symptoms of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder...671
Disinhibition..................................................................................................................673
Psychoactive substances....................................................................................673

24
See also..................................................................................................................674
Responding to Inappropriate Sexual Behaviors Displayed by
Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders...............................................675
Act Early................................................................................................................675
Using Environmental Modifications to Improve Behavior..................675
Saying Yes to Appropriate Behaviors.........................................................676
Be Consistent......................................................................................................676
Remember the Potential for Inadvertent Outcomes............................677
References...........................................................................................................677
Moments Of Memory- Charlie Smith High School, A Holding Center & Not By
Choice An Institution Of Learning-Is Cumberland High School Any Better
Off?..........................................................................................................................678
Sexual behavior and drinking style among teenagers: a population-based study in Finland
.........................................................................................................................................679
SUMMARY.................................................................................................................679
INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................680
MATERIAL AND METHODS..................................................................................682
Sexual behavior.................................................................................................683
Maturation............................................................................................................684
Drinking style......................................................................................................684
Statistical analysis............................................................................................685
RESULTS....................................................................................................................686
DISCUSSION............................................................................................................712
CONCLUSION...........................................................................................................714
FUNDING...................................................................................................................715
REFERENCES:- Please follow link to the article, pasted here:-............715
Timing of Alcohol and Other Drug Use And Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Unmarried
Adolescents and Young Adults........................................................................................715
METHODS..................................................................................................................717
RESULTS....................................................................................................................719
Analytic Approach.................................................................................................719
Descriptive Data....................................................................................................719
Bivariate Analyses.................................................................................................720
Multivariate Analyses............................................................................................721
DISCUSSION..............................................................................................................722
Review of Findings................................................................................................722
Limitations..............................................................................................................723
Implications............................................................................................................724
FOOTNOTES....................................................................................................724
REFERENCES..................................................................................................725
AUTHORS' AFFILIATIONS..............................................................................727
1.4.6 Assessment of Harmful Sexual Behaviour in Children and Young People............728
SCOPE OF THIS CHAPTER......................................................................................728
Contents.......................................................................................................................728
1. Introduction..............................................................................................................728
2. How to use these Guidelines....................................................................................728

25
There are three sections:-....................................................................................728
Part I - deciding if there is a cause for concern and the level of
seriousness........................................................................................................728
Part II - If it is a cause for concern - where to next?....................................729
Part III - Further stages of assessment.........................................................729
3. Part I - Deciding if there is a Cause for Concern and the Level of Seriousness......729
Pre-Adolescent Children......................................................................................729
Introduction........................................................................................................729
Theoretical Models............................................................................................731
Age Appropriate / Healthy Behaviours...........................................................731
Characteristics of Age Appropriate and Problematic Sexual Behaviours 732
Criteria for assessment of problematic behaviours.....................................733
Detailed Checklist for Referral, Initial Investigation and Establishing Cause
for Concern with Younger Children................................................................735
References.........................................................................................................735
Adolescents............................................................................................................736
Identifying Sexually Inappropriate and Sexually Aggressive Behaviours in
Adolescents........................................................................................................736
What causes inappropriate and sexually aggressive behaviour in
adolescents?......................................................................................................736
Detailed Checklist for Referral, Initial Investigation and Establishing Cause
for Concern with Adolescents..........................................................................738
References.........................................................................................................739
4. Part II - If it is a Cause for Concern - Where to Next?............................................740
Useful Contacts.....................................................................................................740
Useful Contacts for discussion/consultation.................................................740
5. Part III - Further Stages of Assessments..................................................................740
Child and Family Assessment.............................................................................740
1. Why do we need to assess families?........................................................740
2. What needs to be included in the family assessment?..........................741
3. Using the Child and Family Assessment to evaluate risk and plan
further intervention............................................................................................741
Checklist for the Fuller Family Assessment......................................................741
Child Developmental Needs............................................................................741
Parenting Capacity............................................................................................741
Family and Environment..................................................................................742
Assessment of the Child/Young Person's own needs both as a Perpetrator
and as a Vulnerable Child....................................................................................742
Wenet & Clark's Juvenile Sexual Offender Decision Criteria (1986)............742
Evaluation...........................................................................................................742
Assessment to Inform a Pre Sentence Report.............................................745
Understanding the link between early sexual initiation and later sexually transmitted
infection: Test and replication in two longitudinal studies..............................................745
Abstract........................................................................................................................746
Current study.........................................................................................................747
Methods.......................................................................................................................747

26
Participants............................................................................................................747
Measures................................................................................................................747
Lifetime sexually transmitted infection (STI).................................................748
Young adult predictors (ages 1824).............................................................748
Adolescent predictors.......................................................................................748
Childhood predictors (ages 1014)................................................................748
Demographics....................................................................................................749
Statistical Analyses...............................................................................................749
Appendix 1.......................................................................................................................750
Appendix 2.......................................................................................................................764
Appendix 2.......................................................................................................................771
Results..........................................................................................................................778
Table 1..............................................................................................................................778
Table 2..............................................................................................................................781
Figure 1............................................................................................................................782
Figure 3............................................................................................................................784
Discussion....................................................................................................................785
Figure 2............................................................................................................................786
Implications and Contribution..............................................................................786
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................787
Footnotes......................................................................................................................787
References....................................................................................................................787
Exposure to Sexual Lyrics and Sexual Experience Among Urban Adolescents.............790
Abstract........................................................................................................................790
Introduction..................................................................................................................790
Methods.......................................................................................................................792
Design, Setting, and Participants.......................................................................792
Sample....................................................................................................................792
Procedures.............................................................................................................793
Measures................................................................................................................793
Independent variables: exposure to lyrics describing degrading and
nondegrading sex..............................................................................................793
Dependent variables: sexual behavior..........................................................794
Covariates..........................................................................................................795
Analysis..................................................................................................................795
Results..........................................................................................................................796
Discussion....................................................................................................................797
Acknowledgments.......................................................................................................800
Footnotes......................................................................................................................800
References....................................................................................................................800
Teenage sexual behaviour: attitudes towards and declared sexual activity.....................804
Author information.................................................................................................804
Abstract...................................................................................................................804
PIP:......................................................................................................................804
Decreasing Impulsive Behaviors in the Classroom Elem.......................................................811
ADHD in School: Self-Control and Focus.........................................................................811

27
Dealing With Impulsive Behaviors in ADHD Students.....................................................812
San Fran school wastes class time teaching students the dos and donts of social media
.........................................................................................................................................814
Teachers resign from an Upper Hutt school after being sexually harassed by
students..........................................................................................................................815
Teachers suffer sexual harassment and rape threats from pupils as young as SIX............818
Teachers 'victims of sexist bullies in class'................................................................825
Shares.....................................................................................................................825
Most popular in US...............................................................................................825
British spies were first to spot Trump team's links with Russia................825
US drops largest ever non-nuclear bomb on Isis affiliate in Afghanistan,
military says.......................................................................................................826
Chechens tell of prison beatings and electric shocks in anti-gay purge:
They called us animals....................................................................................826
'It's a perfect storm': homeless spike in rural California linked to Silicon
Valley..................................................................................................................826
AI programs exhibit racial and gender biases, research reveals................826
Guardian Today: the headlines, the analysis, the debate - sent direct to
you..................................................................................................................................827
Since youre here ...................................................................................................828
Hot for Teacher: Rethinking Educations Sexual Harassment Policies...........................829
Sexual Harassment at School......................................................................................836
Title IX Overview...................................................................................................836
The Circumstances That Led Up to the Davis Ruling.....................................836
Harassment vs. School-Yard Bullying................................................................837
Tips for Parents of Sexually Harassed Kids.....................................................838
Sample Letter........................................................................................................838
What to Do If the Principal Does Nothing..........................................................839
How Schools Should Approach Sexual Harassment at School.....................839
What to Do To Stop Sexual Harassment at School..............................................849
Guidelines for Administrators..............................................................................850
References.............................................................................................................850
Preventing Student Sexual Harassment. ERIC Digest Number 160.
.....................................................................................................................................851
PEER SEXUAL HARASSMENT...................................................................851
SCHOOL INITIATIVES ON SEXUAL HARASSMENT........................852
CONCLUSION....................................................................................................854
REFERENCES....................................................................................................854
FOOTNOTES.............................................................................................................870
Sexual harassment in education (brochure)...........................................................890
Page controls.............................................................................................................890
Page content.............................................................................................................890
Applying the Human Rights Code in education............................................890
Gender-based harassment and bullying.........................................................891
Preventing and responding to sexual harassment........................................891
For more information:..........................................................................................892

28
How To Prevent Sexual Harassment By Setting Boundaries..........................................893
According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, 59 percent of secondary
schools report incidents of sexual harassment.................................................................893
Employee behavior that might lead to sexual harassment charges include:................894
School employees should take following proactive steps to stop sexual
harassment:...........................................................................................................894
Provide training to school employees on the school's policies, procedures
and sexual harassment laws to ensure that everyone understands the
boundaries and how to respond to inappropriate behavior and report it
according to policy................................................................................................894
Preventing harassment at schools..............................................................................895
Strategies to address sexual harassment in schools and youth settings.......................897
Everyone has a role to play in addressing sexual harassment with youth.. . .897
Prevention of Sexual Harassment in Schools........................................................................899
THIS SECTION IS INTENDED FOR PRINCIPALS, SENIOR TEACHERS AND
HEADS OF DEPARTMENTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS AND NON TRADITIONAL
HIGH SCHOOLS IN JAMAICA (.................................................................................913
Policy-Making Process (HS) ...........................................................................................913
Policy-Making Processes in School Health Promotion, Safety and
Social Development.............................................................................................913
Section 9. Changing Policies in Schools.....................................................................917
C H A P T E R 2 5 S E C T I O N S .........................................................................917
W H AT D O W E M E A N BY C H A N G I N G P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ....................................................................................................917
W H Y S H O U L D YO U W O R K T O C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ....................................................................................................917
W H E N S H O U L D YO U T RY T O C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ....................................................................................................917
W H O S H O U L D B E I N VO LV E D I N C H A N G I N G
P O L I C I E S I N S C H O O L S ? .....................................................................917
H O W D O YO U C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N S C H O O L S ? .....917
W H AT D O W E M E A N BY C H A N G I N G P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ............................................................................................................918
W H Y M I G H T YO U WA N T T O C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ............................................................................................................921
T O I M P R OV E S T U D E N T S ( A N D O T H E R S ) H E A LT H. .........921
T O I M P R OV E E D U C AT I O N . ....................................................................921
T O M E E T T H E N E E D S O F PA RT I C U L A R G R O U P S . ................922
T O I M P R OV E C L A S S R O O M A N D S C H O O L C L I M AT E A N D
C U LT U R E . ..........................................................................................................923
T O P R O T E C T S T U D E N T S ( A N D S TA F F ) F R O M H A R M . ......923
T O S A F E G U A R D S T U D E N T S R I G H T S . .........................................924
T O R E S P O N D T O A P E RC E I V E D C O M M U N I T Y N E E D . ........924
W H E N S H O U L D YO U T RY T O C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N
S C H O O L S ? ............................................................................................................925

29
W H O S H O U L D B E I N VO LV E D I N C H A N G I N G S C H O O L
P O L I C I E S ? .............................................................................................................925
H O W D O YO U C H A N G E P O L I C I E S I N S C H O O L S ? .....................926
M A R S H A L YO U R S U P P O RT A N D B E G I N T O S T RAT E G I Z E .
.................................................................................................................................926
D O YO U R H O M E W O R K . ...........................................................................927
W O R K T O G E T YO U R P R O P O S A L F O R P O L I C Y C H A N G E
I M P L E M E N T E D . .............................................................................................931
I N S U M M A RY .......................................................................................................937
Enhancing Student Achievement.................................................................938
Chapter 6. Policies and Practices Affecting Students..........................................938
Relationship to the Framework............................................................................938
A Safe and Positive Environment.....................................................................938
A Culture of Hard Work......................................................................................938
A Success Orientation.........................................................................................938
A Culture of Respect and Responsiveness to Clients..................................939
Student Leadership and Decision Making.....................................................939
Minimal Competition..........................................................................................939
A Culture for Learning........................................................................................939
Categories of Policies and Practices....................................................................940
Attendance Policies.............................................................................................940
Discipline Policies................................................................................................941
Homework Policies..............................................................................................941
Grading Policies....................................................................................................943
Reflective of Student Learning in the Curriculum....................................944
Consistency Within a School.........................................................................944
Multiple Measures of Student Learning.....................................................944
Grade Inflation.................................................................................................944
Summary...................................................................................................................945
Rubric for Policies and Practices Affecting Students...............................945
Rouse Hill High School Policies.............................................................................................947
Policies & procedures......................................................................................................947
Rouse Hill High School Policies.............................................................................................949
Policies & procedures......................................................................................................949
School Operations, Policies, and Expectations................................................................950
Definitions...............................................................................................................951
Equal Educational Opportunity...............................................................................951
Jurisdiction and Expectations..................................................................................951
Philosophy...............................................................................................................952
Attendance...............................................................................................................952
Excused/Unexcused Absence Procedures................................................................953
Tardiness..................................................................................................................953

30
Suspension and Expulsion from School..................................................................954
Alcohol/Drugs/Tobacco and Other Controlled Substances.....................................954
Dangerous Weapons.................................................................................................955
Student Lockers.......................................................................................................955
Search and Seizure...................................................................................................955
Academic Dishonesty..............................................................................................956
Removal from Class................................................................................................956
Detention..................................................................................................................956
Fighting and Swearing.............................................................................................957
Appearance..............................................................................................................957
Student Dress...........................................................................................................957
Respect for Property................................................................................................957
Respect for Individuals............................................................................................958
Harassment Students.............................................................................................958
Curriculum Requirements for Graduation...............................................................958
Early Graduation......................................................................................................959
Enrollment Policies..................................................................................................959
Open Enrollment......................................................................................................959
Human Growth and Development...........................................................................960
Post-Secondary Enrollment Options Act.................................................................960
Grading Policies.......................................................................................................960
Honor Roll...............................................................................................................960
Special Programming...............................................................................................960
Success Center.........................................................................................................961
Lunch Shifts.............................................................................................................961
Lunch Period............................................................................................................961
Delivery of Meals....................................................................................................961
Carbonated Beverages.............................................................................................961
Study Hall................................................................................................................961
Study Hall Expectations:.........................................................................................962
Leaving School during School Hours......................................................................962
Display of Posters....................................................................................................963
Skate Boards and Roller Blades..............................................................................963
Passes.......................................................................................................................963
School Cancellations...............................................................................................963
Fire and Tornado Drills............................................................................................963
Hallway Conduct.....................................................................................................963
Student Interpersonal Relations...............................................................................963
Library Media Center..............................................................................................964
Assembly Programs.................................................................................................964
Report to Parents......................................................................................................964
Visitors at School.....................................................................................................964
Open Campus Policy (For Seniors Only)................................................................964
Turning Around the Lowest-Performing Schools: The Role of the
Principal - Research Findings to Support Effective Educational
Policymaking...............................................................................................................965

31
PREPARING AND DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE SCHOOL LEADERS..................967
References....................................................................................................................971
Role of Principal Leadership in Improving Student Achievement.............978
The Basics of Successful Leadership..............................................................979
Setting Direction....................................................................................................979
Examining the Evidence.................................................................................979
Practical Application........................................................................................980
Developing People.................................................................................................980
Redesigning the Organization...........................................................................981
Examining the evidence.................................................................................981
Practical application.........................................................................................981
Broad Goals for School Leaders........................................................................982
Conclusion................................................................................................................982
References...............................................................................................................982
School Principal - The Role of Elementary and Secondary School Principals, Principal
Duties and Responsibilities, Principal Qualifications.....................................................983
schools public private students...........................................................................983
The Role of Elementary and Secondary School Principals.........................................984
Principal Duties and Responsibilities..........................................................................984
Principal Qualifications...............................................................................................985
Research on School Leadership...................................................................................986
Demographic Profile of School Principals..................................................................987
BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................988
INTERNET RESOURCE............................................................................................988
SWOT analysis for schools|education|colleges|universities...........................988
SWOT analysis for schools, teachers and education |colleges|universities
.....................................................................................................................................989
Conducting a SWOT analysis for schools | colleges | universities..............990
IMPORTANT TIP for SWOT analysis in schools, | colleges | universities....991
What sort of tasks and issues can a SWOT analysis for Schools be used for?
.....................................................................................................................................991
An Example of a SWOT analysis for schools | colleges| universities......991
SWOT Analysis templates for schools & education | colleges |
universities..............................................................................................................993
About Mike Morrison....................................................................................1001
SWOT Analysis.............................................................................................................1001
SWOT Analysis Table.........................................................................................1002
S.W.O.T Analysis Of The School.....................................................................1003
Resources Available To The Cumberland High School.................................................1045
Guidance in Designing Interventions For Students With Learning Disabilities and
Assisting In The Training of Teachers to Use Chess, Dance, Music and Sports For
Therapy and Education..........................................................................................1045
For Pallets and Associated Materials For The Making Of Musical Instruments and
Game Board...........................................................................................................1045

32
For Technical Guidance In Strategic Planning, For Using SWOT Analysis, for using
Visioning Method, and the Logical Framework Method.......................................1045
For Dance and Music Teachers..............................................................................1045
The Schools Medical Doctor Will Work With The Mental Health Institution To
Develop The Skills and Competences Needed To Work On A Long Term Basis On
Both Physical & Mental Health Interventions and Guidance................................1045

33
Letter To The Principal Of The Non-Traditional High
School

Dear Sir/Madam;

This compilation of web sourced documents, is intended to be used in the same manner in
which one would use a tool box which contains several tools. As is seen, this document is
a bit bulky and was not intended to be read as a novel, but rather to be used to identify
approaches which can be used to further enable the school to better meet the special
needs of those students with learning and behavioral disorders.

A second feature of this document, is that it effective usage assumes a team approach,
which includes the participation of senior teachers, heads of departments, the guidance
councilors and deans of discipline, the arts department, in particular the dance and music
teacher, and the school coach or physical education teachers. This approach allows the
school to look honestly and deeply at the situation within the school at present, its
policies and approaches to students with learning and behavioral problems, to review the
academic performance of these students as against students who do not face similar
challenges. This approach allows short comings to be identified and solutions and plans
put in place for the resolution of the given problems.

The schools, in particular the Non Traditional High Schools have been doing a less than
satisfactory job at preparing students with special needs for the world of work and for the
meeting of the very basic requirements needed by these individuals to live as independent
persons and to lead productive lives with the law. These are short comings which the
communities and the society as a whole can no longer afford to entertain. As is known,
these short comings not only prevents the individual victims of the various types of
learning and or behavioral challenges from ever reaching any where near their full
potential, but also contribute to pri-20 years of age pregnancies, unemployment, crime,
child abuse and a recurring ever expanding cycle in the production and reproduction of
individuals with learning and or behavioral disabilities. As such, the communities in
which the schools are located, the parents of those students and the law enforcement
agencies have the right to critically examine the performance of the school and its
leadership, even if the Minister of Education for what ever reason fails to do so.

This compilation seeks to assist the class room teacher who has become the Principal, to
better understand the roles and duties of the Principal in a modern education institution. It
provides him or her with an introduction to strategic planning, policies, the concept of a
high school which embraces all its students regardless of their abilities, mental or
physical status in respect to disabilities; it introduces him or her to the understanding that
it is possible to have a school in which sexual harassment and or victimization does occur

34
between student and student, staff and student, student and staff , a school which is safe
for all. It further introduces the Principal to a number of planning approaches.

A hope also is that the leadership of the Non-Traditional High Schools will seek to utilize
those resources which exist with the school, with the community and within the wider
society to advance their mission and curricula. Too often a number of these schools for
whatever reason have failed to do what is possible to help themselves, and instead sit
waiting on the Ministry of Education to come to their rescue and save them from sinking.

I would like to use this opportunity to thank the various authors, educators, institutions
and publishers who have permitted their material to be compiled in such a way to assist
those Jamaican high schools which are struggling. I would like to invite those principals
and teachers elsewhere in the world who would gain from using this compilation to do so
freely.

Yours truly,
Basil Fletcher

A wall made from shipping pallets, a hedge could be added to it. Special funds from the
Ministry of Education are not needed to make this wall.

35
A wall made of rammed earth. This type of wall does not require special funds from the
Ministry of Education.

Types of Learning Disabilities

Learning disabilities are


neurologically-based processing problems. These processing problems can
interfere with learning basic skills such as reading, writing and/or math. They can
also interfere with higher level skills such as organization, time planning, abstract
reasoning, long or short term memory and attention. It is important to realize
that learning disabilities can affect an individuals life beyond academics and can
impact relationships with family, friends and in the workplace.

Since difficulties with reading, writing and/or math are recognizable problems during
the school years, the signs and symptoms of learning disabilities are most often
diagnosed during that time. However, some individuals do not receive an evaluation
until they are in post-secondary education or adults in the workforce. Other individuals
with learning disabilities may never receive an evaluation and go through life, never
knowing why they have difficulties with academics and why they may be having
problems in their jobs or in relationships with family and friends.

Learning disabilities should not be confused with learning problems which are primarily
the result of visual, hearing, or motor handicaps; of mental retardation; of emotional
disturbance; or of environmental, cultural or economic disadvantages.

Generally speaking, people with learning disabilities are of average or above average
intelligence. There often appears to be a gap between the individuals potential and
actual achievement. This is why learning disabilities are referred to as "hidden

36
disabilities": the person looks perfectly normal and seems to be a very bright and
intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from
someone of a similar age.

A learning disability cannot be cured or fixed; it is a lifelong challenge. However, with


appropriate support and intervention, people with learning disabilities can achieve
success in school, at work, in relationships, and in the community.

In Federal law, under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the term is
"specific learning disability," one of 13 categories of disability under that law.

"Learning Disabilities" is an "umbrella" term describing a number of other, more specific


learning disabilities, such as dyslexia and dysgraphia. Find the signs and symptoms of
each, plus strategies to help below.

Specific Learning Disabilities

Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)


Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, this is a condition that adversely
affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted
by the brain. Individuals with APD do not recognize subtle differences between sounds
in words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. They can also
find it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, to make sense of the order of
sounds, or to block out competing background noises.

Learn more about Auditory Processing Disorder

37
Dyscalculia
A specific learning disability that affects a persons ability to understand numbers and
learn math facts. Individuals with this type of LD may also have poor comprehension of
math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty
telling time, or have trouble with counting.

Learn more about Dyscalculia

Dysgraphia
A specific learning disability that affects a persons handwriting ability and fine motor
skills. Problems may include illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial
planning on paper, poor spelling, and difficulty composing writing as well as thinking
and writing at the same time.

Learn more about Dysgraphia

38
Dyslexia
A specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing
skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, decoding,
reading comprehension, recall, writing, spelling, and sometimes speech and can exist
along with other related disorders. Dyslexia is sometimes referred to as a Language-
Based Learning Disability.

Learn more about Dyslexia

Language Processing Disorder


A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD) in which there is difficulty
attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, sentences and stories. While an
APD affects the interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain, a Language
Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect
expressive language and/or receptive language.

Learn more about Language Processing Disorder

39
Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities
A disorder which is usually characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher
verbal skills and weaker motor, visual-spatial and social skills. Typically, an individual
with NLD (or NVLD) has trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or
body language, and may have poor coordination.

Learn more about Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities

Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit


A disorder that affects the understanding of information that a person sees, or the
ability to draw or copy. A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as
Dysgraphia or Non-verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or
printed letters, losing place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly,
or poor eye/hand coordination.

Learn more about Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit

40
Related Disorders

ADHD
A disorder that includes difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty
controlling behavior and hyperactivity. Although ADHD is not considered a learning
disability, research indicates that from 30-50 percent of children with ADHD also have a
specific learning disability, and that the two conditions can interact to make learning
extremely challenging.

Learn more about ADHD

Dyspraxia
A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control, which causes problems
with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can affect learning.
Although not a learning disability, dyspraxia often exists along with dyslexia, dyscalculia
or ADHD.

Learn more about Dyspraxia

41
Executive Functioning
An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a variety
of neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying
attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. Although not a
learning disability, different patterns of weakness in executive functioning are almost
always seen in the learning profiles of individuals who have specific learning disabilities
or ADHD.

Learn more about Executive Functioning

Memory
Three types of memory are important to learning. Working memory, short-term
memory and long-term memory are used in the processing of both verbal and non-
verbal information. If there are deficits in any or all of these types of memory, the ability
to store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks can be impaired.

Learn more about Memory

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/

42
Auditory Processing Disorder

Adversely affects how


sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is
processed and interpreted by the brain.
Also known as Central Auditory Processing Disorder, individuals with Auditory
Processing Disorder (APD) do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in
words, even when the sounds are loud and clear enough to be heard. They can also find
it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, to make sense of the order of sounds,
or to block out competing background noises.

Signs and Symptoms


Has difficulty processing and remembering language-related tasks but may have
no trouble interpreting or recalling non-verbal environmental sounds, music, etc.
May process thoughts and ideas slowly and have difficulty explaining them
Misspells and mispronounces similar-sounding words or omits syllables;
confuses similar-sounding words (celery/salary; belt/built; three/free; jab/job;
bash/batch)
May be confused by figurative language (metaphor, similes) or misunderstand
puns and jokes; interprets words too literally
Often is distracted by background sounds/noises
Finds it difficult to stay focused on or remember a verbal presentation or lecture
May misinterpret or have difficulty remembering oral directions; difficulty
following directions in a series
Has difficulty comprehending complex sentence structure or rapid speech
"Ignores" people, especially if engrossed
Says "What?" a lot, even when has heard much of what was said

43
Strategies
Show rather than explain
Supplement with more intact senses (use visual cues, signals, handouts,
manipulatives)
Reduce or space directions, give cues such as ready?
Reword or help decipher confusing oral and/or written directions
Teach abstract vocabulary, word roots, synonyms/antonyms
Vary pitch and tone of voice, alter pace, stress key words
Ask specific questions as you teach to find out if they do understand
Allow them 5-6 seconds to respond ("think time")
Have the student constantly verbalize concepts, vocabulary words, rules, etc.
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S." Calendar
2001-2002

7 Things I Wish People Knew About Parenting a Child


With Auditory Processing Disorder

When my son was in first grade, his teacher complained to me that he didnt pay
attention in class. She said he wasnt listening. To her, this was an act of defiance.

I explained that my son has auditory processing disorder (APD). Hes usually a very
well-behaved boy, but the classroom was too chaotic and noisy for him. With all the
background sound, my son simply couldnt make out what she was saying to him, no
matter how hard he tried.

44
For people who dont have APD, it can be a puzzling challenge. Even my husband, who
tries to understand, often struggles to see the world from the perspective of my son.

Ive learned a lot from parenting a child with APD. And because I have APD myself, I
think Im a good person to explain. Here are some things I wish people understood about
me, my son and APD.

1. He isnt being defiant.

With APD, the brain doesnt always process spoken words smoothly. So when my
son doesnt respond right away or doesnt understand what youre saying, hes not
doing it to be rude or defiant. He simply didnt comprehend what you said.

My son wants to understand youmore than anything. People like my son and
me sometimes give up on conversations, though, because were afraid of seeming
rude. Sadly, its part of life for someone with APD.

2. The link between APD and hearing can be confusing.

Having APD isnt the same as being hard of hearing. My sons hearing is actually
very good. In fact, that can be part of the problem.

For example, my husbands electric shaver makes a high-pitched, irritating sound


when its charging. At least it does according to my son and me. No one else in
our family seems to notice the sound we complain about.

It may seem counterintuitive. He notices sounds no one else does but still cant
seem to hear what someone else is saying. Thats because APD is
an information processing issue, not a hearing issue.

3. Competing sounds and noises make understanding harder.

When Im talking to my child, my voice is competing with a thousand other


noises. It could be the rush of air blowing out of the air conditioner. Or footsteps
coming from down the hallway. Or the buzz of an overhead, fluorescent light.
Thats why I try not to start a complex conversation with my son in a loud or
chaotic environment.

If you have something important to share and its noisy, text or write down the
message. Better yet, when you need to have a real conversation, talk to him in a
quiet place. Speaking directly to him and making eye contact also helps.

4. Telling him to pay closer attention or listen harder doesnt help.

Some people confuse APD with ADHD, but they arent the same.

45
Yes, APD can include problems with attention. After all, its hard to focus if you
cant understand whats being said around you.

But telling my son to pay closer attention or listen harder doesnt help when
his brain is scrambling the sounds coming in. Thatd be like someone telling you
to listen harder to a foreign language you barely speak.

5. Rephrasing is more helpful than repeating.

When my son responds with What? to something I said, its tempting to repeat
exactly what I just said and in a louder voice.

But what he really needs is for me to say what I said in a different way. Thats
because certain phrases and sentences can be more difficult to process. The
sounds may be too similar. The word combinations may be too complex.

Rephrasingnot repeating the same words loudercan really help. When


struggling with my own APD, Ive learned to say, Can you please say what you
said again, but with different words?

6. He wants to feel safe to ask you to say something as many times as he needs.

Most people dont like to say the same thing over and over. I understand that. My
son does, too. Thats why its hard for him to ask.

But if he knows youre OK with repeating and rephrasing something a few times,
hell be more comfortable asking. Its wonderful when people are willing to do
this for himand for me. We appreciate it more than you can imagine.

7. Its OK to be frustrated, as long as you try to understand.

Even though I have APD, I get frustrated with my son sometimes. I lose my
patience. So I know others might too.

My sons first teacher never did come around to understanding his challenges. In
the end, though, we were lucky that a new teacher replaced her. This new teacher
was wonderful. The only difference between her and the first teacher was the
willingness to try to understand APD.

Learn more common myths about APD. See what classroom accommodations can help
kids with APD. And find out what to do if youre concerned your child has APD, or
if you recently found out he does.

46
Any opinions, views, information and other content contained in blogs on
Understood.org are the sole responsibility of the writer of the blog, and do not
necessarily reflect the views, values, opinions or beliefs of, and are not endorsed by,
Understood.

About the Blogger

Rachel Gurevich is a health-care journalist, a fertility expert, and

Source:- https://www.understood.org/en/community-events/blogs/what-i-wish-id-known-
sooner/2016/11/29/7-things-i-wish-people-knew-about-parenting-a-child-with-auditory-
processing-disorder?
utm_campaign=partner&utm_source=lda&utm_medium=blog&utm_content=Understoo
dorg

Dyscalculia

Affects a persons
ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.
Individuals with this type of Learning Disability may also have poor comprehension of
math symbols, may struggle with memorizing and organizing numbers, have difficulty
telling time, or have trouble with counting.

47
Signs and Symptoms
Shows difficulty understanding concepts of place value, and quantity, number
lines, positive and negative value, carrying and borrowing
Has difficulty understanding and doing word problems
Has difficulty sequencing information or events
Exhibits difficulty using steps involved in math operations
Shows difficulty understanding fractions
Is challenged making change and handling money
Displays difficulty recognizing patterns when adding, subtracting, multiplying, or
dividing
Has difficulty putting language to math processes
Has difficulty understanding concepts related to time such as days, weeks,
months, seasons, quarters, etc.
Exhibits difficulty organizing problems on the page, keeping numbers lined up,
following through on long division problems

Strategies
Allow use of fingers and scratch paper
Use diagrams and draw math concepts
Provide peer assistance
Suggest use of graph paper
Suggest use of colored pencils to differentiate problems
Work with manipulatives
Draw pictures of word problems
Use mnemonic devices to learn steps of a math concept
Use rhythm and music to teach math facts and to set steps to a beat
Schedule computer time for the student for drill and practice
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S." Calendar
2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/dyscalculia/

48
Compilers Comment # 1

Even as in Scotland of old where there were warring clans fighting against each other and
also within the clans and fighting for the benevolence or patronage of the Crown, the
Africa from whence the slaves came where with a few exceptions was fractured by wars
between tribes and tribes within tribes.
2. Promotion within slavery was in the main based on patronage and not on the basis of
merit, the whip ensured that a given average output per slave was maintained and the
slaves had no reason to push for increased labour productivity or to lead innovation,
which would have led to increase demands on labour-the slaves. Many Muslim slaves
were also more educated than their White Overseers, many of whom were illiterate.
3) The existence of the system of slavery was also based on the willingness of slaves to
do harm and or kill other slaves on behalf of the White Overseers and for patronage and
the willingness of slaves from other estates to seek to rob and ruin other estates in
keeping with the economic and property seeking interests of their owners and overseers.
4) Slavery as a system was a training school in violence and areas dominated by sugar
cane slavery and or where the children of the plantations settled were always
characterized by higher levels of violent and economic crimes- estate children without
overseers.

Parents of children who are gods must be made to understand that the school system is
not intended to teach gods. Schools are institutions of learning guided by policies, rules
and procedures which are in known to all stakeholders.

A parent who has not visited the school of his or her child at least three times in a given
year should be reported to the police by the principal so that charges of child neglect laid
against the offending parent or parents.

Football played in the non- traditional high schools must be aimed more at raising student
discipline, physical and mental health, team play and solidarity than for winning matches.
In short, football without infringements. The Jamaican "Gentleman's Game" akin to the
British cricket of the colonial era. Therapy through sports.

49
The Jamaican School of Boxing must become closer to the Chinese and or Japanese
Schools of martial arts in promoting respect for self and others and striving for higher
values than the American School of Boxing which promotes winning at all costs,
arrogance, egoism,and disrespect for self and others. In short the objective is to produce
Usain Bolts and not the stereotype American Sprinter- Tyson Gayle, Michael Jordon
among others. The USA has far greater social space to absorb and manage deviancy than
does Jamaica.
End

Is There Such a Thing as OrtonGillingham for Math?


By Brendan R. Hodnett

My child has issues with math. Another parent told me theres something called
OrtonGillingham for Math. Is this a real thing, and should I look into it for my
child?

50
Brendan R. Hodnett
Special Education Teacher
This question comes up oftenand theres a lot of confusion about what the term even
means.

OrtonGillingham (OG) is a style of instruction that focuses on certain features. They


are: multisensory, structured, step-by-step, driven by data and personalized.

OG was developed around research on how people learn to read and write, and why some
people struggle with it. This approach is designed to be used with direct one-on-one or
small group instruction. A number of reading programs for kids with dyslexia are based
on OGand with great success.

Now educators are using this type of instruction with kids who struggle in math. (Its
important to note that the research behind OG didnt involve math instruction or
learning.)

51
When a program is described as Orton-Gillingham Math it generally refers to
a multisensory approach. And it follows a progression of concrete-representational-
abstract.

All that means is that kids first learn new math concepts using hands-on materials
(concrete). Then they move on to drawing or using pictures (representational). The last
step is converting the information into numbers and symbols (abstract).

Kids who struggle with math often have trouble making sense of the abstractthe
numbers and symbols. This OG-type instruction helps kids connect what they learn
through their senses to numbers and symbols.

Numerous studies have shown that multisensory math instruction is good for all learners.
It gives kids a broader understanding of concepts. But when you add personalized
instruction that builds on each concept, it can really help kids with math issues.

Youve asked if your child might benefit from this type of instruction. I dont know your
child, or the nature of his math issues. But for most kids who struggle with math, the
answer is yes.

Just bear in mind that the OG approach was designed to address difficulties with reading.
Its based on research involving reading and writing, not math. Programs described as
OrtonGillingham math instruction havent been around as long as OG reading
interventions have. And they dont have the same evidence of success.

As youre investigating math intervention programs, here are some features to look for:

Multisensory
Data driven
Direct connection between previously learned and new material
Immediate feedback

It is also important to read reviews of the program. See how popular it is with parents and
teachers, and how long its been in use. Theres no guarantee these programs will
improve your sons performance in math. But they definitely have benefits for many kids
with math difficulties.

52
About the Author

Brendan R. Hodnett is a special education teacher in Middletown, New Jersey.

Source:- https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-
disabilities/math-issues/is-there-such-a-thing-as-orton-gillingham-for-math?
utm_campaign=partner&utm_source=lda&utm_medium=blog&utm_content=Understoo
dorg

OrtonGillingham: What You Need to Know


By Peg Rosen

At a Glance
OrtonGillingham was the first program designed for struggling readers. Several
reading approaches are based on it.
OrtonGillingham teaches the connections between sounds and letters.
Many schools use the OrtonGillingham approach in their special
education reading programs.

53
Of all the reading programs specifically designed to help struggling readers by explicitly
teaching the connections between letters and sounds, OrtonGillingham was the first.
Todaydecades latermany reading programs include OrtonGillingham ideas.

The highly structured program introduced the idea of breaking reading and spelling down
into smaller skills involving letters and sounds, and then building on these skills over
time. It also pioneered the multisensory approach to teaching reading, which is
considered the gold standard for teaching students with dyslexia. This means that
instructors use sight, hearing, touch and movement to help students connect language
with letters and words.

What OrtonGillingham Focuses On


OrtonGillingham focuses on teaching kids to read at the word level. While it can help
develop reading comprehension, that is not the programs primary goal.

This approach uses multiple pathways to help kids learn. For example, students might
learn the letter s by seeing it, saying its name and sounding it out while writing it with
their fingers in shaving cream.

Of all reading programs, OrtonGillingham has the most research to support its
approach.
OrtonGillingham also puts a strong emphasis on understanding the how and why
behind reading. Students may explore why the letter s sounds one way in the word plays,
and another way in the word snake. Once they know consistent rules and patterns, theyre
better able to decode words on their own.

Where to Find OrtonGillingham


OrtonGillingham has the most research of any program to support its approach. Thats
why many classroom teachers choose to use strategies from the program in their reading
instruction. Having students walk around the floor in the pattern of a letter, for instance,
is an activity inspired by OrtonGillingham.

But reading specialists use the program more comprehensively with students who have
dyslexia and other reading issues. Many schools provide instruction based on Orton
Gillingham through a students Individualized Education Program (IEP) or response to
intervention.

OrtonGillingham is the basis for numerous other reading programs aimed at struggling
readers. These include LindamoodBell and the Wilson Reading System. These programs
vary somewhat. But they all use a highly structured, multisensory approach.

Schools may use any one of these programs to teach struggling readers. The program they
choose may depend upon a teachers training or whom the school is partnered with. What
matters most is that the program is based on OrtonGillingham.

54
How OrtonGillingham Works
The first step is assessing a student to determine his reading skills and areas of strength
and weakness. This can be done by any specialist or teacher trained in the Orton
Gillingham approach.

Students are then taught in small groups with others at similar skill levels. Instructors
follow a highly structured approach that teaches skills in a particular order. This order is
based on an understanding of how children naturally develop language.

For example, the group may first work on making the connection between sounds and the
letters that represent those sounds. The next step will be recognizing those sounds in
words. Students must master each skill before they move on to the next. If a student is
confused, the instructor will reteach that skill from the beginning. The goal is for students
to use the skills theyve learned to decode words independently.

Effective help is available for struggling readers. Its important to know what program
your childs school uses, and how the different programs work. That knowledge can help
you see if the school is meeting program goals. And it will give you a better idea of how
to help your child at home.

Key Takeaways
OrtonGillinghams step-by-step approach is based on how children learn
language.
Students must master one reading skill before moving on to the next.
Programs for struggling readers should be based on an OrtonGillingham
approach.

Source:- https://www.understood.org/en/school-learning/partnering-with-childs-
school/instructional-strategies/orton-gillingham-what-you-need-to-know

The Orton-Gillingham Approach

Overview
Approach
Appropriate for Whom?

OVERVIEW

Orton-Gillingham is an instructional approach intended primarily for use with persons


who have difficulty with reading, spelling, and writing of the sort associated with
dyslexia. It is most properly understood and practiced as an approach, not a method,
program, system or technique. In the hands of a well-trained and experienced instructor,
it is a powerful tool of exceptional breadth, depth, and flexibility.

55
The essential curricular content and instructional practices that characterize the Orton-
Gillingham Approach are derived from two sources: first from a body of time-tested
knowledge and practice that has been validated over the past 70 years, and second from
scientific evidence about how persons learn to read and write; why a significant number
have difficulty in doing so; how having dyslexia makes achieving literacy skills more
difficult; and which instructional practices are best suited for teaching such persons to
read and write.

The approach is so named because of the foundational and seminal contributions of


Samuel T. Orton and Anna Gillingham. Samuel Torrey Orton (1879-1948) was a
neuropsychiatrist and pathologist. He was a pioneer in focusing attention on reading
failure and related language processing difficulties. He brought together neuroscientific
information and principles of remediation. As early as 1925 he had identified the
syndrome of dyslexia as an educational problem. Anna Gillingham (1878-1963) was a
gifted educator and psychologist with a superb mastery of the language. Encouraged by
Dr. Orton, she compiled and published instructional materials as early as the 1930s which
provided the foundation for student instruction and teacher training in what became
known as the Orton-Gillingham Approach.

The Orton-Gillingham Approach is most often associated with a one-on-one teacher-


student instructional model. Its use in small group instruction is not uncommon. A
successful adaptation of the approach has demonstrated its value for class-room
instruction. Reading, spelling and writing difficulties have been the dominant focus of the
approach although it has been successfully adapted for use with students who exhibit
difficulty with mathematics.

The Orton-Gillingham Approach always is focused upon the learning needs of the
individual student. Students with dyslexia need to master the same basic knowledge
about language and its relationship to our writing system as any who seek to become
competent readers and writers. However, because of their dyslexia, they need more help
than most people in sorting, recognizing, and organizing the raw materials of language
for thinking and use. Language elements that non-dyslexic learners acquire easily must
be taught directly and systematically.

The Orton-Gillingham Approach

Overview
Approach
Appropriate for Whom?

APPROACH
The Orton-Gillingham Approach has been rightfully described as language-based, multisensory, structured,
sequential, cumulative, cognitive, and flexible. These characteristics can be easily amplified and extended as
they are in the following attributes.
PERSONALIZED

56
Teaching begins with recognizing the differing needs of learners. While those with
dyslexia share similarities, there are differences in their language needs. In addition
individuals with dyslexia may possess additional problems that complicate learning. Most
common among these are attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit disorder
with hyperactivity (ADHD).
MULTISENSORY

It uses all the learning pathways: seeing, hearing, feeling, and awareness of motion,
brought together by the thinking brain. The instructor engages in multisensory teaching to
convey curricular content in the most understandable way to the student. The teacher also
models how the student, by using these multiple pathways, can engage in multisensory
learning that results in greater ease and success in learning.
DIAGNOSTIC AND PRESCRIPTIVE

An Orton-Gillingham lesson is both diagnostic and prescriptive. It is diagnostic in the


sense that the instructor continuously monitors the verbal, nonverbal, and written
responses of the student to identify and analyze both the students problems and progress.
This information is the basis of planning the next lesson. That lesson is prescriptive in the
sense that will contain instructional elements that focus upon the resolution of the
students difficulties and that build upon the students progress noted in the previous
lesson.
DIRECT INSTRUCTION

The teacher presentations employ lesson formats which ensure that the student approaches
the learning experience understanding what is to be learned, why it is to be learned, and
how it is to be learned.
SYSTEMATIC PHONICS

It uses systematic phonics, stressing the alphabetic principle in the initial stages of reading
development. It takes advantage of the sound/symbol relationships inherent in the
alphabetic system of writing. Spoken words are made up of individual speech sounds, and
the letters of written words graphically represent those speech sounds.
APPLIED LINGUISTICS

It draws upon applied linguistics not only in the initial decoding and encoding stages of
reading and writing but in more advanced stages dealing with syllabic, morphemic,
syntactic, semantic, and grammatic structures of language and our writing system. At all
times the Orton-Gillingham Approach involves the student in integrative practices that
involve reading, spelling, and writing together.

LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE

It increases linguistic competence by stressing language patterns that determine word


order and sentence structure and the meaning of words and phrases. It moves beyond this

57
to recognizing the various forms that characterize the common literary forms employed
by writers.
SYSTEMATIC AND STRUCTURED

The teacher presents information in an ordered way that indicates the relationship
between the material taught and past material taught. Curricular content unfolds in
linguistically logical ways which facilitates student learning and progress.
SEQUENTIAL, INCREMENTAL, AND CUMULATIVE

Step by step learners move from the simple, well-learned material to that which is more
and more complex. They move from one step to the next as they master each level of
language skills.
CONTINUOUS FEEDBACK AND POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

The approach provides for a close teacher-student relationship that builds self-confidence
based on success.
COGNITIVE APPROACH

Students understand the reasons for what they are learning and for the learning strategies
they are employing. Confidence is gained as they gain in their ability to apply newly
gained knowledge about and knowledge how to develop their skills with reading,
spelling, and writing.
EMOTIONALLY SOUND

Students feelings about themselves and about learning are vital. Teaching is directed
toward providing the experience of success. With success comes increased self-
confidence and motivation.

The basic purpose of everything that is done in the Orton-Gillingham Approach, from
recognizing words to composing a poem is assisting the student to become a competent
reader, writer and independent learner.

APPROPRIATE FOR WHOM?

The Orton-Gillingham approach is appropriate for teaching individuals, small groups, and
classrooms. It is appropriate for teaching in the primary, elementary, intermediate grades,
and at the secondary and college level as well as for adults. The explicit focus of the
approach has been and continues to be upon persons with the kinds of language
processing problems associated with dyslexia. Early intervention is highly desirable, but
it is never too late to begin!

Source:- http://www.ortonacademy.org/approach.php

58
Dysgraphia

Affects a persons
handwriting ability and fine motor skills.
A person with this specific learning disability may have problems including illegible
handwriting, inconsistent spacing, poor spatial planning on paper, poor spelling, and
difficulty composing writing as well as thinking and writing at the same time.

Signs and Symptoms


May have illegible printing and cursive writing (despite appropriate time and
attention given the task)
Shows inconsistencies: mixtures of print and cursive, upper and lower case, or
irregular sizes, shapes or slant of letters
Has unfinished words or letters, omitted words
Inconsistent spacing between words and letters
Exhibits strange wrist, body or paper position
Has difficulty pre-visualizing letter formation
Copying or writing is slow or labored
Shows poor spatial planning on paper
Has cramped or unusual grip/may complain of sore hand
Has great difficulty thinking and writing at the same time (taking notes, creative
writing.)

Strategies
Suggest use of word processor
Avoid chastising student for sloppy, careless work
Use oral exams
Allow use of tape recorder for lectures
Allow the use of a note taker

59
Provide notes or outlines to reduce the amount of writing required
Reduce copying aspects of work (pre-printed math problems)
Allow use of wide rule paper and graph paper
Suggest use of pencil grips and /or specially designed writing aids
Provide alternatives to written assignments (video-taped reports, audio-taped
reports)
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S."
Calendar 2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/dysgraphia/

Understanding Dysgraphia
By Erica Patino
What Youll Learn

What is dysgraphia?
How common is dysgraphia?
What causes dysgraphia?
What are the symptoms of dysgraphia?
What skills are affected by dysgraphia?
How is dysgraphia diagnosed?
What conditions are related to dysgraphia?
How can professionals help with dysgraphia?
What can be done at home for dysgraphia?
What can make the journey easier?

You probably hear a lot about learning and attention issues like dyslexia and ADHD. But
chances are you dont hear much about dysgraphia. If your child has trouble expressing
himself in writing, you may want to learn more about this condition.

Writing difficulties are common among children and can stem from a variety of learning
and attention issues. By learning what to watch for, you can be proactive about getting
help for your child.

Theres no cure or easy fix for dysgraphia. But there are strategies and therapies that can
help a child improve his writing. This will help him thrive in school and anywhere else
expressing himself in writing is important.

What is dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is a condition that causes trouble with written expression. The term comes
from the Greek words dys (impaired) and graphia (making letter forms by hand).
Dysgraphia is a brain-based issue. Its not the result of a child being lazy.

60
For many children with dysgraphia, just holding a pencil and organizing letters on a line
is difficult. Their handwriting tends to be messy. Many struggle with spelling and putting
thoughts on paper.[1] These and other writing taskslike putting ideas into language that
is organized, stored and then retrieved from memorymay all add to struggles with
written expression.

Different professionals may use different terms to describe your childs struggle with
written expression. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-
5) doesnt use the term dysgraphia but uses the phrase an impairment in written
expression under the category of specific learning disorder. This is the term used by
most doctors and psychologists.

Some school psychologists and teachers use the term dysgraphia as a type of shorthand to
mean a disorder in written expression.

To qualify for special education services, a child must have an issue named or described
in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). While IDEA doesnt use the
term dysgraphia, it describes it under the category of specific learning disability.
This includes issues with understanding or using language (spoken or written) that make
it difficult to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematical calculations.

Whatever definition is used, its important to understand that slow or sloppy writing isnt
necessarily a sign that your child isnt trying hard enough. Writing requires a complex set
of fine motor and language processing skills. For kids with dysgraphia, the writing
process is harder and slower. Without help, a child with dysgraphia may have a difficult
time in school.

How common is dysgraphia?

Dysgraphia is not a familiar term. But symptoms of dysgraphia are not uncommon,
especially in young children who are starting to learn how to write. If a child continues to
struggle with writing despite plenty of practice and corrective feedback, its a good idea
to take a closer look to see whether dysgraphia is an underlying cause.

What causes dysgraphia?

Experts arent sure what causes dysgraphia and other issues of written expression.
Normally, the brain takes in information through the senses and stores it to use later.
Before a person starts writing, he retrieves information from his short- or long-term
memory and gets organized to begin writing.

In a person with dysgraphia, experts believe one or both of the next steps in the writing
process go off track:

1. Organizing information that is stored in memory


2. Getting words onto paper by handwriting or typing them

61
This results in a written product thats hard to read and filled with errors. And most
important, it does not convey what the child knows and what he intended to write.

Working memory may also play a role in dysgraphia. A child may have trouble with
whats called orthographic coding. This is the ability to store unfamiliar written words
in the working memory.[2] As a result, he may have a hard time remembering how to
print or write a letter or a word.

There may also be a genetic link, with dysgraphia running in families.

What are the symptoms of dysgraphia?

The symptoms of dysgraphia fall into six categories: visual-spatial, fine motor, language
processing, spelling/handwriting, grammar, and organization of language. A child may
have dysgraphia if his writing skills lag behind those of his peers and he has at least some
of these symptoms:

Visual-Spatial Difficulties

Has trouble with shape-discrimination and letter spacing


Has trouble organizing words on the page from left to right
Writes letters that go in all directions, and letters and words that run together on
the page
Has a hard time writing on a line and inside margins
Has trouble reading maps, drawing or reproducing a shape
Copies text slowly

Fine Motor Difficulties

Has trouble holding a pencil correctly, tracing, cutting food, tying shoes, doing
puzzles, texting and keyboarding
Is unable to use scissors well or to color inside the lines
Holds his wrist, arm, body or paper in an awkward position when writing

Language Processing Issues

Has trouble getting ideas down on paper quickly


Has trouble understanding the rules of games
Has a hard time following directions
Loses his train of thought

Spelling Issues/Handwriting Issues

Has a hard time understanding spelling rules


Has trouble telling if a word is misspelled
Can spell correctly orally but makes spelling errors in writing
Spells words incorrectly and in many different ways

62
Has trouble using spell-checkand when he does, he doesnt recognize the
correct word
Mixes upper- and lowercase letters
Blends printing and cursive
Has trouble reading his own writing
Avoids writing
Gets a tired or cramped handed when he writes
Erases a lot

Grammar and Usage Problems

Doesnt know how to use punctuation


Overuses commas and mixes up verb tenses
Doesnt start sentences with a capital letter
Doesnt write in complete sentences but writes in a list format
Writes sentences that run on forever

Organization of Written Language

Has trouble telling a story and may start in the middle


Leaves out important facts and details, or provides too much information
Assumes others know what hes talking about
Uses vague descriptions
Writes jumbled sentences
Never gets to the point, or makes the same point over and over
Is better at conveying ideas when speaking

The symptoms of dysgraphia also vary depending on a childs age. Signs generally
appear when children are first learning to write.

Preschool children may be hesitant to write and draw and say that they hate
coloring.
School-age children may have illegible handwriting that can be mix of cursive
and print. They may have trouble writing on a line and may print letters that are uneven
in size and height. Some children also may need to say words out loud when writing or
have trouble putting their thoughts on paper.
Teenagers may write in simple sentences. Their writing may have many more
grammatical mistakes than the writing of other kids their age.[3]

What skills are affected by dysgraphia?

The impact of dysgraphia on a childs development varies, depending on the symptoms


and their severity. Here are some common areas of struggle for kids with dysgraphia:

63
Academic: Kids with dysgraphia can fall behind in schoolwork because it takes
them so much longer to write. Taking notes is a challenge. They may get discouraged and
avoid writing assignments.
Basic life skills: Some childrens fine motor skills are weak. They find it hard
to do everyday tasks, such as buttoning shirts and making a simple list.
Social-emotional: Children with dysgraphia may feel frustrated or anxious
about their academic and life challenges. If they havent been identified, teachers may
criticize them for being lazy or sloppy. This may add to their stress.[4] Their low
self-esteem, frustration and communication problems can also make it hard to
socialize with other children.

While dysgraphia is a lifelong condition, there are many proven strategies and tools that
can help children with dysgraphia improve their writing skills.

How is dysgraphia diagnosed?

Signs of dysgraphia often appear in early elementary school. But the signs may not
become apparent until middle school or later. Sometimes the signs go unnoticed entirely.
As with all learning and attention issues, the earlier signs of dysgraphia are recognized
and addressed, the better.

Dysgraphia is typically identified by licensed psychologists (including school


psychologists) who specialize in learning disabilities. They will give your child academic
assessments and writing tests. These tests measure fine motor skills and written
expression production.

During testing, the professional may ask your child to write sentences and copy text.
Theyll assess not only your childs finished product, but also his writing process. This
includes posture, position, pencil grip, fatigue and whether there are signs of cramping.
The tester may also test fine motor speed with finger tapping and wrist turning.[5]

Special education teachers and school psychologists can help determine the emotional or
academic impact the condition may be having on your child.

What conditions are related to dysgraphia?

Many children with dysgraphia have other learning issues. These conditions, which can
also affect written expression, include:

Dyslexia: This learning issue makes it harder to read. Dyslexia can also make
writing and spelling a challenge. Learn more about the difference between dysgraphia
and dyslexia.
Language disorders: Language disorders can cause a variety of problems with
written and spoken language. Children may have trouble learning new words, using
correct grammar and putting their thoughts into words.[6]
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): ADHD causes problems
with attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity.

64
Dyspraxia: Dyspraxia is a condition that causes poor physical coordination and
motor skills. It can cause trouble with fine motor skills, which can affect physical task of
writing and printing. Learn about the differences between dysgraphia and dyspraxia.

How can professionals help with dysgraphia?

If your child is found to have dysgraphia and qualifies for special education services, you
and a team of teachers and specialists at the school will develop an Individualized
Education Program (IEP). This may include intensive instruction in handwriting as well
as personalized accommodations and modifications.

If your child isnt eligible for an IEP, another option is to request a 504 plan. This is a
written plan that details how the school will accommodate your childs needs.

But even without an IEP or 504 plan, you may be able to get help in other ways:

Response to intervention (RTI) is an approach some schools use to screen students


and provide small group instruction to those who are falling behind. If a child doesnt
make progress, he may receive intensive one-on-one instruction.
Informal supports are strategies your childs teacher can use, such as giving your
child copies of class notes or using assistive technology tools like voice-to-text (dictation)
software.

There are many ways to help a child with dysgraphia. Generally, support falls into these
categories:

Accommodations are changes to how your child


learns. Accommodations include typing on a keyboard or other electronic device instead
of writing by hand. Apps can help some children stay organized through voice-recorded
notes.
Modifications are changes to what your child learns. Examples
of modifications include allowing a student to write shorter papers or answer fewer or
different test questions than his classmates.
Remediation is an approach that targets foundational skills your child needs to
master. Some children may practice copying letters, using paper with raised lines to help
them write in straight lines. An occupational therapist may provide exercises to build
muscle strength and dexterity and increase hand-eye coordination.

There is no medication for treating dysgraphia. However, children who also have ADHD
sometimes find that medication for ADHD alleviates symptoms of dysgraphia.

What can be done at home for dysgraphia?

There are many things you can do at home to help your child with dysgraphia. Here are
some strategies to consider.

65
Observe and take notes. Taking notes about your childs writing difficulties
(including when they occur) will help you find patterns and triggers. Then you can
develop strategies to work around them. Your notes will also be useful when you talk to
your childs doctor, teachers and anyone else helping your child.
Teach your child writing warm-up exercises. Before writing (or even as a
break when writing), your child can do a stress-reliever exercise. He could shake his
hands quickly or rub them together to relieve tension.
Play games that strengthen motor skills. Playing with clay can strengthen
hand muscles. A squeeze ball can improve hand and wrist muscles and coordination.

Its best not to try too many strategies at once. Instead, add one at a time so you know
what is (or isnt) working. Praise your child for effort and genuine achievement. This can
motivate him to keep building skills. Many kids overcome and work around their writing
difficulties. With support, your child can, too.

Back to the top


What can make the journey easier?

Whether youre just learning about dysgraphia or your journey is well underway, this site
can help you find support your child.

Know your childs issues. If your child hasnt been identified with
dysgraphia, consider having him evaluated by the school or by an outside professional.
Knowing which issues your child has is the first step toward getting the best help.
Request an evaluation. If your child is found to have dysgraphia, consider
asking your school district if he qualifies for an IEP or a 504 plan.
See it through your childs eye. Get a better sense of what your child is
experiencing. The more you understand, the more you can help.
Connect with other parents. Remember that youre not alone. You can
visit our online community to find other parents who are dealing with the same issues.
Get advice from experts. Use Parenting Coach to help navigate behavior and
emotional issues that may come up along the way.

Difficulty with writing doesnt need to hold your child back. Explore and experiment
with different tools and strategies. Eventually, youll find ways to help your child
succeed.

Key Takeaways
Dysgraphia makes written expression challenging.
There are resources available to get free or low-cost help for your child.
When given the appropriate help, kids with dysgraphia can succeed.

66
Sources
[1] Fischer, Jeri, and Michael Rettig. "Dysgraphia: When Writing Hurts." NAESP.org.
National Association of Elementary School Principals.
Web. http://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Principal/2004/N-D-Web.pdf

[2] International Dyslexia Association. "Understanding Dysgraphia." Wrightslaw.com.


Web. http://www.wrightslaw.com/info/read.dysgraphia.facts.htm

[3] Von Dresner, Kara Sandor. "Criteria and Assessment of Dyslexia and
Dysgraphia." Cba-va.org. Chesapeake Bay Academy.

[4] "Dysgraphia Q & A." DavidsonGifted.org. Davidson Institute for Talent


Development. Web. http://www.davidsongifted.org/db/Articles_id_10707.aspx

[5] "Dysgraphia Info." Brainhe.com. BRAIN.HE.


Web. http://www.brainhe.com/staff/types/dysgraphiastaff.html

[6] "Specific Language Impairment." NIDCD.nih.gov. National Institute on Deafness and


Other Communication Disorders. http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/pages/specific-
language-impairment.aspx

About the Author

Erica Patino is an online writer and editor who specializes in health and wellness
content.
Reviewed by

Mark Griffin, Ph.D., was the founding headmaster of Eagle Hill School, a school for
children with specific learning disabilities.
Source:- https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-
disabilities/dysgraphia/understanding-dysgraphia?
utm_campaign=partner&utm_source=lda&utm_medium=blog&utm_content=Understoo
dorg

8 Expert Tips on Helping Your Child With Dysgraphia


By Peg Rosen
Does your child struggle with handwriting? Has he been diagnosed with dysgraphia?
These exercises from handwriting specialists are fun, effective and easy to practice at
home.

67
1 of 8

Feel the letters.

Taking away one sense experience often heightens the others. Experts advise trying
activities that help your kid focus on feelingnot seeinghow a letter is made.

For example, use your finger to trace a letter on your childs back. Or he can close his
eyes while you trace a letter on his palm. Then see if he can reproduce that letter on your
back or on a piece of paper.

You can make things more challenging by writing a capital letter and asking him to write
it as a lowercase one, or vice versa.

2 of 8

Write big.

Kids with dysgraphia usually have trouble remembering how to form letters correctly.
One way therapists make the process more memorable is by having kids write in ways
that use large motor movements and multisensory materials.

At home, young kids can spray big shaving cream letters on the tile wall at bath time. Or
they can smooth out the cream on the tile and write letters in the foam. They can practice
making letters in a plastic tub of damp sand. Adding sand to finger paint is another way to
increase sensory input.

3 of 8

Dig into clay.

Clay is a wonderfully versatile medium. Its dense and responsive. And mistakes can
disappear with just a pinch.

Roll clay into ropes and practice making letters with your child. It builds hand strength
and boosts fine motor skills. And it reinforces the shapes of letters in his mind, too.

Another option: Smooth a layer of clay on a cookie sheet. Then invite your child to etch
letters into the surface with a pencil. The clay provides sensory feedback, which gives
more information to the brain about how the letters are formed.

68
4 of 8

Practice pinching.

Holding a pencil properly is a challenge for many kids with writing difficulties. Your
child can strengthen his fingers and improve his pencil grip using pinching tools
found around the house. These include tweezers, childrens chopsticks (joined at one end)
and ice tongs.

Try this game: Toss pieces of cereal, balled-up scraps of paper or small pencil erasers
onto a tabletop. Then see how many you and your child can pick up with a pinching tool
in a minute.

Another option: Play board games and use pinching tools to move the playing pieces.

5 of 8

Start cross-body training.

For a child to write properly, both sides of his body need to work together: One arm holds
the paper stable. The other does the actual pencil work.

Any activity that encourages coordinated movement on both sides of the body provides
good reinforcement. This includes crafts that use scissors: One hand holds, the other cuts.

Physical exercises that require cross-body coordination are helpful, too. See if your child
will give windmills, jumping jacks, touching alternate toes, and mountain climbers a
whirl before sitting down to write.

6 of 8

Build strength and stability.

Writing may not seem physically demanding. But sitting properly and controlling pen and
paper require muscle strength and stability in the shoulders and core.

Activities that condition these areas can help. These include planks, push-ups,
wheelbarrow walking, crab walking, shooting baskets, hanging from monkey bars and
rope climbing. Even reading while lying tummy-down on the floor builds strength.

69
So set aside time for your child to include activities like these in his day. He can do them
at a local gym, at the playground, or right in your own backyard or playroom.

7 of 8

Practice organized storytelling.

Kids with dysgraphia often have trouble organizing their thoughts. You can help your
child by practicing structured storytelling.

At bedtime, ask him to tell you about his day. Have him start with an introduction, like
Today was Thursday and boy, was it a busy day for me and my friends. Ask him to
describe what he did in the morning, the afternoon and the evening. Then he can wrap
things up with how the day went overall.

You can use this approach with just about any experience your child wants to share with
you.

8 of 8

Speak it first.

Kids with dysgraphia may be brimming with great ideas. But putting those ideas into
written words can be a frustrating hurdle for them.

Encourage your child to record himself (on a smartphone or other device) while he talks
through his thoughts or the story hed like to tell. He can then play the recording back
when he sits down to write. This can be a helpful and confidence-boosting tool.

Source:- https://www.understood.org/en/learning-attention-issues/child-learning-
disabilities/dysgraphia/8-expert-tips-on-helping-your-child-with-dysgraphia#slide-8

70
Language Processing Disorder

Affects attaching meaning to


sound groups that form words, sentences and stories.
A specific type of Auditory Processing Disorder (APD). While an APD affects the
interpretation of all sounds coming into the brain (e.g., processing sound in noisy
backgrounds or the sequence of sounds or where they come from), a Language
Processing Disorder (LPD) relates only to the processing of language. LPD can affect
expressive language (what you say) and/or receptive language (how you understand what
others say).

Signs and Symptoms


Has difficulty gaining meaning from spoken language
Demonstrates poor written output
Exhibits poor reading comprehension
Shows difficulty expressing thoughts in verbal form
Has difficulty labeling objects or recognizing labels
Is often frustrated by having a lot to say and no way to say it
Feels that words are "right on the tip of my tongue"
Can describe an object and draw it, but cant think of the word for it
May be depressed or having feelings of sadness
Has difficulty getting jokes

Strategies
Speak slowly and clearly and use simple sentences to convey information
Refer to a speech pathologist
Allow tape recorder for note taking
Write main concepts on board
Provide support person or peer tutor

71
Use visualization techniques to enhance listening and comprehension
Use of graphic organizers for note taking from lectures or books
Use story starters for creative writing assignments
Practice story mapping
Draw out details with questions and visualization strategies
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S."
Calendar 2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/language-processing-
disorder/

Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities

Has trouble interpreting


nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body language and may have
poor coordination.
Non-Verbal Learning Disability (NVD or NVLD), is a disorder which is usually
characterized by a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills and weaker motor,
visual-spatial and social skills.

Signs and Symptoms


Has trouble recognizing nonverbal cues such as facial expression or body
language
Shows poor psycho-motor coordination; clumsy; seems to be constantly getting
in the way, bumping into people and objects
Using fine motor skills a challenge: tying shoes, writing, using scissors
Needs to verbally label everything that happens to comprehend circumstances,
spatial orientation, directional concepts and coordination; often lost or tardy

72
Has difficulty coping with changes in routing and transitions
Has difficulty generalizing previously learned information
Has difficulty following multi-step instructions
Make very literal translations
Asks too many questions, may be repetitive and inappropriately interrupt the flow
of a lesson
Imparts the illusion of competence because of the students strong verbal skills

Strategies
Rehearse getting from place to place
Minimize transitions and give several verbal cues before transition
Avoid assuming the student will automatically generalize instructions or concepts
Verbally point out similarities, differences and connections; number and present
instructions in sequence; simplify and break down abstract concepts, explain metaphors,
nuances and multiple meanings in reading material
Answer the students questions when possible, but let them know a specific
number (three vs. a few) and that you can answer three more at recess, or after school
Allow the child to abstain from participating in activities at signs of overload
Thoroughly prepare the child in advance for field trips, or other changes,
regardless of how minimal
Implement a modified schedule or creative programming
Never assume child understands something because he or she can parrot back
what youve just said
Offer added verbal explanations when the child seems lost or registers confusion
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S."
Calendar 2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/non-verbal-learning-
disabilities/

73
Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Deficit

Affects the understanding of


information that a person sees, or the ability to draw or copy.
A characteristic seen in people with learning disabilities such as Dysgraphia or Non-
verbal LD, it can result in missing subtle differences in shapes or printed letters, losing
place frequently, struggles with cutting, holding pencil too tightly, or poor eye/hand
coordination.

Signs and Symptoms


May have reversals: b for d, p for q or inversions: u for n, w for m
Has difficulty negotiating around campus
Complains eyes hurt and itch, rubs eyes, complains print blurs while reading
Turns head when reading across page or holds paper at odd angles
Closes one eye while working, may yawn while reading
Cannot copy accurately
Loses place frequently
Does not recognize an object/word if only part of it is shown
Holds pencil too tightly; often breaks pencil point/crayons
Struggles to cut or paste
Misaligns letters; may have messy papers, which can include letters colliding,
irregular spacing, letters not on line

Strategies
Avoid grading handwriting
Allow students to dictate creative stories
Provide alternative for written assignments
Suggest use of pencil grips and specially designed pencils and pens

74
Allow use of computer or word processor
Restrict copying tasks
Provide tracking tools: ruler, text windows
Use large print books
Plan to order or check out books on tape
Experiment with different paper types: pastels, graph, embossed raised line paper
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S."
Calendar 2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/visual-perceptual-visual-
motor-deficit/

Dyspraxia

Problems with movement and


coordination, language and speech.
A disorder that is characterized by difficulty in muscle control, which causes problems
with movement and coordination, language and speech, and can affect learning. Although
not a learning disability, Dyspraxia often exists along with Dyslexia, Dyscalculia or
ADHD.

Signs and Symptoms


Exhibits poor balance; may appear clumsy; may frequently stumble
Shows difficulty with motor planning
Demonstrates inability to coordinate both sides of the body
Has poor hand-eye coordination
Exhibits weakness in the ability to organize self and belongings
Shows possible sensitivity to touch

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May be distressed by loud noises or constant noises like the ticking of a clock or
someone tapping a pencil
May break things or choose toys that do not require skilled manipulation
Has difficulty with fine motor tasks such as coloring between the lines, putting
puzzles together; cutting accurately or pasting neatly
Irritated by scratchy, rough, tight or heavy clothing

Strategies
Pre-set students for touch with verbal prompts, Im going to touch your right
hand.
Avoid touching from behind or getting too close and make sure peers are aware of
this
Provide a quiet place, without auditory or visual distractions, for testing, silent
reading or work that requires great concentration
Warn the student when bells will ring or if a fire drill is scheduled
Whisper when working one to one with the child
Allow parents to provide earplugs or sterile waxes for noisy events such as
assemblies
Make sure the parent knows about what is observed about the student in the
classroom
Refer student for occupational therapy or sensory integration training
Be cognizant of light and light sources that may be irritating to child
Use manipulatives, but make sure they are in students field of vision and dont
force student to touch them
Excerpted from the LDA of California and UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute "Q.U.I.L.T.S."
Calendar 2001-2002

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/dyspraxia/

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Executive Functioning

Affects, planning,
organization, strategizing, attention to details and managing time and
space.
An inefficiency in the cognitive management systems of the brain that affects a variety of
neuropsychological processes such as planning, organization, strategizing, paying
attention to and remembering details, and managing time and space. Although not a
learning disability, different patterns of weakness in executive functioning are almost
always seen in the learning profiles of individuals who have specific learning disabilities
or ADHD.

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/executive-functioning/

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Memory

Affects storing and later


retrieving information or getting information out.
Three types of memory are important to learning, "working memory", "short term
memory" and "long term memory." All three types of memory are used in the processing
of both verbal and non-verbal information.

1. Working memory refers to the ability to hold on to pieces of information until


the pieces blend into a full thought or concept. For example, reading each word
until the end of a sentence or paragraph and then understanding the full content.
2. Short-term memory is the active process of storing and retaining information
for a limited period of time. The information is temporarily available but not yet
stored for long-term retention.
3. Long-term memory refers to information that has been stored and that is
available over a long period of time. Individuals might have difficulty with auditory
memory or visual memory.

How does it all work together to learn?


One reads a sentence and holds on to it. Then the next and the next. By the end of the
paragraph, he pulls together the meaning of the full paragraph. This is working memory.
He continues to read the full chapter and study it. Information is retained long enough to
take a test and do well. This is short-term memory. But, unless the information is
reviewed and studied over a longer period of time, it is not retained. With more effort
over time, the information might become part of a general body of knowledge. It is long-
term memory. If there are deficits in any or all of these types of memory, the ability to
store and retrieve information required to carry out tasks can be impaired.

Source:- https://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilities/memory/

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Five Reasons to Use Games in the Classroom

Thanks to its partnership with publisher Eye on Education, Education World is


pleased to present this blog post by Rebekah Stathakis, author of A Good Start:147
Warm-Up Activities for Spanish Class.

I have always enjoyed playing games. My family regularly plays board games when we
get together, I play games with my own children almost every day, and (not surprisingly)
I have used a wide variety of games* as instructional tools in my classroom. I have never
had a student ask Why are we playing games? Instead, students usually ask, Can we

play this again soon?

Some people may wonder, Why play games in a class? I think it is important to
articulate the value of game playing for myself, my students, colleagues, parents and
others. Over the years, I have come up with my own list of the top five reasons I believe
game playing is a powerful instructional tool.

*(By game," I am referring to learning through play, active engagement and fun).

1. Students learn through the process of playing the game. By playing a game,
students may be able to understand a new concept or idea, take on a different
perspective, or experiment with different options or variables. For example, in my
beginning Spanish classes, I often played a card game the first week of school. The
students were in groups of 4-5. Each person read through the directions to the card
game; then, the game was played in complete silence. After the first round, one student
from each group (typically the winner) moved to a different group. We typically
played three or four rounds.

What my students did not initially know is that each group had received a different set
of rules. When a student moved to a new group, he often felt confused and was unsure

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as to why the other people were playing differently (students usually say they were
playing wrong). We used this as a starting point to discuss the experience of moving to
a new country. Having moved from Spain to Venezuela to the United States, I shared
my own experiences of learning new cultural rules and, at times, feeling like others
were playing wrong.

Then, we played the game again, but I allowed all the students to talk. Through
discussions, students explained the rules to newcomers, and the game ran more
smoothly (and students reported feeling much more satisfied). At this point, at least
someone said, I get it. You are trying to show us this is why we need to learn another
language. So we can all explain the rules to each other.

2. Games provide a context for engaging practice. As a world languages teacher, I


know students need a lot of practice to internalize important vocabulary and structures.
However, for the practice to be meaningful, students must be engaged (and lets be
honest, countless workbook pages or textbook exercises are not always highly
engaging!). Through lively games of charades, $25,000 pyramid, or others, my students
willingly use the vocabulary and structures, repeatedly gaining much-needed practice.

3. Through games, students can learn a variety of important skills. There are
countless skills that students can develop through game playing such as critical thinking
skills, creativity, teamwork, and good sportsmanship. For example, with my Spanish
students, circumlocution is a very important skill. By playing word guessing games, I
have seen my students ability to use circumlocution improve dramatically. I love to
watch my students creativity during game sessions (we have used Play-doh, drawing,
acting and many other activities in our games).

One of my first years as a teacher, a student commented that he loved the verb game we
were playing (a variation of Yahtzee). I told him I was glad he liked it, but that it
wasnt my inventionit was based on a game he might have played at home. He then
told me that he had never played games at home and I was the only adult who had ever
sat down to play a game with him. At times, I am surprised that students dont logically
think through how to play Guess Who? Then, I remind myself that this 14-year-old
had never played a game with an adult before he came to my class! I see this as an
opportunity to teach a wide range of life skills that dont necessarily show up in my
curriculums scope and sequence.

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4. While playing games, students develop a variety of connections with the
content and can form positive memories of learning. Some of my favorite classroom
memories are from game times. I will never forget watching Miguel jump around the
classroom to help his peers guess the word Mono (monkey). Fortunately, the students
wont forget it either (and they all got mono right on their assessments). The fun, silly
or interesting moments tend to stand out in students memories, and they latch on to the
vocabulary/structures we are studying. A positive emotional connection can facilitate
learning. Furthermore, many games feature a variety of different stimuli; some students
might remember the vocabulary words from acting them out, others remember reading
the clues, and other students remember hearing classmates call out answers. Games can
provide a variety of sensory experiences for students.

5. Games grab students attention and actively engage them. I find that because
students really enjoy playing games, it is a good way tofocus their attention and actively
immerse them in Spanish. This can be especially useful in a wide variety of ways. For
example, after a fire drill students sometimes have trouble settling down and returning
to class. A game allows students to quickly engage and transition back to the content we
were working on. After hours of state-mandated standardized tests, I find my students
are often tired of sitting and full of energy; an energetic game with lots of movement
may be just what they need.

Education World
Copyright 2013 Education World

Source:- http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/reasons-to-play-games-in-the-
classroom.shtml

Teaching Strategies: What Students Might Learn from


Playing Board Games
By: Jordan Catapano

Research has already revealed that simply playing board games in the classroom or on
family game night helps brain development. Often we think of board games as relegated
to the familys dusty closet or the indoor recess backup plan on rainy days. But board
games offer a variety of mind-enriching opportunities that could provide big benefits for
our students via emplyong them as part of our teaching strategies.

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Games by definition are something we play, offering the opportunity to think, react,
adapt, master, compete, and laugh all the way through. Research also suggests that board
games can be helpful in building social skills and self-esteem, as well as teach kids about
rules, competition, fair play, and values.

Games can be just plain fun. While we strive to capture attention and activate imagination
with our lessons, we might be able to find ready-made opportunities for learning within
those classic board games we relegate to our dusty shelves. Perhaps we take some time to
consider how board games can play a more upfront role within our teaching
strategies and curriculums and within how we see child development.

Teaching Strategies: Some Classic Board Games Students Can Learn


From

Monopoly. Known as the classic game of real estate and trade, Monopoly is virtually a
must-have for the American household. But what about the American classroom? Along
with its snazzy tokens and play money, Monopoly is known for teaching students about
math and finances. Monopoly is also an incredible powerful mechanism for introducing
students to the art of negotiation, which Philip Orbanes author of Monopoly, Money, and
You: How to Profit from the Games Secret of Success said Is the first and perhaps
most significant training ground kids get in learning the importance of the art of
negotiation and how to do it.

This board game is relatively simple to learn at a young age, but offers opportunity for
increasing levels of sophistication related to finances, investing, strategy, diplomacy,
probability, and social interaction. Include this in your classroom and provide students
with the chance to play full games with one another, reflect on what strategies led to
victories, and key-in on exploiting some of those skill sets this game helps facilitate. Plus,
Monopoly has so many quirky editions that it can suit nearly anyones interests and
ability level.

Risk. The game of world domination, as its subtitled, initially seems rooted in chance.
After all, every turn involves multiple roles of the dice. Can this game just be about
probability, odds, and luck? The answer is definitely not.

Risk involves multiple players building armies, protecting their territories, and attacking
their opponents in a global quest for conquest. As I played with friends, I realized that it
was the same friends who ended up winning again and again so luck had nothing to do
with it. What these friends possessed (and I lacked) was the skills of diplomacy and
negotiation mixed with a keen insight into timing, odds, and long-term strategy. This
game blends a number of disciplines into its concept, compelling students to master
certain skills or face extinction.

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Since Risk takes place on a game board largely shaped off of major global territories,
playing helps students gain a greater sense of geography, and how geopolitics can play a
role in alliances, developments, and victories. The game offers fantastic tie-ins to
mathematics and social study concepts that resonate deeply with students vying in this
game of global conquest.

Scrabble. Scrabble is known for teaching new words, and its challenging format
compels players to take a random mix of consonants and vowels and transform them into
winning word combinations. While world Scrabble champions often seem to possess
a genetic predisposition for anagramming words, memorizing obscure terms, and
strategizing board space use, there are plenty of advantages for our students. Namely, our
students are forced to contrive words, look them up in dictionaries, and focus on their
linguistic-cognitive skills in a competitive format.

Chess. Chess is known as the king of board games, the ultimate in strategy, planning, and
one-on-one competition. Chess is more than a board game its a symbol of war, politics,
relationships, and a far-reaching range of competitive analogies. It takes Moments to
learn but a lifetime to master, and it provides overwhelming opportunity for our
students. Each side has 16 pieces and battles for control over an 8x8 board. But within
that tiny space, dramatic use of strategy, planning, resource management, anticipation,
and counter-maneuver are played out. Plus, plenty of easy connections to war, politics,
and general human interactions can be inspired by board play.

In 2008, researchers in Germany divided students into two groups one that received
five hours of math instruction a week and one that received four hours of math instruction
a week plus an hour of chess. The study found that students who had less direct math
instruction yet an hour of chess play ended up developing higher math-associated
academic abilities, suggesting that chess can genuinely pump up students brains in ways
that strict academic instruction cannot.

Clue. Theres been a murder, and only the best players powers of logic and reasoning
can help solve the mystery. The classic Whodunnit? board game asks students to create
and then test hypotheses to steadily deduce the murderer, the room, and the weapon
before other competing players do. At the basic level, students slowly learn to cross off
the cards they see from themselves and others off their list. However, as cognitive
abilities become more complex, players can involve a rich series of social interactions
and deductive powers to arrive at the correct answer. This is not just for fun at the grade
school level; Professor Todd Neller et al. in 2006 conducted research to incorporate the
game of Clue into his course to teach propositional logic and computer programming to
college students.

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What To Ask Ourselves About Board Games

The games listed above are just a few classics, the games youre likely to find in your
closet at home, on your indoor recess shelves, or on sale in your local stores game aisle.
But there are limitless possibilities when it comes to board games. When considering any
board game to have your students enjoy, consider some of the following questions:

Does this game match the age/grade level? Board games can be adapted to
many different age levels. Make sure your students are playing at a level thats
appropriately complex without becoming frustrating or impossible.
What skills does a student need to possess to do well in the game? All board
games revolve around certain skills. Ask yourself which ones any given board
game requires students to focus on.
What skills will this game help a student to develop? If your students were to
consistently play certain games, what skills would their minds become especially
adept at performing?
How can we facilitate discussion and explanation of their thinking? Often,
teacher-guided surveys, reflections, and in-the-moment prodding can accelerate
skill acquisition. Consider how your role as a facilitator can encourage students to
vocalize their thinking and reasoning processes.
Is there any carryover? Sometimes when you play a game, you just get better at
playing that game without those skills crossing over into other areas of
metacognition. Think about how the games that your students play might offer
opportunity to develop skills that extend into many other potential areas, too.

Board games dont have to take center stage in your curriculum, but they might provide a
unique, fun opportunity to facilitate higher order cognitive abilities in ways that our
normal academic studies may not. Consider how you might either encourage your
students to play more board games on their own, or how you could potentially bring these
games into your classroom and help students dive into these fun and competitive learning
opportunities.

What do you think about using board games in the classroom? What games would you
suggest? Tell us in the comments below!

Jordan Catapano is a high school English teacher in a Chicago suburb. In addition to


being National Board Certificated and head of his schools Instructional Development
Committee, he also has worked with the Illinois Association of Teachers of English and
has experience as a school board member for a private school. You can follow him on
Twitter at @BuffEnglish, or visit his website www.jordancatapano.us.

CaseyMartin / Shutterstock.com

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Source:- http://www.teachhub.com/teaching-strategies-what-students-might-learn-
playing-board-games

The Benefits of Board Games


Playing games with your kids is a perfect way to spend time together and build
learning skills at the same time.

LEARNING BENEFITS

Logic and Reasoning


Spatial Reasoning
Critical Thinking
Spelling
What your child most wants and needs is to be with you with no goal in mind
beyond the joy of spending time together. He wants you to take pleasure in him, play with
him, and listen to him. Nothing bolsters his self-esteem more! So why not pull out an old
board game tonight? Playing games is an easy and excellent way to spend unhurried,
enjoyable time together. As an added bonus, board games are also rich in learning
opportunities. They satisfy your child's competitive urges and the desire to master new
skills and concepts, such as:

number and shape recognition, grouping, and counting


letter recognition and reading
visual perception and color recognition
eye-hand coordination and manual dexterity
Games don't need to be overtly academic to be educational, however. Just by virtue of
playing them, board games can teach important social skills, such as communicating
verbally, sharing, waiting, taking turns, and enjoying interaction with others. Board
games can foster the ability to focus, and lengthen your child's attention span by
encouraging the completion of an exciting, enjoyable game. Even simple board games
like Chutes and Ladders offer meta-messages and life skills: Your luck can change in an

85
instant for the better or for the worse. The message inherent in board games is: Never
give up. Just when you feel despondent, you might hit the jackpot and ascend up high, if
you stay in the game for just a few more moves.

Board games have distinct boundaries. Living in a complex society, children need clear
limits to feel safe. By circumscribing the playing field much as tennis courts and
football fields will do later board games can help your child weave her wild and
erratic side into a more organized, mature, and socially acceptable personality. After all,
staying within the boundaries (not intruding on others' space, for example) is crucial to
leading a successful social and academic life.

A Word About Winning


Children take game playing seriously, so it's important that we help guide them through
the contest. When a playing piece falls to a lower level, our kids really feel sad; when it
rises up high, they are remarkably proud and happy, even if we adults know that it
happened only by chance. Therefore, you need to help balance your child's pleasure in
playing the game with his very limited ability to manage frustration and deal with the
idea of losing.

For 3, 4, and even 5 year olds, winning is critical to a feeling of mastery. So generally, I
think it's okay to "help" them win. By about 6, kids should begin to internalize the rules
of fair play, tenuous as they may seem to a child who is losing a game. So I am also fine
with a 6 year old "amending" the rules to win if he feels she has to. I encourage you to
acknowledge your child's need for special rules. At the start of the game, you might want
to ask, "Are we playing by regular or cheating rules today?"

Choosing the Right Game at Every Age


While in the long run we need to teach values, ethics, academic skills, and the importance
of playing by the rules, in the early years the primary goals are helping your child
become more self-confident and ambitious and to enjoy playing with others. If you're
playing with more than one child, divide the family into teams, giving each player a job
he can do well: A younger child may be responsible for rolling the dice (which he
considers important, since that is where the luck comes from), and an older child the job
of sorting the Monopoly money.

As children approach 5, they have more sophisticated thinking skills and can begin to
incorporate and exercise their number, letter, and word knowledge in literacy-based
games. By 6, children may prefer more cognitively challenging games like checkers,
which require and help develop planning, strategy, persistence, and critical thinking
skills. Here are some of our favorite game picks for 5 and 6 year olds.

Scrabble Junior (Milton Bradley): This is the younger cousin of the tremendously
educational and challenging Scrabble, which we all know and love. Using large yellow
letter tiles, players match letters to words already written on one side of the board. The
reverse side has an open grid where older children can create their own words.
Learning highlights: Fosters literacy and language skills.

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Boggle Junior (Parker Brothers): The prelude to Boggle one of the best learning
games for older kids is Boggle Junior, in which players link pictures to letters and
words. The game comes with 6-sided letter cubes and numerous picture cards that have
the name of the object spelled below. Players place a card on a blue tray and use 3- or 4-
letter cubes to copy the item's spelling. Older children can hide the written words and
spell the word just using the picture.
Learning highlights: Teaches letters, words, spelling, and matching skills.
Zingo (Think Fun Company): One of this year's "hot" games, this Bingo-style matching
game relies on a player's ability to spot pictures (of a dog, say, or the sun) and match
them quickly to the words and pictures on his play card. As in Bingo, the first one to
finish a complete line of items wins.
Learning Highlights: Encourages matching skills and quick thinking.
Monopoly Junior (Parker Brothers): As they do in its senior sibling, players roll dice to
move around the game board and buy real estate. The game is shorter and uses smaller
dollar denominations so kids can figure out winnings and penalties more quickly.
Learning Highlights: Develops math, color recognition, reading, reasoning, and social
skills.
Junior Labyrinth (Ravensburger): Each player gets a large, easy-to-handle piece shaped
like a ghost, which she moves through an extra-large maze in an attempt to reach a
treasure. While the path may appear straight, the walls move and shift, so getting there is
a challenge. This game imparts the idea of impermanence and change, since a path that
was open just a moment ago might now be closed and vice versa. Players have to figure
out what to do when circumstances change unexpectedly a good life skill to learn.
Learning highlights: Teaches spatial relations and relies on some manual dexterity.
TOPICS
Alphabet Recognition, Spelling, Vocabulary, Colors, Early Math, Early
Reading, Social Skills, Board Games.
RELATED

Source:- http://www.scholastic.com/parents/resources/article/creativity-play/benefits-
board-games

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Checker Board Math Game

Multiplication Facts

Memorizing Math facts just got a lot


easier with this checker board math
game! Since most kids are already
familiar with playing checkers, they'll
have no problem with this game. And
if they haven't played the classic
checkers board game, here's their 273Save

chance to learn.

Math Checkers
Skills: Multiplication facts up to 12 x 12

Number of Players: 2

What You Need: Copy of Checker math game board, Calculator, Two different color sets
of Checkers.

How To Play:

The game is played very much like the classic checkers board game. After you
print off the checker board, place it in the middle of the two players.
Players decide which color checkers they want.
Each player places their checkers on all of the grey squares an their side of the
board as shown below.

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Decide who will go first.
Players will take turns trying to move their pieces diagonally, one space at a time
by answering multiplication problems correctly.
The first player chooses one of his pieces that can be moved to a vacant space and
then attempts to state correctly the multiplication on the space they want to move
to.

Let's say player 1 decides to move their checker to the square that says "7 x 3". (See
picture below.) The player will first have to say the multiplication sentence on that square
correctly to move their piece to that square. So they would say out loud,

"seven times three equals twenty-one".

Since 7 x 3 = 21 is correct, they move their piece to that vacant square. (See the
picture below.) If they do not answer correctly on the first try, they do not move
and player 2 takes their turn.

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Jumping an Opponent's Piece:

A player may jump an opponents Checker and capture the piece if the grey
square diagonally beyond that Checker is vacant. If possible, you can double or
triple jump on a turn.
After you jump over one of your opponents Checkers, remove it from the Game
Board and place it nearby in discard pile. (See pictures below.)

The picture on the left shows the player with the black checkers has a chance to jump his
opponent. He must first say aloud the multiplication in the vacant space :

"9 x 4 = 36".

The picture on the right shows the result after the player says the correct multiplication
sentence and jumps the opponent and removes the red checker from the board.

When you reach the back row of your opponents side of the Game Board with
one of your Checkers, it becomes a King. To designate it as a King, you will put

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one of the checkers of the same color that was removed from the board on top of
it. So now it is a double-layer.
The advantage of having Kings is they can move can move diagonally
forward and backward!
The player that is the first to remove all of their opponents Checkers from the
Game Board is the winner!

Hope you enjoy this checker board math game.

Source:- http://www.learn-with-math-games.com/checker-board-math-game.html

The Song:- A Deck Of Cards


Friends, this is Tex Ritter with a strange story about a soldier boy and a deck of cards

During a North African campaign a bunch of soldier boys had been on a long hike, and
they arrived in a little town called Casino." The next morning being Sunday several of the
boys went to church. A
Sergeant commanded the boys in church, and after the Chaplain had read the prayer the
text was taken up next. Those of the boys who had a prayer book took them out, but this
one boy only had a deck of cards, and so he spread them out

The Sergeant saw the cards and said,"Soldier, put away those cards."

After the services were over the soldier was taken prisoner and brought before the
Provost Marshall. The Marshall said, "Sergeant, why have you brought this man here?"

"For playing cards in church, sir."

"And what have you to say for yourself, son?"

"Much, sir." replied the soldier

'The Marshall said, "I hope so, for if not , I shall punish you more than any man was ever
punished."

The soldier said, "Sir , I have been on a march for about six days, and I had neither Bible
nor Prayer Book, but I hope to satisfy you, Sir, with the purity of my intentions." With
that the boy started his story

"You see, Sir, when I look at the Ace it reminds me that there is but one God. The deuce
reminds me that the Bible is divided into two parts; the Old and New Testaments. And
when I see the trey I think of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. When I see the four I think
of the four evangelist who preached the Gospel. There was Matthew, Mark, Luke, and
John. And when I see the five it reminds me of the five wise virgins who trimmed their
lamps. Ten of 'em; five who were wise and were saved; five were foolish and were shut

91
out. And when I see the six it reminds me that in six days God made this great heaven and
earth. And when I see the seven it reminds me that on the seventh day God rested from
His great work. When I see the eight I think of the eight righteous persons God saved
when he destroyed this earth. There was Noah, his wife,their three sons, and their wives.
And when I see the nine I think of the lepers our Savior cleansed , and nine of the ten
didn't even thank Him. When I see the ten I think of the Ten Commandments God handed
down to Moses on a tablet of stone. When I see the King it reminds me that there is but
one King of Heaven, God Almighty. And when I see the queen I think of the Blessed
Virgin Mary who is Queen of Heaven. And the jacks, or knaves, it's the devil

And when I count the number of spots on a deck of cards I find three hundred sixty-five,
the number of days in a year. Fifty-two cards, the number of weeks in a year. Four suits,
the number of weeks in a month. Twelve picture cards, the number of months in a year.
Thirteen tricks, the number of weeks in a quarter. So you see, Sir, my pack of cards serve
me as a Bible, almanac, and prayer book."

"Friends, I know this story is true, because I knew that soldier."

Source:- https://genius.com/Tex-ritter-deck-of-cards-lyrics

How Board Games Help Kids to Develop Skills

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Board games help kids develop important skills
Do you need a new mode of entertainment for your kids, especially something thats
gadget-free, educational and fun? In such a case, engaging them with classic board games
is a good idea. Besides being fun, they also teach your children strategy skills, colours,
teamwork and is great way to bond with the whole family.
Traditional board games include Chess, Chinese Checkers, Ludo and Snakes & Ladders,
to name a few. At the turn of the 19th century, a number of new games were invented
such as Life, Monopoly and Scrabble which became family heirlooms. It is only in very
recent times that, we have seen a spurt of interest in strategy-based games involving
adults who use advanced tactics during game play. The Settlers of Catan (a multiplayer
board game where the players become settlers trying to trade property and gain
resources) is one such game that originated in Germany. These will keep the older kids
engaged.
Now, lets move onto the benefits of board games:
1. Bonding Time: Board games are the best way for children to bond with their friends
and family. We live in an age when everyone is busy with gadgets, therefore its
important to build a platform for communication that will allow kids to understand their
parents and be understood in return. Moreover, it also creates time for some fun.
2. Learning Skills: Playing board games can be more than just fun. These games are a
great mechanism to test an individuals intelligence, strategy and skills. The way a person
understands and reacts to different situations is what makes the game interesting and

93
different every time it is played. Younger children will also learn colours, shapes, figures
and numbers better and faster while they play these games.
3. Life Lessons: Remember that Snake & Ladders game you grew up playing, it is a
great way to teach young kids about numbers. Similarly games like Ludo, Business and
Monopoly are a great way to learn strategy skills. Games like Scrabble and Soduku help
develop language and math skills.
4. Problem Solving Skills: Problem solving is an important skill that every kid must
learn and board games are a stepping stone to acquiring these skills, as they try to recover
from a heavy debt in Monopoly or avoid a crisis in the Game of Life.
5. Budget Entertainment: A movie ticket, a visit to the nearest mall or a tour to the park
will cost you money. But getting your hands on a board game will only lead to fun
moments that you will cherish.
With inputs from Dr. Shyam Makhija, Director, Business Development - Pegasus ToyKraft
Pvt.Ltd and founder of Checolo, a new board game that is fun as well as educational.
Image courtesy: Thinkstock photos/ Getty images
Source:- http://www.idiva.com/news-iparenting/how-board-games-help-kids-to-develop-
skills/28271

Educational Value of Chess


by Wendi Fischer

It's not about Kings, Queens, and Rooks, but rather, quadrants and coordinates, thinking
strategically and foreseeing consequences. It's about lines and angles, weighing options
and making decisions. Chess might just be the perfect teaching and learning tool. Since
2000, America's Foundation for Chess (AF4C) has been working with 2nd and 3rd grade
students and their teachers to promote the use of chess as an educational tool. The goal of
the First Move curriculum is to use the game of chess as a tool, to increase higher level
thinking skills, advance math and reading skills, and build self-confidence.

Research shows, there is a strong correlation between learning to play chess and
academic achievement. In 2000, a landmark study found that students who received chess
instruction scored significantly higher on all measures of academic achievement,
including math, spatial analysis, and non-verbal reasoning ability (Smith and Cage,
2000).

While studies have shown chess to have a positive impact on kids in elementary, middle
and high school, AF4C targeted second and third graders as the evidence, and certainly
our experience, suggests it's the ideal age. Eight and nine year-old minds and thinking
skills are developing rapidly, and chess teaches higher level thinking skills such as the
ability to visualize, analyze, and think critically.

94
If you teach an adult to play chess, they quickly comprehend where they should and
shouldn't move pieces to capture or avoid capture. Young Kate knew the names of the
pieces and how they moved, but initially moved her pieces randomly. Soon she was
saying, "If I move my piece here, you could capture it, right? Then I'm not going to move
there." You can almost see the mental changes taking place.

Chess has a unique and strong brand attribute, in that it is generally perceived that
playing chess and being smart are connected. This can be very positive driver for young
children, who, rather than being intimidated as many adults are, embrace the notion. As
children get older, a stigma, or nerd factor attaches to "being smart." But in the second
and third grade, kids want to be thought of as smart. It is also an important age for
developing an attachment to school. If kids associate school and learning with fun, they
will most likely develop a stronger attachment to school.

To be referred to as "the perfect teaching tool," chess would have to do much more than
be age appropriate, and it does. As our classrooms become increasingly diverse, being
able to reach all children becomes increasingly challenging. Chess levels the playing field
as it crosses all socio-economic boundaries. It is a universal game, with worldwide rule
consistency. Age, gender, ethnic background, religious affiliation, size, shape, color, and
language don't matter when playing chess. Everyone is equal on the chessboard. Students
who are English language learners find success with chess, because they don't face
language barriers on the chessboard. Principal Jeff Newport commented, "We have 34
different languages spoken at our school, and chess is now the one we have in common."

Many schools have after-school chess clubs that create a mix of fun, competition and
learning. Predominantly the members are boys. An unintended consequence of these
programs is that they often leave some kids behind who are not drawn to the competitive
aspect of the game. By integrating chess into the classroom, we are able to reach all
children and provide them with the benefits of learning through the game of chess. These
benefits include the fact that students who wouldn't have thought to join the chess club on
their own, are more apt to join after having been exposed to chess in their classroom. In
Philadelphia, where 20 schools have implemented First Move during the school day,
participation in chess club after-school increased in several schools that already had a
chess club, and five schools created a new club in response to student demand.

The First Move curriculum was developed by a curriculum professional, and designed
specifically to connect with National and State academic standards. For example, while
learning about the chessboard, students are taught that each square has a name/location.
You can find each square by using coordinates, a set of numbers, letters or a number and
a letter, that tell you the exact location of something. On the chessboard, each square is
located at the intersection of a file (vertical line) and rank (horizontal line). As they learn,
students begin to talk in chess terms, i.e." I am moving my c3 Knight to e4." This helps
their chess game, and it also meets the Washington State Standards for math (1.5.1 and
5.3.1). "Chess will never show up on the Washington Assessment of Student Learning
[test]" says Kent Ferris, Lafayette Elementary School, "but the confidence, focus, and
academic skills our students are gaining through becoming analytical players will pay

95
measurable benefits in the years ahead." Principal Michelle Hartman was concerned
about her 3rd grade class because they were considered a "high-risk" group. At the end of
the school year she noted, "Chess has really made a difference for these kids, and their
test scores help prove it."

In any classroom, there are disparate levels of prior knowledge on any given topic; chess
is no different. Teachers find some of their students already know how to play chess. This
becomes an opportunity to place those children in leadership roles as teaching assistants
for their classmates. The reason isn't clear, but in many interviews with children in the
First Move program, they express their desire to teach others to play chess.
Superintendent Reece Blincoe from Stockdale ISD reported his delight when his family
gathered on the living room floor so his 3rd grade daughter could teach them all to play
chess, based on the lessons she had learned during the school day in the First Move
program.

The way chess can incorporate and relate to other core subjects makes it an amazingly
powerful tool. In First Move Teacher Training Workshops, classroom teachers learn
how to develop their core curriculum using chess. Chess is one big science experiment;
every time you play a game you are testing hypotheses and learning by trial and error.
Chess is rooted in history and can open a door to history knowledge. Our current game of
chess developed in the Middle Ages in Western Europe, though it began in India at least
1500 years ago. The King, Queen, Bishops, Knights, Rooks, and Pawns are symbolic of
real groups of people in the Middle Ages and studies of them can take children into an
understanding of what life was like at that time.

As children play chess, they begin to see the importance of thinking ahead, trying to
figure out what their opponent might do next and what their alternatives are too. This
ability to anticipate outcomes can transfer to their reading comprehension. Students can
predict outcomes, and realize that characters in their stories are interconnected, just as
just as they and their opponent, and the pieces on the chessboard are.

In the First Move classroom, kids aren't thinking about the benefits of chess, and how it
might help them on their standardized tests, but they are thinking while having fun. Their
teachers can see the benefits, however. Julie Doan, teacher at Medina Elementary says:

My students are more focusedchess certainly accounts for this. In math, for instance,
students who had studied chess were able to read graphs and work with charts so much
more smoothly than the students I had last year, who weren't even able to read a grid
prior to the lessons in math class.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference

96
Smith, J. P. and Cage, B. N. (2000). The effects of chess instruction on the mathematics
achievements of southern, rural, black secondary students. Research in the Schools, 7,
19-26.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

About the author

Wendi Fischer is the Scholastic Director of America's Foundation for Chess, a non-profit
organization formed in 2000, dedicated to bringing chess into the schools so that all
children can have the benefits of its lessons. Wendi becomes "Lady Wendolyn" in the
DVD lessons that accompany the First Move chess program produced by the Foundation.
Email: wendi@af4c.org

July 2006

http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/thinking-skills/chess/

Review

Do the benefits of chess instruction transfer to academic


and cognitive skills? A meta-analysis
Giovanni Sala, ,
Fernand Gobet

http://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2016.02.002
Get rights and content
Under a Creative Commons license

Highlights

Chess instruction is thought to improve children's cognitive and academic skills.



Results show a modest overall effect size (g = 0.338, K = 40).

The duration of chess training predicts pupils' achievement.


However, no study had an ideal design; thus, placebo effects cannot be ruled
out.

More than half of educational interventions are better than chess instruction.

97
Abstract
In recent years, pupils' poor achievement in mathematics has been a concern in
many Western countries. Chess instruction has been proposed as one way to
remedy this state of affairs, as well as improving other academic topics such as
reading and general cognitive abilities such as intelligence. The aim of this
paper is to quantitatively evaluate the available empirical evidence that skills
acquired during chess instruction in schools positively transfer to mathematics,
reading and general cognitive skills. The selection criteria were satisfied by 24
studies (40 effect sizes), with 2788 young people in the chess condition and
2433 in the control groups. The results show (a) a moderate overall effect size
(g = 0.338); (b) a tendency for a stronger effect on mathematical (g = 0.382)
than reading skill (g = 0.248), and (c) a significant and positive effect of
duration of treatment (Q(1) = 3.89, b = 0.0038, p < .05). However, no study
used an ideal design including pre- and post-test, full random allocation of
participants to conditions and, most importantly, both a do-nothing control
group and an active control group - a problem common in education research.
Directions for further research are discussed.

Keywords
Chess;
Transfer;
Meta-analysis;
Learning;
Education

1. Introduction
Recently, many concerns have been expressed about pupils' poor mathematics
achievement both in the United States (Hanushek et al., 2012 ; Richland et al.,
2012) and in Europe (Grek, 2009). Pupils' low mathematical skills have serious
consequences well beyond the classroom, as the possibility of successfully
majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)
subjects, and hence obtaining STEM jobs, is limited by one's mathematical
skills. The job market demands more graduates in STEM subjects than
graduates in the humanities and has also become more competitive worldwide
in recent years, with increasingly high mathematical competences being
required (Halpern et al., 2007).

To address the issue of how to improve mathematics instruction, policy makers


and researchers have explored a number of avenues. One such avenue is to
teach chess in schools. Chess has recently started to become part of the school
curriculum (as an optional subject) in several countries.

98
Chess-related research and educational projects are currently ongoing in the
United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, Germany, and Italy, among other countries.
Commenting on a large project having introduced chess in the curriculum of
175 schools in the UK, chess master Jerry Myers stated that chess directly
contributes to academic performance. Chess makes children smarter (Garner,
2012).

The European Parliament has expressed its favourable opinion on using chess
courses in schools as educational tool (Binev, Attard-Montalto, Deva, Mauro, &
Takkula, 2011) and, similarly, the Spanish Parliament has approved the
implementation of chess courses during school hours. These initiatives have
been conducted because chess is considered an effective educational tool able to
improve not only mathematical skills, but also other academic skills such as
reading and general cognitive abilities such as concentration and intelligence,
and even children's heuristics and habits of mind (Costa & Kallick, 2009).
Critically, efforts to promote chess in schools take for granted that chess skill
transfers to other domains.

1.1. Difficulty of transfer


Transfer of learning occurs when a set of skills acquired in one domain
generalizes to other domains or improves general cognitive abilities. Transfer is
an important question both theoretically and practically. Mestre
(2005) distinguishes between near-transfer, where transfer occurs between
closely related domains (e.g., transfer from geometry to calculus) and far-
transfer, where the source and target domains are only loosely related (e.g.,
transfer from Latin to geography). It has been proposed that transfer is a
function of the extent to which two domains share common features ( Thorndike
& Woodworth, 1901) and cognitive elements (Anderson, 1990). In line with this
hypothesis, near-transfer is often observed, although exceptions also exist. For
example, research into expertise shows that transfer is only partial between
subspecialties of expertise such as cardiology and neurology (Rikers, Schmidt,
& Boshuizen, 2002). By contrast, substantial research in education and
psychology suggests that far-transfer is difficult (Donovan, Bransford, &
Pellegrino, 1999). This includes the research on teaching the computer language
LOGO in order to improve children's thinking skills, which has obtained
disappointing results ( De Corte and Verschaffel, 1986 ; Gurtner et al., 1990). In
addition, the higher the level of a skill, the more specific the features of a
domain will be, and the lower the likelihood that there will be transfer (Ericsson
& Charness, 1994), in particular because a large number of domain-specific
perceptual chunks will be acquired (Gobet, 2015). Again, there are exceptions,
and some individuals have excelled in several different domains ( Gobet, 2011 ;
Gobet, 2015).
The difficulty of transferring knowledge and skills raises a number of
significant practical issues, especially in education. Most educational
interventions try to transmit knowledge which, to some extent, is meant to be

99
transferable from one domain of learning to another. In fact, transferability of
skills is either a tacit assumption or a specific aim of nearly every educational
program (Donovan et al., 1999 ; Perkins and Salomon, 1994). Therefore,
educational institutions are interested in methodologies implementing school
activities that teach and boost transferable skills. One approach is to teach
general strategies, such as learning, problem-solving, and reasoning heuristics
(Perkins & Grotzer, 2000), so that these skills can be easily transferred to other
domains. Another approach is to teach a specific activity, with the hope that this
activity will help individuals to develop skills that might be useable in other
domains. The game of chess is one such activity that has been used in that way.

1.2. The issue of transfer in chess research


A substantial amount of research has been devoted to understanding the
cognitive processes underpinning chess skill, and much is known about chess
players perception, learning, memory, and problem solving (for reviews,
see Gobet, 2015 ; Gobet et al., 2004). Much less is known about the extent to
which chess skill transfers to other domains of learning.
Several studies (Bilali et al., 2007; Doll and Mayr, 1987; Frydman and Lynn,
1992 ; Grabner et al., 2007) have shown that chess players tend to be more
intelligent than the general population. However, these studies were
correlational in nature and cannot establish that chess skill is the actual cause of
better intellectual abilities. In fact, the exact opposite causal explanation could
be true: some individuals could excel at chess due to their superior intellectual
abilities (Gobet & Campitelli, 2002).
Assuming that skills acquired in chess will lead to benefits in domains such as
mathematics and reading clearly implies the presence of far transfer. In line
with Thorndike and Woodworth's (1901) hypothesis, several studies have shown
that chess players' skill tends to be context-bound, suggesting that it is difficult
to achieve far-transfer from chess to other domains. For example, memory for
chess positions fails to transfer from chess to digits both in adults and children
(Chi, 1978 ; Schneider et al., 1993); chess players' perceptual skills do not
transfer to visual memory of shapes (Waters, Gobet, & Leyden, 2002); chess
skill does not predict performance in the economic game known as beauty
contest (Bhren & Frank, 2010); and finally, chess planning skills do not help
chess players to solve the Tower of London task (Unterrainer, Kaller, Leonhart,
& Rahm, 2011).

1.3. Chess in school


In spite of these negative results, several researchers have pursued the
hypothesis that skills acquired with chess can transfer to other domains. Two
main explanations have been adduced to support this hypothesis. First, chess
requires decision-making skills and high-level processes (such as acquiring and
selecting relevant information from a problem) similar to those used in
mathematics and reading (Margulies, 1992). Second, since chess is a demanding
task involving focused attention and problem solving, playing chess should

100
strengthen these cognitive abilities and thus be beneficial for children's school
performance (Bart, 2014). However, convincing experimental evidence of the
effectiveness of chess instruction is lacking. In a literature review, Gobet and
Campitelli (2006) argued that there was no strong evidence for the cognitive and
academic benefits of chess. They found only few studies, which included
unpublished reports or master and doctoral theses. Most importantly, many of
these studies had a quasi-experimental design (no random assignment to the
experimental and control groups) and, in some cases, the experimental samples
were self-selected.
The difficulty of transferring chess skill is consistent with the literature on the
transfer of specific skills. At first blush, it is hard to see why knowing the
strategic value of the bishop pair or the correct way to handle a minority attack
should offer any advantage in mathematics, understanding a text, or developing
focused attention. Nevertheless, it is possible that chess practice enhances some
abilities shared with other domains, such as those mentioned above, provided
that chess is taught early on with children, when academic and cognitive
abilities are at the beginning of their development. This is the reason why chess
intervention studies have focused on the academic and cognitive skills of
children rather than adults: Children's skills are less context-specific than
adults', and thus transfer of learning is more likely in the former than in the
latter.
Some recent studies (Sala et al., 2015; Scholz et al., 2008; Trinchero, 2012 ;
Trinchero and Sala, 2016) have provided more refined explanations as to why
chess may effectively enhance cognitive and mathematical skills. According to
these researchers, chess improves children's mathematical skills because the
game has some elements in common with the mathematical domain and because
it promotes suitable habits of mind (Costa & Kallick, 2009). Through chess,
children train several context-independent skills (such as the ability to
understand the existence of a problem or the need for correct reasoning), which
may transfer to the mathematical domain. This is possible because (primary
school) mathematics and chess share some common features (e.g., numerical
and spatial relationships as well as quantity-based problems), strategies to solve
problems (e.g., focusing and interpreting game/problem situations, selecting
relevant information, or looking for correct arguments), cognitive skills (e.g.,
attention) and meta-cognitive skills (e.g., planning). The aim of our study is thus
to test, comprehensively and quantitatively, these previous claims on the
putative benefits of chess instruction in school.

2. Scope, aims, and hypotheses of the present meta-analysis


Given the considerable attention that research on chess in school is attracting
and the potentially important implications for our understanding of transfer, it is
important to provide a scientific evaluation of the effects of chess instruction on
academic and cognitive skills. A similar interest has been devoted to studies on
the possibility that video-games improve cognitive skills and that the benefits
transfer to other domains (Green et al., 2010a ; Green et al., 2010b). Just like
with the video-game literature, a possibility that will have to be kept in mind in

101
our meta-analysis is that the observed transfer from the source domains to the
target domains might be due to confounds such as the placebo effect (Boot
et al., 2011 ; Gobet et al., 2014).
Our meta-analysis1 is an investigation of studies regarding the potential benefits
of chess for children with respect to (a) mathematics skills, (b) reading skills,
and (c) several cognitive skills (general intelligence, meta-cognition,
attention/concentration, and spatial abilities). We chose these three categories of
skills because they were the three categories chess-related research has been
focusing on.
Our study had two main aims. The first aim was to estimate the overall effect
size of the benefits of chess instruction by comparing experimental groups to
control groups. The second aim was to evaluate the potential role of several
factors in moderating the effect of chess instruction in children. The first four
moderators addressed substantive aspects of the studies, and the last two
covered methodological aspects:
1.
Outcome: Mathematics, reading, or cognitive skills;
2.
Duration of training (in hours);
3.
Grade of the participants: Primary or secondary school;
4.
Participants' category: Children with special educational needs or not;
5.
Publication: Published or unpublished studies, where published is defined as
having appeared in a peer-reviewed journal;
6.
Design quality: Integer index (range 03, from poor to good) expressing the
quality of the study design. The index measures three methodological
characteristics: random allocation, administered pre-test, and avoidance of self-
selection of the sample.
Along with the evaluation of the potential role of the above moderators, two
specific sets of hypotheses were tested. The first pair of hypotheses dealt with
the general question as to whether the skills acquired with chess instruction
transfer to other domains.

Two opposing hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis 1a predicted that, consistent


with the literature on expertise and most of the literature on transfer, chess skill
does not transfer to other domains, or at best the transfer is small and mostly
due to unspecific factors (such as placebo effects).

Hypothesis 1b, which reflects the view held by most researchers and
practitioners in the field of chess instruction, predicted that there is substantial

102
transfer. The second hypothesis dealt with the benefits of chess instruction on
mathematics and reading. In line with Thorndike and Woodworth's (1901), it
was predicted that transfer is stronger with mathematics than with reading, as
chess shares more elements with the former topic than with the latter.

3. Method
3.1. Literature search
A systematic search strategy was used to find the relevant studies. The
procedure is summarized in Fig. 1. Google Scholar, ProQuest (Dissertations &
Theses), ERIC and Psyc-Info databases were searched to identify all the
potential relevant studies. In addition, previous narrative reviews were
examined, and we e-mailed researchers in the field asking for unpublished
studies and data.

Fig. 1.
Flow diagram of the studies considered and ultimately included in the meta-
analysis.
Figure options

3.2. Inclusion/exclusion criteria


The studies were included according to the following seven criteria:

103
1.
The design of the study was experimental or quasi-experimental; correlational and
ex post facto studies were excluded.
2.
The independent variable (chess instruction) was successfully isolated; the studies
using chess instruction as one of several independent variables (such as other
activities) in the experimental group were excluded.
3.
The study presented a comparison between a chess intervention group and at least
one control group.
4.
The treatment and the control groups did not differ in terms of grade (e.g. third
graders compared to fourth or fifth graders).
5.
During the study, a measure of mathematical, reading, or cognitive skill was
collected.
6.
The participants of the study were pupils from kindergarten to the 12th grade.
7.
The data presented in the published study were sufficient to calculate an effect
size or the author(s) of the study, after having been contacted, provided the
necessary data.
We found 24 studies, conducted from July 1976 to July 2015, that met all the
inclusion criteria (see Table 1). These studies included 25 independent samples
and 40 effect sizes, and a total of 5221 participants (2788 in the experimental
groups and 2433 in the control groups).
Table 1.
Summary of the 24 studies included in the meta-analysis.
Study Outcome Published Hours Design Special Grade Outcome
quality educational measure
needs
Aciego, Cognitive Yes 96 1 No Both WISC-R
Garcia,
and
Betancort
(2012)
Aydin Maths & Yes 48 1 Yes Secondary Unknown
(2015) Cognitive
Barrett Maths & Yes 25 2 Yes Secondary TAKS
and Fish Cognitive
(2011)
Christiae Maths & Yes 42 2 No Primary DGB

104
Study Outcome Published Hours Design Special Grade Outcome
quality educational measure
needs
n and Reading
Verhofsta
dt-
Denve
(1981)
DuCette Maths & No Not 0 No Both PSSA
(2009) Reading Given
Eberhard Cognitive No 60 1 Yes Secondary CogAT;
(2003) NNAT
Forrest Maths & No 37 2 No Primary WISC-R
et al. Reading (arithmetic
(2005) subtest);
Neale test
Fried & Cognitive No Not 2 Yes Primary WISC-R
Ginsburg Given
(n.d.)
Garcia Maths & No 90 1 No Primary TAKS
(2008) Reading
Gliga and Cognitive Yes 10 3 No Primary Krapelin test;
Flesner Rey test
(2014)
Hong and Cognitive Yes 20 3 Yes Both RPM
Bart
(2007)
Kazemi Maths & Yes 96 2 No Both TIMSS
et al. Cognitive (mathematica
(2012) l literacy);
Panaoura,
Philippou &
Christou test
Kramer Cognitive No 32 2 No Primary Unknown
& Filipp
(n.d.)
Margulie Reading No Not 1 No Primary DRP
s (1992) Given
Rifner Maths & No 30 2 No Secondary CTBS/4
(1992) Reading
Romano Maths No 25 3 No Primary INVALSI
(2011)
Sala & Maths & No 10 3 No Primary OCDE-Pisa

105
Study Outcome Published Hours Design Special Grade Outcome
quality educational measure
needs
Trinchero Cognitive (mathematica
(in l literacy)
preparati
on)
Sala et al. Maths Yes 18 3 No Primary OCDE-Pisa
(2015) (mathematica
l literacy)
Sala, Maths & No 15 3 No Primary TIMSS
Gobet, Cognitive (mathematica
Trinchero l literacy);
,& Panaoura &
Ventura Philippou test
(submitte
d)
Scholz Maths & Yes 24 3 Yes Primary Arithmetic
et al. Cognitive test designed
(2008) by the
authors; DL-
KG
Sigirtmac Cognitive Yes 50 0 No Primary Unknown
(2012)
Trinchero Maths No 30 2 No Primary Unknown
and
Piscopo
(2007)
Trinchero Maths No 19 3 No Primary OCDE-Pisa
& Sala (mathematica
(2016) l literacy)
Yap Maths & No 50 0 No Primary Oregon State
(2006) Reading Assessment
Table options
3.3. Effect size2

For the studies with an only-post-test design, the standardized means difference
(Cohen's d) was calculated with the following formula:
equation(1)
d= (M eM c)/S D p o o l e d

where SDpooled is the pooled standard deviation and Me and Mc are the means
of the experimental group and the control group, respectively.3 For the studies

106
with a repeated-measure design, the standardized means difference was
calculated with the following formula:
equation(2)
d= (M g e M g c )/S D p o o l e d p r e

where SDpooled-pre is the pooled standard deviation of the two pre-test


standard deviations, and Mge and Mgc are the gain of the experimental
group and of the control group, respectively. For the studies with an ANCOVA
design, the standardized means difference was calculated with the following
formula:
equation(3)
d= (M a d j e M a d j c )/S D p o o l e d

where SDpooled is the pooled standard deviation of the two standard deviations
of the unadjusted means, and Madj-e Madjc are the adjusted means of the
experimental group and the control group, respectively. To correct for the
upward bias, every Cohen's d was converted into Hedges's g by using the
following formula:
equation(4)
g= d/(1+ 0.75/(N 3))

where N is the sample size of the study.Where reliability coefficients were


available, the effect sizes were corrected for measurement error by using the
following formula:
equation(5)
g = g/a

where a is the square root of the reliability coefficient. It was possible to apply
this correction to 31 effect sizes. Finally, there were three outliers whose
residual errors had z scores greater than 4. These were Winsorized to z scores
equal to 3.99.
Since we believed that the effect sizes had to reflect the actual improvement of
the experimental groups and should not be the product of statistical artefacts, we
adopted the following criterion: when the control group performance decreased
in the post test, the effect size was calculated by considering Mg-c (control
group gain) equal to 0. Finally, the Comprehensive Meta Analysis (Version 3.0;
Biostat, Englewood, NJ) software package was used for computing the effect
sizes and conducting the statistical analyses.

4. Results
A random model (K = 40) was built to calculate an overall effect size. 4 The
overall effect size was g = 0.338, 95% CI [0.242; 0.435], p < .001 ( Fig. 2). The
degree of heterogeneity between effect sizes was between moderate and high
(I2 = 57.227), suggesting the potential effect of some moderators. A trim-and-
fill analysis showed that there was no publication bias. Consistent with this, a

107
funnel plot analysis, depicting the relationship between standard error and effect
size, was approximately symmetrical (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 2.
Overall effect size (g) for chess training groups compared to control groups.
Hedges's gs (circles) and 95% CIs (lines) are displayed for all effects entered into
the meta-analysis. The diamond at bottom represents the meta-analytically
weighted mean Hedges's g. For studies with multiple independent samples, the
result of each sample (S1, S2, etc.) is reported separately. Analogously, for studies
with multiple outcome measures, the result of each measure (M1, M2, etc.) is
reported separately. Asterisks identify adjusted (Winsorized) outliers.
(Please use source link to see graph in the original article)
Figure options

Fig. 3.
Funnel plot of standard errors and effect sizes (g). The diamond at bottom represents the
meta-analytically weighted mean Hedges's g.
Figure options

4.1. Moderator analyses


The only two statistically significant moderators were Duration of Training,
which positively affected the effect sizes (Q(1) = 3.89, b = 0.0038, p < .05, two
tailed, K = 35), and Publication, which also positively affected the effect sizes
(Q(1) = 10.17, b = 0.2941, p < .01, two tailed, K = 40).
Following Trinchero's (2012) suggestion (see Discussion), we considered 25 h
as a threshold for the moderator Duration of Training. The overall effect size in
studies with 25 or more hours of treatment was g = 0.427, 95% CI [0.271;
0.583], p < .001, K = 23, while the overall effect size in studies with less than
25 h of training was g = 0.303, 95% CI [0.189; 0.417], p < .001, K = 12.
Regarding the moderator Publication, the overall effect size of the published
studies was g = 0.540, 95% CI [0.346; 0.735], p < .001, K = 17, while the

108
overall effect size of the unpublished studies was g = 0.230, 95% CI [0.149;
0.311], p < .001, K = 23.

4.2. Additional meta-analytic models


Although outcome was not a significant moderator, we ran three additional
random models one for each outcome in order to investigate whether any
outcome shows an overall effect size appreciably superior (or inferior, see
discussion) to the others, as stated in Hypothesis 2.
The first model included the 17 mathematics-related effect sizes. The overall
effect size was g = 0.382, 95% CI [0.229; 0.535], p < .001. A trim-and-fill
analysis showed that there was no publication bias. The second model included
the 16 cognitive-related effect sizes. The overall effect size was g = 0.330, 95%
CI [0.130; 0.529], p = .001. A trim-and-fill analysis indicated that there was no
publication bias. Finally, the third model included the seven reading-related
effect sizes. The overall effect size was g = 0.248, 95% CI [0.128;
0.368], p < .001. A trim-and-fill analysis showed a possible publication bias
(one study trimmed, left to the mean). The analysis showed that the point
estimate was g = 0.241, 95% CI [0.122; 0.359].

5. Discussion
There is currently much research and excitement about the benefits of teaching
chess in schools. The issue is theoretically important, since chess researchers'
and practitioners claims about the presence of far transfer are at variance with
main theories of learning and expertise, which consider far transfer as difficult.
In order to evaluate these diverging predictions, the current meta-analysis
examined the effect exerted by chess instruction on academic (mathematics and
reading) and cognitive abilities in children.

5.1. Substantive results


The first hypothesis predicted overall transfer beyond placebo effects. The
results of the current meta-analysis suggest that chess instruction improves
children's mathematical, reading, and cognitive skills moderately. Although this
outcome seems promising, two considerations should be borne in mind.

First, the overall effect size is not large enough to convincingly establish the
effectiveness of chess instruction in enhancing the skills in consideration. By
using Hattie's (2009) categorization, an overall effect size of g = 0.338 is not in
the so-called zone of desired effects, that is d 0.4, which is the median value
of the effectiveness of educational interventions estimated by Hattie's second-
order meta-analysis. This suggests that chess instruction is no more effective in
enhancing children's cognitive and academic skills than many (at least more
than 50%) other possible educational interventions.

109
Moreover, the observed difference between treatment and control groups might
be due to chess instructors' passion rather than chess itself, because the potential
role of placebo effects was rarely, if ever, controlled for in the studies under
consideration (we will take up this methodological point below).

Thus, consistent with Thorndike and Woodworth's (1901) common-element


theory, the results tend to lend more support to Hypothesis 1a (chess skill does
not transfer to other domains) than Hypothesis 1b (transfer will be substantial),
which is largely held by the field of chess-in-school research. These
considerations along with the overall results of the meta-analysis lead us to
think that learning activities should be as close as possible to the skills to train;
for example, mathematics instruction should be used to teach mathematical
skills.

However, the positive influence of the hours of treatment on the results seems to
support the idea that chess skill does transfer to other domains. Trinchero
(2012) has suggested that appreciable positive effects occur only after 2530 h
of chess instruction. For studies with a minimum of 25 h of instruction, the
overall g effect size was 0.427, which is a value in the zone of desired effects
(see above). It is thus unlikely that this positive outcome is only the
consequence of placebo effects, although this possibility cannot be ruled out
completely. This suggests that 2530 h of chess instruction is the minimum
amount of instruction in order to obtain a significant transfer of learning from
chess to other domains.

The second hypothesis, which was a more direct test of Thorndike and
Woodworth's (1901) theory, predicted that transfer from chess should be
stronger to mathematics than to reading, as chess shares more common elements
with the former than the latter. Consistent with the hypothesis, the overall effect
size was larger with mathematics than with reading (g = 0.382 vs. g = 0.248).
Although outcome was not a significant moderator, reading seemed to benefit
less from chess instruction than mathematics, as the effect size was substantially
lower; this was despite the fact that five of the seven studies on reading used a
long duration (30 h or more; no information about duration was available in the
other two studies).

In the introduction, we presented Thorndike and Woodworth's (1901) view that


transfer of skills occurs only between two domains that share components. It is
plausible to argue that chess and mathematics have some components in
common, such as their problem-solving nature and the importance of
quantitative relationships. Therefore, the hypothesis that chess is a medium (in
the sense of Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik, & Rand, 2006) through which
cognitive skills are trained with some benefit for mathematics is plausible, even
though it has not yet been convincingly supported by empirical research.

110
However, with respect to reading, it is difficult to identify what components are
shared with chess, unless we focus on very general commonalities (e.g., chess
playing and reading are both decision-making activities). In their study of the
effects of chess instruction on reading, Forrest, Davidson, Shucksmith, and
Glendinning (2005) suggested that chess interventions enabled participants with
low self-esteem to gain more confidence, which improved their literacy skills. If
true, this suggestion along with the small effect size (g = 0.248) upholds the
idea that the effects of chess interventions on reading are non-specific.

5.2. Methodological moderators


The index of design quality was not a significant moderator. This fact suggests
that the results have not been significantly biased by the design used in the
studies included in the meta-analysis. Nevertheless, as previously mentioned,
the absence of an active control group in almost all the studies was a potential
design-related confound we could not control for. The moderator Publication
indicated that studies published in peer-reviewed journals have greater effect
sizes. That studies with good results are more likely to be published is a
common pattern in the literature (Schmidt & Hunter, 2015).

5.3. Limitations of this study


Regrettably, like the vast majority of studies carried out to assess the effect of
educational methods, none of the studies considered in this review employed
what Gobet and Campitelli (2006) called the ideal design. This design
includes the following requirements in addition to a treatment group: pre-test
and post-test; two control groups (a do-nothing group and an active control
group, necessary for removing the possibility of a placebo effect); random
allocation to group; different personnel for conducting the pre-test, the
treatment, and the post-test; and ideally but nearly impossible to do in practice
experimenters' and testers' unawareness of the nature of the assignment into
groups, and participants' unawareness of the goal of the experiment and the fact
that they take part in an experiment.

The presence of an active control group is crucial for controlling the possibility
of placebo effects, and thus establishing the causal role of chess instruction in
far transfer. Mechanisms that could produce placebo effects include
instructors' motivation, the state of motivation induced by a novel activity, and
educators expectations (e.g., Boot et al., 2013 ; Gobet and Campitelli, 2006).

Without any active control group, it is not possible to exclude the possibility
that positive results are due to such confounds, rather than to chess itself. It
remains unknown whether a study with a more rigorous design would yield the
same results as the studies previously conducted. Since nearly no study in the
current meta-analysis had an active control group, which is necessary for ruling
out possible placebo effects, the effects of chess instruction could have been
systematically overestimated.

111
Another limitation of this field of research is that too few studies reliably
controlled for moderator effects. In addition, the dependent variables were often
very different between the studies: for example, basic arithmetic skills and
mathematical problem-solving skills are not the same thing, and the same
applies to meta-cognition, general intelligence, attention, and spatial abilities.
We classified the studies using three broad kinds of outcomes (mathematical,
reading, and cognitive skills) because, unfortunately, the small number of
studies did not allow us to reliably evaluate the specific skills assessed as
potential moderators.

5.4. Conclusions and recommendations for future research


Even if chess, under specific circumstances, seems to positively affect children's
skills, there still are serious doubts about the real effectiveness of its practice.
There is a need to clarify whether this positive influence is due to placebo
effects or to chess instruction itself. In the latter case, research should identify
the mechanisms underpinning the link between chess, the specific cognitive
abilities involved and enhanced by the practice of the game, and their potential
influence on mathematics and reading skills.
In addition, the field should develop a detailed causal model explaining the
cognitive processes that mediate learning and transfer. Finally, the data suggest
that chess enhances children's mathematical skills and cognitive abilities more
than reading skills, although the moderator analysis was not statistically
significant. With reading skills, both the data and the explanations provided by
researchers suggest that the positive effects of chess on children's reading skills
are due to placebo effects. Further research should establish the reliability of
these results.
Regarding future studies, we recommend to use an experimental design (random
allocation, pre-tests and post-tests) with two control groups (a do-nothing group
and an active control group). While logistically more complex, such a design is
necessary in order to establish whether the benefits putatively provided by chess
instruction are genuine and not caused by non-specific factors (e.g., placebo
effect).
Another important goal is to identify the specific characteristics of chess that
might improve children's abilities, and which abilities they foster (e.g.,
attention, spatial abilities, quantitative reasoning, or meta-cognition). For
example, is it the diversity of pieces on the board that help maintain attention?
Does the movement of the pieces help to boost visuo-spatial abilities? Does
chess ideally combine numerical, spatial, temporal, and combinatorial aspects?
Does chess promote a better and more conscious way of thinking? In particular,
it is important to demonstrate whether these features are common or not to other
activities and games. Specifically, one should understand whether some features

112
(e.g., quantitative relationships between pieces and problem-solving situations)
are shared by other board games.
Thus, researchers should include (at least) two dependent variables one
academic and one cognitive in their experimental designs, in order to shed
some light on the causal relationships between chess instruction, and cognitive
and academic skills. Many researchers, for instance, have claimed that chess
enhances mathematical skills because chess practice relies on cognitive skills
and mechanisms that, in turn, underlie mathematical skills.

While this hypothesis is plausible, too few studies have directly addressed the
question by assessing both a cognitive and an academic outcome, and the results
have been contradictory. For example, Scholz et al. (2008) and Sala and
Trinchero (in preparation) found no effect of chess on focused attention and
meta-cognition respectively, whereas Kazemi, Yektayar, and Abad (2012) found
a positive effect of chess practice on meta-cognitive abilities both in primary
and in secondary school participants.

Finally, since the effectiveness of chess in enhancing children's intellectual


skills seems to be dependent on the duration of the training, it would be useful
to directly manipulate this variable in future studies, by systematically varying
the duration of treatments between groups. This would ascertain the minimal
and optimal amounts of chess instruction for far transfer: too short a duration
might not provide enough time for progress, while too long a duration might
lead to diminishing returns.

Other worthwhile topics of investigation include a comparative study of


different teaching methods with respect to their efficiency (e.g., is instruction
better with computers or without computers? Are group activities preferable to
individual activities, or is it the opposite? Are there more efficient orders of
covering the material?).

Finally, there has been little research that has explicitly mapped between chess
and aspects of mathematics. Possible examples include bridging the chess board
with the Cartesian graph and bridging the way the king moves in chess with
block distance (as opposed to Euclidean distance). As it is known that awareness
makes transfer more likely (Gick and Holyoak, 1980 ; Salomon and Perkins,
1989), it is plausible that making explicit the links between chess and
mathematics could facilitate transfer.

In conclusion, the game of chess seems to exert a slight positive influence on


both academic and cognitive abilities. Further research is needed to shed light
on the relationship between cognitive and academic improvements, to evaluate
the role of potential moderators and confounds, and to understand the role, if
any, of placebo effects and game elements non-specific to chess.
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o
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o W. Schneider, H. Gruber, A. Gold, K. Opwis
o Chess expertise and memory for chess positions in children and
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o Scholz et al., 2008
o M. Scholz, H. Niesch, O. Steffen, B. Ernst, M. Loeffler, E. Witruk, et al.
o Impact of chess training on mathematics performance and
concentration ability of children with learning disabilities
o International Journal of Special Education, 23 (2008), pp. 138148
o
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o A.D. *Sigirtmac
o Does chess training affect conceptual development of six-year-old
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o Early Child Development and Care, 182 (2012), pp. 797806
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o S.M. Tracz, P.B. Elmore, J.T. Pohlmann
o Correlational meta-analysis: Independent and nonindependent cases
o Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52 (1992), pp. 879888
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o Trinchero, 2012
o R. Trinchero
o Gli scacchi, un gioco per crescere. Sei anni di sperimentazione nella
scuola primaria [Chess, a game to grow up with. Six year of research in
primary school]
o Franco Angeli, Milan (2012)
o
6.
o Trinchero and Piscopo, 2007
o R. *Trinchero, M. Piscopo
o Gli scacchi, un gioco per crescere. [Chess, a game to grow up with]
o (2007) (Unpublished manuscript)
o
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o Trinchero and Sala, 2016
o R. Trinchero, G. Sala
o Can chess training improve Pisa scores in Mathematics? an
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o J.M. Unterrainer, C.P. Kaller, R. Leonhart, B. Rahm
o Revising superior planning performance in chess players: the impact
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o A.J. Waters, F. Gobet, G. Leyden
o Visuospatial abilities in chess players
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o Yap, 2006
o K.O. *Yap
o Chess for success evaluation: Final report
o Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory, Portland, OR (2006)
o

We thank William Bart, Guillermo Campitelli, and Grace McGuire for useful
comments on an earlier draft of this paper.

Corresponding author. Department of Psychological Sciences, Bedford Street


South, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 7ZA, United Kingdom.
1
Two previous meta-analyses were carried out on the effect of chess
instruction: Benson (2006) and Nicotera and Stuit (2014). Neither calculated an
overall effect size nor ran a moderator analysis. Rather, they divided the meta-
analytic means into sub-categories (such as mathematics with chess instruction).
The results they obtained were optimistic compared to ours, as they included

128
several studies that were not included in the present meta-analysis because they
did not satisfy the selection criteria.
2
All the formulas we used were taken from Schmidt and Hunter (2015).
3
If the t or F statistics were provided, we used the regular formulas d = t *
((n1 + n2)/(n1 * n2)) and d = (F * (n1 + n2)/(n1 * n2)).
4
Twelve studies had more than one effect size. However, according to Tracz,
Elmore, and Pohlmann (1992), violations of statistical independence have little or
no effect on means, standard deviations, and confidence intervals.
5
References marked with an asterisk indicate studies included in the meta-analysis.
2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Source:- http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1747938X16300112

Chess therapy
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Students of the Angelo King International Center, De La Salle-College of Saint


Benilde learning the dynamics in chess, showing that it is a social experience which
necessitates abiding by rules, taking into consideration the wishes and acts of another
person, and wherein intense interpersonal relations are possible in a brief period

129
Chess therapy is a form of psychotherapy that attempts to use chess games between the
therapist and client or clients to form stronger connections between them towards a goal
of confirmatory or alternate diagnosis and consequently, better healing. Its founder can be
considered to be the Persian polymath Rhazes (AD 852932), who was at one time the
chief physician of the Baghdad hospital. His use of tactics and strategies in board games
as metaphors in real life to help his patients think clearer were rediscovered and
employed by Fadul and Canlas.[1]

One of the earliest reported cases of chess therapy involves the improvement in an
isolated, schizoid, 16-year-old youth that took place after he became interested in chess.
[2]
Chess provided an outlet for his hostile impulses in a non-retaliatory manner. Good use
was made of the patient's digressions from the game and his newly acquired ability to
speak about his feelings, fantasies and dreams which the particular emotional situation of
the game touched off. The report demonstrates how the fact that chess is a game, and not
real, enabled the patient to exert some conscious control over his feelings and thus learn
to master them to a limited extent.

In a relatively recent review by an Indian psycho-therapist, Thomas Janetius[3] chess


therapy is considered to be a form of creative therapy. Chess games may contain most of
what we need to know about the causes of our psychological troubles; they can tell us
why we are as we arevictim or martyr, sexually impotent, deprived child looking for
adventure, etc.but they can also show us the remedy for our disorder. The unconscious,
through chess games, is not concerned merely with putting right the things that have gone
wrong in us. Chess games aim at our well-being in the fullest sense; their goal is nothing
less than our complete personal victory or development in defeats, the creative unfolding
of the potentialities that are contained in the analysis of the games that we played,
whether we won, lost or drew.

In psychoanalysis chess games are wish fulfillment, and that an important part of these
wish fulfillment are the result of repressed desiresdesires that can scare us so much that
our games may turn into a series of defeats. Chess games can be divided into wishful
games, anxiety games, and punitive games. Punitive games are in fact also fulfillment of
wishes, though not of wishes of the instinctual impulses but of those of the critical,
censoring, and punishing agency in our controlling minds. Thus, for Jungian
Psychology chess imagery is part of a universal symbolic language. Roumen Bezergianov
uses chess as a Logotherapy method, to help his clients discover and fulfill the meanings
of their unique lives and life situations. He describes his method in the book "Character
Education with Chess" (http://www.amazon.com/Character-Education-Chess-Roumen-
Bezergianov-ebook/dp/B005AVUPNQ/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1390509738&sr=8-
1&keywords=character+education+with+chess).

Chess games are an open pathway toward our true thoughts, emotions, and actions. In
your chess games you are able to somehow see your aggressive impulses and desires.

130
Chess games are a way of compensating for your shortcomings in your life. For instance,
if a person is unable to stand up to his boss, he may safely lash out an attack at a chess
piece in a chess game. Thus chess games offer some sort of satisfaction that may be more
socially acceptable. Some of the major benefits that chess can offer come however,
through its educational value for younger children. In fact, chess has been proven to aid
in skills such as

Focusing: Having to observe carefully and concentrate;


Visualizing: Imagining a sequence of actions before it happens;
Thinking ahead: With the concept of "think first, then act";
Weighing options: Finding pros and cons of various actions;
Analyzing Concretely: Logical decisions are better than impulsive;
Thinking abstractly: Taught to consider the bigger picture;
Planning: Developing long range goals and bringing them about;
Juggling multiple considerations simultaneously: Having to weigh various factors
all at once.

Throughout the US, a multitude of experiments have been conducted regarding the true
educational value of chess. In Marina, CA, an experiment with chess indicated that after
only 20 days of instruction, students' academic performance improved dramatically. It
reported that 55% of students showed significant improvement in academic performance
after only this brief time of chess instruction. Similarly, a 5-year study of 7th and 8th
graders, by Robert Ferguson of the Bradford School District showed that test scores
improved 17.3% for students regularly engaged in chess classes, compared with only
4.56% for children participating in other forms of "enrichment activities" such as Future
Problem Solving, Problem Solving with Computers, independent study, and creative
writing. These beneficial effects were also present among Special Education students,
improving their ability to socialize, and reducing incidents of suspension at school by at
least 60%.
In Gestalt therapy, we seek to fill our emotional voids so that we can become a unified
whole. Some chess games contain the rejected, disowned parts of the self. Every chess
piece, tactic, and/or strategy in a chess game represents an aspect of oneself as shown in a
case involving a boy with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.[4] In a sense, chess imagery is not
part of a universal symbolic language because each chess game is unique to the
individual who played it.
In Italy, the first study of chess therapy "The Game of Chess as an Educational Aid in
Compulsory Schooling for Deaf-and-dumb Children" was conducted in 1992 from ASIS
(Association for the Deaf). It was funded by the CNR (National Research Council), with
the 92.02547.CT08 contract number. The research was conducted by psychologist and
psychotherapist Massimo Marino, President of ASIS. Various searches that resulted in
other publications were produced dall'ASIS about treatment failure.[5] The synthesis of
these studies are summarized in the "Book Scaccoterapia Complete Edition".[6]
Source:- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_therapy

131
Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau-Kleffner syndrome usually begins between 3 and 7 years of age.


There is a progressive loss of speech.
Seizures occur during sleep.
This syndrome includes a loss of IQ.

What is it like?
In the typical case, a child between 3 and 7 years of age experiences language problems,
with or without seizures. The language disorder may start suddenly or slowly. It usually
affects the child's understanding of spoken language the most, but it may affect both
understanding speech and speaking ability, or it may affect speaking only.
Seizures are usually few and often occur during sleep. Simple partial seizures involving
movement are most common, but tonic-clonic seizures can also occur.
Who gets it?
The Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare disorder. It begins during childhood, with
language disorders starting between ages 3 and 7 years.
Tell me more
Its symptoms are "acquired aphasia" (the loss of language abilities formerly
present) and usually a seizure disorder. The children usually have generalized tonic-
clonic and atypical absence seizures.
The EEG is often the key to the diagnosis. A normal EEG, especially one done
when the child is awake, does not rule out this disorder. Sleep activates the epilepsy
waves in these children, so sleep recordings are extremely important. Sometimes the
abnormality is seen only during sleep. The stage of sleep most affected is called
slow-wave sleep, which usually does not begin until several hours after falling
asleep. Therefore, routine 30-minute EEGs may miss the seizures in this condition.
The boundaries of the Landau-Kleffner syndrome are imprecise. Some children
may first have a delay in language development followed by a loss of speech
milestones.
Landau-Kleffner syndrome (or a variant of it) may also occur in some children in
whom language function never develops, or in others whose language skills move
backward but who very seldom have epilepsy waves on the EEG. The exact
relationship between the epilepsy waves on the EEG and the language disorder is
imprecise, although in some cases the epilepsy activity may contribute to the
language problems.
How is it treated?
Seizure control is rarely a problem, but standard seizure medications are not often
effective against the language disorder. Drugs such as Lamictal (lamotrigine), Keppra
(levetiracetam), and Depakote (valproate) sometimes help. High dose diazepam given at
bedtime has resulted in excellent improvement in some children. Steroids have also
shown some efficacy, improving both the EEG and language.

132
A new form of epilepsy surgery, multiple subpial transections in which multiple small
slices are made in brain cortex, may improve both the EEG abnormalities and the
language disorder in a small number of children. This procedure is still being studied in
various epilepsy centers.
What's the outlook?
After age 10, only 20% of patients still have seizures. The clinical course of the disorder
fluctuates and it occasionally disappears on its own.
Some children are left with permanent language difficulties. Most commonly, these are
children in whom medical or surgical therapy does not eliminate the epileptic patterns on
the EEG.

Authored by: Gregory L. Holmes, MD | Robert S. Fisher, MD, PhD on 9/2013


Reviewed by: Robert S. Fisher, MD, PhD on 9/2013

Source:- http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/types-epilepsy-syndromes/landau-kleffner-
syndrome

Chess Therapy for Mental Health


Published on July 1, 2014

133
Chess therapy is now used
by numerous psychotherapists and doctors. It has become a popular creative
psychotherapy technique in the past 20 years. This therapy has been known to produce
positive results with children who have bipolar disorders, depression, ADHD, and neuro-
behavioral disorders.

Chess therapy is a creative form used to develop bonds between the psychotherapist and
his/her clients. It is an alternative diagnostic technique for neuro-behavioral and mental
issues that a client may suffer from. Chess therapy helps in developing a therapeutic
alliance between the psychotherapist and his patient to help him through any
psychological or emotional problems that he may be experiencing.

Unlike other forms of therapy, chess therapy does not require the patient to lie down on a
couch and pour his heart out to his therapist. Chess therapy involves active participation
from both partiesthe client as well as the therapistto engage in a creative,
recreational game of chess.

134
One time, Mark, a university-educated young man from Italy, visited me in the hospital.
He's hungry for chess and wanting to inquire about chess therapy. When he arrived, I
asked him to join my group session and share a bit about himself. After a short
conversation, he's truly a "philosopher" guy immersed in heady ideas and abstract
concepts.

But, most of all, Mark was going through some emotional difficulties and seeing me for
psychotherapy to unpack his unexplainable psychological blocks. His preferred way:
chess therapy. Chess did fit him despite his seemingly normal exterior or mindworks. It
can be good emotional therapy too for "philosophers" to play chess.

My fellow Filipino, Manny Pacquaio, world boxing champion, is a sportsman who uses
chess as therapy in his sport and life. He plays well even in this game, besting some of
our best players around. Appreciative of the game, he supported international and
national chess tournaments in our country.

The other day, I was talking to one of his aides in Congress (Pacquaio is also a duly-
elected Congressman!) inside a television studio. He said Manny was even able to beat a
grandmaster during a tournament in his home! Before crucial boxing matches, I was told
he'd play chess in the dugouts behind the ring as part of his mental conditioning and
therapy.

Chess therapy was founded as early as AD 852-932 by a certain Dr. Rhazes who was
chief physician at Baghdad Hospital. Dr. Rhazes uses chess strategies and tactics as
metaphors in real life to help patients think clearer.

Wikipedia reported, "One of the earliest reported cases of chess therapy involves the
improvement in an isolated, schizoid, 16-year old youth that took place after he became
interested in chess. Chess provided an outlet for his hostile impulses in a non-retaliatory
manner. Good use was made of the patient's digressions from the game and his newly
acquired ability to speak about his feelings, fantasies and dreams which the particular
emotional situation of the game touched off. The report demonstrates how the fact that
chess is a game, and not real, enabled the patient to exert some conscious control over his
feelings and thus learn to master them to a limited extent."

135
Category(s):Anger Management, Communication Disorders Problems, Sports
Psychology
Source:- http://www.psychologymatters.asia/article/234/chess-therapy-for-mental-
health.html

Chess Therapy is Enjoyable and Valuable for Clearing Mental


Disorders

An interesting strategy
One of the most interesting points that can be used when handling a mental disorder is
chess therapy. This is a type of therapy that involves a person playing a therapist in a
series of chess games. This involves helping to allow a person to have a clearer series of
thoughts that might be a little easier for a person to work with. This is a big point to find
for clearing the difficult problems that often come with mental disorders. It is an
interesting procedure that may be considered by some people to be a more creative form
of therapy like art therapy.

Controls for many disorders


A big point about the use of chess therapy is that it may be used to help with opening up a
persons mind by being allowed to discuss difficult problems in ones life. It may also be
used as an outlet for allowing for some discussion that relates to getting different kinds of
behaviors arranged to where one can be a little more positive and supportive. This means
that there is a potential for chess therapy to work with mood disorders such as depression.

Notable for aggression


Some mental disorders may involve cases that relate to aggressive behaviors. These may
include conditions like bipolar disorder. Chess therapy may be used as an outlet for a
person to handle ones impulses in a way that is positive and constructive without
creating any hostile attitudes towards anything. This may also work to create a sense of
control over a persons feelings. This can be used to help with giving a person the ability
to control ones feelings to where it can be adjusted to a game setting instead of

136
something that might work in real life. It is used to help treat all people in a case to where
everyone will feel more comfortable with each other.
Source:- http://www.depression-guide.com/therapy/chess-therapy.htm

A Possible Approach Which Could Be Taken By The School


Doctor or Family Doctor, With One Day Set Aside Each
Week For This Type Of Joint Consultation.

The family physician and the psychologist in the office


together: a response to fragmentation
Luigi Solano, Enzo Pirrotta, Veronica Ingravalle, and Paolo Fayella

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Introduction and aims


Both doctors and healthcare officials are well aware that motives for consulting the
family physician, though expressed as physical symptoms, often derive from problems
that are not somatic in origin. This topic was extensively addressed in Balint's pioneering
work,1 and confirmed by several additional investigations.2,3 In the absence of a capacity
on the part of the physician to meet this request on a non-somatic level, symptoms may
persist or worsen, with repeated consultations and increased expenditure for the patient or
the national health services, where present.4,5 Such situations have, in fact, been shown to
lead to a utilisation of health services that is nine times greater than that of the general
population.6 In order to address this problem, we experimented with a form of
physician/psychologist co-operation through the joint presence of these two professionals
in the office. This proposal stems from the following considerations:

(a) Differentiation between medicine and psychology and consequent need


for integration
Progressive differentiation has taken place throughout the past century and is actively
continuing. Medicine (apart from individual exceptions) has departed from a holistic
consideration of the human being, which was one of its prominent features before the
second half of the 19th century, and has become increasingly concentrated on biological
and genetic factors affecting health and disease. This focused approach has brought
enormous, previously unthinkable, benefits in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of
disease in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, but has entailed disregard of
emotional and relational factors. This latter attitude, in spite of common statements to the
contrary, is far from subsiding, reinforced by such constructs as evidence-based medicine
and universal diagnosis and treatment protocols.

137
Psychology, on the other hand, as synthesised in Engel's notion of a biopsychosocial
model,7 tends to view health and pathology (both mental and physical) as linked to: (i)
the relationship between the individual and his/her past and present social environment,
as exemplified for instance in the psychobiological regulation model;8 (ii) the relationship
between the individual and the specific moment in his/her lifecycle; and (iii) specific
resources of the individual, such as coping styles, or the capacity to identify, process and
regulate emotions.9 Psychologists are generally mindful of Balint's legacy, where every
disease is defined as a co-construction between patient and physician;1 conversely, they
lack the competence to fully understand the pathophysiology of physical disease and its
possible biological determinants, and may tend to disregard these components.
This strong differentiation therefore calls for a corresponding effort at integration, which
should not be left as a burden to the patient alone, subjecting him/her to such widely
different types of input.
One possibility is the training of family physicians in a more comprehensive,
biopsychosocial approach to patients, as originally proposed by Balint. (As extensively
reported in his well-known volume, The Doctor, his Patient and the Illness,1 Balint
proposed weekly meetings of groups of family physicians with a mental health expert
(Balint groups), for some years, in which cases with more obvious psychosocial
implications were to be discussed.) This appears much more difficult today than in
Balint's time, firstly due to the very differentiation we are considering. A recent survey
among family physicians in an Italian city showed that, while the need for a psychosocial
approach was widely recognised among doctors, they tended to consider themselves
barely suited for this, for reasons related to: (i) time limitations; (ii) the possible presence
of conflictual dynamics around drug compliance and certification of absence from work,
which might hinder interaction on other levels; (iii) reluctance of the patient to enter into
a dialogue with the physician on a more personal level, in view of his established role in
physical examination and drug prescription; and (iv) insufficient training on the
physician's part.10 We might add that specific training in psychology for physicians may
also be more difficult today, in view of the remarkable increase in the amount of strictly
biomedical material a doctor needs to know. (Training physicians to recognise and treat
pharmacologically moderate states of mental distress, such as minor depression, is of
course perfectly feasible, and is being done worldwide. We believe this has nothing to do
with the challenge we are addressing here that is, achievement of the capacity to locate
every kind of complaint brought to the family physician within the patient's life context.)
The other road to integration is co-operation between the physician and the psychologist.
A range of levels of collaboration is widely discussed in the literature, including informal
consultation, formal consultation, joint sessions (the latter recommended for
somatisation disorders, seen as difficult to refer11), co-provision of care (involving
frequent discussions of cases between physician and psychologist) and co-
therapy.12 This last situation is recommended when co-morbidity of biological and
psychological distress is present.13Tovian recommends, in all cases, meetings between
physicians and psychologists to discuss referrals.14 A training model at Massachussets
Medical School, explicitly designed to promote collaboration between psychologists and
physicians,15 entails a large number of dual interviews with patients at various points in
clinicians' training. The East Virginia Medical School also implemented joint training of

138
physicians and psychologists, involving co-ordinated treatment of a large number of
patients, under the supervision of senior psychologists and physicians.16
Though all these proposals appear reasonable and useful and meet some needs, they leave
open two kinds of problems:
1. in spite of commonly alleged adherence to the biopsychosocial model, the sharp
distinction between somatic disease under the rubric of the physician's
competence and psychic distress under the psychologist's appears not to
have abated much. We still find reference to somatisation disorders,12presumably
as opposed to (true) somatic ones, and to co-morbidity 13 as an indication for
co-operation, as if the presence of somatic disease per se had nothing to do with a
psychologist's intervention
2. in most proposals, probably in all, the decision to request co-operation
(consultation, referral, joint sessions, etc) rests on the decision of the physician,
who judges a patient one who requested consultation with him/her as in need
of a psychologist's competence. In order to be effective and optimally useful, this
would require deep knowledge and understanding on the physician's part of
psychological theories, modalities and possibilities. Strong differentiation
between the two disciplines, as described above, makes this seldom the case.

Referral to psychologists on the part of physicians mainly takes place, in fact, when
explicit mental distress is present, or when problems arise in the doctor/patient
relationship (as in lack of adherence to treatments), or in diseases for which medicine is
partially or totally impotent in helping the patient, where psychological intervention is
seen as a synonym for humanitarian assistance.17 Very seldom is psychological
intervention requested in the initial phases of physical illness, where its beneficial effect
could be much greater, or as an adjuvant to effective medical treatment when this is
available, in spite of the literature showing the heightened effects of combined
treatments.1820
Furthermore, the physician's tendency to recognise only explicit mental distress often
causes neglect of the best-known psychic risk factor for somatic disease or illness that
is, a deficit in the identification and expression of emotions, as described in the construct
of alexithymia or affective dysregu-lation.9 This condition generally results in a
colourless, boring, hypernormal style of communication, totally opposite to the style
commonly present in mental distress as commonly viewed. For this reason, those very
patients who tend to express their life problems through the body, more so than others,
are those less likely to be referred to a psychologist.21
Physicians and psychologists also have very different views surrounding psychological
referral. Doctors in general tend to view referral to a psychologist as similar to referral to
a medical consultant, that is, a decision based on a need of the patient, for which
something can be prescribed. Psychologists, on the contrary, are well aware of the
importance of a personal request (or acceptance) on the patient's part, in addition to the
presence of a need that is (albeit correctly) seen by someone else; they are well aware that
psychological consultation cannot be prescribed, but must be negotiated and
accepted, since the patient is required to do much more than in cardiologic consultation,

139
for example. Referral, therefore, even in appropriate situations, may be not appropriately
proposed to the patient.

(b) The social position of psychology (at least in some countries)


While physical disease is seen as inevitable for everyone, sooner or later to the point
that, in European countries, every citizen from birth is assigned a physician psychic
distress is seen as pertaining only to a certain subset of people, who are to be treated
(more or less benevolently, according to the historical period) in specific services,
following a specific request on the part of the patient or of someone else. Moreover, due
to the difficulty of objectively defining psychic distress (except in cases causing security
problems), an individual is socially defined as distressed essentially when a consultation
with a mental health specialist has taken place.
Given all the above, in spite of any official or individual statement to the contrary, a
heavy stigma is attached to people requesting this kind of consultation. The effect is that a
psychologist (let alone a psychiatrist) is often consulted as a last resort, only after
everything else has failed, when problems have become inveterate, entrenched in
interpersonal or work situations, and thus require long, intensive treatments, the results of
which are not always as positive as might have been the case with earlier intervention.
The introduction of a family psychologist or a first-level psychologist, working jointly
in the same office with a family physician not requiring, therefore, any specific request
on the patient's part may thus offer the following possibilities:
intervention in an initial phase of distress, before the structuring of severe and/or
chronic somatic diseases or psychic disorders
direct access to a psychologist for the whole population, avoiding the filter of
medical referral which, as described above, is not always appropriate and
without the risk (or certainty) of the patient's being stigmatised as mentally ill
an approach to symptoms of any kind taking into consideration, in addition to the
patient's biological condition, his/her relational, intrapsychic, and lifecycle
situation
in a few, specific cases, correct referral to a mental health specialist
an integration of the competency areas of the physician and the psychologist
a reduction of costs for tests, consultation of specialists, and drug treatments, to
the extent that these derive from an effort to find a solution to problems that lies
exclusively within a biological model.

For further clarity, the main aim is not to implement first-level psychiatry for patients
with patent mental distress, but to explore the meaning of every complaint brought by
patients, be it in the physical or mental sphere, in the context of the individual's past or
present relational and lifecycle situation.

Methods
In the last nine years, nine qualified psychologists attending the Postgraduate School in
Health Psychology of the University of Rome have guaranteed their presence, one day a

140
week for three years, in the office of a family physician in Rome or in an adjacent town.
A poster in the waiting room informs patients of the initiative and of the possibility of
consulting only with the physician if they so prefer. Clinical cases and the functioning of
the initiative are discussed in group meetings, which are attended by all psychologists
involved and open to physicians, who also occasionally join the meetings and are co-
ordinated by a teacher of the school (the senior author).
Intervention on the psychologist's part is implemented through the following means:
assessment of requests and of the doctor/patient relationship for every patient
coming to consultation
discussion with the physician of cases observed
further exploration/clarification with the patient in the context of ordinary medical
consultation in some limited and selected cases, further exploration through
separate interviews with the psychologist (ordinarily one to five in number) in
some of these latter cases, referral to mental health specialists.

Overview of the initiative


The first experience, entailing three years of cooperation of a family physician in Orvieto,
Giovanni Iacarella, and resident psychologist Monica Tomassoni, was reported in a
paper,22 and in a volume.23
Results of the present study may be summarised as follows:
the joint presence of a family physician and a psychologist appeared feasible and
helpful, from all points of view
integration of the psychologist in a physician's office, however, took several
months, necessary primarily to reach a sufficient level of attunement and
understanding between the two professionals
most patients showed and/or directly expressed appreciation for the initiative
in the whole experience, in only four cases did a patient request consultation with
the physician only
the number of separate interviews with the psychologist was very small (six cases
a year, on average, for each psychologist)
the number of referrals to mental health specialists was negligible (about two
cases per year for each office)
the latter two points show that, at least in the theoretical/clinical view we adopted,
there is no risk of psychiatrisation of the population, or of an increased burden
for mental health services
on the other hand, in the course of three years of experience, each psychologist
met with about 700 patients, one-half of the physician's clients (which were about
1500 in all for each physician). This is a measure of the large extent to which the
general patient population had access to a psychologist through this experience, in
spite of the low frequency of the psychologist's presence (once a week). A higher
frequency was not feasible since participation in the experiment on the
psychologists' part was voluntary and unpaid. We believe that a psychologist's
presence twice a week, during one morning and one afternoon, would be the

141
optimal frequency with which to reach a higher proportion of patients, without
making encounters with the psychologist more or less unavoidable, short of
explicit refusal. Freedom for the patient to choose to meet with the psychologist
or not by simply scheduling his/her appointment on a particular day of the week,
without the need to take full, official responsibility for a request or refusal in
advance, appeared to be one of the strong points of the initiative, though an
unplanned one.

Clinical notations and case report


Both physician and psychologist were initially quite worried about what each should do
to avoid conflict or overlapping; they wondered how they should introduce this new
figure to patients and define his/her role in a place where, for many years, only one
person had been present. Most, possibly all, the professionals involved in the initiative
soon discovered that, if on one hand some negotiation was certainly necessary between
physician and psychologist, on the other, the relationship with patients in most instances
was not in the least jeopardised, and very often it was enriched.
On several occasions, it was apparent that the simple presence of the psychologist in the
office encouraged patients to tell the story of their ailments, even when they were from
long ago, in a different way, with the addition of new elements due not only to the new
figure's different professional role, but also to the presence of a third in the
doctor/patient relationship. Lack of previous acquaintance with patients on the
psychologist's part often led the physician to formulate more specific questions for the
patient and to reconstruct past history in a more careful way. Patients, for their part, felt
more entitled to sit down and talk about things they previously had not thought could find
space in a physician's office.
After an initial period in which a tendency to implement the old referral model emerged,
separate consultation with the psychologist came to be the result of mutual, well-
motivated agreement between the two professionals. It came to be proposed in a very
natural way, when both a need and a readiness on the patient's part for deeper
understanding of his/her life situation became apparent to both professionals. As reported
above, however, most of the work was performed jointly.
We shall now present a case, recently seen jointly by a physician and psychologist who
participated to this experiment (see Box 1).
Box 1Case report
Dino is a 41-year old man, tall, neat and of juvenile appearance. He comes to the office
complaining of episodes of intense dizziness, appearing a few months ago. Vomiting,
nausea and tachycardia are absent (making an organic lesion highly improbable). He is
very disturbed by the ensuing reduction in his work capacity. Though he admits that these
symptoms are associated with more stressful periods, this connection is put aside in
favour of a forceful request to find an organic cause through a computerised tomography
(CT) scan or some other sophisticated brain-imaging technique. At the same time, he is
very frightened at the idea of discovering some dangerous health problem.

142
Physician and psychologist enquire together more carefully about the circumstances of
this dizziness. It takes place only in specific situations: at work, especially during
meetings, and at the gym.
Blood parameters, recently measured, are all normal; perfect! says the physician. This
gives little relief to Dino, who wonders in a more anxious tone what is wrong with me,
then?. The doctor performs a physical examination, finding no neurological implication;
he excludes the usefulness of a CT scan; he tells the patient that dizziness is commonly
associated with highly stressful situations and, in agreement with the psychologist,
proposes a separate meeting with the latter to elucidate what stressful situations may be
present in his life.
In this encounter, very significant details of Dino's life quickly emerge. He is an engineer
and has a high-level job, but still lives with his mother, who is 84 and suffering from
diabetes and renal insufficiency. A caretaker is also present in the house. His father died
when Dino was 22. He is the youngest of four brothers; the other three are all married and
living on their own, including one who was disabled following an accident and who lived
with him and mother until two years ago. When this brother left home his mother's
diabetes worsened greatly.
Dino is single; a few months ago he broke up with his girlfriend of 12 years. His days
consist mainly of work, gym and mother. He rarely goes out. He does not particularly like
the gym, but says he attends it three times a week, in addition to following a diet, in order
to avoid the possible onset of diabetes that he could inherit from his mother.
The psychologist suggests that physical symptoms are often signals our body gives us, in
relation to life situations; that rather than following the urge to suppress symptoms as
disturbing, the two of them could work together in trying to figure out what these signals
might be about. Dino appears surprised but interested and says he will consider the idea.
A few days later, on a day when the psychologist is absent, Dino shows up at the office,
officially only to ask for some prescriptions for his mother. Marginally, though, he tells
the physician he found meeting the psychologist quite helpful and asks how he can meet
with her again. The doctor tells him to phone on the day she is present.
For some weeks there is no further word from Dino. One day the doctor goes to Dino's
house (while Dino is at work) for a home visit to the mother, who is also his patient.
What have you two done to my son? cries the mother. Since he broke up with his
girlfriend he was always at home, but now he is going out every night!
This case is highly illustrative of the meaning and usefulness of our initiative. A patient
comes to a physician's office complaining of a physical symptom that the doctor assumes
to be functional; the patient is worried about his health, anxious to find a cause, and
requesting sophisticated investigations. In some such cases, physicians collude with this
request (or are the first to propose it). The patient enters the unfortunate pathway well
described by Balint:1 most often, in spite of the number and quality of tests (nowadays
much more numerous and sophisticated that in Balint's time), nothing is found. The
patient becomes progressively more resentful and embittered at the powerlessness of
medicine in failing to find what is wrong with him; in his peregrinations, he may start to

143
get the feeling of being considered a malingerer, someone who is looking for excuses to
avoid work, or a psychiatric case. Or maybe something will be identified that will
eventually result in a casual finding, unrelated to his symptoms, but leading to further,
more invasive investigations, leaving the patient with the impression of having
something wrong. Quite often, after a period of time, new symptoms develop.
The physician in our case, possibly supported by the presence of the psychologist, was
very firm in avoiding this pathway. (Another physician participating in the initiative in
the past expressed this point very clearly: When I was alone, and a patient came to me
with symptoms that I could not think of a cause for, I would often request a CT scan,
perhaps just to break the impasse; now that I know there is another possibility of finding
out what's wrong, I can afford to wait.) Still, Dino would probably not have been fully
satisfied with learning only that his symptoms were commonly associated with stressful
situations.
Meeting with the psychologist led to rapid unfolding of the stressful situation we were
dealing with: Dino, the youngest child in the family, as often happens, was probably
destined by the family system at least since his father's premature death if not before
to take care of his mother for life. We can suppose that breaking up with his girlfriend
may have been connected with his reluctance, due to this ordeal, to be fully involved in
the relationship (marriage, children, and the like). Dino's struggle against the risk of
inheriting diabetes from his mother may be seen as a struggle against this chain of
obligations.
We cannot know how much of all this, foreshadowed in Dino's narrative, reaches the
patient's full awareness. At this point, however, Dino is quite ready to accept the idea that
his physical symptoms are a signal his body is sending to him; and, without further
meetings, he probably realises that the signal has to do with the danger of his ending up
in a life composed only of obligations (work and the gym) and no personal achievements.
He therefore plunges into a different life, astonishing his mother.
Time will tell us the end of the story. One advantage of working in a family physician's
office is that one usually doesn't lose track of patients, as ordinarily happens in
psychological practice. What we can definitely say is that giving meaning to Dino's
dizziness has allowed him to avoid entering a pathway of physical examinations that
would have brought nothing helpful to him, as described above, and would have caused a
useless drain on the health services.

Possible limitations of this study


It could be objected that the presence of the psychologist on a certain day of the week
could lead to selection of some patients rather than others, resulting in a bias in the
results. However, all physicians in the study agreed that they had never noticed major
differences in types of consultations or patients according to the day of the week. On the
other hand, a major difference was present in that the working population seldom asked
for consultations in the morning; for this reason, the psychologist's presence was
scheduled for afternoons, whenever possible, in order to access the broadest patient
population. By contrast, a strong, unavoidable bias but also an asset, as described above

144
comes from the patients' opportunity to choose either to meet with, or to decline
meeting with, the psychologist through their choice of the day of consultation.
Another question that can be raised is the possible usefulness of this initiative in countries
other than Italy. While medical training and the doctor/patient relationship, with their
corollary of mutual expectations, do not appear to be very different among Western
countries, there might be differences in attitudes towards consultations with
psychologists. Since, as outlined above, suspicion and fear of stigma with respect to
meeting with a psychologist appear to be very high in this country, the initiative may be
even more feasible in countries where these obstacles are less present, though possibly
not so needed, since people might more easily find access to psychologists through other
routes.
Our cross-cultural knowledge is not sufficient for us to discuss the possible application of
the model in non-Western countries. A relatively small number of immigrants from
Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America (present in Italy in increasing numbers) came
into contact with the initiative and did not respond differently than did the local
population.

Conclusions and future perspectives


In our study, joint consultation with a family physician and a psychologist appeared
feasible and effective in affording the possibility to explore and more fully clarify the
meaning of physical symptoms or other kinds of problems brought to the physician's
attention. The mere presence of a psychologist in the office, accepted and arranged by the
physician himself, powerfully changed patients' attitudes about what topics they were
allowed and expected to bring up. Direct access to a first-level psychologist, in the
absence of any filter and without the need for a formal, specific request on the patient's
part, also appeared as one of the main assets of this initiative.
Integration of medical and psychological knowledge about the cases observed allowed a
holistic approach. Working together for a number of years enriched each professional's
competence to an extent which, we believe, may be difficult to obtain with any kind of
formal training. Physicians could deepen their knowledge about the impact of relational
and emotional dynamics on health and disease; psychologists not only learned a lot about
the organic aspects of the human being, but they also had the occasion to witness the very
birth of conflicts and other life problems, and to experience the effectiveness of their
intervention in these instances; moreover, they had the opportunity to become acquainted
with and involved in a number of life situations that would be unthinkable in any other
kind of psychological practice.
A 31% reduction in drug expenses pertaining to patients attending one office, in
comparison to the preceding years, confirmed our intuition that health costs might be
reduced by implementing this initiative. Further investigations, therefore, will involve
measurement of differences in health costs (not only those related to drugs) before and
after the psychologist's arrival in each physician's office.

145
We are also planning to measure differences in wellbeing24 and affective
regulation9 between patients having access to a psychologist in their family physician's
office and patients who utilise common assistance.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Physicians involved in the initiative were: Giovanni Iacarella, Quintilia Rosati, Sandro
Scattoni (Orvieto); Andreina Boschi, Maria Luisa Pandolfi, Enzo Pirrotta (Rome); and
Adriano Cappelloni (Rieti). Psychologists were: Monica Tomassoni, Salvatore Davide
Mundanu, Antonia Palmisano, Simona Balistreri, Paolo Fayella, Daniela Lucignolo,
Barbara Coci, Lucia Chiancone, Veronica Ingravalle and Alessandra Marchina.
We thank Gina Atkinson, MA, for her careful and thoughtful linguistic revision of this
paper.

Contributor Information
Luigi Solano,
Enzo Pirrotta,
Veronica Ingravalle,
Paolo Fayella,

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Just Perhaps The Guidance Councillor Or The Dean Of Discipline Could Be Taught
To Play Chess & And Coach Given Classes

Chess helps children with learning disorders


Divya Chandrababu| TNN | Nov 4, 2013, 01.42 PM IST
CHENNAI: Chess is not just a title clash between Anand and Carlsen, or merely a battle
of wits. The popular game can actually help children with learning disorders. "It's the art
of the coach to use chess as a tool either to silence or stimulate a particular part of the
brain", says Ebenezer Joseph, FIDE trainer and chief consultant of Emmanuel Chess
Centre. Ebenezer, the first Indian to be certified as a chess trainer by the World Chess

147
Federation, says children who play chess have shown 100% improvement in academic
performances.

Therapists and psychologists often refer children with learning disabilities and attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to chess training. For example, 12- year-old Vijay
was diagnosed with ADHD in 2009. His parents complained that he did not concentrate
in class or cooperate with his teachers. Dr Khursheed Begaum, a psychologist who
specializes with ADHD kids, says she suggested only chess training and no psychological
therapy for him. "Initially he was not interested, he played impulsively. He slowly started
processing and his attention deficiency reduced. He has overcome ADHD now and sits in
one place for half an hour. ADHD kids usually cannot sit for more than 3 minutes
continuously", she said. Vijay even went on to play the National age group chess
championship in 2011.

Psychologists also assert that after a year of playing chess consistently, children have
shown an increase in their IQ levels. "Chess looks at the intellectual capability and not
academics. So even children with learning disorders have shown an improvement in their
cognitive skills", says Dr Veena Doss, head, department of psychology, Women's
Christian College. She explains the case of 8-year-old, Ashish who exhibited disruptive
behaviour, and gave up in the middle of tasks. "A year after playing chess he had the
ability to focus and did not get mentally tired of tasks", she says.

Swapna Raman, a parent of two girls who have been playing chess for almost three years
says that there is drastic improvement in both of them. "My elder daughter, Sumanna, 11
couldn't concentrate for more than five minutes and her teachers also frequently
complained. After she started training in chess, her concentration improved, and she
scored really well in mathematics. My younger daughter Sowmya, 7, had memory
problems. I don't find her saying she doesn't remember things anymore. Her IQ has also
gone up from normal to very superior in two years", she says. Swapna is now an
accredited chess trainer and works to improve cognition in children with disorders. "My
daughters always win an argument with me now and all explanations to them have to be
logical", she adds.

Chess trainers can handle kids with mild disorders, but a therapist is required in the case
of children with severe disorders. "I've used chess as therapy even for mentally retarded
children who have very low cognitive scores," says Sharon Dominica, occupational
therapist. Cognition that requires both basic and high level skills is found in chess. The
game has helped children with visual perception disorders and those who cannot

148
recognize letters and numbers. "The basic skills required for reading, writing and playing
chess are the same, so the game has an impact even when it is not directly linked," says
Dominica. "Research has shown chess training resulting in high math scores and
improved reading," she adds.

Practical chess training is different from the training that children with special needs
undergo. "You come to know the child has some disability when they don't even learn the
moves, only a handful stay back in chess" says Manuel Aaron, India's first international
master. The concept of chess and the setting in which it is played, helps children with
social and communication disorders, say experts. The Newman international academy in
Texas, "uses chess as a therapy for all people and age groups including those with special
needs", says their founder Sheeba George. Chess is also used to rehabilitate patients who
suffer from spinal cord injury, says Dominica. "Chess classes are therapeutic for children
with problems and the beauty of it is that neither the child nor the society knows that it's
therapy," she says.

(Names of the children have been changed to protect their identity)


Source:- http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/Chess-helps-children-with-
learning-disorders/articleshow/25211133.cms

149
Is This Beyond The Ablities Of Cumberland High School?
Chess & Dance !

In Practice

The Benefit of Movement: Dance/Movement Therapy and Down


Syndrome
Chloe M. Albin , BA
Pages 58-61 | Published online: 13 Jun 2016

There are various forms of therapies for children with disabilities, including physical
therapy, speech therapy, and alternative therapies such as music and dance therapy. Each
form of therapy has its benefits for those with disabilities, but ultimately the success of
the therapy rests on the attention paid to the individual. Especially for children with
disabilities, it is important for the therapist and educator to pay attention to the details and
intricacies of the childs life to formulate the best approach to therapy and inclusive
movement in the classroom. Many factors need to be considered when determining the
best form of therapy for an individual. Movement-based therapy is an effective form of
therapy, primarily due to its sensorimotor integration. For children with Down syndrome,
movement-based therapy is beneficial; benefits range from strengthening the mindbody
connection to the improvement of development, health, and cognitive skills.

150
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects 1 in every 730 babies born in the United
States each year and affects more than 400,000 people in total nationwide
(Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and quality of life for individuals with
Down syndrome: An overview of dance as physical therapy. Logos: A Journal of
Undergraduate Research 4:3748. [Google Scholar]). It is the most common condition
concerning abnormal chromosomes; an extra 21st chromosome is present in those with
Down syndrome (Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and quality of life for
individuals with Down syndrome: An overview of dance as physical therapy. Logos: A
Journal of Undergraduate Research 4:3748. [Google Scholar]).

This disorder heavily influences the motor development of a child. Individuals with
Down syndrome often have thyroid and respiratory problems and are at risk for early
onset of Alzheimers disease (Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and
quality of life for individuals with Down syndrome: An overview of dance as physical
therapy. Logos: A Journal of Undergraduate Research 4:3748. [Google Scholar]).
Effects of developmental delays include muscle hypotonia, poor balance, inadequate
control of posture, and underdeveloped posture control (Esposito et al. 2012Esposito, P.
E., M. MacDonald, J. E. Hornyak, and D. A. Ulrich. 2012. Physical activity patterns of
youth with Down syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities50(2):10919.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]).

These common physical traits of those with Down syndrome can have detrimental effects
on posture and mobility; affected children might walk with knees in a locked position and
turned-out legs, which distributes weight abnormally on the medial sides of the foot
(Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and quality of life for individuals with
Down syndrome:

An overview of dance as physical therapy. Logos: A Journal of Undergraduate


Research 4:3748. [Google Scholar]). This, in turn, can cause further problems in this
kinematic chain including the presence of a tilted pelvis in a sitting position, a rounded
back, and a head that is slightly tilted back (Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement
patterns and quality of life for individuals with Down syndrome: An overview of dance as
physical therapy. Logos: A Journal of Undergraduate Research 4:3748. [Google
Scholar]).

In addition to these physical developmental delays, cognitive delays are also common
such as the ability to learn new concepts, skills, and activities (Esposito et
al. 2012Esposito, P. E., M. MacDonald, J. E. Hornyak, and D. A. Ulrich. 2012. Physical
activity patterns of youth with Down syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental
Disabilities50(2):10919.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]).
A child with Down syndrome might have similar developmental milestones compared to
a child with typical development, but these milestones are delayed.

151
There are many benefits of physical activity for children such as improved health,
prevention of chronic disease, increase in self-esteem, and opportunities for social
interaction (Barr and Shields 2011Barr, M., and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers
and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down
syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research55:102033.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]).

Due to developmental delays, those with Down syndrome might be less likely to be
physically active because there is a lack of programs with accommodations for their
developmental differences (Esposito et al. 2012Esposito, P. E., M. MacDonald, J.
E. Hornyak, and D. A. Ulrich. 2012. Physical activity patterns of youth with Down
syndrome. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities50(2):10919.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]). Physical activity is an
important part of development; current research suggests that using movement as an
intervention for children with Down syndrome can support the development of not only
their quality of movement but also the relationship it has to social development,
emotional development, cognitive development, and inclusion (Gass et al. 2013Gass, K.
R., J. R. Kennedy, S. Hastie, and H. M. Wentworth. 2013. Somatic assessment of
nonverbal social skills in children with Down syndrome: Using the Kestenberg
Movement Profile as a tool for treatment planning. Body, Movement and Dance in
Psychotherapy: An International Journal for Theory, Research and Practice 8(1):17
33. [Google Scholar], 1733).

Children with Down syndrome who are not physically active could experience an
increase in the severity of their existing health conditions, such as hypotonia, cardiac
abnormalities, and hypothyroidism (Barr and Shields 2011Barr, M.,
and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to participation in physical
activity for children with Down syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability
Research55:102033.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]).
They are at risk for cardiovascular disease and obesity if exercise is not incorporated into
their life (Shields, Dodd, and Abblitt 2009Shields, N., K. J. Dodd, and C. Abblitt. 2009.

Do children with Down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good
health? A pilot study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly26(4):30720.[PubMed], [Web
of Science ], [Google Scholar]). In recent years, approximately 45 percent of males and
56 percent of females with Down syndrome have been found to be overweight (Shields,
Dodd, and Abblitt 2009Shields, N., K. J. Dodd, and C. Abblitt. 2009. Do children with
Down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good health? A pilot
study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly26(4):30720.[PubMed], [Web of Science
], [Google Scholar]); based on statistics alone, it is obvious that children with Down
syndrome must be shown how to live a healthy life as children, so that they will be more
likely to live a healthy lifestyle as adults (Shields, Dodd, and Abblitt 2009Shields, N., K.
J. Dodd, and C. Abblitt. 2009.

Do children with Down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to maintain good
health? A pilot study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly26(4):30720.[PubMed], [Web
of Science ], [Google Scholar]). Early intervention also helps to combat childhood

152
obesity; if children are obese, then they are less likely to be physically active as
adolescents and adults (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education for the person
with Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down Syndrome Research and
Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]).

It is important that different forms of therapies for children with Down syndrome offer
opportunities for activity as this is a critical aspect of development. Early intervention is
ideal as this helps the individual maintain functionality with age, including intellectual
functioning as well as physical skills, such as jumping, walking, and balance (Barr and
Shields 2011Barr, M., and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to
participation in physical activity for children with Down syndrome. Journal of
Intellectual Disability Research55:102033.[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science
], [Google Scholar]). The barriers of developmental delays must be addressed, and
specialized movement programs for individuals with Down syndrome should be more
abundant and accessible.

Research has revealed that those with physical or intellectual


impairments may have reduced opportunities for social interaction and
stimulation partly because they are identified as non-communicators
Williams 2008Williams, C. 2008.

Creative engagement in interactive immersive environments. Digital


Creativity 19(3):20311.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science
], [Google Scholar]). Children with Down syndrome are at a
disadvantage because they might not be given the opportunity to
participate in activities based on their perceived physical abilities and
social skills.

Often, the reason these children do not participate in exercise is


because there are not appropriate programs for them (Barr and
Shields 2011Barr, M., and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers and
facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down
syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research55:102033.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]). Because
of this, these children might not acquire certain developmental skills or
have access to ideal life chances.

Certain skills should be incorporated in therapy and in any educational


setting for children with Down syndrome to nurture development such
as climbing, jumping, running, and balancing (Barr and
Shields 2011Barr, M., and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers and

153
facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with Down
syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research55:102033.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]). In addition
to these basic movement skills, concepts of body awareness and
spacial awareness can be included in therapy
(Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education for the person with
Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down Syndrome Research
and Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]). It is the dance
therapists and dance educators responsibility to offer inclusive
physical activity opportunities.

A successful physical therapy program is one that is as unique as the


individual. Dance/movement therapy is a malleable approach to
therapy; it can change depending on the needs of a specific person. It
is beneficial for children, but also adults, as methods used in
movement therapy can evolve with age. It is defined as a
psychotherapeutic use of movement to further the emotional,
cognitive, physical, and social integration of the individual (About
Dance/Movement Therapy 2015About Dance/Movement
Therapy. 2015. ADTA: American Dance Therapy
Association.http://www.adta.org/About_DMT(accessed April 19, 2015). ).

This type of therapy incorporates repetition that involves having the


person undergo certain environmental and social interactions to
enhance normal brain function (Couper 1981Couper, J. L. 1981. Effects
on motor performance of children with learning disabilities. Journal of
the American Physical Therapy Association 61(1):2326. [Google Scholar],
2326). Learning new skills and experiencing movement aids the
development of the mindbody connection; this sensorimotor
integration could improve motor skills, emotional processing, language
capabilities, and academic success (Couper 1981Couper, J.
L. 1981. Effects on motor performance of children with learning
disabilities. Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association 61(1):23
26. [Google Scholar]).

For dance to be an effective form of therapy, it must relate to other


areas of the childs life (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education

154
for the person with Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down
Syndrome Research and Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]). If
the concepts are not relatable, then the child might be less likely to
experience a connection to the therapy, and it might not be as
effective. The life skills that could be presented in a dance/movement
therapy setting are not readily available in other psychosocial
rehabilitation groups (Barton 2011Barton, E. J. 2011. Movement and
mindfulness:

A formative evaluation of a dance/movement and yoga therapy


program with participants experiencing severe mental illness. American
Journal of Dance Therapy 33(2):15781.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar],
157181), so it would be beneficial for children with Down syndrome
who might not be seeing results from other types of therapy.
Ultimately, combining therapies such as physical therapy and a more
creative, expressive therapy can be more beneficial than one approach
alone; combining the functionality of physical therapy and the creative
aspect of dance can stimulate and challenge Down syndrome
individuals physically and cognitively and can improve their memory
and increase physical fitness while allowing them to express their
emotions (Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and quality
of life for individuals with Down syndrome: An overview of dance as
physical therapy. Logos: A Journal of Undergraduate Research 4:37
48. [Google Scholar], 3748).

Many factors need to be considered when structuring a dance class for


children with Down syndrome. The structure should have both an
individual and group focus. When the parents and families of children
with Down syndrome participate in therapy, the child is more likely to
become engaged (Barr and Shields 2011Barr, M.,
and N. Shields. 2011. Identifying the barriers and facilitators to
participation in physical activity for children with Down
syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research55:102033.
[CrossRef], [PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]) because
they are the best role models for the child (Shields, Dodd, and
Abblitt 2009Shields, N., K. J. Dodd, and C. Abblitt. 2009.

155
Do children with Down syndrome perform sufficient physical activity to
maintain good health? A pilot study. Adapted Physical Activity
Quarterly26(4):30720.[PubMed], [Web of Science ], [Google Scholar]).
Children with Down syndrome are motivated by peers (Sharp, Dunford,
and Seddon 2012Sharp, N., C. Dunford, and L. Seddon. 2012. A critical
appraisal of how occupational therapists can enable participation in
adaptive physical activity for children and young people. British Journal
of Occupational Therapy 75:486.[CrossRef], [Web of Science ], [Google
Scholar]). The presence of others encourages autonomy and efficacy
(Sharp, Dunford, and Seddon 2012Sharp, N., C. Dunford,
and L. Seddon. 2012.

A critical appraisal of how occupational therapists can enable


participation in adaptive physical activity for children and young
people. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 75:486.[CrossRef], [Web
of Science ], [Google Scholar]), which children might be able to apply
to their life outside of therapy. An emphasis on the similarities of
students with learning disabilities to nondisabled students should
strengthen positive attitudes in a therapy setting (Theodorakis,
Bagiatis, and Goudas 1995Theodorakis, Y., K. Bagiatis,
and M. Goudas. 1995. Attitudes toward teaching individuals with
disabilities: Application of planned behavior theory. Adapted Physical
Activity Quarterly 12(2):15160.[Web of Science ], [Google Scholar],
151160). The incorporation of both disabled and nondisabled children
would prove to be beneficial for all children involved.

There are certain movement patterns that children with disabilities


benefit from that can positively affect their general movement outside
of therapy. Because most children with Down syndrome are inactive,
introducing simple movement into their lives is crucial to their
continued development. Children in movement-based therapies excel
in the therapy setting, but these results carry over to their lives in ways
such as decreased anxiety in social settings (Becker and
Dusing 2010Becker, E., and S. Dusing. 2010. Participation is possible: A
case report of integration into a community performing arts
program. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 26(4):27580.[Taylor &
Francis Online], [Google Scholar]), improved quality of life, increased

156
independence and confidence, improved communication skills (Jobling,
Virji-Babul, and Nichols 2006Jobling, A., N. Virji-Babul,
and D. Nichols. 2006. Children with Down syndrome: Discovering the
joy of movement. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation &
Dance77(6):3454.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]), and
improved retaining of information (Becker and Dusing 2010Becker, E.,
and S. Dusing. 2010. Participation is possible: A case report of
integration into a community performing arts program. Physiotherapy
Theory and Practice 26(4):27580.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google
Scholar]).

Pedestrian movement, such as running, jumping, skipping, throwing,


kicking, and catching, can improve motor skills, spatial awareness, and
visual-motor coordination skills (Block 1992Block, M. E. 1992. What is
appropriate physical education for students with profound disabilities?
Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly9(3):197213. [Google Scholar]). Also,
heel raises, relevs, should be incorporated in parallel and in a turned-
out position to strengthen the tibialis muscles, which will help to
stabilize the weak ankles commonly found in children with Down
syndrome (Clark 2010Clark, L. M. 2010. Movement patterns and quality
of life for individuals with Down syndrome: An overview of dance as
physical therapy. Logos: A Journal of Undergraduate Research 4:37
48. [Google Scholar]).

The approach to teaching movement should include breaking down a


skill into manageable parts (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical
education for the person with Down syndrome: More than playing
games? Down Syndrome Research and Practice 2:3135.
[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]) because these children have more of a
global visual processing style (Daunhauer and
Fidler 2011Daunhauer, L., and D. Fidler. 2011. The Down syndrome
behavioral phenotype: Implications for practice and research in
occupational therapy. Occupational Therapy in Health Care 25(1):725.
[Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]) and pay less attention to
details. It takes more time for a child with Down syndrome to complete
goal-directed movement than those without disabilities or those who
are nondisabled (Hodges et al. 1995Hodges, N. J., S.

157
J. Cunningham, J. Lyons, T. L. Kerr, and D. Elliott. 1995. Visual feedback
processing and goal-directed movement in adults with Down
syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 12 (2):17686. [Google
Scholar]).

Therefore, the therapist must teach the skill in individual parts until
there is a strong understanding, and only then can the skills be used
comprehensively (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education for
the person with Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down
Syndrome Research and Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]).
For the acquisition of these skills, it is important to focus on effort
rather than ability (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education for
the person with Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down
Syndrome Research and Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]).

This is important because a child must not focus on the concept of


success and failure as this could encourage negative thinking. Instead,
an individuals effort should be rewarded because this encourages
positive thinking and motivation to complete a task. In addition to
breaking a skill into manageable parts, repetition of the skill or
movement must be used in a creative way so that the child maintains
interest (Jobling 1994Jobling, A. 1994. Physical education for the person
with Down syndrome: More than playing games? Down Syndrome
Research and Practice 2:3135.[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]).
Improvisation and basic gestures should also be incorporated in a
dance therapy program (Capello 2008Capello, P.
P. 2008. Dance/movement therapy with children throughout the
world. American Journal of Dance Therapy30 (1):2436.
[CrossRef], [Google Scholar]).

As a whole, benefits from activity in groups might be stronger with


dance therapy compared to other forms of therapy
(Couper 1981Couper, J. L. 1981. Effects on motor performance of
children with learning disabilities. Journal of the American Physical
Therapy Association 61(1):2326. [Google Scholar]). Drawing from
information from other forms of therapy and research, a highly
effective educational program with a dance and movement emphasis

158
can be created. A broad focus must be used to guarantee that multiple
factors are considered when structuring a program based in
movement.

DISCUSSION

Although the approach described in this article is based on the exploration of dance in a
therapy setting, it is extremely malleable and can be used by the dance educator. Portions
of this approach can be taken and modified for whatever setting the educator is in,
whether it be a dance studio or a classroom. The format of the session would be as
follows: warm-up, concept, repetition of skills, improvisation, and cool-down. Repetition
and patterning of language and movement is important in the presentation of concepts
and skills. Healthy movement patterns and good habits come with repetition and
familiarity with concepts. It is extremely important to use repetition in therapy and use
repetition over several class periods. Short-term and long-term repetition are both
beneficial because they help to develop skills.

Concepts could include skipping, jumping, catching, throwing, body-half movement, or


core-distal movement. It is important to introduce simple concepts slowly and in a
broken-down form so that the children can best understand and apply them. If the central
concept is skipping, the educator could begin with walking exercises, then move on to
exercises involving jumping on two feet. Then, the educator could proceed to exercises
involving shifting weight while jumping from right foot to left foot. Finally, the educator
could introduce the concept of traveling. This progression introduces the key steps
involved in skipping and allows the children to build on each skill.

Each week, a new concept can be introduced. This way, by the end of the program, the
children will have accumulated new skills that they can apply to their daily life. Activities
can be set up in a station method where the child can experience the concept. Music,
rhythm, color, and other visuals should be incorporated to promote learning and maintain
the childs attention. Partnering activities can be used so that the child interacts with
others while still focusing on new concepts.

Pedestrian movements are a good focus because Labans ideas of movement can be
applied to actions such as walking, skipping, or jumping. Because children with Down
syndrome have gaps in their development or develop more slowly than other children, it
is important to develop these patterns as they are the foundation for all movement. Due to
physical limitations for children with Down syndrome, movements requiring neck
extensions and spinning should be avoided as well as spinning activities. Jumping
activities can be included as it has been observed that these children enjoy this type of
movement, but caution must be taken so that the children do not hurt themselves. To
ensure that the children maintain interest, variations can be applied to concepts that have
previously been introduced. These variations can include the use of levels and speed of
movement but they also can include the use of scarves, balls, and other props.

159
In regard to developing movement patterns, the movement approach connects the mind
and body, which is a connection that both therapists and educators working with Down
syndrome children need to focus on. In physical therapy, occupational therapy, adapted
physical education, or the classroom setting, all of these ideas can be applied. Based on
the similarity of the information gathered from professionals in the field, it is clear that
there is not one particular setting in which dance and movement are the most beneficial.
So long as the professional guiding the movement is consistent, the program will be
beneficial; consistency is the key to developing comfort and trust.

Ultimately, the environment must be a very positive one. It is important that the educator
and therapist remain positive because these children, like anyone else, are more
responsive to this demeanor. By creating a positive environment, a safe environment is
also formed. Vocabulary used by the professional is critical; language should be full of
words that encourage motivation and optimism. This can be done in simple ways such as
recognizing the strengths and successes of individual students. It is important to
acknowledge these things, no matter how small.

Another way to create a positive environment is to allow the children to help in the
decision making. Explaining and providing two options instead of one and allowing the
child to choose what he or she wants to do gives the child a deeper sense of involvement
in the content being presented. Setting goals for the child is important; both individual
goals and group goals should be set to encourage individuality and a sense of community.
These two ideas, individuality and community, will encourage each child to find his or
her sense of self through movement, but these ideas will also encourage the child to relate
to others. Setting realistic goals and offering small rewards for reaching these goals
encourages positive thinking. Rewards are not a form of bribery but instead a recognition
of work and progress. For example, a small reward could be as simple as a high-five, a
sticker, or allowing the child to choose the next activity.

CONCLUSION
Movement-based programs could alter the trend of sedentary lifestyles associated with
children with Down syndrome. Individuals would benefit in every aspect of their
development, which in turn would influence other areas of their lives. Certain barriers
associated with Down syndrome need to be taken into consideration such as physical,
social, and cognitive limitations. A combination of specific movement and cognitive
exercises will stimulate sensorimotor development, which is crucial. Accessibility should
be taken into consideration because families need to be educated and aware of existing
effective programs for their child.

The dance therapist and the dance educator can develop a reciprocal relationship to
maximize a childs individual growth. Each professional can share strategies and his or
her own experience working with a child or a specific group of children. The dance
therapist and educator might have slightly different views of the child, depending on the

160
environment in which they typically interact. Therefore, by collaborating with each other,
a more comprehensive view of the childs life and behaviors can be seen. Dance
educators can incorporate strategies such as class structure and recommended movements
into their lessons. Even if there are children with and without disabilities in a class
together, these movement lesson plans are beneficial for everybody. No matter what the
ability level, movement stimulates the sensorimotor connection in the body, which is
healthy for everyone.

Further research regarding the long-term effects of dance therapy on those with Down
syndrome should be conducted. This research focused on the benefits of movement for
children with Down syndrome; further research on the benefits of dance therapy for
adults with Down syndrome would reveal similarities and trends between these different
age groups. This research would also show if there are benefits in beginning movement
therapy and incorporating movement into the classroom at a young age compared to
starting movement therapy as an adult. Additional research could also include the
examination of specific exercises and their effects on children with Down syndrome.
Based on current research, there is an understanding of general movements that these
children benefit from. However, future research could reveal the benefits of movement
series structured specifically for children with Down syndrome. Future research could
also show effective ways in which movement can be incorporated into any classroom due
to its beneficial nature for children of any age and ability.

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src=recsys

A review of music and movement therapies for children with


autism: embodied interventions for multisystem
development
Sudha M. Srinivasan1,2 and Anjana N. Bhat1,2,3,*

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract

Introduction
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurological disorders characterized
by social communication impairments as well as the presence of stereotyped and
repetitive behaviors and interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Children
with ASDs demonstrate social impairments such as poor social and emotional reciprocity
or turn taking and reduced eye contact during social exchanges (Mundy and
Crowson, 1997; Dawson et al., 2004). Communication impairments in autism typically
involve the lack of or a delay in the acquisition of language, difficulties in initiating and
sustaining conversations with social partners, and the idiosyncratic use of language
(Tager-Flusberg, 1999).
In addition, the presence of repetitive and stereotypical behaviors is a hallmark of
autism; children with ASDs demonstrate repetitive manipulations of objects, stereotypical
behaviors such as flapping of hands, twisting of the body, and compulsive behaviors such
as inflexible adherence to fixed routines and rituals (Bodfish et al., 2000; Boyd et
al., 2012).

In addition to these core impairments, children with ASDs may demonstrate several
secondary impairments or comorbidities including significant behavioral and emotional
problems as well as perceptuo-motor impairments. Behavioral and emotional problems
include anxiety, aggression, depression, hyperactivity, temper tantrums, and/or self-
injurious behaviors (Bodfish et al., 2000; Lecavalier, 2006; Loh et al., 2007; Mazefsky et
al., 2012).
A growing body of evidence suggests that perceptuo-motor impairments are frequently
present in children with ASDs (Fournier et al., 2010; Bhat et al., 2011). Specifically,
children with autism have difficulty modulating sensory inputs (Baranek, 1999; Baranek
et al., 2005; Tomchek and Dunn, 2007) which may manifest as enhanced perception of
auditory and visual stimuli (Bonnel et al., 2003; Heaton, 2003; Gernsbacher et al., 2008).

165
Furthermore, they have significant and pervasive motor impairments such as problems
with dual and multi-limb coordination (Green et al., 2009; Fournier et al., 2010), postural
control (Minshew et al., 2004), gait (Vilensky et al., 1981; Hallett et al., 1993), as well as
imitation and praxis (Mostofsky et al., 2006; Dewey et al., 2007). Comorbidities in
perceptuo-motor performance could contribute to the social communication impairments
of ASDs. Specifically, limited movement exploration and motor clumsiness may lead to
missed opportunities to develop social connections with peers and caregivers (Leary and
Hill, 1996; Jansiewicz et al., 2006; Bhat et al., 2011). Taken together, ASDs are
multisystem disorders with both primary social communication impairments and
secondary perceptuo-motor and behavioral comorbidities.
The current standard of care for ASDs includes the use of Applied Behavioral Analysis
(ABA) (Lovaas, 1987), Picture Exchange Communication Systems (PECS) (Bondy and
Frost, 2003), Teaching and Education of Autistic and Related Communication
Handicapped Children (TEACHH) (Mesibov et al., 2004) as well as developmental, skill-
based approaches (Pierce and Schreibman, 1995; Kasari et al., 2008). ABA, PECS, and
TEACHH approaches recommend specific strategies for social interaction and
environmental structure to promote positive behaviors and communication in children
with ASDs (Lovaas, 1987; Bondy and Frost, 2003; Mesibov et al., 2004). The
developmental approaches promote specific early social communication skills such as
joint attention and imitation. While these approaches have significant evidence to support
their use, they are primarily used to promote social communication and academic skills
(Landa, 2007). Few approaches such as Sensory Integration therapy (Baranek, 2002) or
Floortime (Greenspan and Wieder, 1999) promote perceptuo-motor development;
however, there is limited evidence to support their use. Given the multisystem nature of
the impairments in ASDs, there is a clear need to develop multisystem interventions that
address their core social communication deficits as well as their perceptuo-motor and
behavioral comorbidities. In this review, we highlight the multisystem effects of music
therapies and how they might benefit children with ASDs.
Music-based therapies form about 12% of all autism interventions and 45% of all
alternate treatment strategies used within school settings (Simpson et al., 2005; Hess et
al., 2008). However, our review of published and unpublished research evaluating the
efficacy of music therapies in autism revealed that the majority of the studies involved
single-subject designs or small sample sizes (see Table Table1).1). Moreover, these
studies involved a pre-post comparison of outcomes in the treatment group and did not
include a control group. The overall quality of studies was poor except for three
published randomized controlled trials (Lundqvist et al., 2009; Lim, 2010; Gattino et
al., 2011). The majority of the studies focused on addressing the communication
impairments in autism. Few studies used musical experiences to facilitate social-
emotional and behavioral outcomes in ASDs (see Table Table11 for details). Interestingly,
the effects of music therapy on motor performance and motor stereotypies have never
been examined. Given the current state of the music therapy literature, it is difficult to
make definitive claims about the effects of music-based interventions in children with
ASDs, except for the significant treatment effects in improving communication. In this
review, we not only acknowledge the limitations of the music therapy literature, but also
provide additional sources of evidence from the fields of music education, neuroscience,

166
and special education to make a strong case for music and movement activities as
multisystem interventions for children with ASDs. We believe that the multisystem nature
of musical experiences warrants further systematic investigation as an effective treatment
strategy to address both the core impairments and comorbidities of individuals with
autism.

Table 1
Music therapies in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs).

Study Sample Age of Therapy Therapy Type of Type of music Intervention


size subjects duration frequency intervention used design
in years (number (number (Active/Passive (Live/Recorded (Individual/Grou
of days) of sessions ) ) p)
per week)

STUDIES ASSESSING COMMUNICATION OUTCOMES

Gattino et 24 6.712.2 16 1 Active Live Individual


al., 2011

Wan et 6 5.98.9 40 5 Active Live Individual


al., 2011

Lim, 2010 51 35 6 3 Passive Recorded Individual

Edgerton, 19 11 69 10 1 Active Live Individual


94

167
Study Sample Age of Therapy Therapy Type of Type of music Intervention
size subjects duration frequency intervention used design
in years (number (number (Active/Passive (Live/Recorded (Individual/Grou
of days) of sessions ) ) p)
per week)

Buday, 1995 10 4.49 8 4 Passive Recorded Individual

Lim and 22 35 3 6 Active Live Individual


Draper, 2011

Corbett et 11 37 38 7 Passive Recorded Individual


al., 2008

STUDIES ASSESSING SOCIAL OUTCOMES

Kim et 15 35 12 1 Active Live Individual


al., 2008

STUDIES ASSESSING EMOTIONAL OUTCOMES

Katagiri, 20 12 915 8 2 Active and Live and Individual


09 Passive Recorded

168
Study Sample Age of Therapy Therapy Type of Type of music Intervention
size subjects duration frequency intervention used design
in years (number (number (Active/Passive (Live/Recorded (Individual/Grou
of days) of sessions ) ) p)
per week)

Kim et 15 35 12 1 Active Live Individual


al., 2009

STUDIES ASSESSING BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES

Lundqvist et 20 2257 10 2 Passive Recorded Individual


al., 2009

Boso et 8 2338 52 1 Active Live Group


al., 2007

Carnahan et 6 611 40 5 Active Recorded Group


al., 2009a,b

Note: This table does not include case studies or unpublished theses and dissertations.

We propose that music-based interventions are effective treatment tools for individuals
with ASDs because they harness the musical strengths of this population while alleviating
their impairments. We are offering three different reasons that make music-based
interventions particularly attractive for individuals with ASDs. First, musical training
may help address the various core autism impairments in joint attention, social
reciprocity, and non-verbal and verbal communication, as well as comorbidities of
atypical multisensory perception, poor motor performance, and behavioral problems.
Second, children with ASDs find musical activities enjoyable, perhaps due to their

169
enhanced musical understanding (Heaton, 2003). Children with autism have enhanced
pitch perception abilities compared to typically developing children, for instance,
enhanced pitch memory, labeling (Heaton, 2003), and discrimination (Bonnel et
al., 2003). Therefore, clinicians and special educators often use music-based activities in
school settings to engage children with ASDs (Hess et al., 2008). Third, music-based
activities can be non-intimidating experiences wherein a child with ASD spontaneously
explores various musical instruments, with the trainer joining in and copying the child's
actions. Children with ASDs have difficulties with direct social engagement; hence,
socially embedded group musical activities provide excellent opportunities to engage in
predictable and comfortable interactions with social partners (Darrow and
Armstrong, 1999; Allgood, 2003). In this review, we first provide evidence for the
multisystem effects of musical experiences in facilitating various skills in children with
autism, other neurological populations, and healthy individuals. Next, we discuss the
critical elements of music-based activities and the popular music therapy approaches used
in ASDs and other pediatric developmental disorders. Finally, based on the current
literature, we provide recommendations for clinicians and clinical researchers working
with children with autism including ideas for assessment and treatment.

Multisystem effects of musical experiences


In this section, we describe the supporting evidence for how embodied music therapies
promote communication, social-emotional, perceptuo-motor, and behavioral skills in
children with ASDs. In each sub-section, we will first explain the mechanism for positive
effects of musical experiences and the evidence supporting the use of embodied music
interventions in remediating the impairments in autism. Since the current research on
music-based therapies in autism is limited, we will also rely on evidence from healthy
individuals and pediatric populations with similar neurological impairments as autism.
Figure Figure11 shows the direct and indirect effects of musical experiences on the
perceptuo-motor, communication, social-emotional, and behavioral domains of
development. We will also offer recent neuroscientific evidence which suggests that
musical experiences may shape the nervous system in healthy individuals and discuss its
implications for individuals with ASDs.

Figure 1

170
Direct and indirect influences of musical experiences/therapies on the various
domains of development.

Effect of musical experiences on the development of language and


communication
Musical experiences involving singing, chanting, and playing of musical instruments
clearly require communication between individuals. Music and language are closely
related to each other in that both music and language are hierarchically arranged, with
lower-level units such as notes/keys or letters/syllables integrated to form higher-level
units such as chords/chord progressions or words/sentences (Molnar-Szakacs and
Overy, 2006).
Moreover, music and language are strikingly similar in the complexity of acoustic
information, the use of spatial notation such as musical notation and the alphabet (Kraus
and Chandrasekaran, 2010), as well as cognitive processes such as attention and memory
(Patel et al., 1998; Foxton et al., 2003). These similarities allow easy transfer of learning
between music and language (Tallal and Gaab, 2006). Children with ASDs have
significant communication impairments despite relatively preserved musical skills
(Bonnel et al., 2003; Heaton, 2003).
Hence, music therapies have been used to facilitate verbal and gestural communication
skills in children with ASDs (Edgerton, 1994; Buday, 1995; O'Loughlin, 2000;
Farmer, 2003; Gold et al., 2006; Lim, 2010; Tindell, 2010; Gattino et al., 2011; Lim and
Draper, 2011; Simpson and Keen, 2011; Wan et al., 2011) (see Table Table1).1). A recent
meta-analysis revealed that active music therapies involving singing and music-making

171
led to significant improvements in verbal communication skills and non-verbal, gestural
communication skills in children with ASDs (Gold et al., 2006). Effect sizes varied
between 0.4 and 0.5 based on two randomized control trials involving 20 participants in
the music therapy group compared to the control placebo therapy group (Buday, 1995;
Farmer, 2003; Gold et al., 2006). Overall, there is some evidence from the autism
literature supporting the links between music and language, thus justifying the use of
music therapies to enhance communication skills in autism.
Literature from music education suggests strong links between musical training and
enhanced communication skills in typically developing children and adults. Prolonged
music training not only enhances musical perception but also speech perception/receptive
language as well as expressive language (Butzlaff, 2000; Jakobson et al., 2003; Schlaug
et al., 2005; Magne et al., 2006; Forgeard, 2008; Kraus and Chandrasekaran, 2010).
Children and adults who received long-term musical training showed significant
advances in basic auditory perception of music as well as speech, particularly, pitch
perception (Schn et al., 2004; Marques et al., 2007; Moreno et al., 2009).
Adult musicians were better able to detect weak violations/incongruities in pitch within
both music and language compared to non-musicians (Schn et al., 2004). Moreover, the
ability to detect pitch violations in language was not restricted to their native language; it
also generalized to foreign languages (Marques et al., 2007). Similar enhancements in
pitch perception were observed in children who had at least 4 years of musical training
(Magne et al., 2006).
Even children who received short-term musical training for a 6-month period were better
able to detect weak pitch violations in both music and speech than children who received
painting training (Moreno et al., 2009). Other perceptual skills that improve with
prolonged musical training include rhythmic and auditory discrimination abilities
(Jakobson et al., 2003) as well as melodic contour perception (Forgeard, 2008). Musical
training not only enhances music and speech perception but also directly impacts
expressive language. Musically trained children outperformed musically nave children
on tasks of verbal memory, verbal fluency, and non-verbal reasoning (Ho et al., 2003;
Forgeard, 2008).
Lastly, music and movement therapies may enhance communication skills in children
with other developmental disorders including children with dyslexia (Overy, 2003) and
intellectual disabilities (Duffy and Fuller, 2000). Similar to children with autism, children
with dyslexia have impairments in reading, phonological processing, and receptive
vocabulary (Overy, 2000). Children with dyslexia significantly improved their spelling
and phonological skills following a 15-week rhythm-based intervention involving singing
and percussion games when compared to a control group receiving individual reading
lessons (Overy, 2003).
Engaging in timed rhythmic movement during singing may enhance the ability to parse
words and give meaning to them during reading and verbalization (Sparks et al., 1974;
Carroll, 1996; Overy, 2003, 2008; Roper, 2003; Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009; Wan et
al., 2011). This indirect linkage between perceptuo-motor and communication systems is
shown in Figure Figure1.1. Children with moderate intellectual disability also showed

172
improvements in verbal communication skills following an 8-week music therapy
program (Duffy and Fuller, 2000). Overall, there is considerable evidence from music
education, special education, and music therapies supporting linkages between musical
experiences and communication development in children with autism, typically
developing children, and children with other diagnoses.

Effect of musical experiences on social-emotional development and


behavioral skills
Music-making or singing in dyadic or group settings create opportunities for developing
social connections. Synchronous movements during rhythmic actions or music-making as
well as unison singing creates a state of social cooperation, shared purpose, and a sense
of togetherness which sparks a social connection between individuals, as highlighted in
Figure Figure11 (Marsh et al., 2009; Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009; Kirschner and
Tomasello, 2010). Moreover, group musical environments provide opportunities for
learning social skills such as imitation, turn taking/social reciprocity, joint attention,
shared affect, and empathy (Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009), which are impaired in
individuals with ASDs.
While engaging in musical games, children will begin by imitating and synchronizing
the actions of a social partner; however, gradually they will develop an understanding of
their partner's intentions and emotions (Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009). Overy and
Molnar-Szakacs suggest that group music-making and singing conveys the affective state,
physical state, and intentions of the partner and fosters empathy and positive emotions
(Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009). This could be particularly important in children with
ASDs given their difficulties in empathizing and understanding the intentions of others
(Koelsch, 2009).
Moreover, different emotions such as happiness, sadness, fear, and anger can be
effectively communicated to the listener through musical elements such as tempo and
sound level of music as well as intonation and pauses in voice (Katagiri, 2009). Children
with autism recognize affective signals conveyed through music, in spite of difficulties in
recognizing emotions conveyed through speech (Heaton et al., 1999). Hence, we believe
that socially embedded music and movement contexts involving listening, singing,
moving, verbalizing, and playing, provide great opportunities to foster social connections
and facilitate emotional understanding in children with ASDs. Further, the non-
intimidating yet engaging nature of musical experiences and their ability to induce
positive emotions while improving compliance may contribute to the behavioral effects
of music therapies including a reduction in the frequency of negative behaviors.
Conversely, the positive behavioral effects of music might in turn lead to enhanced
social-emotional skills following musical training (see Figure Figure11).
Music-based interventions have been used to enhance social skills such as eye contact,
engagement, and spontaneous initiation of social interactions in children with ASDs
(Wimpory et al., 1995; Reitman, 2005; Kern and Aldridge, 2006; Kern et al., 2007;
Stephens, 2008; Kim et al., 2009) (see Table Table11 for details). A 12-week intervention
of improvisational music therapy led to significant increases in the frequency and

173
duration of shared positive affect and joint attention with the therapist in the music group
compared to the control group engaged in toy play (Kim et al., 2009).
Similarly, a 7-month intervention involving different types of rhythmic movement games
to music between a child with autism and his mother led to an increase in the frequency
of eye contact episodes and spontaneous initiation of interactions by the child, post-
intervention (Wimpory et al., 1995).
Music has been used to promote emotional understanding in children with autism.
Specifically, when children with autism were taught the four emotions of happiness,
sadness, anger, and fear using verbal instructions or appropriate background music or
specially composed songs, they improved their understanding of the selected emotions
most in the background music condition (Katagiri, 2009). Further, music-based contexts
have been used with success to reduce challenging behaviors such as self-injurious,
aggressive, and stereotypical behaviors in children with autism (Wood, 1991; Gunter et
al., 1993; Clauss, 1994; Orr et al., 1998; Brownell, 2002; Pasiali, 2004; Rapp, 2007;
Devlin et al., 2008; Carnahan et al., 2009a,b; Lanovaz et al., 2009).
Studies in typically developing adults and children in the field of social psychology
provide substantial evidence for how musical experiences facilitate the social and
emotional development of individuals. Healthy adults and children tend to synchronize
more with a human partner than with a recording or a drumming machine
(Himberg, 2006; Kirschner and Tomasello, 2009). Joint rhythmic activities may
intrinsically motivate adults and children to move in synchrony and engage in a
cooperative effort (Tomasello and Carpenter, 2007).
There is a developmental trajectory for joint action in that adult-adult pairs demonstrate
greater interpersonal synchrony during drumming than child-child pairs suggesting that
synchrony during joint action is a learned skill that improves over development
(Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn et al., 2011) There is objective evidence for both adults and
children to exhibit more cooperative and empathetic behaviors toward their social partner
after engaging in a synchronized group musical experience (Anshel and Kipper, 1988;
Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009; Kirschner and Tomasello, 2010).
Adults who had previously engaged in synchronized singing or movement were more
likely to be cooperative during a group economic game compared to those who had
engaged in unsynchronized activities (Wiltermuth and Heath, 2009). Similarly, children
who participated in an interactive musical game with adult partners were more likely to
exhibit prosocial behaviors of helping and cooperating with their partners compared to a
control group that engaged in a dyadic, non-musical, storytelling activity (Kirschner and
Tomasello, 2010). The authors proposed that musical experiences may provide greater
opportunities for fostering social connections than just verbal and non-verbal
communication (Kirschner and Tomasello, 2010). Overall, there appears to be promising
evidence for the potential use of socially embedded music and movement games to
facilitate the social-emotional and behavioral skills in children with ASDs.

Effect of musical experiences on the refinement of gross and fine motor


skills

174
Whole body rhythmic actions such as clapping, marching, or walking to music provide
significant opportunities to facilitate gross motor skills. Temporal patterning is inherently
present in musical rhythms and an effort to synchronize arm and body movements to the
rhythm of music could promote motor coordination in children.
In addition, musical experiences that require fine motor skills of playing various musical
instruments such as the piano, guitar, or drums have the potential to promote fine motor
coordination and motor sequencing/praxis by providing numerous opportunities to
practice, refine, and appropriately time finger, hand, and arm movements (Rodriguez-
Fornells et al., 2012). It is also suggested that adding music through music-supported
therapies can enhance patient motivation and compliance, provide opportunities for
extensive practice, and offer continuous auditory feedback for online corrections
(Schneider et al., 2007; Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2012).
Children with autism have significant impairments in gross motor skills such as bilateral
motor coordination (Green et al., 2009; Fournier et al., 2010), balance (Minshew et
al., 2004), and gait (Vilensky et al., 1981; Hallett et al., 1993) as well as significant fine
motor delays (Provost et al., 2007; Downey and Rapport, 2012) that could be addressed
using music and movement games targeted toward specific motor skills. As mentioned
earlier, to the best of our knowledge there is no study that examined the effects of music
and movement interventions on the gross and fine motor skills of children with ASDs.
Hence, we will mainly draw upon evidence from typically developing children and
individuals with other special needs to support the use of music and movement games in
promoting motor skills in children with ASDs.
Several music education approaches including the Dalcroze and Kodaly methods of
musical learning promote gross motor performance (Findlay, 1971; Hurwitz et al., 1975;
Bachmann, 1991; Frego et al., 2004). These approaches promote the use of body
movements to understand musical rhythms, but in the process facilitate gross motor
coordination and movement timing (Findlay, 1971; Hurwitz et al., 1975;
Bachmann, 1991; Frego et al., 2004).
There is some evidence for the use of these approaches to improve gross motor
performance in typically developing children. Four to six-year-old typically developing
children who received a 2-month music and movement program showed significant
improvements in their gross motor skills such as jumping and dynamic balance as
measured by the Motor proficiency test (MOT 46) compared to children who engaged in
a non-musical, physical education program (Zachopoulou et al., 2004).
In another comparative study, 4 to 6-year-old typically developing children who received
a 10-week, Dalcroze-based integrated music and physical education program
outperformed children who received a general movement exploration program on various
custom-developed, perceptuo-motor skills, and creative movement activities
(Brown, 1981).
These studies suggest that rhythmic accompaniment during motor practice enhances
gross motor skill learning in typically developing children. In terms of fine motor skills,
typically developing children who received 2 years of piano instruction showed
significant improvements in fine motor skills as measured by the response speed, visuo-

175
motor control, and upper limb speed and dexterity subtests of the Bruininks Osteresky
Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) compared to children who did not receive piano
instruction (Costa-Giomi, 2005). The fine motor improvements observed in the children
were directly related to the duration of musical training (Forgeard, 2008). Overall, there
is considerable evidence from the field of early childhood music education to support the
use of music and movement games for gross and fine motor development.
There is some evidence from special populations including children with dyslexia and
adults with Parkinson's disease (PD) supporting the benefits of rhythmic movement and
dance-based interventions. Specifically, rhythm training involving whole body actions
such as clapping and percussion games has been used to promote movement timing in
children with dyslexia (Overy, 2008). Overy proposed that poor movement timing may
contribute to the poor phonological awareness and reading deficits observed in children
with dyslexia (Overy, 2003). Moreover, children with dyslexia were more inaccurate and
variable during multi-limb motions such as walking and clapping to a metronome beat
compared to typically developing children (Getchell et al., 2010).
However, a short-term auditory pacing program improved the multi-limb coordination of
children with dyslexia suggesting that auditory feedback might supplement existing
kinesthetic and visual feedback, and thereby facilitate motor coordination (Getchell et
al., 2010). Along the same lines, dance has been used to promote balance, gait, and
functional mobility in adults with PD (Hackney et al., 2007a,b; Duncan and
Earhart, 2012). Adults with PD have significant motor impairments including
impairments of gait as well as static and dynamic balance, similar to the motor deficits of
individuals with ASDs (Bloem et al., 2001). A 12-month, bi-weekly, community-based
tango dance program in patients with PD led to improvements in balance, gait patterns,
and movement control in the treatment group compared to the control group that received
no intervention (Duncan and Earhart, 2012).
Dancing involves practice of precise movement sequences that demand dual and multi-
limb coordination with varying balance requirements, thus providing an excellent
alternative treatment tool for individuals with movement impairments such as PD as well
as autism (Earhart, 2009). In summary, there is evidence for the potential use of music-
based movement experiences to promote gross motor and fine motor performance in
typically developing children as well as in individuals with special needs. Given this
evidence from music education and neurorehabilitation literature and the nature of the
motor impairments encountered in autism, we strongly believe that it is important to
systematically explore the effects of embodied music therapies on the fine and gross
motor skills of children with ASDs.

Musical experiences, perception-action linkages, and brain development


Multiple brain regions, including motor, perceptual, language, and social-emotional
systems are stimulated during musical experiences due to their multimodal, multisystem
nature. For example, while playing a musical instrument the musician reads the complex
musical notation and translates it into highly time-locked, synchronized, sequential, and
precise finger and hand movements. In addition, the musician will use the auditory
feedback produced by his/her music to adjust the timing, spatial organization, and

176
sequence of future movements (Zatorre et al., 2007). The very nature of this task
demands a strong coupling between the auditory, visual, somatosensory, and motor
cortices (Schlaug et al., 2010). In this section, we provide evidence for neural substrates
that contribute to perceptuo-motor, communication, and social-emotional enhancement
following musical training and their implications for individuals with autism.
Music produced during music making is a multimodal perceptual experience produced by
the integration of sensory and motor systems involved in the experience (Phillips-
Silver, 2009). During a musical activity, the movements produced by adults are intimately
linked to the sounds perceived: what one hears depends on how one moves and vice-
versa (Phillips-Silver and Trainor, 2007). Neuroanatomical evidence for a perception-
action linkage during musical activities comes from brain imaging studies in trained
musicians (Haueisen and Knsche, 2001; Gaser and Schlaug, 2003; Bangert et al., 2006;
Habib and Besson, 2009). Musicians showed activity in the premotor areas while simply
listening to piano melodies, whereas non-musicians did not show such activity (Haueisen
and Knsche, 2001).
However, non-musicians trained over 5 days to play a melody, demonstrated premotor
cortical activity while simply listening to the trained melody; they did not demonstrate
similar premotor activity on listening to an untrained melody suggesting the important
role that perceptuo-motor mapping plays during the initial stages of learning (Lahav et
al., 2007). Similar premotor activation is seen during both simple listening and
covert/overt singing (Callan et al., 2006). Musical tasks involving only auditory, only
visual, or only motor components led to co-activation of the auditory, visual, and motor
areas suggestive of strong visuo-motor and audio-motor integration following musical
training (Bangert et al., 2006). Similarly, presentation of musical notation alone led to co-
activation in the visual and motor cortices following training in reading music and
playing the keyboard (Stewart et al., 2003). Thus, there is considerable evidence for the
ability of musical experiences to recruit multiple areas of the brain and promote
multimodal integration.
The multimodal nature of musical experiences is especially important for individuals
with autism due to their known deficits in multimodal integration (Minshew and
Williams, 2007). According to the connectivity hypothesis, brains of individuals with
autism are characterized by short-range over-connectivity and long-range under-
connectivity (Belmonte et al., 2004; Courchesne et al., 2007). To be clear, there is an
increase in the short-range cortico-cortical connections and an underdevelopment of long-
range connections between different brain regions including the frontal, temporal,
parietal, and subcortical areas (Belmonte et al., 2004; Courchesne et al., 2007).
The impaired functions of long-range networks are thought to underlie the social-
emotional and communication impairments of autism (Courchesne et al., 2007). Based on
the evidence presented earlier, the ability of music to recruit multiple brain areas
simultaneously might help address some of the multimodal integration deficits in autism.
As an example, there is some evidence for a reversal in the left-right asymmetry in the
arcuate fasciculus of non-verbal children with autism (Wan et al., 2012). The arcuate
fasciculus is a long-distance white-matter tract that connects temporo-parietal areas with

177
the frontal areas of the brain and is important for audio-motor integration of speech and
language skills (Hickok and Poeppel, 2004; Glaser and Rilling, 2008).
In healthy individuals, there is a left-right asymmetry in this tract with greater volumes
in the left hemisphere than in the right hemisphere; in children with autism this
asymmetry is reversed (Herbert et al., 2002; De Foss et al., 2004; Wan et al., 2012) and
is thought to underlie some of the language deficits in this population (Wan et al., 2012).
However, there is promising evidence suggesting that novel music and movement
interventions such as Auditory Motor Mapping Technique (AMMT) focused on
promoting multimodal integration may in fact recruit these dysfunctional networks in
children with ASDs (Wan et al., 2012, see Table Table22 and within music therapy
approach section).

Table 2
Music therapy approaches: critical elements, domains of development, targeted
skills, and populations.

Music therapy Type of Critical Domains of Targeted skills and populations


approach music elements development
therapy

Auditory motor Active Listening Communication Speech sounds and word


mapping technique Singing Music- approximations in non-verbal
making children with autism (Wan et
al., 2011)

Melodic intonation Active Singing Gross- Communication Phonation and speech production in
therapy motor tapping children with apraxia (Roper, 2003)

Rhythm therapy Active Singing Music- Social Movement timing, phonologic


making communication skills, auditory processing, and
Rhythmic actions spelling in children with dyslexia
like clapping (Overy, 2003)

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Music therapy Type of Critical Domains of Targeted skills and populations
approach music elements development
therapy

Improvisational Active Music-making Social Eye contact, turn taking,


music therapy communication spontaneous joint attention,
Emotional behavioral compliance, and positive
affect in children with autism (Kim
et al., 2008, 2009)

Sound therapies such Passive Listening to Sensory Sound sensitivity, behavioral


as Auditory music that has Behavioral compliance, listening and
Integration Therapy, been modified by Communication comprehension. Majority of the
Tomatis Method, and filtering and studies found non-significant
Samonas Therapy modulation results for these outcomes (Rimland
and Edelson, 1995; Bettison, 1996;
Zollweg, 1997; Edelson et
al., 1999; Mudford et al., 2000;
Corbett et al., 2008)

Table 2

Music and language systems also share common neural substrates. Specifically, the
Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, secondary auditory cortex, and the corpus callosum
are all involved in both music and language processing (Meyer et al., 2002). Musical
training leads to structural changes in the planum temporale, primary and secondary
auditory cortices, and the Heschl's gyrus, all of which are important for auditory
processing (Wan and Schlaug, 2010).
Further, the magnitude of these changes is greater in musicians who begin training early
in life (Gaser and Schlaug, 2003). Six-year old children who received musical training for
15 months demonstrated structural changes in the precentral gyrus, the corpus callosum,
and the Heschl's gyrus (Hyde et al., 2009). Similarly, 911 year old instrumentalists with

179
4 years of musical training showed larger gray matter volumes in the sensorimotor and
occipital cortices as well as greater activation of the mirror neuron systems (MNS) during
rhythm and melody discrimination tasks compared to non-instrumentalists (Schlaug et
al., 2005). Hence, in typically developing individuals, neuroanatomical evidence suggests
strong links between musical training and activation of substrates common to both music
and language processing.
There is clear evidence for the relatively unimpaired musical skills despite significant
language impairments in individuals with autism (Bonnel et al., 2003; Heaton, 2003).
There is also mounting evidence for abnormalities in neural networks underlying speech
in autism (Hesling et al., 2010; Lai et al., 2012; Wan et al., 2012). A comparison of neural
systems sensitive to both speech and music in low-functioning children with autism and
age-matched healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion
tensor imaging revealed that the activation in the inferior frontal gyrus in children with
autism was lower than in controls during speech stimulation but higher than controls
during song stimulation.
This study argues for the potential utility of music-based therapies in remediating the core
language impairments in autism (Lai et al., 2012). Some mechanisms have been proposed
to explain the positive effects of musical training on speech impairments in autism. For
instance, the OPERA hypothesis proposes that speech-related impairments could benefit
from musical training due to its following characteristics(1) Overlap exists in the brain
regions processing speech and music (Patel, 2003), (2) Precision of processing required
during musical activities is more intense than that needed for speech processing,
(3) Emotions invoked by musical activities are strong and positive, (4) Repetition and
practice are the integral elements of all musical experiences, and lastly, (5)
Focused Attention is required for accurate musical performance (Patel, 2011). Taken
together, these factors associated with musical training can drive experience-dependent
plasticity in speech processing in individuals with autism (Patel, 2011).
Socially synchronous movements and unison singing during group music activities evoke
the MNS activity in the brain. MNS has been postulated as the neural basis for social
abilities of shared attention, affect, and empathy (Molnar-Szakacs and Overy, 2006;
Cattaneo and Rizzolatti, 2009). The MNS includes a group of neurons thought to be
present in the inferior frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and superior temporal sulcus
of the human brain (Buccino et al., 2004; Cattaneo and Rizzolatti, 2009). These neurons
are activated both during action production and during observation of actions performed
by others (Buccino et al., 2004; Cattaneo and Rizzolatti, 2009; Rizzolatti et al., 2009).
An additional subset of premotor mirror neurons have been postulated to possess
audio-motor properties so that they are activated just by listening to someone else singing
or making music (Molnar-Szakacs and Overy, 2006). This may allow students to learn
not just by playing the instrument on their own but also by listening to the sounds and
watching the movements produced by their teacher (Schlaug et al., 2005). The shared and
temporally synchronous activation of the MNS in individuals involved in a group music-
making experience provides a neural basis for the shared experiences and social
connections within the group (Molnar-Szakacs and Overy, 2006).

180
There is mounting evidence that individuals with autism have a dysfunctional MNS
which might underlie some of the social-emotional and motor imitation deficits observed
in this population (Williams et al., 2001; Dapretto et al., 2005; Wan et al., 2010a,b).
Hence, music-based activities involving imitation and rhythmic synchronization within
socially embedded contexts may engage the dysfunctional MNS of children with ASDs
(Wan et al., 2010a,b). Taken together, the neuroanatomical evidence presented in this
section suggests that music and movement activities within social contexts can serve as a
powerful medium to induce a range of plastic changes in brain structure and connectivity
in individuals with ASDs.

Propositions for using musical experiences in children with autism


Having reviewed strong behavioral and neuroanatomical evidence in favor of music and
movement therapies for children with ASDs, we will now discuss the critical elements of
musical experiences and their potential benefits for remediating the core impairments and
comorbidities in autism. We will also review in detail the critical elements and potential
benefits of three active music-based therapies that are currently utilized in the treatment
of children with special needs.

Critical elements of musical experiences for children with autism


Musical experiences can vary depending on the activities involved, but the four most
critical elements are listening, singing, music-making, and rhythmic actions synchronized
to music, experienced in individual or socially embedded, dyadic, and group activities
(Edelson et al., 1999; Pellitteri, 2000; Schlaug et al., 2005; Overy, 2008; Wan et
al., 2010a,b, 2011). Listening to music is predominantly a passive musical experience
whereas singing, music-making, and rhythmic actions require active participation
(Pellitteri, 2000).
Each type of musical experience has its own applications. For example, passive listening
techniques such as Auditory Integration Therapy (AIT) have been used to address
behavioral problems and auditory hypersensitivity in children with ASDs (Rimland and
Edelson, 1995; Bettison, 1996; Zollweg, 1997; Edelson et al., 1999; Mudford et al., 2000;
Corbett et al., 2008); however, there is limited evidence to support their use (Sinha et
al., 2011). Singing has been used as a communicative medium to compensate for
language impairments as well as to promote language in individuals with various speech
disorders including ASDs (Wan et al., 2010a,b). Music-making has been used extensively
in music education to teach children concepts of rhythm, melody, and pitch as well as
various spatio-temporal concepts such as slow-fast, soft-loud, moving on a count, etc.
(Pellitteri, 2000).
Specifically, improvisational music-making is an outlet for expression of creativity and
individuality (Pellitteri, 2000). The last element of synchronized whole body rhythmic
actions is often used to teach and internalize musical concepts such as rhythm. By
grounding music in physical movements, eurhythmics provides an embodied musical
experience (Findlay, 1971; Hurwitz et al., 1975; Bachmann, 1991; Frego et al., 2004).
Structured and improvisational music-making as well as rhythmic whole body
movements involve perception and action and promote fine and gross motor skills and

181
bilateral and visuomotor coordination as discussed in the previous section (Phillips-
Silver, 2009).
Children can experience all the critical elements of music in individual as well as group
settings. Individual experiences involve one-on-one interactions between the trainer and
the child and are tailored to the individual needs of the child. Group sessions involve
synchronous activities between members to ensure a meaningful and enjoyable musical
experience and in turn facilitate social connections between members of the group
(Pellitteri, 2000; Overy and Molnar-Szakacs, 2009). Moreover, careful additions of
socially embedded, dyadic, and group activities would be important for children with
ASDs to practice social communication skills.

Current music therapy approaches used in children with autism and those
with other special needs
Current music therapy approaches, their critical elements, domains of development, and
targeted skills are highlighted in Table Table2.2. In general, music therapies have been
provided to children with ASDs (see Table Table11 for details), dyslexia (Overy, 2003),
apraxia (Roper, 2003), and intellectual disabilities (Duffy and Fuller, 2000) (see Table
Table22 for details).
1. Auditory Motor Mapping Training (AMMT) and Melodic Intonation Therapy
(MIT) facilitate language production in non-verbal/low-verbal children by training
an association between self-produced sounds (drum hit or finger tap) and
articulatory movements or auditory-motor mapping (Sparks et al., 1974;
Carroll, 1996; Roper, 2003; Norton et al., 2009; Wan et al., 2011) (see Table
Table2).2). AMMT combines critical elements of listening to the therapist's
intonation and drum tapping, singing with the same intonation, and music-making
by tapping on a pair of tuned drums. Therapists progress from sounding words
and tapping the tuned drums alone to unison singing and music-making. It is
proposed that ultimately the child produces the words on his/her own without any
support from the therapist (Wan et al., 2011).

Non-verbal children with ASDs demonstrated improvements in their ability to


articulate words and phrases following an 8-week intervention of AMMT (Wan et
al., 2011). Similarly, MIT which involves singing and associated gross motor tapping
to mark the rhythm and stress of the intoned phrases was found to enhance phonation
and speech production in children with apraxia (Roper, 2003; Norton et al., 2009).

2. Rhythm training has been used to address the timing deficits in language, motor
control, perception, and cognition encountered in children with dyslexia
(Overy, 2008) (see Table Table2).2). Children with dyslexia significantly
improved their phonological and spelling skills following a 15-week rhythm
therapy intervention based on the critical elements of singing, joint music-making,
and whole body rhythmic movements (Overy, 2008). The multisensory experience
focused on rhythm and timing facilitated the temporal processing skills of
children with dyslexia.

182
3. Improvisational music therapy is an individualized, patient-centered approach to
facilitate social engagement and verbal and non-verbal communication skills in
children with ASDs (Kim et al., 2009) (see Table Table2).2). In this approach, the
therapist uses improvised, shared music-making experiences to tune in to the
patient's musical and non-musical non-verbal behaviors. Such moment-by-
moment musical attunement of the therapist to the patient helps develop a
medium of communication between the two, which in turn facilitates social skills
such as turn taking, imitation, and joint attention as well as verbal communication
skills (Kim et al., 2008). This approach has been used to improve social
communication skills in children with autism (Kim et al., 2008, 2009). Taken
together, several attempts have been made to therapeutically utilize the various
critical elements of musical experiences in the treatment of children with autism
and other pediatric disorders.

Recommendations for clinicians and clinical researchers


In the above sections, we have reviewed vast evidence supporting the therapeutic use of
embodied music interventions in addressing the multisystem impairments of children
with autism and other similar developmental disorders. However, as outlined in the
introduction, current research in this area has several limitations. In this section, we will
provide recommendations for assessment and treatment of autism for clinicians and
researchers working in this field. We hope that this discussion will provide guidelines for
future systematic research on embodied music therapies and will bring multisystem
music and movement interventions to the forefront in the treatment of autism.

Recommendations for assessment of children with ASDs


In this review, we have offered substantial evidence on how musical experiences may
impact the various forms of development in typically developing children and children
with special needs. The majority of the evidence stems from literature in music education
and special education and to some extent from the music therapy literature. Currently,
there is limited evidence to support the use of music therapies in children with ASDs.
Future research should consider using better study designs such as randomized controlled
trials to examine the efficacy of music therapies on the various core deficits and
comorbidities of children with ASDs. Standardized, reliable, and valid assessments
should be routinely used to evaluate outcomes. In this section, we provide researchers
with certain objective and subjective tools to better characterize their study populations
and to assess the impact of music-based interventions on perceptuo-motor,
communication, and social-emotional development. We strongly urge that whenever
possible, researchers use a combination of subjective and objective tools to assess
treatment effects.
To the best of our knowledge, no study to date has assessed the impact of music therapy
on motor skills in ASDs. However, for future studies, we recommend that researchers
consider the use of standardized tests such as the Bruininks Osteretsky Test of Motor
Proficiency (BOTMP) (Bruininks, 1978), Sensory Integration and Praxis Tests (SIPT)
(Ayres, 1996), Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) (Henderson and

183
Sugden, 1992), gross motor and fine motor subtests of the Mullen Scales of Early
Learning (MSEL) (Mullen, 1995), and the Individualized Music Therapy Assessment
Protocol (IMTAP) (Baxter, 2007) to assess for changes in motor function. In addition,
context-specific changes in motor skills such as the accuracy of imitation or amount of
time spent in synchrony can be examined using moment-to-moment video coding or
quantitative measures such as relative phase analysis (Scholz and Kelso, 1989; Schmidt
et al., 1991). Changes in sensory modulation could also be assessed using the Short
Sensory Profile (Tomchek and Dunn, 2007), the sensory subtests of the IMTAP
(Baxter, 2007), and the SIPT (Ayres, 1996).
Some common social communication measures for school-age children include the
Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills-Revised (ABLLS-R) (Partington and
Sundberg, 1998) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary test (PPVT) (Dunn and
Dunn, 1981). Non-verbal communication can be examined using the Early Social
Communication Scale (ESCS) in young children (Mundy et al., 2003). In addition,
researchers should also use video coding to measure socially directed verbal
communication such as the frequency of spoken syllables/words, non-verbal
communication such as social gaze, joint attention, and use of signs or gestures, as well
as affective changes including durations or frequencies of positive, neutral, and negative
affect.
For the assessment of changes in behavioral problems following intervention, several
psychiatric measures, and parent/teacher questionnaires have been used. Some of the
commonly used measures include the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) (Lukoff et
al., 1986), Repetitive Behaviors Scale-Revised (RBS-R) (Lam, 2004), Autism Behavior
Checklist (ABC) (Krug et al., 1988), Pervasive Developmental Disorder Behavior
Inventory (PDDBI) (Cohen and Sudhalter, 2005), Connor's Rating Scales
(Conners, 1989), and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (Aman and Singh, 1986). In
addition, we recommend that researchers code for changes in the frequency of positive
and negative behaviors within the music therapy sessions.
It would be important to characterize the study population given the diversity of
impairments observed in ASDs. Group characterization measures include a confirmation
of ASD diagnosis and its severity as well as a basic IQ measure. Autism-related
impairments could be confirmed through medical records, screeners such as the Social
Communication Questionnaire (Berument et al., 1999) or the Social Responsiveness
Scale (Constantino and Gruber, 2002) or through gold-standard assessments/interviews
such as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) (Lord et al., 2012a,b)
and Autism Diagnostic Interview -Revised (ADI-R) (Lord et al., 1994). Autism severity
can be determined through standardized tests such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale
(CARS) (Schopler et al., 1980). IQ could be measured using various measures such as the
Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) (Kaufman, 1990), Wechsler Intelligence Scale
(WISC) (Wechsler, 1949), Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test (SBIT), (Terman and
Merrill, 1960), or Differential Abilities Scale (DAS) (Elliott, 1990). Given the evidence
for the multisystem effects of music interventions discussed, we urge researchers to
assess the multisystem effects of music-based therapies using various sensori-motor,
communication, social-emotional, and behavioral measures.

184
Recommendations for treatment of children with ASDs
There is a strong need to further develop comprehensive, multisystem, music
interventions to facilitate the communication, social-emotional, behavioral, and
perceptuo-motor skills of individuals with ASDs. In addition, we have various specific
recommendations on the nature, intensity, and frequency of music interventions. First,
active music interventions that emphasize participation through singing, music-making,
and synchronized rhythmic actions must be promoted as opposed to passive listening.
Second, given the positive effects of socially embedded activities it would be useful to
consider dyadic, triadic, or group-based activities. However, we acknowledge that
working with children with autism is very challenging and the needs of each child are
unique.
The other members in the group could be typically developing siblings, parents, or
caregivers who will adjust to the needs of the child. Third, we recommend better content
development as opposed to purely improvisational music-based activities. Fourth, there is
a need for better reporting standards while disseminating the results. Fifth, there is a need
to test for skill generalization to novel contexts or standardized tests and maintenance of
learned skills through long-term follow-up.
Sixth, interventions should be offered within natural settings such as home or school
environments to ensure ecological validity and generalization. In terms of the intensity of
interventions, music-based interventions have been provided at least 23 times per week
with each session lasting for ~30 min (see Table Table1).1). Repetition is of utmost
importance to ensure learning in this population. Hence, we recommend involving
parents and caregivers in the training activities to enhance skill learning, generalization,
and maintenance.
Some additional special considerations specific to training sessions and needs of children
with ASDs are listed in Table Table3.3. These considerations incorporate the ideas
promoted by contemporary autism interventions such as ABA, PECS, and TEACHH. The
recommendations provided in this section should be used as guidelines; however the
training protocols will need to be tailored to the individual needs of the child. As
mentioned earlier, various domains of development can be addressed through music-
based activities; however, certain domains may require more training than others for an
autistic child due to his or her individual impairments. Similarly, specific modifications
may be needed for a child due to his or her unique behavioral or sensory modulation
impairments.

Table 3
Special considerations for music-based interventions for children with ASDs.

185
Domain Special considerations

1. Predictability and familiarity is important. Follow a familiar activity schedule.


Structure of the Conduct sessions in the same physical space (Mesibov et al., 2004).
environment 2. Use visual cues to indicate the child's spot and distinguish the space used.
3. Consider the needs of the child when setting up the environment. For example,
avoid distractions, cover musical instruments until they are used, and avoid
bright lights and loud sounds for hypersensitive children.
4. Use visual picture schedules to provide structure to the session (Bondy and
Frost, 2003). This helps children with ASDs to understand the progression in
the session and helps them anticipate transitions.

5. Allow time for the child to adapt to any new activity.

Instructions, 1. Be aware of the child's communication system in advance.


prompts, and 2. Avoid long verbal instructions. Be brief and precise in your instructions.
feedback 3. Whenever, possible, combine verbal and visual instructions. For example, use
visual picture schedules and instructions such as do this.
4. Make sure that the instructor is seated in front of the child to ensure that he/she
is in the child's visual field.
5. Instructions can be provided through songs to ensure better comprehension.
6. A typically developing peer or adult could stand or be seated beside the child
as a model for the child.
7. One of the adults could provide manual guidance during the motor activities.
8. Allow the child time to practice the activity independently (Shumway-Cook
and Woollacott, 2007).

9. Use props whenever necessary to clarify the goals of the activity.

Repetition and 1. Repetition is the key for learning (Lovaas, 1987).


reinforcement 2. Ask parents and caregivers to try out the activity in another environment to
promote practice and generalization to other individuals and environments.
3. Various rewards such as stickers and small toys could also be provided

186
Domain Special considerations

(Lovaas, 1987; Landa, 2007).


4. Provide verbal and gestural reinforcement in the form of good jobs and hi-
fives.

5. Provide breaks from activity to do favorite sensory activities. Edibles should


be used as the last resort.

Nature of the 1. During group sessions, be sensitive to the individual needs of the child.
interaction 2. Give sufficient breaks and avoid overwhelming the child.
3. Try to keep the child actively involved as much as possible.
4. Vary the level of task complexity. Use a mix of simple and complex activities
to allow for success and engagement (Darrow, 2009).
5. Within activities, vary the verbal and motor complexity.
6. Allow time for free music-making and movements to sustain engagement.

7. Look out for negative behaviors such as tantrums, non-compliance, and self-
injurious behaviors. If these are observed, then ask the child to communicate
that the activity be stopped. Seek advice from caregivers on best ways to
address negative behaviors (Lovaas, 1987; Landa, 2007).

Conclusions
In this review, we offered substantial evidence for the multisystem effects of musical
experiences in children with ASDs, healthy individuals, as well as other pediatric
neurological populations. We believe that novel, embodied rhythm-based, multisystem
interventions grounded in singing, music-making, joint action, and social synchrony can
be used to alleviate the core social communication deficits and perceptuo-motor and
behavioral comorbidities of children with ASDs. Current evidence for the efficacy of
music therapies in children with ASDs comes from a handful of studies that lack
systematic study designs, assessments, and treatment protocols. There is an urgent need
for systematic research in this field. Our research team has developed an intense, 8-week,
novel, embodied musical intervention that will be tested within a pilot, randomized
controlled trial to assess its effects on the multisystem performance of children with
ASDs. If our hypotheses are upheld, we will be providing objective evidence to support
the use of rhythm-based, music and movement intervention for children with ASDs.

187
Future research should extend this work by examining multisystem effects of music
therapies through larger clinical trials using larger sample sizes.

Conflict of interest statement


The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or
financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

Acknowledgments
We thank Autism Speaks for a pilot treatment award (#8137) to support our study on the
effects of music and movement interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders.

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Mixed-Ability Dance: Helping Students With Special Needs Grow and Learn

Karen Peterson and Dancers (KPD), a mixed-ability dance group perform with the The Miami String
Project earlier this year.
Photo credit: Mariolga Ramirez

I founded Karen Peterson and Dancers (KPD) in Miami in 1990. We are recognized as
the leading mixed-ability dance company in the U.S. Southeast. As a not-for-profit dance
organization, KPD commissions and produces the work of dance artists with and without
disabilities -- presenting excellence in dance through our quality-based programs,
community performances and educational workshops.

202
Students become better prepared to meet challenges by learning the demands of
organizing movement, and by finding the courage to perform in front of others. Our
company, integrating dancers with and without disabilities, creates and performs "mixed-
ability" dance as an inclusive art form on a year-round basis. The dancers collaborate,
research and integrate their personal movement styles, and discover an innovative dance
language for choreography. The troupe provides a positive role model for the disability
community and offers new visual inspiration for traditional dance audiences.

Student Movement

When I first began working with wheelchair dancers in 1990, this was cutting-edge and
new in Miami, and there was much feedback and interest from audiences viewing mixed-
ability dance for the first time. Dance classes were not offered to the local disability
population. There was a void to be filled, and I took action by inviting teens and young
adults into the company. My idea was to use the inclusive form of mixed-ability dance
with the traditions of contemporary and improvisational dance. Contemporary dance can
be tailored to specific groups where people at all ability levels can enjoy the creative and
physical aspects of movement and performance.

In 2005, we began a new program to for Miami-Dade Public Schools to introduce


students with autism, learning disabilities, and visual, physical, language and emotional
impairments to dance instruction by developing a new and unique dance residency
program.

There are more than 6,000 students with physical, emotional, learning and/or
developmental disabilities in the Miami-Dade Public Schools, students who have little
access to movement education. I quickly developed a passion to spearhead this new
program, and we have received positive feedback from the Miami-Dade School Board,
The Children's Trust and Miami-Dade Cultural Affairs for its process and results.

What started from a small program in six schools has grown to 24 schools throughout
Miami-Dade County. On an annual basis, up to 400 middle and senior high school
students with diverse abilities and special needs work with our Miami-based professional
dance artists. Their instruction culminates in a final community performance open to the
public (our annual Talent Showcase).

In our 15-week residency program, teachers meet once a week with 15-20 special needs
students. During these one-hour classes, we utilize the researched movement methods
that students apply toward their final five-to-seven-minute dance piece. Students with
disabilities participate in all aspects of the program: the creation of the choreography,
music, costumes and, of course, the resulting performance. Through their involvement in
all elements of the production, students learn to discover and develop creativity,
teamwork and self-esteem.

Increased Ability

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Over the last seven years, we have found that students with disabilities, when involved in
a positive dance program, improve in the following ways:

They make more eye contact with others.


They make more physical contact with others.
They learn how to provide appropriate assistance to others.
They move in synchrony or partnership with others.
They learn how to take direction from others.
They learn how to respect the personal space of others.
They learn self-expression and physical self-confidence.

And last (but certainly not least), they learn to play and have fun!

The students also imitate movement as demonstrated by the instructor, learn to improvise
movement and incorporate all of these learning skills toward the final product. We see
them learning how to be inventive, resourceful and imaginative and developing
appreciation for their peers. They also map new pathways for old muscle memory and
find new spatial directions for limbs and body parts.

I find that these programs often reach students in a way that traditional classroom
teachers have not been trained to do.

With encouragement and support to be physically creative, many young teens with low
self-esteem develop the courage to move through rhythm, become eager to perform and
discover something new about themselves.

I have seen many young women not willing to participate in the beginning of a residency,
only to then blossom and want to take center stage at the end.

I have seen students who use wheelchairs not want to be involved at first, and then have
the chair become the central focus of the choreography.

I have seen young teen men frown upon dance at first, but then thrive when improvisation
includes hip-hop moves that flow naturally from their bodies.

With the idea of teamwork and group choreography, students give up their egos and
become team players. Often personal attitudes take a back seat for the good of the
ensemble.

This program provides students with the opportunity to learn about dance despite their
economic, disability and geographic limitations.

Joining the Dance


I would offer the following advice for dance instructors who may want to start their own
mixed-ability dance program:

Learn the basics of contemporary composition and contact improvisation.

204
Take the basics and tailor the material for your specific group.
There are many instructional books that you can find on the web.
Be flexible, be curious, be patient, and your students will love you for opening up
creativity and personal expression through movement.
There are also many mixed-ability inclusive dance workshops offered by dance
companies and teachers in the States and abroad. This year, we have been invited to
lead workshops in Europe and Central America. Research "mixed-ability dance" to find
dates and places near you, and join the fun in your own community.

Our dance company's commitment to and vision of inclusive dance challenges


perceptions and explores the boundaries of what is perceived as disabled and non-
disabled.

We aim to help students become better prepared to meet challenges by learning and
growing via the demands of organizing movement and finding the courage to perform in
front of others.

Through the beauty and wonder of mixed-ability performance and all-inclusive dance, the
labels of developmental, intellectual or physical disabilities disappear once a young
person manifests the glory of dance.
KAREN PETERSON'S PROFILE

Source:- https://www.edutopia.org/blog/mixed-ability-dance-special-needs-karen-
peterson

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How to Start a Special Needs Dance Program

One amazing trend thats been gaining a lot of attention in the dance community in the
past few years is new programs for children with special needs. These classes, often
called adaptive dance, allow kids of all ages and abilities to experience the mental and
physical perks of dance class, all while having a blast with other students. If youve been
considering starting an adaptive dance program at your studio, you may be wondering
what it should entail and how to get it off the ground. Here are some tips that will help
you cater to the children in your community with a special needs dance program.

The Benefits of Dance Classes


It often helps to understand just how dance classes can benefit students with special
needs. Michael ODonnell, whose 6-year-old daughter Kiera has Downs Syndrome,
explained to San Diego Family magazine that adaptive dance classes have a number
of benefits for both the children and society.
Dance allows creative expression, both individually and in a group setting, encourages
exercise and promotes healthier living, ODonnell explained to San Diego Family
magazine. An argument can be made that dance stimulates the intellect and learning as
well.
Further, dance classes allow children to become comfortable interacting with new people.
On the other side of the same coin, having an adaptive dance class will help to break

206
down barriers between your existing students and their peers with special needs, fostering
strong and inclusive relationships.

Considerations When Starting a Special Needs Dance Program


One of the most important things to consider when you start forming a new program is
whether you have an experienced teacher. Expert Beacon explained that youll want
someone who has experience working with children with special needs to teach or at least
help out with the class. If you cant find a teacher who fits the bill, consider partnering
with a occupational therapist or special educator in your community. Theyll be able to
help you create a class plan and run each session.
Youll also need to think about your studios accessibility. If youre on the first floor, this
shouldnt be a problem. However, if you have a second- or third-floor location, make sure
theres an easy way for handicapped individuals to reach you. Otherwise, you may not be
able to welcome all potential students.
Finally, pick a day and time that will be convenient for your new students. Dance
Advantage explained that students with special needs and their parents often strive for
consistency in their schedules, so its important to hold classes at the same time each
week. This will help minimize any problems regarding rides, work schedules and other
commitments.

How to Spread the Word About Your Classes


Once youve figured out all the logistics, its time to find students for your new adaptive
dance program. Dance Advantage explained that other community organizations that
cater to individuals with disabilities are usually willing to help spread the word about
dance classes. Reach out to your local chapter of the Special Olympics or a community
center to see if theyll help you publicize your program.
You can also reach out to local schools and employ traditional marketing strategies, like
posting fliers, using ads or posting on social media. Encourage your current students to
share social posts and talk to their friends about the new program. Before you know it,
youll likely have a fresh group of dancers who are ready and eager to learn all that you
have to offer.

Source:- https://www.tututix.com/how-to-start-a-special-needs-dance-program/

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Several high schools hold special Snowball dance

Dance was part of Unified program for special needs students

|
Updated: 2:55 PM EST Jan 29, 2017

Londonderry High School's Unified program connects special needs students with sports
programs and other events.

Saturday night was their winter semi-formal and it was all about the dance floor.

"I'm ready to dance the night away, student Noah Ellis said.

Dancing and dressed to the nines, students like Ellis who attended the Unified winter
Snowball were happy to make the dance a new tradition.

"I think it's awesome how our school is doing this and having all the Unified kids from
different schools be here and be an awesome event," student Alison Kraytenberg said.

The ball was a success in every way - bringing together special students from several
high schools.

"This Snowball committee as we call ourselves, put together this event for the kids and
we have Concord High School here, Alvirne High School, Nashua North and then
Londonderry High School, said organizer and Londonderry High School physical
education teacher Ashley Tebbetts.

"This is a celebration of Unified sports and showing that all kids can take part in any kind
of activity they want, and have a great time doing it, and that the community comes
together to support our children, Londonderry Superintendent Nate Greenberg said.

From the DJ to the photographers to the food, all of the Snowball was a community
affair, made possible by donations.

"These kids are worth it. They deserve all of this and more, Tebbetts said.

The Unified program gets the students involved in sports as well and they say they are
thrilled to take part in this dance with friends.

208
"I hope everyone else has fun too dancing around, student Brianna Ho said.

"I think it's fantastic, Londonderry student Annie Hughes said.

"I think it's a great event. We always have a good time with Unified sports and Im glad
to be a part of it in my last year of high school," Ellis said.

Source:- http://www.wmur.com/article/10-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-
titanic/9277095

Special Ed You Can Dance To

Waltz, swing, merengue Becky Stern gets people with special needs grooving.

By Corinne Steinbrenner

Photo by Jeff Swensen

When Becky Stern began ballroom dance classes eight years ago at the Steel City
Ballroom in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, she immediately loved two things about her new
hobby: the dancing itself, and the diverse group of people she encountered.

209
Teresa Plunkett, 30, learns the jitterbug and other dances at Yes, You
Can Dance!, a Pittsburgh-area nonprofit created by
Becky Stern (80) / JEFF SWENSEN

One minute you were dancing with someone who was a professor of the sciences at one
of the many universities in Pittsburgh, and the next minute you were dancing with
someone who worked with his hands, says Stern (80). Youd dance with someone who
was 18, and then someone who was 80. It was a healthy, wonderful activity to be
involved in, and a great way to broaden my world.

Given the welcoming, inclusive nature of the dance community, Sternwho studied
special education at SEDunderstood that ballroom dance would be an excellent fit for
people with special needs. She began imagining a program that would allow adults with a
variety of special needs to experience the joy of dance.

In 2011, Stern founded Yes, You Can Dance! (YYCD), a Pittsburgh area nonprofit that
offers ballroom dance classes for teens and adults with cognitive disabilities, as well as
dance programs for senior citizens and people with multiple sclerosis. The organization
pairs students with trained, volunteer dance mentors who provide physical support and
opportunities to socialize.

Parents often say to us how exciting it is to see their son or daughter


going out socially and just being a dancer. Becky Stern (80)

Stern says she has seen dancers with special needswho make up the majority of YYCD
studentsimprove their social skills, enjoy newfound confidence, and delight in the
genuine partnership and community that develops among dancers and volunteers, all
while promoting their physical wellness.

To develop the curriculum for the special needs dance program, Stern worked with her
own dance instructor, Chris Roth, and with special educators from the Pittsburgh-area
Upper St. Clair School District, where she was on the school board. We came up with
some very simple, but really important adaptations, she says.

For example, giving dancers instruction is often complicated by the positioning of the
dancers: facing each other. When one turns left, the other turns right. To minimize
confusion about which way to move, YYCD provides colored wristbands: men wear
them on the left, women on the right. Also, each wall of the dance studio is adorned with
a large graphic, such as a fish or a smiley face. Instructing students to move toward their
wristband or one of the images made it easy to follow directional instruction.

210
Special needs dancers begin with waltz, swing club, and merengueall of which require
changing weight with every beat of the musicthen move on to jitterbug, rumba, and
other dances with more complicated rhythms.

The YYCD curriculum has been so successfulthe organization now offers nine special
needs classes in two locationsthat Stern plans to share it with other educators.
Pittsburgh-area schools offer a program called Partners in PE that brings students with
and without special needs together in one physical education class. YYCD created a
three-week ballroom dance curriculum that two area high schools have used in their
Partners in PE classes. Stern is working to fine-tune those lesson plans so YYCD can
license them to schools nationwide.

Dance programs offer tremendous benefits for people with special needs because dancing
is such a complex skill and activates all three domains of learning, says SED Lecturer
Rebecca Shangraw (05,13), who specializes in physical education for students with
learning disabilities and is a consultant for the Special Olympics.

Becky Stern (80) and her dance instructor, Chris Roth, developed a
curriculum for special needs dance classes. / JEFF SWENSEN

You need to use your body to dance, so thats the psychomotor domain. You need to
remember the dance steps, so theres the cognitive part. And when youre partner
dancing, you have to take somebody elses needs into consideration and coordinate your
movement with theirs, and thats the affective domain. Dancing, she adds, lets people

211
with cognitive impairments practice using the affected areas of their brains in a
therapeutic way thats also fun and engaging.

I was absolutely born to dance, says Teresa Plunkett, 30, who has Down syndrome and
is a member of the YYCD performance team.

Plunkett says shes very good at tango and waltz, but the fancy footwork of the jitterbug
has been a challenge. Shes not about to give up, though. I love ballroom dancing, she
says. I cant wait to get to the next level.

Plunkett and the rest of the team perform at local dance festivals several times a year, and
usually stick around to join the social dancing that follows. Watching their child being
asked to dance is often a thrill for parents, says Stern.

Its a chance for their kid to be just another 25-year-old at an event, and the focus isnt
on their special needs, she says. Parents often say to us how exciting it is to see their
son or daughter going out socially and just being a dancer.

Source:- https://www.bu.edu/sed/magazine-article/special-ed-you-can-dance-to/

Dance, Drama and Performance and Attention Deficit


Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Dance, Drama and Performance and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) published onJune 6,
2004Read more posts by the author of Dance, Drama and Performance and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder (ADHD),T Alexander

Challenges this link takes you to more specific challenges associated with
learning.

212
Comment #2 By The Compiler
The gods worshipped by the Tianos (Awaraks) on the islands of the Caribbean were not
the same as those worshipped by the Mayans, Aztecs or other groups of Indians in
Mexico, Honduras and elsewhere, in spite of the fact open channels of communications
existed between them. Perhaps an important reason for this is the fact that the islands did
not have the cultural, social or economic spaces required for the traditions and rituals
associated with those mainland religions.

For these reasons the islands of the Caribbean escaped the coming into being of "Village
Tribes" a feature of the islands of the South Seas, where in a space of 50 square miles
more than ten different tribes speaking different languages were to be found and in some
instances still can be found.

On the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Caribbean all islands without exception
were more developed in all sense of the word than their equivalents in the South Seas.

The failure of the Jamaican religious community to recognize that Jamaica is a small
island and not Israel, Egypt, Mexico or Peru/ Bolivia, has lead to practices which have
contributed in no small way to the "normalization" of some of the worse types of crime
and which have resulted in Jamaica becoming a very hostile place for living and the
rearing of families.

Both the Greeks and the Romans in recognizing the limitations imposed by space on their
city states-Athens & Rome, restricted and contained many of their "performances" to the
arena, be it in the form of sports, wars between gladiators or the feeding of people to
lions, thus preserving peace and order in their cities. One finds the same approach among
the Mayans, Aztecs and Incas. Where there was a need to make war with the "ungodly or
the heathens" they were found outside the borders of the state and not within.

While the Jamaican political system does allow itself to be used to play out and over, the
great wars of old and the various sporting competitions do lend themselves to replay
those " seasons" when kings went to war as described in the Bible and elsewhere, the
religious community has not found a way to contribute to social stability and the creation
of a sense of unity while conducting their rituals. Over and over it has been proven that
Jamaica is too small for the existence of all the gods, heroes and saints.

Each year, there is ritualistic bloodletting in Europe and elsewhere, be it in the form of
sending a plane to be shot down, allowing a terrorist to blow up or shoot up somewhere,
making a plane disappear etc or allowing terror attacks in London and Paris-but an
important objectiv of all of these acts is that of creating a sense of unity, common

213
mission and identity etc. Here in Jamaica religious bloodletting carries a mission of
sowing division, undermining national objectives and creating a culture of revenge.

It is the duty of the Leadership of the non-traditional high schools to be brutally honest
with themselves and to examine the socio-cultural environment in an objective way and
determine if they want Their Institutions to become social elements in a South Island
community, a contributor to a culture of destruction and revenge. Their examination of
self and the wider society will determine what they allow in their schools, the objective
purpose (mission) of the school-who they produce and what cultural values they
reproduce and propagate.

Perhaps a gladiator does not need quality education and the more socially and culturally
dysfunctional he or she is the better it is-the education of future teachers, nurses, police
officers, civil servants require a very different type of education and educational inputs.
The Principals, senior teachers and heads of departments along with the ordinary come
class room teacher either consciously or sub-consciously determine who is trained by the
given schools, the role their graduates will play in society and the contributions those
graduates will make.
End

Dance, Drama and Performance and Students with ADHD


Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity are the main characteristics of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). As a students academic success is often dependent on
their ability to attend to tasks and tutor expectations with minimal distractions, a student
with ADHD may struggle within the typical HE academic environment. Activities
associated with acquiring necessary information for completing tasks, completing
assignments and participating in discussions with their tutors and peers are all activities
that can potentially be problematic for the student with ADHD.

The behaviours associated with ADHD can change as people get older and where a young
child can often appear to have large amounts of energy and restlessness, adolescents and
young adults can often be withdrawn and less communicative. Characteristics of ADHD
can also include impulsivity and reacting spontaneously without regard to previous plans
or necessary tasks and assignments.

As students with ADHD may experience difficulties with the structured environment of a
tutorial or lecture or focusing on their assigned work, they may need adjustments to the
learning environment to help them remain focused on the task in hand. Students may
need to be questioned about where they prefer to sit within the learning environment to
help them to focus on what is being said, they may also benefit from working closely
with another student who can help them to develop their cooperation skills or, if space

214
permits, work in separate learning areas, away from other students. Different students
will find different scenarios work better for them and open communication with the
student about this is essential.

It is crucial to assess the unique education requirements of each student with ADHD on
an individual basis as they will all have different strengths. It may help to work in a
multidisciplinary team consisting of the student, other academic staff and the institutional
disability service. Assessments, such as a learning style inventory could be considered to
determine the students strengths and allow teaching staff to best build on these existing
abilities. The settings and contexts in which any difficulties occur should also be
considered as part of the evaluation.

There is some evidence to suggest that students with ADHD can excel at dance and
drama programmes, as they respond well to a less formally structured learning
environment, where they can express themselves more freely. At the same time, students
with ADHD can also possess the ability to totally focus on something when it really
interests them. Some education psychologists have also suggesting using music and
dance with children who have ADHD to help them to control their behaviour and focus
on their learning, so it is possible that some students may have learnt as children to
associate the use of music and dance with various methods of their learning. Students
with ADHD can also be total perfectionists in their area of interest, which can be
extremely beneficial to the student who is studying dance and drama. It is often just a
case of tapping into the most appropriate teaching method to give that student the best
opportunity to develop their skills.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Teaching strategies associated with ADHD / ADD

These strategies are suggestions for inclusive teaching. This list should not be
considered exhaustive and it is important to remember that all students are
individuals and what is considered to be good practice for one student may
not necessarily be good practice for another. You may also like to contact the
Disability Specialist in your institution for further information. If you have
any good practice that you would like to add to this list, please email your
suggestions to z.morton-jones@worc.ac.uk.

There are a number of strategies that can be employed in relation to the learning
environment and behaviour of tutors in order to help students with ADHD. It should be
recognised that students with ADHD often possess the necessary skills but just need
support in utilising them and often recognise what they should or shouldnt have done but
have little control over their behaviour.

Provide sufficient time to discuss needs with the student before/during their initial
teaching session.

215
Strategies Attention Skills

Arrange the learning environment in order to minimise distractions, e.g. seat


students with ADHD away from windows, and take care during group work as
students can become over-stimulated.
Use frequent eye contact.
Identify times and places where the student is more focused.
Give frequent reminders about how much time is left to complete tasks both
short-term (examinations) and long-term (assignments and coursework).
Integrate stretch breaks or relaxation exercises.
Include a variety of activities within programmes of study, such as questions,
discussions, practical activities, etc.
Use large fonts on handouts and provide only one or two main points to a page.
Avoid the use of illustrations that are not directly relevant to the task.
Use checklists for each assignment and outline the tasks to be completed.
Ensure student attention before giving an instruction and encourage students to
verbalise tasks and instruction first to the tutor and then silently to themselves.
Emphasise critical pieces of information.

Strategies Organisational Skills and Memory


Focus on tangible, short-term steps rather than long-term plans.
Agree on a concrete starting point to help with prioritisation and avoid
procrastination.
Provide structure and routine.
Allow the student to tape lectures and provide copies of OHPs.
Encourage the use of colour-coded ring-binders or notebooks for each subject
area.
Encourage the use of daily reminder schedules or to do lists and highlight priority
tasks.

Strategies Raising Self-Esteem


Try to adopt positive descriptions for students, e.g. instead of saying a student
is distractable say they have a high level of awareness.
Use assertive and positive communication, e.g. tell students what is required
instead of what is not required.
Encourage positive self-talk and internal control.
Students may benefit fom having a mentor to help them to develop their academic
and social skills.

Potential challenges to the achievement of learning


(please follow the links provided here.)
Dance, Drama and Performance and Ability to Empathise

216
Dance, Drama and Performance and Anxiety / Stress
Dance, Drama and Performance and Auditory Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Information Processing
Dance, Drama and Performance and Language / Comprehension
Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Memory / Recall Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Mobility Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Motivation
Dance, Drama and Performance and Motor / Manual Dexterity Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Organisational Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Speech Difficulties
Dance, Drama and Performance and Stamina
Dance, Drama and Performance and Visual Difficulties

TagsADD, ADHD, Attention Deficit Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity


Disorder, Dance, Drama, Performance
Source:- https://scips.worc.ac.uk/subjects-and-disabilities/dance-ddp_adhd/

Dancing helps boys with ADHD

Dance therapy can be a successful method for reaching children


and adolescents with problems. This has been shown in a
research project at Karlstad University and the University
College of Dance in Stockholm, Sweden.
Hyperactive and unruly boys with ADHD became calmer and played better with
playmates.

Depressed and self-destructive teenage girls were better at setting limits, and their
depression was alleviated.

217
For some groups in child and youth psychiatry it is difficult to find effective or sufficient
treatment. These include boys with ADHD and depressed, self-destructive adolescent
girls.

A research project in the province of Varmland, Sweden, shows that dance therapy is a
form of treatment that can work when other more traditional treatments fail or are
insufficient.

The research project was led by Professor Erna Gronlund, University College of Dance in
Stockholm, and Assistant Professor Barbro Renck, Karlstad University.

Barbro Renck has also worked as a specialist nurse in both child and youth psychiatry
and adult psychiatry.

"We are the first in the world to try and scientifically assess dance therapy as a form of
treatment for boys with ADHD", says Professor Erna Gronlund.

The research project has attracted a great deal of international attention. Findings from
the ADHD study have been published in The American Journal of Dance Therapy.

There is a great need today for variation in forms of treatment in child and youth
psychiatry. The assessment in the project Dance Therapy for Children and Adolescents
with Mental Disorders shows that dance can truly help.

"Boys with ADHD calmed down. Their parents and teachers reported that they did their
schoolwork better. One boy could only sit in a classroom for ten minutes previously, and
after dance therapy he could attend a whole lesson. These boys could also play with other
children without getting into conflict and fighting all the time," says Erna Gronlund.

It may seem strange to prescribe movement and stepped up activity for boys whose
problem is basically that they can't stop moving or calm down. But it works. The
exercises start at full throttle and then move on to components where you need to listen
and mimic, play to music, play roles, and then perform slower and slower moves.

218
"It can be hard to use conversational therapy for silent teenagers who neither wish nor
dare to speak about what bothers them. It turns out that dance is a good way to crank up
the energy and joy of living in depressed girls. An exercise with flamenco, for instance,
can also be about feeling pride and self-esteem and about setting limits and saying no,"
says Erna Gronlund.

"The results for both groups were good, but this is a small group of children and
adolescents, six boys and eleven girls, so we dare not be too sweeping in our conclusions.
More follow-up studies needed," says Barbro Renck.

The fact that several families have asked for the therapy to be continued also shows that
the project was a success.

"Unfortunately this form of therapy is not used in child and youth psychiatry today, but
we hope that the government authorities will actively recommend that counties introduce
dance therapy as a complement. Above all in regard to boys with ADHD it seems as if the
treatment needs to be repeated for the positive effects to be lasting," says Barbro Renck.

The research project was carried out at the Clinic for Child and Youth Psychiatry in
Karlstad during the period 20012005. The project is a collaborative effort involving the
University College of Dance in Stockholm, the Department of Public Health Science at
Karlstad University, the Clinic for Child and Youth Psychiatry in Karlstad, and Dance in
Varmland. The boys in the project were age 5-7 and the girls age 13-17.

Source: http://www.kau.se/eng/

219
Is this beyond the ability of Cumberland High School and the Other High
Schools in The Municipality of Portmore Who Have Learning
challenges? Could they have combined classes to more efficiently
utilize the resources which are available or which could be made
available?

Working with Special Needs


Students in Art
Special Education & the Arts
[ What I Need to Know | Classroom Management | Lesson Advice
Instructional Strategies | ADD/ADHD | Visual Impairment | ESL ]

This page was started as a result of Gail's Getty TeacherArtExchange List post -
March 2004.
From Gail:

220
I will be teaching art to 6 classes of special needs students from ages 3-21. Most of these
students have multiple handicaps and most come in with an aide for one on one or one aide
per three students. Any ideas?

From Sidnie Miller:


Our special needs kids do really well with clay. Depending on their level--some just come in
and pound on it -- their aids help them to build projects--some can't build, but can paint on
glazes. For some, just being with regular kids and acting appropriately is the goal, so what
they do is secondary to being there. Weaving is a good activity if they can do it.

From Sandra Barrick:


This is a wide range but doable and don't be intimidated by their handicaps. Most if not all
want to be independent and do things on their own. They are a very determined group as a
whole. Last year I worked with deaf children 3-11. A few had other disabilities as well, learning
disorders and rare skin diseases (where the fingers were just little nubs and the child actually
would bleed and blister if touched or from his own clothes. I also had a special needs child

who had a rare form of dwarfism. Besides


their disabilities you will be amazed by their spirit and the more severe the handicap the more
chances and independence they may want. I also worked for (HC) MRDD, which is the division
for our special needs kids, the age was 3-21. Through MRDD, I came in contact with severely
handicapped and they really couldn't do anything but lay and look. The most severe had aids
but also mentally were no older than a 3 -6 month old. Definitely get catalogs for supplies. If
you come in contact with their caretaker/parent ask then what their interests are and if they
have any supplies they could keep there. I am not sure how large your class will be but the
child I had who didn't not have fingers had his own supply box, all of them did but his had
scissors for his hands and crayons which had knobs on the end, etc. I also did a lot of sensory
material/lessons with them for fine motor. Coming from Montessori - the punching tools and
exercises really helped them. - Sandra

From Maggie White:


Concentrate on what the students CAN do, not on what they can't. Don't accept at face value
what their teachers or aides tell you the students can't do; they will always surprise you and
especially the people who think they know the kids so well. Don't hesitate to give the students
something more challenging. Read the book Exceptional Children, Exceptional Art (from
Davis). It provides a lot of insight into the physical, psychological, and emotional needs of a
range of disabilities and ages. You can adapt a lot of classroom tools like pencils or brushes by
using large foam curlers or the sponge-like foam (not the Styrofoam) that cushions computers
and such. You can saw it with a hacksaw blade so it fits their hands comfortably. Stencils work
better if they're tracing around the INSIDE of the stencil, rather than the outside. It seems
they have a harder time keeping their pencils up against the outside edge rather than the
inner edge. Shapes cut from sponges make neat stamps. Also weather stripping foam, which
is sticky on one side, can be cut into shapes and stuck to film canisters to make an easy-to-
grip stamp.

From Judy Potter:


Checkout at this site as a resource, http://www.wiu.edu/thecenter/art/

From Sue Freeland:


Here are some ideas off the top of my head... Clay projects.. The tactile feel of the clay might
be good for dexterity. Model magic... create an animal, blend clays to create new colors. Read
them a story then draw the ending or their favorite part. Give them shapes & pieces of stuff
(whatever) to glue down in a pattern or face or whatever. With Kinders, I took a large sheet of
yellow paper and cut a hole in the top to represent the window on a bus, the kids colored their
self portraits and I taped them in the window. All the yellow papers side by side made up the
bus. Also a good one is printing in shaving cream or pudding if you think they may eat it.

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Shaving cream is loved by all, even High school and leaves my counters and tables very clean!
I used to teach Autistic kids but they were very low functioning.

From Betty Bowen:


My special needs campers love the beads you make designs with and iron into a solid form -
now they come in larger sizes, too. They really loved the camp spin-art machine. I found their
bead-stringing patience to be inspiring. They also enjoyed making decorations for their
wheelchairs or walkers, like foam-core flames or sparkley things to go on the wheels.

In response to an Art Education List post asking for high school lesson ideas

From Kathy Douglas:


I would not bother too much with themes and subjects... leave that to them. When you look at
Outsider Art, sometimes made by artists in this population, it is raw, personal and sometimes
amazing.

If your students are not tactile defensive they might enjoy using plaster gauze over an
armature of half a gallon spring water jug to create masks. You can help them create great 3D
effects and then they can use their paint knowledge to add color. Also beads, feathers, etc for
decoration. I would have examples of Mardi Gras, theater and cultural masks. What they often
have in common is exaggeration of features. They could also choose animal masks. But I
would let them decide what sort of mask they want to make, from a list of options.

I have had some younger students on the Autism spectrum who were very uncomfortable
touching certain wet things... if that is the case in your class I would strongly suggest an
alternate project available, so that they can find their comfort level. And one of my students
overcame his discomfort when he saw his friends using the plaster. Because he was able to
decide when he was ready to use it, he felt in control and was proud of himself when it was
done.

From Terri Noell:


I teach at a Special Needs Magnet school... With the Autistic students, I find that adding
scents and textures to the paint will very much interest these students... I have some
students that touch and feel everything and some that taste everything so these were very
exciting for them... I use finger cover tip brushes with my younger students since a lot of
them have trouble holding paint brushes effectively... also great for other students with
coordination issues... I would advise a lot of lessons that effect their other senses besides just
the 2-D art...

From Sandy:
I teach in a magnet school for Cognitively Impaired kids, pre-school to 6th grade. I have
found that these kids are often fabulous painters. I do limit all black & brown paint
though! More abstract work seems to work best for most of them. Printmaking works
well, perhaps with pre-cut stamps, Styrofoam or found objects, at least something that they
don't have to cut themselves. 3D constructions are great, and what I offer may be more
suitable for Elementary. But we use clay, wood scraps, cardboard, (tubes & flat pieces). Old
puzzle pieces for jewelry, etc. I do papier mache sculpture or masks etc with them even
though some are tactile defensive and hate to touch the paste. I offer plastic gloves if they
need them. We've done basic weavings, & simple sewing with big needles. Some of the
kids love to draw, others not, but it is good to let them try and they tell great stories about
their work! This is the first year that I have tried a TAB (Teaching for Artistic Behavior -
Choice Based) approach with these kids and it has been wonderfully successful. The kids just
love it.
See Resources compiled by Bernie Poole and Yvonne Singer [Archive]
Includes resources for elementary and secondary education.

Sax Arts and Crafts Catalog has a section for special needs students and has a separate
catalog available. Adaptive Product index is on page 588 in the main catalog. 1-800-588-6696.
From Pam Whisenhunt - Working with LD Students

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Lesson Plans:
Lesson Plan tips for LD Students - from Pam Whisenhunt
P. Buckley Moss Foundation lessons [Archive] "For Special Learners: Growing Through the
Arts" P. Buckley Moss Foundation Find out more about P. Buckley Moss

Art for Children and Adults with Disabilities:


http://www.kinderart.com/special/

Some Helpful Links:


IAD's Special Education page
Great Ideas for Special Artists - for clay, drawing and painting (Archive)
Easy to follow directions for clay bowl and other clay projects.
Special Needs Supplies from Dick Blick

Links for children with Autism:


http://www.lessontutor.com/autismgenhome.html

Activities for Teaching About Disabilities:


http://www.educationworld.com/a_lesson/lesson115.shtml
Keystone Arts Education Network (home page)
http://www.keyarts.ws/content/view/18/156/ [Archive]
Special Education - Disability Links:
http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/special_ed/disabilities/

Special Education Links:


http://www.teach-nology.com/teachers/special_ed/
Teaching Art to Students With Special Needs - page by Sara Green
http://www.saragreen.net/mh.html
National Arts and Disability Center:
http://nadc.ucla.edu/
ArtExpress - Lessons Adaptable to children with disabilities:
http://www.harcourtschool.com/menus/art_express.html
Adapting Art Materials for Children with Disabilities:
http://www.wiu.edu/users/mfkls1/artexpress/adaptat.html
Special Education and the Arts
http://www.southernct.edu/~gerber/SEDarts/index.htm [Archive]
On this site is an extensive list of resources:
http://www.southernct.edu/~gerber/SEDarts/SEDArts%20References.htm [Archive]

Organizations:
http://www.southernct.edu/~gerber/SEDarts/SEDArtsOrganizations.htm [Archive]
Teaching Art Safely to the Disabled
VSA arts:
http://www.vsarts.org/
Teaching Special Needs Kids - Online Resources from Education World:
http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr139.shtml
Arts & Activities article: Making art activities work for students with special needs by Anne
Vize (Archive)
Creativity Explored - nonprofit visual arts center where artists with developmental disabilities
create, exhibit, and sell art.

Artists with Disabilities


Dan Keplinger - He calls himself King Gimp. Visit the Virtual Gallery and be awed.
Brett Eastburn - He was my art student when he was in 4th grade. He is now a motivational
speaker.

Books:
Exceptional Children: Exceptional Art : Teaching Art to Special Needs

223
by Authors: David R. Henley
The Power of the Arts: Creative Strategies for Teaching Exceptional Learners
By Sally L. Smith

Resources:
Flag House is an organization and a catalog for activities and supplies for disabled
student/people.
http://www.flaghouse.com
Another resource
http://www.enablingdevices.com/

CATALOGS FOR EDUCATORS of the disabled:


Flag House
800-793-7900
sales@flaghouse.com

Greystone Educational Materials


1-800-733-0671
P.O Box 86
Scandia, MN 55073
- See more at:
http://www.incredibleart.org/files/special.htm#sthash.Ux9iBlno.dpuf

Source:- http://www.incredibleart.org/files/special.htm

Feat of Clay: Pottery projects


give Jackson County
special-ed students hands-
on experience
Print Email

By Jackson Citizen Patriot staff

on April 22, 2011 at 5:45 AM

224
Libby March | Citizen Patriot Sophomore

Darius Mackey shares a laugh with Jackson Pottery and Clay Guild member Romelle Frey as they work

on throwing a clay mug Thursday at Mary Humphrey's Pottery Studio.

By Lonnie Huhman

Brandon Blankenship took a moment from painting a clay mold to look up and
smile.

Im an artist, the 10th-grader beamed.

Moments such as that one have been plentiful the past several weeks for
Northwest High School teacher Nancy Snow, whose students in the Moderately
Cognitive Impaired (MoCI) program have been learning the old craft of pottery
and clay outside the classroom.

Snows students have been working on a sculpture project and enjoying


experiences they could not have had in the classroom.

Junior Neal Smith took home some extra clay to make a miniature tea pot, and
then brought it back to show everyone.

This is one of the best things weve done, Snow said. It has been a great
experience.

Students are working at the local studio of Mary and Darrell Humphrey on a
project that will have them creating two totem poles of clay designs and a clay
face post that will be placed in the schools courtyard.

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The MoCI program takes in students from all over Jackson County, and Snow
hopes her students learn life skills and how to interact in a variety of situations.

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1 / 13
CITIZEN PATRIOT LIBBY MARCH Northwest junior Alison Hinkle paints her ceramic
creation Thursday morning at Mary Humphrey's Pottery Studio. Members of the Clay Guild
were helping Northwest special education students make totems for the school
courtyard. To buy reprints or merchandise of this and other Citizen Patriot photos,
visit citpat.photoreprintservices.com
Libby March
Snow said she is grateful for the help she has received for the art
program, including funding from Mounties on a Mission, assistance
from the Jackson Pottery and Clay Guild, and the Humphreys
hospitality.

The Humphreys and guild volunteers have assisted the students in


creating the display pieces. On a recent day, Darrell Humphrey
helped sophomore Darius Mackey paint the face post outside in the
studios backyard, while indoors, guild President Romelle Frey guided
students hands as they formed bowls on the pottery wheel.

227
They dont get a lot of art exposure, so they just love this, Snow
said. Working with their hands like this has really given them a
feeling of pride.

Blankenship, in particular, is looking forward to seeing his work


placed in the schools courtyard once its completed.

I cant wait, he said.

Source:- http://www.mlive.com/news/jackson/index.ssf/2011/04/post_103.html

ADHD or ADD in Children


Signs and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder in Kids

Its normal for children to occasionally forget their homework, daydream during
class, act without thinking, or get fidgety at the dinner table. But inattention,
impulsivity, and hyperactivity are also signs of attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD or ADD). ADHD can lead to problems at home and school and
affect your childs ability to learn and get along with others. The first step to

228
addressing the problem and getting your child the help he or she needs is to
learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of ADHD.

What is ADHD or ADD?

We all know kids who cant sit still, who never seem to listen, who dont follow
instructions no matter how clearly you present them, or who blurt out
inappropriate comments at inappropriate times. Sometimes these children are
labeled as troublemakers, or criticized for being lazy and undisciplined. However,
they may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), formerly known
as attention deficit disorder, or ADD. ADHD makes it difficult for people to inhibit
their spontaneous responsesresponses that can involve everything from
movement to speech to attentiveness.

Is it normal kid behavior or is it ADHD?

The signs and symptoms of ADHD typically appear before the age of seven.
However, it can be difficult to distinguish between attention deficit disorder and
normal kid behavior.

If you spot just a few signs, or the symptoms appear only in some situations, its
probably not ADHD. On the other hand, if your child shows a number of ADHD
signs and symptoms that are present across all situationsat home, at school,
and at playits time to take a closer look.

Once you understand the issues your child is struggling with, such as
forgetfulness or difficulty paying attention in school, you can work together to find
creative solutions and capitalize on strengths.

Myths & Facts about Attention Deficit Disorder


Myth: All kids with ADHD are hyperactive.

Fact: Some children with ADHD are hyperactive, but many others with attention
problems are not. Children with ADHD who are inattentive, but not overly active,
may appear to be spacey and unmotivated.
Myth: Kids with ADHD can never pay attention.

Fact: Children with ADHD are often able to concentrate on activities they enjoy.

229
Myths & Facts about Attention Deficit Disorder

But no matter how hard they try, they have trouble maintaining focus when the
task at hand is boring or repetitive.
Myth: Kids with ADHD could behave better if they wanted to.

Fact: Children with ADHD may do their best to be good, but still be unable to sit
still, stay quiet, or pay attention. They may appear disobedient, but that doesnt
mean theyre acting out on purpose.
Myth: Kids will eventually grow out of ADHD.

Fact: ADHD often continues into adulthood, so dont wait for your child to outgrow
the problem. Treatment can help your child learn to manage and minimize the
symptoms.
Myth: Medication is the best treatment option for ADHD.

Fact: Medication is often prescribed for attention deficit disorder, but it might not
be the best option for your child. Effective treatment for ADHD also includes
education, behavior therapy, support at home and school, exercise, and proper
nutrition.

The primary characteristics of ADHD

When many people think of attention deficit disorder, they picture an out-of-
control kid in constant motion, bouncing off the walls and disrupting everyone
around. But this is not the only possible picture.

Some children with ADHD are hyperactive, while others sit quietlywith their
attention miles away. Some put too much focus on a task and have trouble
shifting it to something else. Others are only mildly inattentive, but overly
impulsive.

The three primary characteristics of ADHD

The three primary characteristics of ADHD are inattention, hyperactivity, and


impulsivity. The signs and symptoms a child with attention deficit disorder has
depends on which characteristics predominate.

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Which one of these children may have ADHD?
A. The hyperactive boy who talks nonstop and cant sit still.
B. The quiet dreamer who sits at her desk and stares off into space.
C. Both A and B

The correct answer is C.

Children with ADHD may be:

Inattentive, but not hyperactive or impulsive.


Hyperactive and impulsive, but able to pay attention.
Inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive (the most common form of ADHD).

Children who only have inattentive symptoms of ADHD are often overlooked,
since theyre not disruptive. However, the symptoms of inattention have
consequences: getting in hot water with parents and teachers for not following
directions; underperforming in school; or clashing with other kids over not playing
by the rules.

Spotting ADHD at different ages

Because we expect very young children to be easily distractible and hyperactive,


its the impulsive behaviorsthe dangerous climb, the blurted insultthat often
stand out in preschoolers with ADHD.

By age four or five, though, most children have learned how to pay attention to
others, to sit quietly when instructed to, and not to say everything that pops into
their heads. So by the time children reach school age, those with ADHD stand
out in all three behaviors: inattentiveness, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Inattentiveness signs and symptoms of ADHD

It isnt that children with ADHD cant pay attention: when theyre doing things they
enjoy or hearing about topics in which theyre interested, they have no trouble
focusing and staying on task. But when the task is repetitive or boring, they
quickly tune out.

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Staying on track is another common problem. Children with ADHD often bounce
from task to task without completing any of them, or skip necessary steps in
procedures. Organizing their schoolwork and their time is harder for them than it
is for most children.

Kids with ADHD also have trouble concentrating if there are things going on
around them; they usually need a calm, quiet environment in order to stay
focused.

Symptoms of inattention in children:

1. Has trouble staying focused; is easily distracted or gets bored with a task
before its completed
2. Appears not to listen when spoken to
3. Has difficulty remembering things and following instructions; doesnt pay
attention to details or makes careless mistakes
4. Has trouble staying organized, planning ahead, and finishing projects
5. Frequently loses or misplaces homework, books, toys, or other items

Hyperactivity signs and symptoms of ADHD

The most obvious sign of ADHD is hyperactivity. While many children are
naturally quite active, kids with hyperactive symptoms of attention deficit disorder
are always moving.

They may try to do several things at once, bouncing around from one activity to
the next. Even when forced to sit still which can be very difficult for them their foot
is tapping, their leg is shaking, or their fingers are drumming.

Symptoms of hyperactivity in children:

1. Constantly fidgets and squirms


2. Has difficulty sitting still, playing quietly, or relaxing
3. Moves around constantly, often runs or climbs inappropriately
4. Talks excessively
5. May have a quick temper or short fuse

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Impulsive signs and symptoms of ADHD

The impulsivity of children with ADHD can cause problems with self-control.
Because they censor themselves less than other kids do, theyll interrupt
conversations, invade other peoples space, ask irrelevant questions in class,
make tactless observations, and ask overly personal questions.

Instructions like Be patient and Just wait a little while are twice as hard for
children with ADHD to follow as they are for other youngsters.

Children with impulsive signs and symptoms of ADHD also tend to be moody and
to overreact emotionally. As a result, others may start to view the child as
disrespectful, weird, or needy.

Symptoms of impulsivity in children:

1. Acts without thinking


2. Guesses, rather than taking time to solve a problem or blurts out answers
in class without waiting to be called on or hear the whole question
3. Intrudes on other peoples conversations or games
4. Often interrupts others; says the wrong thing at the wrong time
5. Inability to keep powerful emotions in check, resulting in angry outbursts
or temper tantrums

Is it really ADHD?

Just because a child has symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, or hyperactivity


does not mean that he or she has ADHD. Certain medical conditions,
psychological disorders, and stressful life events can cause symptoms that look
like ADHD.

Before an accurate diagnosis of ADHD can be made, it is important that you see
a mental health professional to explore and rule out the following possibilities:

Learning disabilities or problems with reading, writing, motor skills, or language.

Major life events or traumatic experiences (e.g. a recent move, death of a loved
one, bullying, divorce).

233
Psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and bipolar disorder.

Behavioral disorders such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder.

Medical conditions, including thyroid problems, neurological conditions, epilepsy,


and sleep disorders.

A learning disability may be mistaken for ADHD

Think your child has attention deficit disorder? Sometimes, kids who are having
trouble in school are incorrectly diagnosed with ADHD, when what they really
have is a learning disability. Furthermore, many kids struggle with both ADHD
and a learning disability. See: Learning Disabilities and Disorders

Positive effects of ADHD in children

In addition to the challenges, there are also positive traits associated with people
who have attention deficit disorder:

Creativity Children who have ADHD can be marvelously creative and


imaginative. The child who daydreams and has ten different thoughts at once can
become a master problem-solver, a fountain of ideas, or an inventive artist.
Children with ADHD may be easily distracted, but sometimes they notice what
others dont see.

Flexibility Because children with ADHD consider a lot of options at once, they
dont become set on one alternative early on and are more open to different
ideas.

Enthusiasm and spontaneity Children with ADHD are rarely boring! Theyre
interested in a lot of different things and have lively personalities. In short, if
theyre not exasperating you (and sometimes even when they are), theyre a lot of
fun to be with.

Energy and drive When kids with ADHD are motivated, they work or play hard
and strive to succeed. It actually may be difficult to distract them from a task that
interests them, especially if the activity is interactive or hands-on.

234
Keep in mind, too, that ADHD has nothing to do with intelligence or talent. Many
children with ADHD are intellectually or artistically gifted.

Helping a child with ADHD

Whether or not your childs symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity


are due to ADHD, they can cause many problems if left untreated. Children who
cant focus and control themselves may struggle in school, get into frequent
trouble, and find it hard to get along with others or make friends. These
frustrations and difficulties can lead to low self-esteem as well as friction and
stress for the whole family.

But treatment can make a dramatic difference in your childs symptoms. With the
right support, your child can get on track for success in all areas of life.

Dont wait to get help for your child

If your child struggles with symptoms that look like ADHD, dont wait to seek
professional help. You can treat your childs symptoms of hyperactivity,
inattention, and impulsivity without having a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder.

Options to start with include getting your child into therapy, implementing a better
diet and exercise plan, and modifying the home environment to minimize
distractions.

If you do receive a diagnosis of ADHD, you can then work with your childs
doctor, therapist, and school to make a personalized treatment plan that meets
his or her specific needs. Effective treatment for childhood ADHD involves
behavioral therapy, parent education and training, social support, and assistance
at school. Medication may also be used, however, it should never be the sole
attention deficit disorder treatment.

Parenting tips for children with ADHD

If your child is hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive, it may take a lot of energy to


get him or her to listen, finish a task, or sit still. The constant monitoring can be
frustrating and exhausting. Sometimes you may feel like your child is running the

235
show. But there are steps you can take to regain control of the situation, while
simultaneously helping your child make the most of his or her abilities.

While attention deficit disorder is not caused by bad parenting, there are effective
parenting strategies that can go a long way to correct problem behaviors.

Children with ADHD need structure, consistency, clear communication, and


rewards and consequences for their behavior. They also need lots of love,
support, and encouragement.

There are many things parents can do to reduce the signs and symptoms of
ADHD without sacrificing the natural energy, playfulness, and sense of wonder
unique in every child.

Take care of yourself so youre better able to care for your child. Eat right, exercise,
get enough sleep, find ways to reduce stress, and seek face-to-face support from
family and friends as well as your childs doctor and teachers.

Establish structure and stick to it. Help your child stay focused and organized by
following daily routines, simplifying your childs schedule, and keeping your child
busy with healthy activities.

Set clear expectations. Make the rules of behavior simple and explain what will
happen when they are obeyed or brokenand follow through each time with a
reward or a consequence.

Encourage exercise and sleep. Physical activity improves concentration and


promotes brain growth. Importantly for children with ADHD, it also leads to better
sleep, which in turn can reduce the symptoms of ADHD.

Help your child eat right. To manage symptoms of ADHD, schedule regular
healthy meals or snacks every three hours and cut back on junk and sugary food.

Teach your child how to make friends. Help him or her become a better listener,
learn to read peoples faces and body language, and interact more smoothly with
others.

School tips for children with ADHD

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ADHD, obviously, gets in the way of learning. You cant absorb information or get
your work done if youre running around the classroom or zoning out on what
youre supposed to be reading or listening to.

Think of what the school setting requires children to do: Sit still. Listen quietly.
Pay attention. Follow instructions. Concentrate. These are the very things kids
with ADHD have a hard time doingnot because they arent willing, but because
their brains wont let them.

But that doesnt mean kids with ADHD cant succeed at school. There are many
things both parents and teachers can do to help children with ADHD thrive in the
classroom. It starts with evaluating each childs individual weaknesses and
strengths, then coming up with creative strategies for helping the child focus, stay
on task, and learn to his or her full capability.

Tips for managing ADHD symptoms at school


Symptom: Distractibility

Tip: Seat the child away from doors and windows. Alternate seated activities with
those that allow the child to move around. Divide big assignments into smaller
ones and allow frequent breaks.
Symptom: Interrupting

Tip: Use discreet gestures or words you have previously agreed upon to let the
child know they are interrupting. Praise the child for interruption-free
conversations.
Symptom: Impulsivity

Tip: Tape a written behavior plan to the wall or the childs desk. Give
consequences immediately following misbehavior and recognize good behavior
out loud.
Symptom: Fidgeting and hyperactivity

Tip: Finding creative ways to allow the child to move in appropriate ways at
appropriate times can make it easier for the child to keep still during work time.
Provide a stress ball, encourage exercise before and after school, and ask the
child to run errands in the classroom.

237
Tips for managing ADHD symptoms at school
Symptom: Trouble following directions

Tip: Break down and reinforce the steps involved in your instructions. Allow the
child to do one step and then come back to find out what they should do next. If
the child gets off track, give a calm reminder. Write directions on a board.
Symptom: General inattentiveness

Tip: Make learning fun. Using physical motion in a lesson, connecting dry facts to
interesting trivia, or inventing silly songs that make details easier to remember
can help a child enjoy learning and even reduce the symptoms of ADHD

Source:- https://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/attention-deficit-disorder-adhd-in-
children.htm

ADHD and School


Helping Children and Teens with ADHD Succeed at School

School creates multiple challenges for kids with ADHD, but with patience and an
effective plan, your child can thrive in the classroom. As a parent, you can work
with your child and his or her teacher to implement practical strategies for
learning both inside and out of the classroom. With consistent support, these
strategies can help your child meet learning challengesand experience success
at school.

238
Setting up your child for school success

The classroom environment can be a challenging place for a child with attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD). The very tasks these students find
the most difficultsitting still, listening quietly, concentratingare the ones they
are required to do all day long. Perhaps most frustrating of all is that most these
children want to be able to learn and behave like their unaffected peers.
Neurological deficits, not unwillingness, keep kids with attention deficit disorder
from learning in traditional ways.

As a parent, you can help your child cope with these deficits and meet the
challenges school creates. You can provide the most effective support: equipping
your child with learning strategies for the classroom and communicating with
teachers about how your child learns best. With support at home and teaching
strategies at work in the classroom, there is no reason why kids with ADHD cant
flourish in school.

Tips for working with teachers

Remember that your childs teacher has a full plate: in addition to managing a
group of children with distinct personalities and learning styles, he or she can
also expect to have at least one student with ADHD. Teachers can do their best
to help your child with attention deficit disorder learn effectively, but parental
involvement can dramatically improve your childs education. You have the power
to optimize your childs chances for success by supporting the work done in the
classroom. If you can work with and support your childs teacher, you can directly
affect the experience of your child with ADHD in the classroom.

There are a number of ways you can work with teachers to keep your child on
track at school. Together you can help your child with ADHD learn to find his or
her feet in the classroom and work effectively through the challenges of the
school day.

Communicate with school and teachers

As a parent, you are your childs advocate. For your child to succeed in the
classroom, it is vital that you communicate his or her needs to the adults at

239
school. It is equally important for you to listen to what the teachers and other
school officials have to say.

You can make communication with your childs school constructive and
productive. Try to keep in mind that your mutual purpose is finding out how to
best help your child succeed in school. Whether you talk over the phone, email,
or meet in person, make an effort to be calm, specific, and above all positivea
good attitude can go a long way in communication with school.

Plan ahead. You can arrange to speak with school officials or teachers before the
school year even begins. If the year has started, plan to speak with a teacher or
counselor on at least a monthly basis.

Make meetings happen. Agree on a time that works for both you and your childs
teacher and stick to it. If it's convenient, meet in your childs classroom so you
can get a sense of your childs physical learning environment.

Create goals together. Discuss your hopes for your childs school success.
Together, write down specific and realistic goals and talk about how they can be
reached.

Listen carefully. Like you, your childs teacher wants to see your child succeed at
school. Listen to what he or she has to sayeven if it is sometimes hard to hear.
Understanding your childs challenges in school is the key to finding solutions that
work.

Share information. You know your childs history, and your childs teacher sees
him or her every day: together you have a lot of information that can lead to better
understanding of your childs hardships. Share your observations freely, and
encourage your childs teachers to do the same.

Ask the hard questions and give a complete picture. Be sure to list any medications
your child takes and explain any other treatments. Share with your childs teacher
what tactics work welland which dontfor your child at home. Ask if your child
is having any problems in school, including on the playground. Find out if your
child can get any special services to help with learning.

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Develop and use a behavior plan

Children with ADD/ADHD are capable of appropriate classroom behavior, but


they need structure and clear expectations in order to keep their symptoms in
check. As a parent, you can help by developing a behavior plan for your child
and sticking to it. Whatever type of behavior plan you put in place, create it in
close collaboration with your childs teacher and your child.

Kids with attention deficit disorder respond best to specific goals and daily
positive reinforcementas well as worthwhile rewards. Yes, you may have to
hang a carrot on a stick to get your child to behave better in class. Create a plan
that incorporates small rewards for small victories and larger rewards for bigger
accomplishments.

Find a behavior plan that works

Click here to download a highly regarded behavior plan called The Daily Report
Card, which can be adjusted for elementary, middle and even high school
students with ADHD.

Source: Center for Children and Families

Tips for managing ADHD symptoms at school

ADHD impacts each childs brain differently, so each case can look quite different
in the classroom. Children with ADHD exhibit a range of symptoms: some seem
to bounce off the walls, some daydream constantly, and others just cant seem to
follow the rules.

As a parent, you can help your child with ADHD reduce any or all of these types
of behaviors. It is important to understand how attention deficit disorder affects
different childrens behavior so that you can choose the appropriate strategies for
tackling the problem. There are a variety of fairly straightforward approaches you
and your childs teacher can take to best manage the symptoms of ADHDand
put your child on the road to school success.

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Tips for teachers

For more teaching strategies to help children with ADHD in the classroom, see:
Teaching Students with ADHD.

Distractibility

Students with ADHD may be so easily distracted by noises, passersby, or their


own thoughts that they often miss vital classroom information. These children
have trouble staying focused on tasks that require sustained mental effort. They
may seem to be listening to you, but something gets in the way of their ability to
retain the information.

Helping kids who distract easily involves physical placement, increased


movement, and breaking long work into shorter chunks.

Seat the child with ADHD away from doors and windows. Put pets in
another room or a corner while the student is working.
Alternate seated activities with those that allow the child to move his or her
body around the room. Whenever possible, incorporate physical
movement into lessons.
Write important information down where the child can easily read and
reference it. Remind the student where the information can be found.
Divide big assignments into smaller ones, and allow children frequent
breaks.

Interrupting

Kids with attention deficit disorder may struggle with controlling their impulses, so
they often speak out of turn. In the classroom or home, they call out or comment
while others are speaking. Their outbursts may come across as aggressive or
even rude, creating social problems as well. The self-esteem of children with
ADHD is often quite fragile, so pointing this issue out in class or in front of family
members doesnt help the problemand may even make matters worse.

Reducing the interruptions of children with ADHD should be done carefully so


that the childs self-esteem is maintained, especially in front of others. Develop a
secret language with the child with ADHD. You can use discreet gestures or

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words you have previously agreed upon to let the child know they are interrupting.
Praise the child for interruption-free conversations.

Impulsivity

Children with ADHD may act before thinking, creating difficult social situations in
addition to problems in the classroom. Kids who have trouble with impulse control
may come off as aggressive or unruly. This is perhaps the most disruptive
symptom of ADHD, particularly at school.

Methods for managing impulsivity include behavior plans, immediate discipline


for infractions, and ways to give children with ADHD a sense of control over their
day.

Make sure a written behavior plan is near the student. You can even tape it to the
wall or the childs desk.

Give consequences immediately following misbehavior. Be specific in your


explanation, making sure the child knows how they misbehaved.

Recognize good behavior out loud. Be specific in your praise, making sure the
child knows what they did right.

Write the schedule for the day on the board or on a piece of paper and cross off
each item as it is completed. Children with impulse problems may gain a sense of
control and feel calmer when they know what to expect.

Fidgeting and hyperactivity

ADD causes many students to be in constant physical motion. It may seem like a
struggle for these children to stay in their seats. Kids with ADD/ADHD may jump,
kick, twist, fidget and otherwise move in ways that make them difficult to teach.

Strategies for combating hyperactivity consist of creative ways to allow the child
with ADHD to move in appropriate ways at appropriate times. Releasing energy
this way may make it easier for the child to keep his or her body calmer during
work time.

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Ask children with ADHD to run an errand or do a task for you, even if it just
means walking across the room to sharpen pencils or put dishes away.

Encourage a child with ADHD to play a sportor at least run around before and
after schooland make sure the child never misses recess or P.E.

Provide a stress ball, small toy, or other object for the child to squeeze or play with
discreetly at his or her seat.

Limit screen time in favor of time for movement.

Trouble following directions

Difficulty following directions is a hallmark problem for many children with ADHD.
These kids may look like they understand and might even write down directions,
but then arent able to do what has been asked. Sometimes these students miss
steps and turn in incomplete work, or misunderstand an assignment altogether
and wind up doing something else entirely.

Helping children with ADHD follow directions means taking measures to break
down and reinforce the steps involved in your instructions, and redirecting when
necessary. Try being extremely brief when giving directions, allowing the child to
do one step and then come back to find out what they should do next. If the child
gets off track, give a calm reminder, redirecting in a calm but firm voice.
Whenever possible, write directions down in a bold marker or in colored chalk on
a blackboard.

Medication for ADHD: What parents should know

Many schools urge parents to medicate children with attention deficit disorder,
and you may feel unsure about what this means. While medication can help with
the symptoms of ADHD, it is not a cure and comes with side effects. As a parent,
you should weigh the benefits and risks of medications for ADHD before using
them to treat your child. See ADHD or ADD Medications

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Tips for making learning fun

One positive way to keep your child's attention focused on learning is to make the
process fun. Using physical motion in a lesson, connecting dry facts to interesting
trivia, or inventing silly songs that make details easier to remember can help your
child enjoy learning and even reduce the symptoms of ADHD.

Helping children with ADHD enjoy math

Children who have attention deficit disorder tend to be concrete thinkers. They
often like to hold, touch, or take part in an experience in order to learn something
new. By using games and objects to demonstrate mathematical concepts, you
can show your child that math can be meaningfuland fun.

Play games. Use memory cards, dice, or dominoes to make numbers fun. Or
simply use your fingers and toes, tucking them in or wiggling them when you add
or subtract.

Draw pictures. Especially for word problems, illustrations can help kids better
understand mathematical concepts. If the word problem says there are twelve
cars, help your child draw them from steering wheel to trunk.

Invent silly acronyms. In order to remember order of operations, for example,


make up a song or phrase that uses the first letter of each operation in the correct
order.

Helping children with ADHD enjoy reading

There are many ways to make reading exciting, even if the skill itself tends to be a
struggle for children with ADHD. Keep in mind that reading at its most basic level
made up of stories and interesting informationthings that all children enjoy.

Read to children. Read with children. Make reading cozy, quality time with you.

Make predictions or bets. Constantly ask the child what they think might happen
next. Model prediction: The girl in the story seems pretty braveI bet shes
going to try to save her family.

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Act out the story. Let the child choose his or her character and assign you one,
too. Use funny voices and costumes to bring it to life.

How does your kid like to learn?

When children are given information in a way that makes it easy for them to
absorb, learning is a lot more fun. If you understand how your child with ADHD
learns best, you can create enjoyable lessons that pack an informational punch.

Auditory learners learn best by talking and listening. Have these kids recite
facts to a favorite song. Let them pretend they are on a radio show and
work with others often.
Visual learners learn best through reading or observation. Let them have
fun with different fonts on the computer and use colored flash cards to
study. Allow them to write or draw their ideas on paper.
Tactile learners learn best by physically touching something or moving as
part of a lesson. For these students, provide jellybeans for counters and
costumes for acting out parts of literature or history. Let them use clay and
make collages.

Its tough to enjoy learning when there is something undiagnosed standing in the
way. In addition to ADHD, children may also be affected by learning disabilities.
These issues make even the most exciting lessons extremely difficult for
students. Like children with attention deficit disorder, children with learning
disabilities can succeed in the classroom, and there are many ways you can help.
See Learning Disabilities and Disorders.

ADHD and school: Tips for mastering homework

Sure, kids may universally dread itbut for a parent of a child with ADHD,
homework is a golden opportunity. Academic work done outside the classroom
provides you as the parent with a chance to directly support your child. Its a time
you can help your child succeed at school where you both feel most comfortable:
your own living room.

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With your support, kids with ADHD can use homework time not only for math
problems or writing essays, but also for practicing the organizational and study
skills they need to thrive in the classroom.

Helping a child with ADHD get organized

With organization, it can help to get a fresh start. Even if its not the start of the
academic year, go shopping with your child and pick out school supplies that
include folders, a three-ring binder, and color-coded dividers. Help the child file
his or her papers into this new system.

Establish a homework folder for finished homework and organize loose


papers by color coding folders and showing the child how to file
appropriately.
Help your child organize his or her belongings on a daily basis, including
backpack, folders, and even pockets.
If possible, keep an extra set of textbooks and other materials at home.
Help your child learn to make and use checklists, crossing items off as
they are accomplished.

Helping a child with ADHD get homework done on time

Understanding concepts and getting organized are two steps in the right
direction, but homework also has to get done in a single eveningand turned in
on time. Help a child with ADHD to the finish line with strategies that provide
consistent structure.

Pick a specific time and place for homework that is as free as possible of
clutter, pets, and television.
Allow the child breaks as often as every ten to twenty minutes.
Teach a better understanding of the passage of time: use an analog clock
and timers to monitor homework efficiency.
Set up a homework procedure at school: establish a place where the
student can easily find his or her finished homework and pick a consistent
time to hand in work to the teacher.

Other ways to help your child with homework

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Encourage exercise and sleep. Physical activity improves concentration and
promotes brain growth. Importantly for children with ADHD, it also leads to better
sleep, which in turn can reduce the symptoms of ADHD.

Help your child eat right. Scheduling regular nutritious meals and snacks while
cutting back on junk and sugary foods can help manage symptoms of ADHD.

Take care of yourself so youre better able to care for your child. Dont neglect your
own needs. Try to eat right, exercise, get enough sleep, manage stress, and seek
face-to-face support from family and friends

Source:- https://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/attention-deficit-disorder-adhd-
and-school.htm

Teaching Students with ADHD to F.O.C.U.S.: A Learning Strategy

Dr. Victoria Groves Scott, Ed.D.


Assistant Provost for Academic Innovation and Effectiveness and Professor of Special
Education, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Kendra Fark
Speech Language Pathologist completing her clinical fellowship year in Illinois

Students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a significant


portion of the students receiving intervention in schools. Bloom and Cohen report that
4.5 million children in the United States between the ages of 3 and 17 had ADHD in 2006
(Bloom & Cohen, 2007). This disorder can have a significant impact on students
academic success due to difficulty with selective attention, sustained attention,
impulsivity, and high levels of activity. One specific characteristic which inhibits
academic success is reduced ability to selectively attend in order to listen to and follow
directions (Maag & Anderson, 2007; Zentall, 2005). Learning strategies are a frequently
used intervention for students with ADHD (Zentall, 2005). Furthermore, learning
strategies to improve listening effectiveness are supported for this population (Alberta
Education, 2006).

This article focuses on teaching a learning strategy to develop improved listening in


students with ADHD. The goals of this article are to briefly define learning strategies,
discuss necessary aspects of listening, introduce the FOCUS strategy, explain how to
teach FOCUS, and explain how to evaluate students use of FOCUS in class.

What is a Learning Strategy?

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Learning strategies are actions taken by the student to make learning easier, faster, more
self-directed, more effective, and transferrable to new situations (Oxford, 1990).
Developed to help students succeed in a variety of academic areas, learning strategies
often employ the use of a first-letter mnemonic used to cue students to follow strategy
steps. Depending on the strategy, these steps guide students as they work on academic
tasks, such as reading comprehension, paragraph writing, or test taking. Learning
strategies do not teach students content. They do, however, teach students how to
approach the content. Instead of teaching students multiplication facts, a learning
strategy might teach students the steps necessary to solve a multiplication problem (Scott
& Compton, 2007). Proven to be one of the most effective instructional techniques for
students with learning problems, strategy instruction is often crucial for students success
(Beckman, 2002; Reid & Lienemann, 2006).

What are the Elements of Listening?

The first step in developing a learning strategy for improved listening is to identify the
necessary elements in listening. First, listeners display several behaviors to let their
communication partners know that they are prepared to focus their attention on the
message; they will be quiet, watch the speaker, look at the materials presented by the
speaker, and avoid fidgeting (Owca, Pawlak, & Pronobis, 2003). Secondly, individuals
must be active listeners. Being an active listener rather than a passive listener means an
individual actively thinks about the information being shared rather than just passively
hearing it. Some ways in which individuals can actively think about the information
include identifying the important parts, reminding themselves to focus on the message,
summarizing the message, making connections to what they already know, and
visualizing the message. In addition to being active listeners, individuals should be
participants in the communication. Listeners can make comments, ask questions, and
respond to questions (Brent & Anderson, 1993; Owca et al., 2003). These skills were
used to develop the learning strategy below to improve the listening of students with
ADHD.

Developing a Learning Strategy for Listening

Good learners are strategic, meaning that they possess a variety of ways to meet cognitive
challenges. Good listeners use strategies that improve their performance when they are
asked to listen. From the observations and literature described above, a learning strategy
was developed to cue students into critical actions that they can take to attend to and
process verbal information, commit it to memory, and communicate to the speaker that
they are interested. Each step of the strategy corresponds with a specific task students
should complete while engaged in improved listening. FOCUS is the mnemonic
developed to outline this learning strategy. Each key word is an action verb that cues
students on what to do (Figure 1).

Figure 1. FOCUS cue card

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Memory Device Intended Associations
F1. Eyes and mind on the speaker.
Focus on speaker
F2. Resist talking to your neighbors.

F3. Keep your hands and feet quiet.


O1. Clear your mind of distracting thoughts.
Open your mind (Ignore distractions)

O2. Be ready to learn and remember.

O3. Set your mind on the subject.

O4. Your brain is like a parachute. It only


works when its open.

O5. Think about what is being said.


C1. Try to relate what you are hearing to
Connect things that you already know and are related
to the lesson.

C2. Create a picture in your mind of the new


information.

C3. Listen to other students related


comments.

Use your eyes U1. Pay attention to the book, chalk board,
worksheets, overheads, or other visual
materials.
S1. Select the important parts so you know
Select what to remember.

S2. Say the important parts to yourself in your


own words.

S3. Ask questions to make sure you


understand.

Teaching FOCUS

There is considerable literature that outlines the most effective method to teach learning
strategies (Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995). Most experts agree that the strategy should be

250
described to the student. This should include information about each step of the strategy
and the benefits of using the strategy. If a mnemonic is used, the mnemonic should be
rehearsed until the student can recite it easily from memory. The teacher should model
strategy use and provide opportunities for both guided and independent practice. The
student should be taught to apply the strategy in a variety of settings. Finally, the student
and teacher should evaluate and monitor strategy use (Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995).

To begin this process, the teacher should first use Figures 2 and 3 to collect pre-
intervention or baseline information about the students listening skills. The teacher
might begin by teaching a short lesson on a topic related to the curriculum. See Figure 4
for a sample mini lesson. During the lesson, a fellow teacher or teachers aid might
observe the students and note their listening behaviors using the FOCUS observation
chart (Figure 2). After the lesson the teacher should check comprehension by asking the
students questions related to the lesson. Any students who exhibit difficulty with the
listening behaviors or in answering questions may significantly benefit from the FOCUS
instruction.

Figure 4. Sample mini lesson

Today we are going to learn about penguins. Lets listen carefully because I will be asking
some questions about penguins after the lesson to see how much you can remember.

Penguins are like people because they are warm blooded. But unlike people, penguins have
insulation that lets them live in extremely cold temperatures. Insulation is something that
keeps things warm. Houses have insulation to keep them warm in the winter. The penguins
insulation is several layers thick. A layer of tightly packed feathers covers the penguins
bodies. (Show picture of penguin feathers from Internet.) Under the feather is a thick layer
of fat called blubber. Both the feathers and the blubber are insulation for the penguin.
Whales and dolphins also have blubber to keep them warm, or insulated from the cold. A
penguins insulation works so well that sometimes they get too hot. What can you do when
you get hot? How do you think a penguin will cool down when it gets hot? When this
happens, the penguin fluffs up their feathers to let some of the heat out.

Comprehension check:

1. What is this lesson about?

2. How are penguins like people?

3. What is insulation?

4. What is the penguins thick layer of fat called?

5. What can a penguin do if it gets too hot?

251
After baseline data has been collected, teachers should introduce the strategy to students,
teaching about the importance of the strategy and what each step of FOCUS implies.
Following the introduction, activities in which students verbally rehearse the FOCUS
steps can be used to help them master automatic recall of the mnemonic (Beckman,
2002). The FOCUS Cue Card (Figure 1) can be used as a visual cue at the beginning of
verbal rehearsal and then removed as students improve in their ability to recall the steps.
Once students are able to recite the FOCUS steps with 80% accuracy, without the cue
card, the teacher can begin teaching students how to use the strategy steps in listening
activities.

Activities to Teach Use of FOCUS Steps

Teachers can use the following activities when teaching the steps to the FOCUS strategy.
Remember that each step should be described, modeled, practiced, and evaluated.

Figure 5. Activities to teach FOCUS

FOCUS Step Related Lesson


F: Focus on the Speaker
Video Feedback: Set up a video camera in the
When teaching students to focus on back of the classroom while teaching. Plan for a
the speaker, it is important to small distraction to occur as a story is read, such as
convey the reciprocity in setting a timer to tick. After the lesson, show the
communication. Students can be students the video and discuss how they did or did
good listeners and not look at the not remain focused on the speaker. Have the
speaker. However, that does not students discuss what the word focus means and
communicate to the speaker that the describe the behaviors they exhibit when they are
listener is interested. This simple focused on something.
communication of listening may
have a dramatic effect on the
quality of interaction. Anyone who
has tried to talk to a disinterested
person can attest to this. Therefore,
it is crucial for the student to
demonstrate behaviors consistent
with good listening.
O: Open Your Mind
Whats in Your Mind?: Begin by asking the
Multi-tasking is a skill growing in students to take out a piece of paper and write down
importance and popularity. It or draw an image that displays what they are
requires individuals to think about thinking about. Next, lead a discussion about
several topics at once. things that might interfere with listening. The term
Unfortunately, this positive skill distracted could be introduced here. The student
can negatively impact a students may be distracted by thoughts of lunch, friendships,

252
ability to listen effectively. For this after school activities, or the previous academic
reason, it is especially important to topic, and all of these can cause students to run out
remind students that they must clearof space in their head, much like you can run out
their heads and concentrate on what of space on your computer storage device. Explain
is being said in order to gain the importance of opening your mind to the current
information from listening. topic.
C: Connect
Whos the Artist?: Separate students into pairs,
Making connections to the studentsand give each pair the name of an unfamiliar animal
prior knowledge (including (i.e. kangaroo rat, aye-aye, naked neck chicken,
interests and experiences) is a pygmy marmoset, Andean condor, scorpion fish,
fundamental part of scaffolding as sloth, anglerfish; See Your World, 2009). Student A
well as the basic process of will describe to Student B what he or she thinks the
learning. This part of the process animal looks like. Student B will draw exactly
helps the student to identify what what Student A describes. Then the partners will
he or she already knows about the trade roles. After each student has had a turn to
topic, compare it to what is being draw, ask them if it was easy or difficult to follow
presented, and then modify his or their partners directions. Lead this discussion to
her concept of the topic to match. the idea that they used their prior knowledge to
Making connections provides draw what they thought the animal may look like.
hooks on which to hang the new Students must take what they know about the topic
information, making the new and combine it with or replace it by the new
information meaningful to the information (i.e., from their partners).
student and providing motivation to
learn. Recognizing the importance
of making connections and being
able to do so are key steps in
learning to use FOCUS.
U: Use Your Eyes Math Magic (Hopkins, 2002): This is a quick
lesson to demonstrate the importance of using your
Using your eyes is likely a eyes when you listen. Ask all the students to get
straightforward step to most into pairs and take out a pencil, paper, and
teachers and clinicians reading this calculator (optional). Explain that they will learn a
article. However, students may not trick for calculating peoples ages (students must be
recognize this as a valuable skill at least ten years old for the math trick to work).
that can improve their ability to Read the following steps to the class:
listen. Therefore, it is necessary
that their attention is brought to the Ask your friend to think of the first number
importance of looking at the visual in his or her age.
aids that are available. Visual aids Tell your friend to multiply that number by
can be a variety of items: a page in 5.
the book, writing on the board, a Then, tell your friend to add 3 to that
poster, a worksheet, etc. Teaching number.
students to recognize and use visual Next, ask your friend to double the latest
aids is important for this step of

253
number.
FOCUS. Finally, ask your friend to add the second
number of his or her age to the total.
Ask your friend to tell you the number that
resulted from the calculations.
Now, simply subtract 6 from that number.
Announce the answer as that person's age!

Once the steps have been read, have the students try
to complete the trick from memory. This would be
difficult for any student to do without seeing the
steps written out or being given one step at a time.
After a minute or so, put up a Power Point slide or
overhead of the steps listed in Figure 6. After
students finish the calculations, ask them what they
thought about the math trick and what might have
made it easier. Discuss the importance of using
visual aids that are available.
S: Select
Newspaper Ads (Jalongo, 1991): Place the
Selecting means that the student is students in pairs. One student will be the product
eliminating extraneous information salesman, and the other will be the newspaper
to focus on what is important in the writer. The salesman describes the product he
message. As stated above, students wants to sell, including all the pertinent information
with ADHD have noted deficits in about the product. The writer will listen to the
selective attention, which salesman and then restate in his own words what
negatively affects their ability to the salesman told him. The pair will split up, with
listen to and follow directions. the writer writing out an ad for the product. The
Instead of trying to remember each two will trade roles. The ads will be returned to the
and every word spoken by the salespeople for them to review, and the salespeople
speaker, the listener must learn how will judge whether or not they approve printing of
to identify and remember the the ad. Discuss the fact that not all the information
important parts of the message. was included in the ads. Ask students how they
Trying to remember information decided what was important enough to be included
that is unimportant can interfere in the ad information. Explain that identifying the
with the students recall of the important parts of a message helps them remember
overall message. and focus on it.

Strategy Practice

Students are now at the point where mini lessons can be given in a variety of content
areas as opportunities for them to practice applying FOCUS. See Figure 4 for a sample
mini lesson. At first, lessons should be taken from content materials one grade level
lower than where students are currently performing. This is done so that the focus of the
challenge is on the use of the strategy, not necessarily on the content of the lesson. As
students achieve mastery of FOCUS with the lower grade level content materials, mini

254
lessons at the students current grade level can be given to assist students in learning to
apply the FOCUS strategy to material that is more challenging.

Each mini lesson for FOCUS practice should follow a set of steps. First, the teacher
should review FOCUS with the students using the FOCUS Cue Card. Next, students
should be told that they will be practicing using FOCUS during a lesson and that they
will be asked questions afterward to see how well they listened. The FOCUS Cue Card
can be displayed in the room as a visual reminder of the strategy. An advanced organizer
can be given to each student as an additional visual cue for use during the mini lesson.
The teacher will present the brief mini lesson while using the Observation Chart (Figure
2) to record the behaviors that are representative of good listeners and take notes for
individual feedback after the lesson. Once the mini lesson has been taught, the teacher
will ask the students comprehension questions for information obtained through the
lesson. Each students accuracy on these questions will be recorded on his or her
Progress Chart (Figure 3) in the Controlled Practice section. Once the mini lessons are
taught at students current grade levels, the data is recorded in the Advanced Practice
section. These two forms of evaluation are explained in greater detail in the following
section. Finally, the teacher and students will discuss how they applied the strategy
during the lesson: how the steps were helpful, what they noticed as they used the steps,
what they did well, and where they can improve.

As more mini lessons are taught, teachers should need to provide fewer and fewer cues
for students to use the strategy. Also, less explanation of the strategy and less assistance
with application will be needed as students progress in their ability to effectively apply
FOCUS.

Strategy Evaluation

As stated earlier, students behaviors that demonstrate listening and their responses to
listening comprehension questions should be evaluated before FOCUS is introduced.
Having this baseline data will allow the teacher to show that students have experienced
improvement in listening skills after learning to apply the FOCUS strategy.

Once students have practiced using the FOCUS strategy in the mini lesson format
described above, their performance can be evaluated and recorded in the Post-Test
section of the Progress Chart for comparison to the baseline data. Mini lessons like those
above are used for the post-test evaluation sessions. Evaluation is completed through two
methods. First, the students are observed and rated on behaviors related to the FOCUS
strategy. During the lesson, each student is evaluated for: (a) eye contact with the
speaker, (b) demonstration of listening by not talking to others, (c) use of correct sitting
posture, (d) listening to other students comments, (e) use of relevant comments or
questions, and (f) ability to follow directions (such as look at the board, take out your
pencil, or turn to your neighbor). These behaviors can be easily rated during the lesson
using the FOCUS Observation Chart (Figure 2)

Figure 2. FOCUS observation chart.

255
Secondly, comprehension questions related to the mini lesson are developed for
assessment after the lesson. These questions can be given orally or in written form
depending on the skills of the students. Each students score on the comprehension
questions can be tracked to document progress using the FOCUS Progress Chart (Figure
3).

Figure 3. FOCUS progress chart

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These two methods of evaluation should be employed for each mini lesson in pre-test,
controlled practice, advanced practice, post-test, and maintenance to obtain data. The
students should be able to gain 80% accuracy or above on the comprehension questions
following the mini lessons and on the FOCUS behavior evaluation to demonstrate
mastery at each level.

Conclusion

Students with ADHD face numerous challenges, with listening effectively being one.
Listening is used in every class and in every situation throughout each school day.
Students can apply the steps of the FOCUS strategy as they sit in class, go through the
lunch line, complete group work, and interact with peers on the playground. Teaching
students FOCUS and providing them with a variety of opportunities in which to practice

257
effective use of the strategy can give them a tool to improve their functioning across the
curriculum.

References

Alberta Education. (2006). Focusing on Success: Teaching Students with Attention


Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, grades 1-12. Retrieved May 3, 2010 from
http://education.alberta.ca/admin/special/resources/adhd.aspx

Beckman, P. (2002). Strategy instruction. ERIC digest (Digest number E638). Arlington,
VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, Council for Exceptional
Children. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED474302).

Bloom, B. & Cohen R. (2007). Summary health statistics for U.S. children: National
health interview survey, 2006. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health
Statistics, 10(234), 5. Retreived May 3, 2010 from
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/sr10_234.pdf

Brent, R. & Anderson, P. (1993). Developing childrens classroom listening strategies.


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directions in students with ADHD. Behavioral Disorders, 32, 238-253.

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Look, Ma, I Can Do It!


The responsibilities that come with adulthood can be daunting, especially if
one of them is managing your ADHD. Learn why following your heart and
staying healthy are key for any teen.

BY PETER JAKSA, PH.D.

Teen with ADHD looking at paper in high school hallway

Welcome to adulthood! Late adolescence and early adulthood are exciting times, bringing
tremendous change and personal growth. From choices about higher education to
decisions about a career and family, there is so much ahead that it may seem
overwhelming. Take heart every adult has faced these same decisions and met the same
challenges. Youll do fine.

As an ADD teen, however, be aware that you have some additional responsibilities and
concerns to shoulder. As someone who has been there, let me outline six points to
consider, and offer some advice and inspiration, as you enter the next phase of your life.

1. Take responsibility for managing ADD in your life

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Be honest by now, youre a little sick of hearing about ADD, reading about ADD, being
treated for ADD, and just plain dealing with ADD. As you take responsibility for your
own life, you might consider discontinuing medical treatment or letting go of the
organizational strategies that youve developed to cope with ADD. This would be a
mistake, one with potentially very damaging consequences. As life becomes more
complicated and responsibilities increase (college, relationships, work), the need to
manage ADD effectively becomes more important, not less.

Let go of any stigma or resentment you may have about ADD, so that you can manage it
as honestly and constructively as possible. ADD is simply a part of who you are, like the
color of your hair or your athletic ability. Companionship helps, so join a support group
in your town or online, and talk with those whove learned to look beyond the ADD label.
Feel comfortable with your unique kind of brain, one that has its positives as well as its
negatives.

Get involved with your own treatment. Do you know not only the name, but the dosage
of and schedule for taking your medication? Can you tell whether its working properly
or not? Can you monitor any side effects? Build a relationship with your doctor and take
on the responsibility for refilling your own prescriptions.

Healthy self-awareness starts with a realistic picture of ones strengths and weaknesses,
and willingness to work with them (or around them). Building on strengths and
overcoming areas of weakness are two skills that help us succeed in everything we do in
life. Accepting ADD is a step toward accepting yourself for who you are.

2. Dont feel that you must go to college at least not right away

Attending college after graduating from high school is increasingly seen as a given: Of
course, Im going to college doesnt everyone? But sometimes it makes sense to delay
that next step, or not to attend college at all.You may be so tired after 12 years of
struggling in school that, instead of seeing college as an opportunity for growth, it feels
like a dreaded obligation. If your enthusiasm about this next stage is only lukewarm,
consider deferring your enrollment. A college education should not be a race among
friends to see who graduates first. Or, if you are not academically ready for a fulltime
college program, consider taking classes at a community college, and transferring to a
four-year school in your own good time.

In fact, for many, a college degree may not even be necessary for them to achieve their
life goals. If you excel at carpentry or mechanics, for example, and youre thinking of
pursuing a career in those fields, you dont need to spend four years at college. Consider
your individual interests and abilities, rather than general societal expectations, before
making a decision about the next steps in your education.

3. Develop life skills before you leave home

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As a psychologist, I am always pained to see an optimistic 18-year-old go away to school,
only to return home in a state of shock after the first semester, dismayed, demoralized,
and possibly even failing his courses. Usually this happened because the student wasnt
sufficiently prepared to function without the external structure that was in place while he
was living at home during high school.

Start developing skills for independent living before you leave for college long before.
Take inventory of your survival skills. Are you more productive when you have a set
routine? Start getting to bed at the same time and setting your own alarm clock. Which
accommodations have worked best for you at your high school? Contact the office of
disabilities or student services at the college youll be attending and ask for similar
accommodations there. Whether youre still in junior high or are finishing your last
semester of high school, its not too late, as long as you take action now, so these
measures will be in place by the time you leave for freshman year.

And dont forget about Mom and Dad. You may have forgotten that they can be your best
resource. Tell your parents that you want to participate in your IEP meetings; ask them to
teach you how to budget money, shop for groceries, and do laundry. As you acquire these
skills, you wont need to depend on your parents as much, and they will certainly send
you in the right direction.

Already in college and feeling a little lost? Dont rely on your academic advisor or the
office of disabilities alone. Find a local therapist or a coach who specializes in working
with students with ADD. The strategies you come up with together will be tailored to
meet the demands of your current life.

4. Follow your heart to the right job or career

The old saying follow your heart and the money will follow is, for most people, a
matter of career satisfaction. For ADDers, it is usually a matter of career survival. A
strong personal interest in an activity or subject is critical to both focus and motivation.
There is no such thing as the perfect ADD-friendly job or career. The right career for you
is the one that you are passionate about. Discovering your passions needs to be your
focus during this period of your life. If you need help identifying your areas of interest,
vocational testing and career counseling can be very helpful.

5. Take care of your brain by taking care of your body

Remember all the advice your mother gave you about the benefits of exercise, sleep, and
proper nutrition? Well, it turns out that she was right. A healthy lifestyle makes a
significant difference in attention, concentration, memory, irritability, and mood control
all of which are directly affected by ADD.

Exercise: Regular, sustained aerobic exercise is the most effective natural way to
raise levels of dopamine and the other brain neurotransmitters that improve your
mood and ability to focus.

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Sleep: More than 70 percent of ADD adults over age 30 report problems falling
asleep and staying asleep another good reason to develop a healthy sleep routine
now. Go to bed at the same time each night and try to get at least eight hours of
sleep to avoid aggravating your ADD symptoms.

Nutrition: Inadequate nutrition, including low blood-sugar levels caused by


skipping meals, impairs concentration and other aspects of functioning that are
already affected by ADD.

A note of caution: Adults with untreated ADD are at greater risk for substance abuse and
addiction than adults without ADD. Studies indicate that the rate of substance abuse
among the untreated adult ADD population is roughly twice as high as in the non-ADD
population. The levels of abuse in the treated ADD population and the non-ADD
population, however, are about the same. Remember that the perceived benefits of self-
medicating with recreational drugs never come close to the benefits provided by
medication used in the course of proper medical care.

6. On the river of life, be a boat not a log

People with ADD tend to live in the here and now, caught up in whatever captures their
interest at a given point in time. Having a vision for the future and an understanding that
your lifes course is the result of your own actions is critical. Now is the time to start
thinking about the life you want to lead down the road. Planning doesnt come naturally
to any of us, so no one expects you to have a detailed, 10-year plan in place by high
school graduation. But youll find that planning for the future, even by establishing short-
term goals, is worth the effort. Setting goals will ideally lead to a long-term plan and to
living a fulfilling life and accomplishing the things we want to accomplish.

It doesnt matter if you change your mind later about some of your plans, or even change
the direction you want to go in. In fact, you should expect to have some shifts in interests
along the way. Think about it this way: As you plunge into the river of life, be a boat, not
a log. As a log, all you can do is float where the current takes you. As a boat, you can
drift if you want to, but you have the ability to direct your course when you know where
you want to go.

Heres the key for ADDers: Our passions often help us set and achieve our goals.
Understanding what interests you, what you love, and what you value in life, may
provide the direction and the motivation necessary to commit to a goal and stay focused
on it until you achieve it. Take time to think about what you really enjoy, set your sights,
and, above all, believe in yourself.

Tags: April/May 2005 Issue of ADDitude Magazine

Source:- https://www.additudemag.com/teen-becoming-adult/

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Watch Out for Sex!
Young adults with ADHD are often impulsive, which interferes
with smart decisions especially when it comes to sex. Check
out these three tips to help keep your sex life happy, healthy,
and safe.

BY WES CRENSHAW, PH.D.

For young adults with ADHD, sex can be dangerous. Im not moralizing
here. I do sex therapy. I like helping young people of any sexual or
gender orientation understand sex and sexuality, so dont give up on
me yet.

Sex is fun only when you treat it responsibly. This is tricky for anyone,
but ADHD inhibits your ability to focus on what is most important in a
situation and to choose the correct action to take. You should think
things through before you act on impulse.

As a teen or young adult with ADHD, your goal in approaching sex is to


act intentionally. Here are three safe sex guidelines that can help you
see danger coming, so you can either step out of the way or get on it:

1. Health. The people who devise government-sponsored programs


seem to think that scaring kids with creepy sexually transmitted
infection (STI) threats will prevent them from having sex. It never has,
and it never will. So, Ill just say that teens and young adults who have
sex with several partners raise their chances of coming down with
something. If you have multiple partners, and dont get every single
one tested before you hook up, its almost inevitable that youll get an
STI.

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Herpes (HSV2) is easy to catch, even if you use a condom, and
impossible to really get rid of. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is easier to
acquire, so girls should get a Gardasil shot before becoming sexually
active to reduce the risk of cervical cancer. The shot is also
recommended for boys now, so that they dont pass HPV around.
However, the vaccine wont keep you safe from all strains. You can
carry certain STIs with no sign of symptoms, so dont wait until things
arent feeling right to be tested. Remember, random hook-ups are
more fun than their consequences. Think it through.

2. Emotions. People with ADHD have a tough time with emotional


intimacy. Sex, for them, is more an awesome adventure than a way to
express sentiment or make a spiritual connection. That goes for girls
and guys, though they express it differently.

What seems exciting at 20 may be remembered differently at 25, when


you look back on your years of sexual exploration with self-judgment
and disappointment. I see some young people in their mid-20s as
traumatized by their own early sexual conduct as are those who have
been assaulted or molested.

A good rule of thumb is to decide up front whether you will look back
on what youre about to do with pride or regret. Sexual impulses are
normal, and sometimes its OK to act on them. Other times, it isnt
wise to do so. Though ADHD makes those decisions tougher, your job is
to figure out the difference and act accordingly.

3. Ethics. Instructions for ethical sexual conduct would fill a book,


which, by the way, I am writing this year. Though everyone should be
honest in sexual expression, people with ADHD must be especially
mindful to treat themselves and their partners with moral and
psychological integrity. At the top of the list of considerations is
reproduction. Its never ethical to produce children you cant care for or
dont want, so if youre straight, master contraception.

Teen girls can get the Depo-Provera shot or the Nexplanon implant, or
use NuvaRing, rather than have to remember to take a pill every day.
Boys shouldnt trust anyones contraception but their own. Resist the
impulse to toss the condoms unless youre in an exclusive relationship
and you have verified your partners contraception status. Everyone of
every orientation and identity should be honest about their intentions
with themselves and their partner. Is this a hook-up or something more
intense? Are you capable of an exclusive relationship right now? Are
you having sex with other people?

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These guidelines arent intended to limit your options for sexual
expression. If you practice them correctly, they wont. I know many
sexually active teens and young adults, with and without ADHD, who
have thought through sex, are doing what they mean to do, and are
pretty satisfied with the outcome.

Tags: dating, sex, Winter 2014 Issue of ADDitude Magazine

Source:- https://www.additudemag.com/safe-sex-tips-help-teens-adults-adhd-impulsive/

Get Your Teen Ready for Life


Its almost time for you to step back and let your ADHDer solve
his own problems but before you do, check out these ways to
prepare him for the challenge.

BY COLIN GUARE, PEG DAWSON, ED.D., RICHARD GUARE

ADHD teen learns how to be independent

Parents walk a tightrope trying to help their ADHD teens get ready to take responsibilities
on their own. Perhaps you are a micromanager and youve been acting as your teens
surrogate frontal lobe. Now that hes older, youre getting some pushback from him,
and you wonder if theres a way to step back without seeing him flounder.

Perhaps your daughter gladly accepts your assistance in getting organized and attending
to everyday chores, but youre unsure about how much to help her. You dont want her to
become dependent on you, but you dont want her to fail. Maybe your son has dug in and
refuses to acknowledge that he has any challenges at school or his job, but you feel that if
you dont push him to act, he wont be able to overcome his problems.

265
Whats a parent to do? Follow these guidelines, many of which allow your teen to take
the lead in solving a problem.

Provide Only the Help Your Teen Needs

1. Whenever possible, communicate indirectly using a note or text message. The


idea is to create distance between you and your teen, so that the cue can work without
both of you being in the same place at the same time.

2. Send notes, dont nag. A voicemail, note, or text message reminding your son to
empty the dishwasher before he goes to the dance may get him to do it. Nagging wont.
In the case of regular chores or routines, try reminders for a few weeks. Then stop
prompting him and see if he does the chore on his own. If not, return to the reminders.

3. Ask your teen to develop his own cues. This is a way to hand off the skill to the teen,
so she can remind herself in her own way.

4. Edit your words. When it comes to reminders, parents talk too much, include lessons
and lectures, and use an irritated voice. This frequently leads to conflict.

5. Use an outside expert to teach your child a skill. If teens are going to be independent
problem solvers, they need to use people and information, not their parents, to help them.
While we all feel good when our teen asks us for help from time to time, this does not
increase their independence, unless they internalize the information and stop coming to
us.

Identify One Challenge and the Times It Occurs

6. Let your teen choose which challenge to work on first, and how to address it. It
could be moving too slowly in the morning or driving carelessly. Anything that increases
your teens interest in the problem increases her investment in solving it.

7. If your teen is open to help, choose a goal for which implementation is shared. By
letting your teen decide in what way you can help, you decrease the burden the task
places on you. The objective is to fade out your help over time, but not so quickly that
your teen fails at a task.

8. Start with a problem that is small and easily tackled. This will build your teens
confidence and will increase the likelihood that he will be willing to work on other
problems. In the morning routine, you can move from waking your teen to having him
wake himself.

9. Address a problem that puts your teen at immediate risk. This is when parental
judgment and decision-making must override teen choice. If your teen has trouble
controlling emotions or sustaining attention, which you fear may pose a risk of unsafe
driving or substance abuse, closely monitor his behavior. This will strike your teen as

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intrusive, but a parents job is to keep the teen in the game. This does not mean that
parents should lock up their teen during his adolescence, but it does mean that parents
find ways to balance choice and risk management.

Meet Resistance with Creativity

10. Be open to negotiation. If you have approached a problem as a have to or a do it


or else, consider offering an exchange. Youll give up something you want if the teen
will give up something she wants (or do something you want). If you want chores done in
exchange for using the car, change the chores to errands you need done and offer the car
if shell run a couple of errands for you before she goes off with friends.

11. Use your teens personal goals to teach executive skills. Virtually any goal requires
planning, time management, sustained attention, task initiation, and goal-directed
persistence. Focus on personal goals that are a high priority for your teen saving to buy
a car or going to Europe next summer. These are ideal vehicles for learning executive
skills, and have the
advantage of built-in motivation if they come from your teen.

12. Consider more rewards. Parents are often cheap in terms of what they will offer
their teen, because they are annoyed at having to offer anything at all. If you accept that
these are difficult skills for your teen to learn, understand what is needed for her to make
the effort.

Excerpted from Smart but Scattered Teens: The Executive Skills Program for Helping
Teens Reach Their Potential, by Richard Guare, Ph.D., Peg Dawson, Ed.D., and Colin
Guare. Copyright 2013. Reprinted with permission of The Guilford Press, New York.

How did you encourage your teen to take on more responsibilities? Share your story in
the Parents of ADHD Teens and Young Adults support group on ADDConnect.

Source:- https://www.additudemag.com/get-your-teen-ready-for-life/

A Dyslexic Child in the Classroom


A Guide for Teachers and Parents
Author
Patricia Hodge, Dip.spld (dyslexia) 2000

Listen

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Proficient reading is an essential tool for learning a large part of the
subject matter taught at school. With an ever increasing emphasis on
education and literacy, more and more children and adults are needing help in
learning to read, spell, express their thoughts on paper and acquire adequate
use of grammar.

A dyslexic child who finds the acquisition of these literacy skills difficult can
also suffer a lot of anguish and trauma when they may feel mentally abused
by their peers within the school environment, because they have a learning
difficulty. Much can be done to alleviate this by integrating the child into the
class environment (which is predominantly a learning environment) where
he/she can feel comfortable and develop confidence and self esteem.

268
Class teachers may be particularly confused by the student whose consistent
underachievement seems due to what may look like carelessness or lack of
effort.

These children can be made to feel very different from their peers simply
because they may be unable to follow simple instructions, which for others
seem easy. It is a class teachers responsibility to provide an atmosphere
conducive to learning for all pupils within their class.

Class teachers need to have an understanding of the problems that the


dyslexic child may have within the classroom situation. Hopefully, with this
knowledge, a great deal of misunderstanding of a childs behaviour can be
prevented. In a positive and encouraging environment, a dyslexic child will
experience the feeling of success and self-value.

Of particular importance is an understanding of the problems that poor


auditory short term memory can cause, in terms of retaining input from the
teacher.

Examples of poor auditory short term memory can be a difficulty in


remembering the sounds in spoken words long enough to match these, in
sequence, with letters for spelling. Often children with poor auditory short
term memory cannot remember even a short list of instructions.

The following items should provide useful


guidelines for teachers and parents to
follow and support :

In the class

Of value to all children in the class is an outline of what is going to be


taught in the lesson, ending the lesson with a resume of what has been

269
taught. In this way information is more likely to go from short term
memory to long term memory.
When homework is set, it is important to check that the child correctly
writes down exactly what is required. Try to ensure that the appropriate
worksheets and books are with the child to take home.
In the front of the pupils homework book get them to write down the
telephone numbers of a couple of friends. Then, if there is any doubt
over homework, they can ring up and check, rather than worry or spend
time doing the wrong work.
Make sure that messages and day to day classroom activities are
written down, and never sent verbally. i.e. music, P. E. swimming etc.
Make a daily check list for the pupil to refer to each evening.
Encourage a daily routine to help develop the childs own self-reliance
and responsibilities.
Encourage good organizational skills by the use of folders and dividers
to keep work easily accessible and in an orderly fashion.
Break tasks down into small easily remembered pieces of information.
If visual memory is poor, copying must be kept to a minimum. Notes or
handouts are far more useful.
Seat the child fairly near the class teacher so that the teacher is
available to help if necessary, or he can be supported by a well-
motivated and sympathetic classmate

Copying from the blackboard

Use different colour chalks for each line if there is a lot of written
information on the board, or underline every second line with a
different coloured chalk.
Ensure that the writing is well spaced.
Leave the writing on the blackboard long enough to ensure the child
doesnt rush, or that the work is not erased from the board before the
child has finished copying

270
Reading

A structured reading scheme that involves repetition and introduces


new words slowly is extremely important. This allows the child to
develop confidence and self esteem when reading.
Dont ask pupils to read a book at a level beyond their current skills,
this will instantly demotivate them. Motivation is far better when
demands are not too high, and the child can actually enjoy the book. If
he has to labour over every word he will forget the meaning of what he
is reading.
Save the dyslexic child the ordeal of having to read aloud in class.
Reserve this for a quiet time with the class teacher. Alternatively,
perhaps give the child advanced time to read pre-selected reading
material, to be practiced at home the day before. This will help ensure
that the child is seen to be able to read out loud, along with other
children
Real books should also be available for paired reading with an adult,
which will often generate enthusiasm for books. Story tapes can be of
great benefit for the enjoyment and enhancement of vocabulary. No
child should be denied the pleasure of gaining access to the meaning of
print even if he cannot decode it fully.
Remember reading should be fun.

Spelling

Many of the normal classroom techniques used to teach spellings do


not help the dyslexic child. All pupils in the class can benefit from
structured and systematic exposure to rules and patterns that underpin
a language.
Spelling rules can be given to the whole class. Words for class spelling
tests are often topic based rather than grouped for structure. If there
are one or two dyslexics in the class, a short list of structure-based
words for their weekly spelling test, will be far more helpful than

271
random words. Three or four irregular words can be included each
week, eventually this should be seen to improve their free-writing
skills.
All children should be encouraged to proof read, which can be useful
for initial correction of spellings. Dyslexics seem to be unable to
correct their spellings spontaneously as they write, but they can be
trained to look out for errors that are particular to them.
Remember, poor spelling is not an indication of low intelligence.

Maths

Maths has its own language, and this can be the root of many problems.
Whilst some dyslexic students are good at maths, it has been estimated
that around 90% of dyslexic children have problems in at least some
areas of maths. General mathematical terminology words need to be
clearly understood before they can be used in calculations, e.g. add,
plus, sum of, increase and total, all describe a single mathematical
process. Other related difficulties could be with visual/perceptual
skills, directional confusion, sequencing, word skills and memory.
Dyslexic students may have special difficulties with aspects of maths
that require many steps or place a heavy load on the short-term
memory, e.g. long division or algebra.
The value of learning the skills of estimation cannot be too strongly
stressed for the dyslexic child. Use and encourage the use of
estimation. The child should be taught to form the habit of checking
his answers against the question when he has finished the calculation,
i.e. is the answer possible, sensible or ludicrous?
When using mental arithmetic allow the dyslexic child to jot down the
key number and the appropriate mathematical sign from the question.
Encourage pupils to verbalize and to talk their way through each step
of the problem. Many children find this very helpful.

272
Teach the pupil how to use the times table square and encourage him to
say his workings out as he uses it.
Encourage a dyslexic child to use a calculator. Make sure he fully
understand how to use it. Ensure that he has been taught to estimate to
check his calculations. This is a way of proof reading what he does.
Put key words on a card index system or on the inside cover of the
pupils maths book so it can be used for reference and revision.
Rehearse mathematical vocabulary constantly, using multi
sensory/kinesthetic methods.
Put the decimal point in red ink. It helps visual perception with the
dyslexic child.

Handwriting

Reasons for poor handwriting at any age can be poor motor control,
tension, badly formed letters, speed etc. A cursive joined style is most
helpful to children with dyslexic problems. Encourage the children to
study their writing and be self-critical. Get them to decide for
themselves where faults lie and what improvements can be made, so
that no resentment is built up at yet another person complaining about
their written work.
Discuss the advantages of good handwriting and the goals to be
achieved with the class. Analyze common faults in writing, by writing
a few well chosen words on the board for class comment.
Make sure a small reference chart is available to serve as a constant
reminder for the cursive script in upper and lower case.
If handwriting practice is needed it is essential to use words that
present no problem to the dyslexic child in terms of meaning or
spelling.
Improvement in handwriting skills can improve self confidence, which
in turn reflects favorably throughout a pupils work.

273
Marking

Credit for effort as well as achievement are both essential. This gives
the pupil a better chance of getting a balanced mark. Creative writing
should be marked on context.
Spelling mistakes pinpointed should be those appropriate to the childs
level of spelling. Marking should be done in pencil and have positive
comments.
Try not to use red pens to mark the dyslexic childs work. Theres
nothing more disheartening for the child than to have work returned
covered in red ink, when theyve inevitably tried harder than their
peers to produce the work.
Only ask a pupil to rewrite a piece of work that is going to be
displayed. Rewriting pages for no reason at all is soul destroying as
usually much effort will have already been put into the original piece
of work

Homework

By the end of a school day a dyslexic child is generally more tired than
his peers because everything requires more thought, tasks take longer
and nothing comes easily. More errors are likely to be made. Only set
homework that will be of real benefit to the child.
In allocating homework and exercises that may be a little different or
less demanding, it is important to use tact. Self-esteem is rapidly
undermined if a teacher is underlining the differences between those
with difficulties and their peers. However, it should also be
remembered that far more effort may be needed for a dyslexic child to
complete the assignment than for their peers.
Set a limit on time spent on homework, as often a dyslexic child will
take a lot longer to produce the same work that another child with good
literacy skills may produce easily

274
Integration

A dyslexic childs ability to write down thoughts and ideas will be


quite different from the level of information the child can give
verbally. For successful integration, the pupil must be able to
demonstrate to the teacher that he knows the information and where he
is in each subject. Be prepared to accept verbal descriptions as an
alternative to written descriptions if appropriate.Alternative ways of
recording should be looked at, such as :
o The use of computers for word processing.
o Audio tapes for recording lessons that can then be written up at
a later stage.
o Written record of the pupils verbal account, or voice activated
software can be used.
More time should be allocated for completion of work because of the
extra time a dyslexic child needs for reading, planning, rewriting and
proofreading their work.
For a dyslexic child the feeling of being different can be acute when
faced with the obvious and very important need of specialist help for
his literacy and possibly mathematical skills. Some specialist methods
can be incorporated into the classroom so all children can benefit from
them, thus reducing the feeling of difference.

Conclusion:

In order to be able to teach, as far as possible, according to each childs


educational needs, it is essential to see him or her as a whole person,
complete with individual strengths and weaknesses.

An understanding of the pupils specific difficulties, and how they may affect
the students classroom performance, can enable the teacher to adopt teaching

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methods and strategies to help the dyslexic child to be successfully integrated
into the classroom environment.

Dyslexics have many strengths: oral skills, comprehension, good visual


spatial awareness/artistic abilities. More and more dyslexic children could
become talented and gifted members of our schools if we worked not only
with their specific areas of difficulty, but also their specific areas of strengths
from an early age. To do this we have to let go of outmoded viewpoints that a
dyslexic child must first fail, in order to be identified.

These are the children of our future and they have a right to help and support
before they develop the dreadful sense of failure which is so insidious.

Class teachers dealing with dyslexic children need to be flexible in their


approach, so that they can, as far as possible, find a method that suits the
pupil, rather than expecting that all pupils will learn in the same way.

Above all, there must be an understanding from all who teach them, that they
may have many talents and skills. Their abilities must not be measured purely
on the basis of their difficulties in acquiring literacy skills. Dyslexic
children, like all children, thrive on challenges and success.

Source:- https://www.dyslexia.com/about-dyslexia/understanding-
dyslexia/guide-for-classroom-teachers/

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Strategies for Teachers

Upon completion of this section, you will


Acquire general recommendations for the classroom that enrich learning for
beginning readers and writers
Identify tips for the different parts of the reading process that enrich
comprehension, fluency, and vocabulary
Have ideas to use when teaching children with visual deficits
Quicklinks
Beginning readers
General recommendations
Comprehension and fluency
Vocabulary
Writing
Students with visual deficits

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Sparking new ideas for your classroom

Malcolm Alexander, the acclaimed dyslexic sculptor, tells a story about one of his
teachers who made a difference. According to Malcolm, that teacher said, "When I
teach, when I look at a student's work, I always try to find something nice in it. And
then go into the rest of it."

This is a gift you can give all students, but particularly those who are dyslexic: find
something positive, something they have done well, and acknowledge it. They will
remember that comment and you.

As a teacher, you most likely already have a print-rich environment in your classroom.
We know that all teachers, whether they are new to the profession or seasoned veterans,
continue to look for suggestions and tweak their skills so they are better able to help their
students.

The following suggestions may spark a new idea for your classroom. The good news
about honing one's teaching for individuals with dyslexia is that many of the strategies
will be helpful to the typical learner as well. And, of importance, the strategies will be
particularly helpful to any struggling readers and writers in your classroom.

In addition to general recommendations, there are suggestions to promote phonological


awareness skills, reading comprehension and fluency, vocabulary development, oral
reading, comprehension of written directions, spelling, and writing. As always, choose
the strategies and activities that best fit your students, your classroom, and you.

Some general recommendations for teachers of beginning readers and


writers
1. Make personalized books and stories with the students name and photos.
Alternatively, have him or her dictate a story and draw pictures, which an adult can
then transcribe and bind with a cover.
2. Increase print awareness by asking your student to look for everything he/she can
find with writing (i.e. McDonalds sign, labels, and packages).
3. Provide multisensory experiences for students related to each book that they read,
such as using stories and coloring pages (available with a story teller guide).
4. Choose rhyming books with high repetition of words and phrases.
5. Dramatically pause to allow students to fill in the refrain as you are reading.
6. Play sound matching games. For example, say, Lets think of as many things as
we can that start with Mmmm. Your student might say Mouse, moo, milk. If your

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student has difficulty, give him or her clues. Say: We drink mmmmm. Wait two
seconds and then provide the answer (milk).
7. Increase the repertoire of shapes your student draws to include circles, triangles,
squares, and various facial features, such as eyes and a mouth.
8. Increase the repertoire of letters your student writes to include all the letters in the
alphabet and numbers up to 10.
9. Guide your students drawing and writing by placing your hand on top of his or
her hand. Gradually fade the level of assistance.

General recommendations
1. During times when other students are independently working on class work, the
student should have the option to work in a study carrel with headphones to eliminate
distractions.
2. Allow extra time to complete tests.
3. Provide a regular study buddy whom the student sits next to in class.
4. Give THINK TIME before answering a question. This can be done by
presenting a question and then pausing or by coming back to the student after a little
while and repeating the question. Alternatively, have multiple students answer the
same question. In this way, several models are provided.
5. Provide opportunities for writing and spelling every day, in a variety of formats,
such as writing in a journal, sending an email, writing or copying a list of homework
activities, writing on a large wall calendar, writing thank you letters, or archiving
items in a collection.
6. Explicitly teach organization and planning skills for completing and tracking
homework. Instruct students how to break down large projects into smaller tasks.
7. Improve word retrieval for naming through participation in one or more of these
games: Scattegories, Taboo, Guesstures, Password, Scrabble, logic puzzles, rebus
puzzles, Catch-Phrase, UpWords, Tribond, Plexers, crosswords and other word
puzzles.
8. Give manipulatives (things to touch and move around) whenever possible to work
on math related to time, money, or fractions.
9. Explicitly and systematically teach math to students with dyslexia (including
models of proficient problem solving, verbalization of thought processes, guided
practice, corrective feedback, and frequent cumulative review). Dyslexia and
Mathematics Second Edition edited by T. R. Miles and Elaine Miles, 1992, and The
Institute of Education Sciences (IES) Guide for Assisting Students Struggling with
Mathematics: Response to Intervention (RtI) for Elementary and Middle Schools
provide more information.

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Recommendations to support reading comprehension and fluency for
classroom materials

Before reading
1. Preview the title, pictures, chapter names, and bold-faced words in order to make
a prediction.
2. Connect new information to previously learned information by talking about a
personal experience related to the theme.
3. Verbalize or write questions prior to reading the text.
4. Discuss reading schemas for different types of textbooks (i.e. compare math and
history). Highlight salient information that each genre addresses. Visual webs are
useful for the student to preview and complete as they encounter key information.
5. Pre-teach key vocabulary for a particular unit or chapter before introducing the
text.
6. Pre-teach themes or background information (i.e. historical context) for reading
fiction.
7. Explicitly teach how to use the table of contents, glossary, index, headings,
sidebars, charts, captions, and review questions in a text book.

During reading
1. Provide a set of textbooks for the student to take home and to highlight.
2. Assign class readings a week ahead of time for students to preview. This will
improve attention and comprehension.
3. Provide audio recordings for the student to use while reading the text.
o Books on tape and audio equipment may be obtained, free of charge,
through the National Library Service.
o A large range of books are already scanned and available for free through
Bookshare.
4. Give the student a choice of what to read within selected genres, topics, and
themes. High interest reading facilitates comprehension and reading for pleasure. In
addition to classroom learning, the curriculum should cultivate the students
interests and strengths (both in and outside of the classroom). The Time on My Hands
and Affinities checklists at All Kinds of Minds may be helpful in guiding the student
to high-interest reading materials.
5. Make texts at a variety of reading levels available so that students can read
fluently but also be slightly challenged (the appropriate instructional level).
6. Allow the student to use text-to-speech software for information on the computer.
o This may be established by setting preferences on a Macintosh computer.

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o Text-to-speech software is available through a free trial over at CNET.
o A scanner with OCR (optical character recognition) may be used to scan
textbooks onto the computer.
7. Model self-monitoring skills with the following questions: Does what Im
reading make sense? What do I think will happen next? Are there any words that I
dont know? Can I figure out what the words mean from the sentences around
them?
8. Encourage sub-vocalization of the text and self-monitoring questions.
9. Model active engagement with the text through visualization of the scene (i.e.
trying to make a photograph of the word in his/her minds eye while enhancing
visual features), highlighting, note taking, or jotting down a question.
10. Train students to silently read at various rates depending on the purpose; for
example, skimming to find a particular term or to get the main idea or gist vs. reading
more carefully for directions or comprehension of key concept.
11. Encourage multiple readings of a text.
12. Provide templates for students to jot down notes and key concepts as they read
(i.e. a story line, visual web, or list of WH-questions).
o If a student is reading a chapter book or novel, one template should be
completed for each scene or chapter.
o Pre-made templates are available for free at Inspiration Software. These
can be customized as well. Many teachers have made their Inspiration
units/lessons available on the web.
13. Bolster comprehension of idioms and more abstract language through reading the
scripts of everyday conversations on Randalls Listening Lab. Students can listen to
the conversation as they read. Key vocabulary is highlighted and defined.

Supporting vocabulary while reading


1. Log unfamiliar words in a personal dictionary that includes the sentence that
contains the word, page number, a guess about the meaning, the pronunciation, a
dictionary definition, and a new sentence using the word.
2. Improve vocabulary for written and verbal expression by forming associations
between words, paraphrasing, and elaborating on an idea.
3. Teach prefixes, suffixes, and root words to students to improve spelling, decoding,
and comprehension.
4. Give ample opportunities to practice writing target words. The student might be
asked to say them, or use them in sentences or a story.

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5. Look up unfamiliar words with an electronic speller that has speech output (such
as the Franklin Speller) or a web-based dictionary. For example, Dictionary.com
provides the pronunciation and definition of a word.

After reading
1. Verbalize or write the answers to the pre-reading questions and share the answers
with a friend or family member.
2. Compose an alternative ending for the story or write a sequel.
3. Act out key scenes from a text or give How To demonstrations for kinesthetic
learners.
4. Challenge students to draw inferences from the text (i.e. "How do you think the
main character feels?" "Do you think it will be harder to stop a heavier or lighter
object traveling at the same velocity?").

Oral reading
1. Increase reading fluency through a reading apprenticeship incorporating the
following elements:
1. Models of fluent reading.
2. Repetition of the same passage, until reading is fluent.
3. Dramatic readings (i.e. skits, poetry, and speeches).
4. Regular tracking and graphing of reading rate and fluency.
2. See Read Naturally for a systematic program that incorporates choral reading
(reading at the same time as a fluent reader), repetitions, and tracking of reading
fluency.
3. For more information on reading apprenticeships, see The Fluent Reader: Oral
Reading Strategies for Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and Comprehension, by
Timothy Rasinski.

Supporting comprehension of written directions


1. Present less written material per page with no more than two directions in a
sentence. Double spacing and bullets or numbers are also helpful.
2. Provide additional time to take tests.
3. Assist the student in breaking apart the written directions into smaller steps.
4. Check for comprehension of the directions.
5. Both auditory and written instructions should be provided.
6. Sub-rehearse (quietly or silently repeating) the directions to keep them in working
memory long enough to complete them.

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Recommendations to support writing in school
1. Increase phonetic spelling of unfamiliar words by counting the number of sounds
in a word, and then correlating the sounds with letters.
2. Explicitly teach phonics rules and review them multiple times.
3. Provide a disproportionate amount of positive feedback for writing (relative to
correction). Students should be praised for words that are spelled phonetically and
accurately.
4. Use Kidspiration, Inspiration or other webbing strategies for planning.
5. Institute delays that require the student to wait 5 minutes before starting a writing
task. The student should be instructed to spend those 5 minutes planning.
6. Explicitly teach the elements of writing narratives or essays.
7. Brainstorm key vocabulary prior to writing.
8. Provide a focused spelling program such as Spellography to work on learning
specific morphological, semantic and mental orthographic spelling rules.
9. Group words into word families with multiple exemplars of each phonetic pattern.
10. Provide models of good essays for struggling writers to use as a template.
11. Dictate stories with an audio recording or dictation software.
12. Emphasize the need to write in stages rather than completing a long narrative in
one sitting. The stages should include: planning, writing, and revision.
13. Teach mnemonic devices for editing such as: SCOPE (spelling, organization,
order of words, punctuation, and expresses a complete thought)
14. Instruct students to create an alternate ending for a familiar story, make a modern
day story historic, or create a comic strip of two of the characters having a
conversation.
15. Use word prediction software such as Co:Writer for improving spelling and
complex sentence structure.
16. Text-to-speech software and word processing should be available for editing
written work.
17. Encourage students to keep a journal. To increase motivation, visual images
should be added to each page (i.e. things found throughout the day: maps, photos, or
clippings from a magazine or the internet).
18. Improve penmanship with a larger pen or pencil grip and raised-line paper.
19. Practice handwriting using the following low-tech strategies: pencil grips, paper
with raised lines and a slant board.

Recommendations for students with visual deficits


1. Encourage students to use a line guide as he/she is reading, to avoid skipping
lines.

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2. Use cut-out window for completing math worksheets.
3. Give visual pictures for commonly reversed or flipped letters: (i.e. Which way
does the b/ d go in bed?).
4. Utilize a highlighter for key words, concepts, and/or directions when presented
with written material.
5. Give visual images to associate with problematic sounds such as short a and e
(i.e. Does the e in bed sound like a short e in elephant or a long e in
eagle?" "Does the a in angel sound like the short a in alligator or the long
a in ape?).
6. Encourage students to keep a copy of a letter shaping card in his/her school
supplies and homework supplies for an easy reference.

Source:- http://dyslexiahelp.umich.edu/professionals/dyslexia-
school/strategies-for-teachers

10 Teaching Tips for Dyslexia


1. Praise Gives Power Criticism Kills

A person with dyslexia needs a boost to their self-confidence before they can learn to
overcome their difficulties. They have already experienced failure and deep down they
often dont believe they are capable of learning.

To re-establish self-confidence provide the opportunity to succeed and give praise for
small achievements.

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2. Dont ask person with dyslexia to read aloud

Words are likely to be misread or skipped, causing embarrassment.

3. Dont give a punishment for forgetting books or sports kit

Offer positive strategies such as having one place to put things away.

4. Dont use the word lazy

People with dyslexia have to work harder to produce a smaller amount.

They will have difficulty staying focused when reading, writing or listening.

5. Expect less written work

A person with dyslexia may be verbally bright but struggle to put ideas into writing.

Allow more time for reading, listening and understanding.

6. Prepare a printout of homework and stick it in their book

Provide numbered steps, e.g. 1. Do this. 2. Do that etc.

7. Do not ask them to copy text from a board or book

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Give a printout. Suggest they highlight key areas and draw thumbnail pictures in the
margin to represent the most important points.

8. Accept homework created on a computer

Physical handwriting is torture for most people with dyslexia. Word processors make life
much easier. Allow them to use the Spell checker and help with grammar and punctuation
so that you can see the quality of the content.

9. Discuss an activity to make sure it is understood

Visualising the activity or linking it to a funny action may help someone with dyslexia
remember.

10. Give the opportunity to answer questions orally

Often people with dyslexia can demonstrate their understanding with a spoken answer but
are unable with to put those ideas in writing.

Source:- https://www.nessy.com/uk/teachers/essential-teaching-
tips-dyslexia/

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A confession: I get a significant thrill from reading research that confirms my
personal suspicions. This happened recently when I dug into some studies about
reading and achievement. According to the National Assessment of Educational
Progress (NAEP), not only does the amount of reading for fun outside of school
directly correlate to academic achievement, but there are numerous other studies
to demonstrate that there is no better way to increase vocabulary than
independent reading.

The NAEP study does not distinguish whether the higher achievement scores of
students who read more reflected an increased exposure to more words or the
specific act of decoding, but I would argue that it is the former. It is hard to
imagine that the mechanics related to reading are responsible for these academic
gains. We know that good thinkers need words, and reading is a gateway into the
world of words and ideas. Therefore it would follow that how one gathers words
is less important than how many words one gathers.

What does this mean for dyslexics? Reading is harder and slower for
dyslexic students. Consequently, they typically read less. If they are to keep up
with their peers academically, then it is imperative to find additional ways to
expose them to as many words and ideas as possible.

This is a challenge. Dyslexics often encounter a gap between their reading level
and their intellectual level. This can turn them off of reading altogether. They
dont want to read baby books. Some handle this by faking engagement with

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thick sophisticated titles while others decide that they dont like to read at all and
avoid it completely. Both can be disastrous responses. Fortunately, there are a
few tried and true tricks for building word power for elementary students with
dyslexia.

Many Ways to Read

We all agree that children benefit from exposure to stories for their content,
structure, and new vocabularies. But reading independently is not the only way
to gain access to stories.

Read Aloud: There are few things as powerful for encouraging a love of reading
as a well-read story. This goes for all children. It is never too early to start
reading books to children (and surprisingly, they are rarely too old to enjoy the
act of being read to). In Naked Reading: Uncovering What Tweens Need to
Become Lifelong Readers, Teri
Lesesne cites Becoming a Nation
of Readers, a study that was
commissioned to examine
reading in the United States, to
make her own case for why
teachers should not abandon
reading to their classes once their
students become independent
readers. According to the study,
reading

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aloud was the single most effective activity for building to
eventual success in reading.

Listening to books read aloud allows students to have access


to stories that are out of their reading range but within their
comprehension zone. Even the most rigorous high school
English teachers understand the power and potential of
reading aloud to their classes. It also gives teachers an
opportunity to model oral reading skills like fluency, proper
pronounciation, and oral expression. These conditions serve
all students, but they are critical to dyslexics. Dyslexics
particularly benefit when they visually track with the reader
as much as possible.

Reading along gives the listening student an increased


exposure to the look of words and makes explicit the process
of converting letter combinations to sounds. In classrooms,

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using an Elmo gives the entire class a way to follow along with the text. In one-
on-one situations, something as simple as sitting next to the child serves the
same purpose.

Reading aloud also helps develop the building blocks of reading comprehension.
Students are able to discover new vocabulary, formulate predictions, and make
outside connections. When children are read to they usually ask questions. Their
questions help to clarify what they are taking in and allow them to make meaning
with someone else. Its like having their own built-in book club. Having access to
a discussion partner actually gives them an advantage over their silent-reading
peers. Many more able readers will rip through stacks of books without pausing
for reflection or questioning, thus reducing the potential for grasping many of the
ideas or cultural/ literary references in the story. Students who are read to
actually have a unique opportunity to discuss and question along the way.

Things to think about with read aloud: Read aloud is powerful because of
the opportunity to model reading fluency and expression. Consequently, the
reader should be comfortable and familiar with the text. Previewing allows the
adult reader to know the overarching architecture of the story and the
personalities of the individual characters so that they can employ appropriate
voice and tone. Also, many teachers confuse reading aloud with a round robin
student read. Unfortunately, round robin reads are often very stressful for
student readers (they obsess and rehearse their turn instead of listening to the
story). It is also typically a choppy and fragmented version of the story and not
effective for encouraging focus and engagement.

Recorded Books: Listening to audiobooks is a way to deliver words and ideas


to a child with limited access to an adult reader. Recorded books are wonderful,
particularly when authors or professional actors read them. Listening to stories
being read aloud by master storytellers goes a long way to cultivate a love of
literature. The drawbacks are that the child cannot ask questions or engage with
the recorded storyteller and it is more difficult to follow along with the words.
Additionally, recorded books also make it more difficult to maneuver around the
pages (relocating a passage or a reference requires skill and patience). Despite

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these drawbacks, recorded books remain a great
supplemental way to keep a dyslexic reader well supplied
with rich stories.

Vocabulary Building

Standardized tests, humanities teachers, and the culture at large reward those
with a strong vocabulary. On a subtle level, vocabulary is often used as an
unconscious gauge to determine someones level of intelligence. But much less
subtly, having a strong working vocabulary helps one make meaning from the
oral and written world.

It should be no surprise that dyslexic students struggle with written vocabulary.


Often complex words are challenging because of difficult pronunciations.
Dyslexic students may even know the written word when used in a context or
read aloud, but on a written word list it means nothing. Teachers often deliver
vocabulary in unimaginative and problematic ways, but the good news is there
are many ways to supplement vocabulary instruction that will help every dyslexic
child get more out of word studies.

Illustrating New words: Vocabulary instruction is best when it involves


having students draw a symbolic or realistic representation of the word. It
requires them to make meaning from a word in a way that memorization of a
definition does not. One cant fake a picture. The first step in generating an
illustration involves grasping the meaning or the context of the word. It doesnt
require artistic skill, but it does require thinking deeply. Creating the image also
stores the words meaning in a different part of the brain, generating a visual
association. Having students make pictorial flashcards can be a helpful strategy.
Making a little drawing next to the word and its definition is another good
practice.

Standardized Test Preparation: Publishers of test prep books are starting to


catch on to the power of imagery to create additional associations for memorizing
words. There are many vocabulary book and flashcards available now that are

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organized around images and cartoons. These tools can be helpful for dyslexic
students preparing for standardized tests.

Acting Out a Word: Dyslexics also benefit from acting out words. Having to
bring a word to life is a little like a game of charades. The beauty of the game is
that it requires the actor to understand the word in a deep way. Acting out the
meaning of a word is particularly helpful to a child who is a tactile learner (one
who learns through using his body), but everyone benefits from creating
additional associations for words.

Writing a story using vocabulary words: It is amazing what a random


word list can do to spark a childs creativity. When students are asked to use all
the words on their vocabulary list to write a story, not only do they need to
understand all the words in context, but students often come up with some very
imaginative tales. Dyslexics remember things much better when the information
has a context or a narrative attached.

Context, Context, Context


If there is an overall theme to building word power for dyslexics, it is this: context
matters. Dyslexic students understand and remember information by relating
facts to larger ideas. In order for information to be understood and remembered,
it needs to be attached to an idea. Its no wonder that studies indicate that
students who read a lot do better academically and have superior vocabularies.
Stories are wonderful for offering a context that supports memory and meaning
for all students.

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It is sobering, but not surprising, to know that how much time one spends
reading influences academic achievement. However, it is also a great relief to
know that there are many ways to gather words even when reading is not easy.
Dyslexic children usually need additional support in their quest to find a way to
gain access to the world of words, but in most cases, all that is required is an
alternative path.

Source:- http://dyslexia.yale.edu/EDU_wordvocab.html

37 Ways to Help Students with Dyslexia


Flourish in the Mainstream Classroom

Minds in Bloom is excited to present Anne-Marie of Bay Tree


Blog , who is giving us a TON of great tips on teaching students
with dyslexia.

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You work so hard. Youre dynamite with your students. You
spend hours preparing your classroom activities. And yet, your
hard work isnt paying off for all of your students. Youre not
alone. Most classroom teachers have a small handful of
students who misspell words, struggle to memorize math facts,
or hate to read out loud. Sound familiar? Chances are good that
some of these students have dyslexia.

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Dyslexia is a loaded word.

There are lots of misconceptions and misunderstandings about this condition. Maybe
youve heard a few of these myths?

People with dyslexia see words backwards.

Only boys are impacted by dyslexia.


People with dyslexia are less intelligent.
Dyslexia is caused by bad teaching.
People with dyslexia cant learn to read.

Heres what we know to be true.

Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability that can


impact reading, writing, and spelling. People with dyslexia
struggle to match up letters with their sounds. Typical learners
use the temporal-occipital lobe to read. Individuals with
dyslexia use diff erent neural pathways and diff erent areas of
the brain to read. As a result, reading is often slow and
inaccurate.

Im going to be honest with you: dyslexia interventions are time-intensive. As an


educational therapist, I frequently schedule over 100 sessions per year with individual
students. You probably have 25 other students in your classroom, lessons to plan, and
homework packets to correct. So, the question is

What can you do right now to reach the students in your classroom who struggle with
dyslexia?

Thirty-seven things, actually. Well, you dont have to do all of them once! But seriously,
I hope that as you read this list, a few items pop out at you, and youre able to add one or
two more instruments to your toolbox.

Explicit Instruction

1. Make directions clear. Kids with dyslexia often cant


remember multi-step or complex directions. Speak briefl y and
clearly, and always provide written directions. Try this: Video
yourself for an hour and see how you can tighten up your
delivery.

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2. Get students interacting! To ensure that all of your
students are engaged, require frequent responses from
students. Kids with dyslexia have perfected how to fl y under
the radar. This will also allow you to provide immediate
corrective and positive feedback.
3. Build in review. To help students retain information,
check for mastery before jumping into a new topic.

Reading

1. Use an Orton- Gillingham-based reading program.


Orton- Gillingham is explicit, systematic, and multi-sensory. It
works. Other good programs: Lindamood-Bell , RAVE-
O , Slingerland , Wilson , and Barton . Many classroom teachers
successfully use Fundations for whole class instruction.
2. Act on your suspicions. If you have concerns about a
students reading progress, refer him or her for appropriate
services. Kids dont outgrow dyslexia! Early intervention can
change the way the brain reads, preventing decades of
struggle.
3. Use audiobooks, too. Audiobooks allow all students
to access the curriculum. They help students build background
knowledge, comprehension skills, and vocabulary. Audio books
can be found at Learning Ally and Bookshare .
4. Teach phonemic awareness. All students in
kindergarten, fi rst, and second grade need daily phonemic
awareness instruction. Phonemic awareness creates the
foundation for long-term success in reading and spelling. Here
are two fantastic programs: Phonemic Awareness in Young

296
Children and Road to the Code .

5. Read aloud to students. This is the perfect way to


develop vocabulary and explicitly model reading
comprehension strategies. Even better, you can demonstrate
your love of books.
6. Teach phonics. New readers and older students who
struggle to decode need help. Make sure students know their
letter sounds and can blend sounds together.
7. Teach reading fl uency. Once students have mastered
basic phonics and decoding skills, make sure they can read
with grade level speed and accuracy.
8. Monitor reading progress. One straightforward way
to monitor progress and spot problems is the DIBELS program.
9. Use speech-to-text software. With headphones and a
computer, students can read with their ears, regaining
independence. Here are two videos on how to set this up
for PC and for Mac .
10. Dont require students to read aloud. Many adults
with dyslexia vividly describe the shame they felt when they
read in front of the class as children.

Writing

1. Teach specifi c strategies. Decades of research have


demonstrated that one method, Self-Regulated Strategy
Development, produces signifi cant improvements in students
writing. (Graham & Harris, 2005). This book will save you hours
preparing your writing lessons.

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1. Give credit for graphic organizer use. Do you have
students with great ideas, but their writing is unclear? Show
the class how to use graphic organizers. If you give credit for
thoughtfully fi lled out graphic organizers, your students will
buy in!
2. Use speech-to-text software. Make sure handwriting and
spelling challenges dont get in the way of students expressing
their ideas. Say goodbye to resistance to writing. Dragon
Dictate is popular.
3. Teach handwriting. Research has shown that elementary
students who write legibly automatically write longer and
better compositions (Graham, Bernginer, Abbott, Abbott, &
Whitaker, 1997).
4. Teach spelling. Spelling instruction needs to continue
through seventh grade, according to researchers (Jushi,
Treiman, Carreker, & Moats, 2008). Here are some of the best
programs for providing explicit, diff erentiated
instruction: Spellography , Spelling Through Patterns , and Words
Their Way .
5. Use Ginger. Students with dyslexia sometimes cant
eff ectively use the built-in spell checker because spell checkers
are designed for fi xing typos. Programs like Ginger correct
severe spelling mistakes.

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6. Help students with persistent letter reversals. In my
article, What Tigers Can Teach Us About Letter Reversals , I
explain why letter reversals happen and how to help students
avoid them. I also off er a free workbook of activities for
eliminating letter reversals in my Teachers Pay Teachers store.

Math

1. Teach with manipulatives. Kids with dyslexia dont


always understand symbols immediately. You can use
manipulatives like base-10 blocks to teach basic math
operations. Avoid rote learning like the plague.
2. Write accessible word problems. Use straightforward
language with simple vocabulary and short sentences.
3. Spend more time teaching math facts. Mastery of
math facts frees up working memory for other cognitive
demands.
4. Use graph paper. Sometimes kids with dyslexia have
a hard time lining up their numbers.
5. Try alternate methods for teaching math facts. Many
of my students fi nally learned their math facts with the
Schoolhouse Rock songs.
6. Avoid timed math drills. Timed tasks send anxiety
levels skyrocketing. You can use the same tests and turn off the
timer. Some kids prefer to be tested privately so they cant
compare themselves to others.
7. Provide calculators. I recommend allowing students
to use calculators once theyve demonstrated conceptual
profi ciency and fact fl uency. This will free up working memory
so they can do higher level work.
8. Invest in programs designed for all kinds of learners.
Ive found the Making Math Real and Jump Math programs
helpful.

Social-Emotional

1. Teach to strengths. Students with dyslexia


often have pronounced strengths in big picture thinking,
problem solving, creativity, and design. Check out
the Strengths Assessment from Headstrong Nation to fi nd out
where your students shine.
2. Emphasize problem solving and critical
thinking. Try some of Rachels fabulous tips .
3. Read books that feature characters who learn
diff erently. Here are a few of my students

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favorites: The Dunderheads , Tacky the Penguin , Thank You, Mr.
Falker , Percy Jackson , Two Minute Drill .

1. Build rapport. Students with dyslexia are hungry for


approval. Make a point to greet students daily and connect
about their personal interests.
2. Call home with good news. This is powerful
reinforcement that students with dyslexia rarely get.
3. Feature all student work. Some of my students have
never had their work displayed or held up as an example of
good work.
4. Be on the lookout for bullying, and stop it.
5. Help students build community. Kids with dyslexia
need to know that they are not alone. Eye to Eye is a national

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mentoring organization that pairs college students and
elementary-aged students with learning disabilities.
6. Empathize. Motivate your students by helping them
feel understood and respected. On my website, I share my
favorite strategies for building empathy .

Thank you, Rachel, for helping me share these tips and


strategies!

P.S. If you found some of the suggestions on this list helpful,


you may also enjoy using my free resource book on letter
reversals, The Eliminating Letter Reversals Workbook for b and
d . Each activity in the book includes concise teacher
instructions and full-color worksheets. Please enjoy!

Anne-Marie Morey provides tools and strategies for educators


who teach kids with learning diff erences at Bay Tree Blog . A
Board Certifi ed Educational Therapist, she runs a private
practice in the San Francisco Bay Area. She loves to help
students with learning disabilities build foundational academic
and life skills.

Source:- http://minds-in-bloom.com/37-ways-to-help-students-
with-dyslexia/

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Teaching Students with ADHD
Helping Students with Attention Deficit Disorder Succeed at School

If youre a teacher, you know these kids: The one who stares out the window,
substituting the arc of a bird in flight for her math lesson. The one who wouldnt
be able to keep his rear end in the chair if you used Krazy Glue. The one who
answers the question, Who can tell me what the 6th Amendment guarantees?
with Mrs. M, do you dye your hair?

Students who exhibit ADHDs hallmark symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity,


and impulsivity can be frustrating. You know the brainpower is there, but they just
cant seem to focus on the material youre working hard to deliver. Plus, their
behaviors take time away from instruction and disrupt the whole class.

Challenges of ADHD in the classroom

Think of what the school setting requires children to do: Sit still. Listen quietly.
Pay attention. Follow instructions. Concentrate. These are the very things kids
with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or ADD) have a hard time
doingnot because they arent willing, but because their brains wont let them.
That doesnt make teaching them any easier, of course.

Challenges created by students with ADHD:

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They demand attention by talking out of turn or moving around the room;
they dont pull their weight during group work and may even keep a group
from accomplishing its task.
They have trouble following instructions, especially when theyre presented
in a list, and with operations that require ordered steps, such as long
division or solving equations.
They often forget to write down homework assignments, do them, or bring
completed
work to school.
They often lack fine motor control, which makes note-taking difficult and
handwriting a
trial to read.
They usually have problems with long-term projects where there is no
direct supervision.

Students with ADHD pay the price for their problems in low grades, scolding and
punishment, teasing from peers, and low self-esteem. Meanwhile, you, the
teacher, wind up taking complaints from parents who feel their kids are being
cheated of your instruction and feeling guilty because you cant reach the child
with ADHD.

How teachers can help children with ADHD

So how do you teach a kid who wont settle down and listen? The answer: with a
lot of patience, creativity, and consistency. As a teacher, your role is to evaluate
each childs individual needs and strengths. Then you can develop strategies that
will help students with ADHD focus, stay on task, and learn to their full
capabilities.

Successful programs for children with ADHD integrate the following


three components:
1. Accommodations: what you can do to make learning easier for students
with ADHD.
2. Instruction: the methods you use in teaching.
3. Intervention: How you head off behaviors that disrupt concentration or
distract other students.

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Your most effective tool, however, in helping a student with ADHD is a positive
attitude. Make the student your partner by saying, Lets figure out ways together
to help you get your work done. Assure the student that youll be looking for
good behavior and quality work and when you see it, reinforce it with immediate
and sincere praise. Finally, look for ways to motivate a student with ADHD by
offering rewards on a point or token system.

Dealing with disruptive classroom behavior

To head off behavior that takes time from other students, work out a couple of
warning signals with the student who has ADHD. This can be a hand signal, an
unobtrusive shoulder squeeze, or a sticky note on the students desk. If you have
to discuss the students behavior, do so in private. And try to ignore mildly
inappropriate behavior if its unintentional and isnt distracting other students or
disrupting the lesson.

Accommodating students with ADHD in the classroom

As a teacher, you can make changes in the classroom to help minimize the
distractions and
disruptions of ADHD.

Seating

Seat the student with ADHD away from windows and the door, right in front of
your desk unless that would be a distraction for the student.

Seats in rows, with focus on the teacher, usually work better than having students
seated around tables or facing one another in other arrangements.

Information delivery

Give instructions one at a time and repeat as necessary. If possible, work on the
most difficult material early in the day.

Use visuals: charts, pictures, color coding. Create outlines for note-taking that
organize the information as you deliver it.

Student work

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Create a quiet area free of distractions for test-taking and quiet study.

Reduce the number of timed tests. Test the student with ADHD in the way he or
she does best, such as orally or filling in blanks; give frequent short quizzes
rather than long tests.

Let the student do as much work as possible on computer. Show him or her how to
use a pointer or bookmark to track written words on a page.

Divide long-term projects into segments and assign a completion goal for each
segment. Create worksheets and tests with fewer items

Accept late work and give partial credit for partial work.

Organization

Have the student keep a master binder with a separate section for each subject,
and make sure everything that goes into the notebook is put in the correct
section. Color-code materials for each subject.

Provide a three-pocket notebook insert for homework assignments, completed


homework, and mail to parents (permission slips, PTA flyers).

Make sure the student has a system for writing down assignments and important
dates and uses it. Allow time for the student to organize materials and
assignments for home. Post steps for getting ready to go home.

Teaching techniques for students with ADHD

Teaching techniques that help students with ADHD focus and maintain their
concentration on your lesson and their work can be beneficial to the entire class.

Starting a lesson

Signal the start of a lesson with an aural cue, such as an egg timer, a cowbell or a
horn. (You can use subsequent cues to show much time remains in a lesson.)

Establish eye contact with any student who has ADHD and list the activities of the
lesson on the board.

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In opening the lesson, tell students what theyre going to learn and what your
expectations are. Tell students exactly what materials theyll need.

Conducting the lesson

Keep instructions simple and structured. Use props, charts, and other visual aids.

Vary the pace and include different kinds of activities. Many students with ADHD
do well with competitive games or other activities that are rapid and intense.

Have an unobtrusive cue set up with the student who has ADHD, such as a touch
on the shoulder or placing a sticky note on the students desk, to remind the
student to stay on task.

Allow a student with ADHD frequent breaks and let him or her squeeze a rubber
ball or tap something that doesnt make noise as a physical outlet. Try not to ask
a student with ADHD perform a task or answer a question publicly that might be
too difficult.

Ending the lesson

Summarize key points. If you give an assignment, have three different students
repeat it, then have the class say it in unison, and put it on the board.

Be specific about what to take home.

Source:- https://www.helpguide.org/articles/add-adhd/teaching-
students-with-adhd-attention-deficit-disorder.htm

Preparing for Employment and Careers for Intellectually


Disabled Students

Employment is a big step for children with intellectual disabilities. This article describes
the curriculum and process for employment preparation for students with intellectual
disabilities.

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Why Employment Preparation?

Children with intellectual disabilities may not be able to go through the regular
educational system that prepares them for careers and jobs. They may not be able to cope
with high school or college.

Preparing for Employment and Careers for Intellectually Disabled Students

School always provides a very fun and supportive environment for a child. At school,
teachers accept the childs work, and always appreciate them for it, irrespective of how good
it actually is. Special children especially are given a lot of space and are allowed to do what
is comfortable for them. This is great for a special child; however, this means that they need
additional training to be able to integrate into regular work. This is why it is important for
children to be a part of pre-vocational training before they are ready for employment.

Areas of Preparation

Some of the aspects that are covered in employment preparation for students with
intellectual disabilities are:
Functional Literacy:
Children may require training in basic literacy. Sight reading, identifying their name and
writing it, identifying and writing their address are some of the tasks.
Functional Math:
Children will require training in simple calculations, use of a calculator, counting,
sorting, arranging in numerical order etc. Skills in weighing, and measuring are also very
useful.

Work behaviors:
Children will require training in producing neat and quality work, punctuality and
regularity, reporting once a task is completed, correct use and maintenance of tools and
other materials. They also need to know and learn about the behavior that is expected at
the workplace.

Social skills:

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Children will need to learn to relate to their supervisor and colleagues, ask and answer
questions and build relationships with others. In addition, the child must be taught to
accept criticism from the supervisor and to express frustration in an acceptable way.
Exposure to different occupations and work tasks:
While preparing for employment, the child must be exposed to a variety of work tasks.
This will help teachers and family to understand more about the aptitude and skills of the
child.

Steps to Integrate Into Employment

Employment is a huge change for a child with an intellectual disability, and a child needs
to be prepared for it physically, mentally as well as emotionally. A lot of encouragement
and psychological support is required at this time. Discussions with the child, teachers,
parents and other professionals will help choose the right type of employment for the
child.You can also use special curriculums to train and teach children.
Another important aspect is good communication with the future employer. If the
employer can understand the needs, strengths and weaknesses of the child, it will help the
child have a positive experience at work. Even after starting work, regular follow up and
discussions with the child and the employer will help the child be successful at work.
Teachers and parents have an important role to play in employment preparation for
students with intellectual disabilities. Devoting six months to two years to this task, will
help a child comfortably integrate into regular work.
Source:- http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-neurological-disorders/75447-
preparing-students-with-intellectual-disabilities-for-employment/

Previous Article / Next Article

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Postsecondary Programs for Students with Intellectual
Disabilities: Emerging Standards, Quality Indicators and
Benchmarks

The growth of postsecondary education programs for people with intellectual disabilities
over the past decade, coupled with important changes to the Higher Education
Opportunity Act (HEOA), have led to a need for a more standardized approach to
determine the efficacy and quality of such programs. Therefore, in 2008, the National
Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) and the Administration on
Developmental Disabilities funded research to determine a set of standards, quality
indicators, and benchmarks that could be used by existing and new programs. The
Institute for Community Inclusion at University of Massachusetts Boston, in partnership
with TransCen, Inc., received funding to complete this research, and the process to
develop a validated set of standards commenced in 2009. The ongoing research is
resulting in a validated set of practices that can be used by institutes of higher education
to create, expand or enhance high-quality, inclusive postsecondary education experiences
to support positive outcomes for individuals with intellectual disabilities. Further, the
standards, indicators, and benchmarks are aligned with the definition of a comprehensive
postsecondary and transition program for students with intellectual disabilities contained
in the HEOA in an effort to assist with compliance with these parameters.

The resulting standards, quality indicators, and benchmark tool includes eight
overarching standards that have been identified as critical areas of focus for
postsecondary education programs for students with intellectual disabilities. They are:
Academic Access, Career Development, Social Networks, Fostering Self-Determination,
Integration with College Systems and Practices, Coordination and Collaboration,
Sustainability, and Evaluation. These eight standards represent the key areas that those
establishing and/or improving these programs should consider. Each represents an area
that is vital to establishing a comprehensive, inclusive educational experience for students
with intellectual disabilities, and to assure alignment with requirements in the HEOA. In
this way, the standards will assist programs in applying to be an "eligible program" under
the HEOA and therefore be eligible for financial aid for its students.

By mid-2011 the final validated standards, quality indicators, and benchmarks will be
posted on the Think College Web site (www.thinkcollege.net) as a resource for new and
existing programs, eventually available on the Web site as a downloadable guide. In
addition, an online self-assessment tool will also be developed that will allow those who
are implementing a postsecondary education program to rate their practices with those
reflected in the standards. For those establishing a new postsecondary program, the
standards will provide guidance on what is promising practice in the field and what is
required by the HEOA.

309
Contributed by Cate Weir, Debra Hart and Meg Grigal, of Think College, Institute for
Community Inclusion, University of Massachusetts, Boston. To learn more see
http://thinkcollege.net

The Power of Inclusion: Personal Reflections on Creating


Change

by Shea Howell

What then would be our reason for instituting a program for students whose goal is not
degree completion? The participation of students with cognitive disabilities on our
campus indicates that we have a broader view of our institution as a center for learning...
The liberal arts tradition maintains that higher education is more than preparation for a
specific career or profession. It is about the continual quest for deeper understanding,
richer life experiences, and personal growth; in short, the overused term life-long
learning. If we accept this as the role of higher education, then we must believe that this
is our mission toward all individuals.
Virinder Moudgil, Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs and Provost, Oakland
University, delivered at Options Graduation Ceremony, April 19, 2010

Micah Fialka-Feldman graduated from Oakland University in the spring of 2010,


completing six years in a program designed to provide a fully inclusive university
experience to young people with intellectual disabilities. With the support of Micah, his
family, and visionary educational professionals, Oakland University opened its doors for
full inclusion. In the course of this experience I was able to observe the power of
inclusion to transform institutions and individuals.

I taught Micah in two classes during his final semester. He was in a public speaking class
and I directed his capstone course. A year earlier Micah also took my class Persuasion
and Social Movements. I was involved in his course selection throughout his academic
career. I was able to watch Micah grow as an individual and to observe the impact he had
on other students.

My first classroom experience with Micah was in Persuasion and Social Movements.
This class fit his strengths. His family members are well-known activists and he has spent
a lifetime surrounded by people engaged in movements for change. Micah has a keen
interest in politics; he was among the most-informed students in the class and participated
fully in discussions. During the class he was the first to have seen Milk, a film about gay
activist Harvey Milk of San Francisco. He encouraged classmates to see it and talked
about how important it was for people to understand the struggles individuals faced. This
kind of contribution was typical of Micah's participation, offering resources and insights
to others.

310
Grades in that course depended on papers discussing some aspect of social movements.
The only modification I made was to allow Micah to substitute video interviews for
written papers. This did require giving him some clear direction in how to frame
questions and approach issues. Generally, it was helpful for me to develop a few ideas
and present them to Micah so that he could chose among them. He followed the same
assignment schedule and handed in his interviews along with everyone else's papers. He
worked with another student on their final presentation, analyzing his effort to overturn a
university ruling preventing him from living in the dorm.

The second class, Public Speaking, also drew on Micah's strengths. During high school,
he spoke to groups about people with disabilities. By the time he came to the university
he had established a record of speaking events. Micah not only spoke on campus, but
traveled locally and nationally to make presentations to gatherings large and small.
Depending primarily on Power PointTM presentations to provide structure, Micah was
comfortable as a speaker. In a class with mostly freshman and sophomores he was among
the most natural, organized, and effective speakers. Micah's main challenge was to move
beyond material that he had presented and to explore new ideas. Here, too, the primary
strategy I used was to develop some options for Micah so that he could select among
ideas. While it was often difficult for him to generate new topic areas, once he grasped a
direction he was able to move forward.

His final speech presentation in the course, on the use of the word "retarded," required
research and organizational skills that challenged him. Working with his parents and
another student, Micah crafted and delivered an excellent presentation, earning one of the
highest grades in the class. More importantly, the speech touched off a discussion with
students saying how much they appreciated Micah's perspective and how he made them
think about things they had never considered. The experience of inviting people to think
more deeply and to rethink old ideas are important gifts of inclusion to the campus
community.

For the capstone course, Micah worked with Sarah Vore, a student doing a capstone in
writing. Together, they produced a film about Micah's experiences at Oakland. Sarah and
Micah met with Micah's family at their initiation and with Micah's permission. This
proved to be an important support in developing the project. Micah's parents helped
Sarah understand how to work with him to get his best ideas. They encouraged Sarah to
not only help him frame questions for interviews, but to be willing to challenge him.
Having high expectations and not settling for less were important for their success in the
project. Sarah wrote in her capstone paper about the experience:

Having never given much thought to higher education for this select group of individuals,
my experiences with Micah have completely opened my eyes to the academic and social
enrichment capabilities of those who are classified as "intellectually disabled." (p. 3)

Earlier Sarah described her first meeting with Micah and how she was able to confront
her own stereotypes:

311
I felt both a sense of intrigue and enthusiasm as we easily made conversation. It was
during that moment that my prior myths associated with intellectual disabilities were
dispelled. (p. 1)

Sarah's reaction to Micah was not unusual. By his senior year he was among the most
recognized students on the campus. In chronicling the highlights of the graduating class,
the Oakland Post, the student newspaper, listed ground-breaking for new buildings, a 9%
tuition hike, a faculty strike, and "After covering his story for over a year, Micah Fialka-
Feldman won his personal battle to live on campus..." ("Return the favor," 2010). This is
perhaps my greatest lesson from this experience with Micah and efforts at inclusion. It is
not only important for the growth of the individual, but it radically challenges and
changes the stereotypes of others.

Even in the earliest days of the program, the potential for altering thinking was clear. In a
book chapter co-written by Marshall Kitchens, the director of the Writing Center, and one
of his students, Sandra Dukhie, about tutoring Micah on the use of assistive technologies,
they noted the benefit to Micah's increased confidence, but went on to say:

A primary benefit for Sandra was the sense of social awareness because of the project.
Sandra describes working with Micah as "a wonderful experience." Over the weeks that
they worked together, she says, she acquired a greater appreciation for individuals with
disabilities: "I now have a better understanding of some of the frustrations encountered
by many individuals with cognitive impairments." At the same time, Micah not only
benefited from the experience in terms of communicative growth, but also from the social
interaction, citing the social nature of the sessions as the most beneficial aspect. (p. 214)

Micah's visible presence on campus resonated with other students with disabilities. In a
moving article in the Oakland Post, Shawn Minnix (2010) wrote:

I thought I would take a minute to congratulate all of the seniors on their upcoming
graduation. There is one person that I wish to acknowledge separately, and that would be
Micah Fialka-Feldman, or as we just know him Micah. Micah has a cognitive disability,
and is set to get his certificate at the end of this semester, finishing his odyssey and
completing his education. I look at Micah and what he has accomplished and smile. He
inspires us all to do greater things. I should know. In some ways, I used to BE Micah. I
was placed in a school for the emotionally impaired when I was 6 years old, and I stayed
there until I was 14 and it was hell from the start. I was told by my own principal that I
would never finish high school.

The full inclusion of Micah and other students required professors who were willing to
think creatively about what would enable students to contribute and learn in classes. The
single most important source of these strategies emerged from meetings with Micah, with
his administrative support team of professionals, and with his family. Out of these
meetings we were able to make adaptations that enriched the class experience for
everyone. We recognized no one strategy fit all students or all classes, but through open
communication and attention to the goal of full participation, we were able to find ways

312
to meet the needs of all students. Adapting classes to meet the needs of students with
cognitive disabilities took minimal effort. As a community we grew tremendously
because of it.

References

Kitchens, M. & Dukhie, S. Chapter 9: Speech-to-text: Peer tutoring, technology, and


students with cognitive impairments. In R. Day Babcock & S. Daniels (Eds.), Writing
centers and disability (pp. 193-222). Unpublished manuscript.

Minnix, S. (2010, April 13). Underdogs succeed at Oakland. Oakland Post. Retrieved
12/8/10 from http://oaklandpostonline.com/2010/04/13/perspectives/underdogs-succeed-
at-oakland/

Moudgil, V. (2010). Unpublished remarks delivered upon the completion of the Options
program, Oakland University, April 19, 2010.

Return the favor, rise up; If you stay or go, improve what was left for you: Staff editorial.
(2010, April 14). Oakland Post. Retrieved 12/8/10 from
http://oaklandpostonline.com/2010/04/13/editorial/return-the-favor-rise-up-if-you-stay-
or-go-improve-what-was-left-for-you/

Vore, S. (2010). Micah Fialka-Feldman. Unpublished senior capstone project (WRT 491
Internship), Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan.

Shea Howell is Professor of Communication at Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan.


She may be reached at howell@oakland.edu or 248/370-4120.

313
The None Traditional High Schools Such As
Cumberland High & Charlie Smith High Must Learn
To Provide Some-Things For Themselves-Stop
Waiting On Government!

If the Ministry of Education out of negligence, lack of concern or simple meanness of


spirit, fails to provide the musical equipment needed for the conduct of music classes for
all students and in particular for those with learning and emotional difficulties, there is no
reason why the Mathematics Department by itself or working in conjunction with the
Industrial Arts Department cannot make simple music equipment.

Does it make sense for a teacher of Mathematics to stand in front of a class claiming to
teach, when his or her students are not able because of real challenges unable to learn? Is
that not collecting pay for work not done? The same could be asked of the English
teachers and all other teachers. Does it make sense for the Dean of Discipline and the
Guidance Councilor to complain about student indiscipline when they know that those
students are in need of help which the school can provide but refuse to? Are shipping
pallets too humble a material to be used to make musical instruments? Are those schools
so broke that they cannot buy a few lengths of wood, some sheets of sand paper, a tin of
varnish and other such material?

Yes many students might be able to purchase recorders, the problem is that experience
has shown that only a very small handful of students in Jamaica have learnt to play that
equipment in school. In the minds of most students a recorder is not a real music
instrument, there is a cultural preference for percussion instruments and string
instruments, look at the instruments used in popular music culture. Start from that which
is culturally close to those who are being taught and are expected to learn.

314
Beyond Their Abilities and Imagination.

315
The Teachers At Cumberland High School and Charlie Smith High School Should
Strat The Students Out By Playing By Hear and Not Boring Them With
Musical Notes. If A Child Has Difficulty Reading Standard English How
Much More Difficulty He Or She Has Learning To Read Scrolls? Start By
Hear And Explaining The Notes Heard. The Reading Of Music Can Come
Later.

For Parents
Treating Your Child

NATURAL TREATMENTS

How Music Unlocked My Sons ADHD Brain


Traditional learning programs helped my son, who has ADHD and other
special needs, concentrate and focus but nothing helped him as
much as music. Whether he was learning an instrument, listening to a
classical concerto, or just clapping along to a beat, Brandon found
himself and his strengths in the power of sound.

BY SHARLENE HABERMEYER

316

Children do not come in tidy packages they come with spontaneity, energy, and
delicious individuality. Some have learning challenges that affect them physically,
cognitively, emotionally, and/or behaviorally. The good news is that music can help with
most of them.

In 1982, my third son, Brandon, suffered a traumatic birth that left him with pre-frontal
cortex damage. He was a fussy baby, cried all the time, and had constant ear infections,
speech and language delays, and severe separation anxiety. At six, he was diagnosed with
ADHD, auditory processing, auditory discrimination, visual-motor, visual perception, and
sensory motor problems. The difference between his oral and written IQ was 38 points,
indicating severe learning disabilities. A team of school and professional experts
concluded that he would have a hard time learning, focusing, and concentrating. They
said he may not graduate from high school; college was out of the question.

I decided to take the experts conclusions as one possibility, and not get too discouraged. I
researched ADHD and learning disabilities asking questions and aggressively
networking. I learned that it takes time to solve such challenges. I learned that all learning
disabilities start with auditory processing the child can hear, but has difficulty
processing what he hears. This can affect his ability to concentrate and focus. I enrolled
Brandon in learning programs, many of which helped. But music and
particularly musical instruments were the real keys to unlocking his ability to learn.

Rhythm of Change

Music strengthens the areas of the brain that, in the child with ADHD, are weak. Music
builds and strengthens the auditory, visual/spatial, and motor cortices of the brain. These
areas are tied to speech and language, reading, reading comprehension, math, problem
solving, brain organization, focusing, concentration, and attention issues. Studies indicate
that when children with ADHD or learning disabilities learn a musical instrument,
attention, concentration, impulse control, social functioning, self-esteem, self-expression,
motivation, and memory improve. Some studies show that children who have difficulty
focusing when there is background noise are particularly helped by music lessons.

317
Starting from birth, Brandon listened to classical music and, by age three, he was taking
group music lessons. By five, I was teaching him piano by color-coding the keyboard. By
eight, he was taking private lessons.

To support Brandon in school, I created musical games. For instance, I made up musical
jingles to teach him spelling. We clapped out rhythms while learning addition,
subtraction, and multiplication facts. I created songs, jingles, and rhyming couplets for
material he was learning in social studies, science, and language arts. Coupled with
formal music lessons, concepts became easier for him to grasp and understand. His
ability to concentrate and focus for longer periods increased each year. After a long, hard
climb, Brandon was accepted to a four-year university, and he eventually graduated with
straight As in film and philosophy.

Here are the sound strategies I used with Brandon. I have no doubt that they will work
with your child as well.

> Start group music lessons. When he is about 18 months old, find a group music
program for your child.

> Get into the rhythm. Our biological systems work on precise rhythms (think
heartbeat). If these rhythms are out of sync, it is hard for anyone to focus and stay on
task. Using rhythm instruments is a powerful way to sync the natural biorhythms of the
body, allowing the child to feel in tune with his environment. So put on music with a
strong beat the Baby Dance CD is good and beat out, bang out, or clang out the
rhythm of the music with your child.

> Dance to the music. Movement for a child with ADHD is a must! In fact, movement is
an indispensable part of learning, thinking, and focusing. As a child moves to different
cadences and rhythms, his physical coordination and ability to concentrate improve.

> Draw what you hear. Many children with ADHD are creative and in search of creative
outlets. Drawing or doodling engages motor skills, organizes the brain, and stimulates
artistic juices. After a busy day at school, and before your child jumps into homework,
give her paper and crayons, put on some classical music, and let her draw.

I used to play a game with Brandon called Draw What You Hear. I put on classical
music and Brandon drew or doodled to the music. Later, when he was in high school,
these exercises helped him shut out outside noise, and relaxed his mind.

> Read music books. Im a strong advocate of reading to your children every day.
Reading builds focus, concentration, vocabulary, speech and language, and writing skills.
I read many books to our sons, some of which were associated with music: Swine Lake ,
by James Marshall (a great book to introduce your kids to the ballet Swan Lake),
and Lentil by Robert McCloskey.

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> Start private music lessons between the ages of five and seven. If you are a parent
with ADHD, take music lessons along with your child.

> Find an ADHD-friendly instrument. The string bass, woodwinds, and percussion
instruments are good choices, because a child can stand and move while playing them.
Let your child choose his own instrument. If he decides on drums, buy earplugs!

> March in the morning. Children with ADHD usually have a hard time attending to
tasks during the busy morning hours. Every morning, play marching music (John Philip
Sousa tunes are great) and march from activity to activity getting dressed, making
beds, eating breakfast, brushing teeth with feet moving and arms swaying.

> Sing your way to school. Teachers want students to be ready to learn when they come
to class. So, on your way to school, sing in the car or play classical music. Singing
demands total focus. The Alphabet Operetta, by Mindy Manley Little, is perfect.

> Orchestrate homework. Some classical music changes the way the brain processes
information by changing its electromagnetic frequencies. As a result of listening, children
and adults are able to absorb, retain, and retrieve information better. When doing
homework, try listening to George Frederic Handels Water Music or Johann Sebastian
Bachs Brandenburg Concerti.

> Combine music and nature. Studies show that listening to music while walking in
nature has a beneficial effect on the brain. The combination re-sets the brain
increasing its focus and priming it for learning.

How is Brandon doing today? He is married, works in the film industry, and writes blogs
on philosophy. Music is still an important part of his life. He listens to classical music
while traveling to work each day and plays the piano weekly. Brandon has the tools and
understanding to make ADHD his friend. He will always be somewhat of a round peg
expected to fit in a square hole, but he is a happy, successful adult who embraces the
differences in people.

Source:- https://www.additudemag.com/ta-dah/

Music and Specific Learning Difficulties - by Karen Marshall


Teaching / 04/07/2016

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HOW IT STARTED

In the year 2000 I started to teach a student with dyslexia. Unusually his parents brought
him to me with a wealth of information on what dyslexia was and how it affected him.
As a teacher I was very lucky to be given information because, the only thing I knew
about dyslexia was that it caused spelling difficulties. After spending time with this
student I noticed other students who had not been assessed as dyslexic displaying
some of the same traits. Over the next couple of years, some of these students were also
assessed with dyslexia or another specific leaning difficulty (spLD).

It became quickly apparent that my usual teaching style was not being particularly
effective. I read as much as I could but found that this information described many of the
problems but gave few practical solutions. I contacted the British Dyslexia Association
who referred me to the late Margaret Hubiki (Emeritus Professor from the Royal
Academy of Music). Over the last few years of her life by telephone Peggy Hubiki
taught me how to multi-sensory music teach. I will never forget her words. Try to focus
on three questions with a student: What do you see? What do you feel? What do you
hear? The results using this style of teaching for these students and others have been
quite extraordinary.

WHAT ARE SPECIFIC LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (SPLDS)?

Dyslexia difficulties with processing words (can be seeing and hearing)


Dyscalculia difficulties with processing number
Dysgraphia difficulties with the process of writing

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Dyspraxia difficulties processing movement
ADHD / ADD difficulty with concentration
Aspergers Autism difficulty processing emotion
In addition to these problems, many of these difficulties are also accompanied by
memory problems, short term and working memory.

WHAT IS MULTI-SENSORY MUSIC TEACHING?

Multi-sensory music teaching is just what it sounds, using all the senses to teach music.
The main three employed are visual (seeing), auditory (hearing) and kinaesthetic (doing).
Id also add in reading and writing (text) as the literate nature of our world shows, many
people find this useful (even those with dyslexia). Multi-sensory music teaching can be
seen in some of the most respected music teaching approaches in the world such as
Dalcroze, Kodly, Suzuki and Orff. It can benefit all learners, but especially those with
specific learning difficulties like dyslexia.

Sheila Oglethorpe in Instrumental Music for Dyslexics: A Teaching Handbook (Whurr,


1996) states: The foremost advice that is given to teachers of dyslexics in the classroom
is to teach in a multi-sensory way. They are exhorted to employ as many of the childs
senses as possible in the hope that the stronger senses will compensate for the weaker
ones and a pathway into the brain and the memory will be found.

HOW CAN WE TEACH MUSIC IN A MULTI-SENSORY WAY?

Multi-sensory teaching (MST) is regularly employed when teaching a child to read. My


own daughter was shown pictures of the letters (visual), listened to how the letters are
pronounced (auditory), and drew the letters in a tray of sand (kinaesthetic). Learning to
play and read music can also be taught using all the senses. As already mentioned its
one of the most effective ways to teach a student with learning difficulties. Heres an
example, teaching C major scale on a piano.

These exercises can be adapted for instruments other than the piano. If you are teaching
the flute let the student see, hear and feel, the fingering on the pads, if the trumpet, the
position on the valves, the violin, the fingering on the strings.

AUDITORY

Sing to la the C major scale with the student.

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Sing the ascending scale again for the student to listen to, using the letter names C D
E F G A B C, and then sing them descending while the student follows the progress on
the keyboard (or fingering on another instrument).

Sing the scale again to the student but this time using the finger numbers 123 12345
etc. as you sing up and down.

Play the intervals of a major 2nd and a semi-tone. Help the student aurally identify
these intervals within the scale.

VISUAL

Provide the student with a picture of the keyboard with the finger numbers of the scale
on it. Some students do not think in terms of finger numbers: if this is the case, try
another way.

Show the student the scale written out as notes on the stave.

Get the student to look at the keyboard and see the shape of the scale in relation to the
white and black notes.

I have a student who always remembers the D major scale as the one with Fish and
Chips in the Fish representing F sharp and Chips reminding them of the C sharp.

KINAESTHETIC

Finger numbers need to be learnt. This can be done with a simple song (like Once I
caught a fish alive), doing the actions of the finger numbers at the same time.

Invite the student to use the right hand and depress the first three notes of the scale
(notes CDE) together on the keyboard, then place the thumb on F and depress the next
four notes with fingers 1234 (notes FGAB) ascending up the keyboard.

Get the student to close their eyes and feel the fingering of the scale.

Ask the student using their right hand to put finger 3 on the E and then tuck their
thumb under onto the F.

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Walk the pattern of the tones and semi tones one the floor, a tone (large step), semi-
tone (small step).

HERE ARE SOME MORE GENERAL HINTS AND TIPS FOR


TEACHING DYSLEXIC STUDENTS:

Teach in a multi-sensory way and use colour, pattern and music recordings to aid your
teaching if helpful to the student.

Be aware that dyslexic students may confuse left and right. Avoid using these terms:
find other ways.

Sensitively encourage students to say things out loud what they need to learn. This is
a good way to check their understanding.

Produce well-structured lessons. It helps to use a regular format so that the student
knows in what order you do things.

Watch the body language to see if Yes I understand really means No I dont but I
dont want to say. Test the understanding without challenging the student and then teach
the concept in another way.

Always OVER-TEACH information. Poor short-term memory is a particular


weakness for dyslexic students. Use mnemonics if they help.

Beware of sequencing problems. Many dyslexic students can find it difficult to


sequence note names backwards.

Build the students self-esteem: focus on strengths.

Do not speak too much or too fast, and try to use short sentences.

If the dyslexic student complains about the notes dancing, produce enlarged or
simplified copies of the music, try covering the music with coloured acetate, or copy the
music onto coloured paper.

Set realistic goals and ensure all results are rewarded.

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Help with personal organisation. Try highlighting things to be practised by putting a
small bookmark in the music, with no more than three things to practise listed on it.
Even better, use pictures.

Work in partnership with the parent.

Be flexible and persistent. If something isnt successful, keep on trying new things.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

Get Set Piano! Karen Marshall and Heather Hammond, A&C Black: These tutor
books incorporate MST teaching throughout. Suitable for beginner pianists, Book 1
takes the student to prep test and book 2 to Grade 1.
E-MusicMaestro's new Piano Sight Reading Grades 1 - 3: online sight reading
practice with a huge number of examples, all of which can be viewed large on a
dyslexia-friendly, cream background.
My First Theory Book and Theory Made Easy for Little Children by Lina Ng -
these include stickers which are very popular with young children.
Life size stave: Create using masking tape on the floor or an old piece of carpet
with black carpet tape (this is then transportable). Get the student to sing the letter
names of the different pitches as they stand in the correlating space on the stave, play
musical twister, marking and singing different words on the stave, stand on the note
pitch and play the corresponding note on an instrument (use a picture of the keyboard
for pianists).

Source:- http://www.e-musicmaestro.com/blog/23/music-and-specific-learning-
difficulties-by-karen-marshall

It's a Snap! 4 Ways to Use Music With Special


Needs Students
S EP TE MB ER 18, 2014

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Ive heard Pharrell Williams' song "Happy" a few times in the last week, and the unhappy
news is that it's now playing on repeat inside my head . . . over and over and over again.
The good news is that we can actually use this scenario to our advantage with our
difficult-to-reach students and special learners. Music can often be the key that unlocks
the door to learning for children who think outside of the box. In fact, studies have found
that individuals with diagnoses such as autism and Williams syndrome frequently have
preserved musical abilities despite challenges in non-music functioning.

Capitalizing on these benefits, board-certified music therapists develop music-based


interventions to help students make progress in educational goal areas. Music therapy is
even recognized by the U.S. Department of Education and states such as California as a
related service which may be required for a student to benefit from his or her educational
program.

As music therapists, we have the unique opportunity to compose educational songs, write
learning chants, and use musical cues to target goals that students are having difficulty
meeting. We use music as a motivator, memory tool, timekeeper, and way to elicit
communication when other strategies have not been effective. In school settings, music
therapists provide consultation, training, and resources to the child's teacher and other
members of the IEP team.

Even if you sing off-key, there are many simple ways for integrating music-assisted
learning techniques to help your students tune in. Here are four music therapist-
recommended strategies to use music as a teaching tool in special education.

1. Music + Visual Supports = Increased Comprehension


While music is an effective memory cue and learning modality, many students still
perform best when visual cues are paired with auditory stimuli. Using flash cards, song

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story books, digital pictures, and even physical gestures can increase students'
understanding of the lyrics they are hearing or singing. Here's an example of a song about
money with simple visual supports:

2. Favorite Songs as a Teaching Tool


For students who have limited interests or are difficult to engage, try creating a lesson
plan around one of their favorite songs. Let's take the earlier example of the song
"Happy." Given printed or digital lyric sheets, students can read the song lyrics out loud,
identify unfamiliar vocabulary, circle key words, and discuss the song's meaning.
Afterward, students can complete a related writing activity based on the central themes in
the song.

For younger students, provide pictures or photos that relate to the main characters,
animals, objects, or actions from a song. Engage the student in selecting the correct
pictures as you sing the words from the song, or have them sequence the pictures in order
from memory after listening to the song.

3. Rhythm Is Your Friend


There is a focus in special education (especially with autism intervention) on structuring
the student's visual environment. What about auditory information? Verbal instructions
and dialog can also be overwhelming for students who have difficulty filtering for the
important information they should attend to. Rhythm helps emphasize key words, add a
predictable cadence, and naturally gets the body in sync with and tuned into the activity.

Try this simple greeting chant:

Lets go 'round in a circle.


Lets go 'round in a game.
When I get to you, tell me, whats your name?

Students can tap the syllables to their name on a drum to help with their articulation and
pacing. Tapping a rhythm on the table, a knee, or a drum is also a great tool for students
who speak too fast or are difficult to understand.

4. Generalization Is Key
It's great to see a student who can sing his or her phone number, math facts, or classroom
rules through a song, but what happens when music time is over? It's our job as educators
to facilitate the generalization of skills from the music to the non-music setting. Some
ways to do this include:

After a song, ask the students "Wh" questions (who, what, when, where, why)
about the song content in spoken language.
Use visual supports from the song during related non-music activities. You might
use pictures from a hand-washing song as cues during actual hand washing at the sink.

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Use lyrics from the song as cues throughout the week. If you have a behavioral
song cuing the student to keep their hands down, you might start by singing the "hands
down" phrase at other times during the day when you see the student becoming
restless. Later you can fade the singing into a spoken voice.

Now it's your turn to get those songs out of your head and into the classroom! And please
share with us how you use music with your special education students.
MICHELLE LAZAR, MA, MT-BC'S PROFILE

Source:- https://www.edutopia.org/blog/music-with-special-needs-students-michelle-lazar

WORLD PEOPLE MAKING A DIFFERENCE


Difference Maker
Finnish teacher unlocks music for special-needs
students

Save for later

Simplified, accessible music notation lets their talent, not their needs, take
center stage.
By Stacy Teicher Khadaroo, Staff writer of The Christian Science MonitorAPRIL 29, 2009
Save for later

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HELSINKI, FINLAND Jamming on keyboards, bass guitar, and drums, four

young men fill a basement room with harmony. The only unusual items here

are the colorful squares, triangles, and circles up on a magnet board. The

symbols are stand-ins for conventional musical notes the keys that have

unlocked music for the students here.

The Special Music Center Resonaari has a humble, cozy setting a converted

two-story home in Finland 's capital. But for the 170 people with intellectual

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or developmental disabilities who take music classes here each week, it's a

place where their talents, not their special needs, take center stage.

For music teacher Markku Kaikkonen , the director, it's also the nucleus of a

"cultural revolution."

Recommended: Could you pass a US citizenship test?

"Our pupils, many of them, have lived in the margin of society. But now, with

the help of ... music education, they are coming closer and closer to the center

of society," Mr. Kaikkonen says, leaning forward with excitement, his brown

hair hanging loosely about his shoulders.

TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE Could you pass a US citizenship test?

Finnish teacher unlocks music for special-needs students

330
PHOTOS OF THE DAY Photos of the day 02/08

The effects spread far beyond the students, Kaikkonen says. They change

attitudes among families, neighbors, and the audiences who see them

perform.

Figurenotes, a system of notation and teaching, has been developed and

tested over the past decade by Kaikkonen and codirector Kaarlo Uusitalo.

Students learn to play by matching the symbols to keys on a piano or frets on

a guitar. Colors indicate notes, shapes show the octave, and arrows show

sharps and flats. It's a simple way to convey all the information in traditional

notation.

The Figurenotes method has spread to Japan, Estonia, and Scotland .

"What they're teaching us is that people with learning disabilities are capable

of doing so much more in terms of their musical ability than what we

previously knew," says Brian Cope, artistic director of Drake Music Scotland,

a charity that uses Figurenotes in both mainstream and special education.

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Students often arrive with no concept of rhythm, melody, or other basics.

Some can use only one finger to play. Others are very shy. It can take years to

reach the point of performing in annual concerts, which draw hundreds.

Kaikkonen and his teachers patiently rejoice in every step of progress.

"In the beginning, it's only colors and symbols, but then suddenly it starts to

be music, and it's the miracle moment," Kaikkonen says. "When a person is

playing for the first time in his life, and he understands, 'I played music!' ... I

call it the big-smile effect." It kicks off a lifelong cycle of learning, he says.

When student Marko Koivu arrived for classes about 10 years ago, he had

only two friends: his mother and a nurse. "He was a really passive boy,"

Kaikkonen recalls.

Before long, Marko was learning to play the keyboard. "His mother called to

say, 'Marko is teaching me how to play chords. Are these real chords?' "

Kaikkonen says. "It was a great moment ... when the son ... had knowledge

about something that the mother didn't know anything about."

Marko started exploring bus routes to rehearsals, instead of relying on his

free taxi card. He befriended some famous Finnish musicians, who joined him

and other Resonaari students onstage.

"Music is my life," he says. "When we have concerts, it is giving me a good

feeling."

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Kaikkonen studied music education and music therapy at Helsinki 's

prestigious Sibelius Academy long before good methods for teaching music to

the disabled had been found. But as a teacher at a secondary school and as a

music therapist at a mental hospital, he learned to turn chaos into order

among students with behavioral problems. And two "master teachers" showed

him how to bring out people's hidden talents.

"When working with special-needs people, Markku treats them with respect

and humanity, with trust in their potential," writes Ulla Hairo-Lax in an e-

mail interview. A music teacher and researcher in Helsinki, she has observed

his work and credits him with "boundless 'innovativeness' " and a "hilarious

sense of humor."

Kaikkonen joins Marko's band practice, tapping a plaid-slippered foot on a set

of bongos on the floor, his hand tucked into a back pocket of his black

jeans. Mr. Uusitalo leads the group as they play (and sing in Finnish) John

Fogerty 's zesty "Proud Mary."

Perhaps they'll perform it at the next concert. The Resonaari players'

professionalism, and their ties to the well-known artists who perform with

them, are central to Kaikkonen's "cultural revolution."

They challenge people's notions of who can be a musician, he says. "People

are coming because the music is so good. For the audience, it is the moment

when they start to think [about] the power of these people." Maybe they look

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a bit different, but what the audience finds isn't a needy person. It's a "person

who is as talented as anybody."

Source:- http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Making-a-difference/2009/0429/p47s01-
lign.html

Music Reading and Students with Special Needs


"The Big Four" by Dr. Alice M. Hammel
Music Reading and Students with Special Needs
When teaching students with special needs to read music, set the stage for success by
creating an optimal learning environment. As many distractions as possible should be
removed from the environment, keeping the students area neat and clear of clutter,
adjusting lighting and making certain students are not near windows or uncontrolled
lighting to prevent glare that may detract from the music reading process.
Students with special needs can sometimes be easily distracted, however, learning can
improve if adaptations to music are made in advance. When a task such as music reading
is difficult, getting off-task in a lesson can be very easy. Preparing necessary materials
before the lesson may diminish these issues.
Color, Size, Modality and Pacing
The Big Four of color, size, modality, and pacing should guide every teachers
approach.
Color

Students with learning differences have difficulty reading music primarily because they
cannot easily see black print on white paper. Adding color to the page heightens the
detection ability of the rods and cones that help eyes see and send messages to the brain.
Some of the following color adaptations include:
A piece of colored transparency paper placed over the music helps to organize the
visual process and can bring the notes into proper perspective;
A highlighter with an eraser on the opposite can be used to highlight an area and
erase when the music reading focus moves to a different part of the page;
Color photographs of information also help students visualize materials; and
Music can be coded with colors or familiar symbols to help students remember
notes or rhythms, for example, pink is C, blue is D, and E is green. Colors
(familiar to students) remove a step in the music reading process. When students
are able to recognize notes on the staff, the next set of notes can be color coded.

Size
Students with learning differences respond very well when music is simplified or made
larger and bolder, thereby increasing the students ability to focus on specific elements in

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the teaching process. The following recommendations will help decrease a students
frustration level:
Use an overhead projector, copy machine, or computer to enlarge materials;
Begin with a blank score and add information as needed during the process to
indicate tempo, meter, key signature, note values, or write measure numbers as
needed; or
Create visual aids for difficult words, and provide visual cues for phrases or score
markings.

These strategies help students gain control over the speed of information they are asked
to process.

Modality
All students learn through various modalities (visual, aural, and kinesthetic); however,
students with special needs sometimes process information best through one or two,
rather than all, modalities. Music educators should plan to present information in at least
three ways and encourage students to respond through one or more modalities. The
following examples are multi-sensory approaches that will help address multiple
modalities:
Provide written materials for all spoken instruction;
Provide multiple opportunities to reinforce concepts with manipulatives such as a
felt board, a raised texture board with heavy rope, foam or plastic shaped notes
and clefs;
Allow students to tape record rehearsals for personal practice at a slower pace or
in their preferred modality;
Ask students to respond according to their strongest modality (visually, orally, or
kinesthetically); and
Allow students to use a Word Bank (list of key words) when completing
assessments to stimulate memory of definitions or applications of knowledge.

Pacing
Students with learning differences may have to complete the entire process of building a
piece from a blank score throughout their music study. This can be a source of frustration
for both the student and teacher as the task can appear to be overwhelming. The
following process is effective in guiding students to reading music:
Use a scaffolding technique by introducing and increasing the amount of music
reading a student performs independently;
Separate rhythmic and melodic elements until a student can combine them;
Provide a list of the multiple steps (or a visual model of the steps) involved for
learning the music. The student can follow the list while practicing at home to
develop the independence necessary for music reading.
Separate pieces into small chunks, a measure or short phrase that can be put
together at a later time;

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Incorporate computer software programs for students who need extra drill and
practice in note and rhythm reading;
Ask students to practice for a short period of time at more frequent intervals, for
example, two 10 minute practice sessions rather than one 20 minute practice
session to encourage students to work at an even pace and decrease frustration
levels;
Wait to prompt students for verbal answers to questions until at least 5 seconds
have passed; and
Identify strong students who will be a good friend and practice buddy for a
special student who needs help.

Students with special needs need a longer period of time to process questions and
determine appropriate responses. Music reading processes may need to be reviewed each
time the student begins a new piece of music. Students with learning differences will
appreciate the extra time to process the information and will begin to feel their input is
valuable. Learning will be more successful when students are full participants in the
process.
These accommodations are entirely appropriate because students with learning
differences complete many more steps than non-disabled students. Frustration levels can
be lowered if students can demonstrate competency by completing a few problems or
performing a few measures rather than an entire page. Because the process is more
difficult for students with learning differences, each response requires much more effort.

Source:- http://www.people.vcu.edu/~bhammel/special/resources/articles/big_four.htm

Getting Musical With Kids Who Have Physical Disabilities


written by: Anne Vize edited by: SForsyth updated: 8/2/2012
Making music is fun, and most kids learn much from music. Creative expression and the
ability to communicate in a language that involves sound and rhythm and beat can be an
extremely satisfying experience for all. Music activities for kids with special needs can
take many forms

Group Music Experiences


Group musical experiences are easy to run in a school setting, particularly if you have
access to a trained music teacher or music therapist. The teacher or music leader is
responsible for planning the session, ensuring a logical flow of learning from one session
to the next, and for planning, implementing and reporting on the outcomes of the music
classes. Here are some great music activities to try with kids with special needs in a
group setting:
Keep the beat here - One student starts a beat by tapping on a part of their
body and, without using words, everyone copies that person's action. When the
teacher points at another student, the new person starts a beat on a different part of
their body.

336
Song choice - Use Compic cards or Makaton signs for songs that are
familiar to students so a student can choose what they would like to play or hear. This
is great for encouraging turn-taking, teamwork and communication skills with special
needs students.
My big bass drum - The song 'I can play on my big bass drum' is great for
kids with special needs who have a physical and auditory disability. They can gain
lots of sensory feedback and sensory information through a bass drum, while being
able to play it fairly easily from a seated position. For a wheelchair student, ensure
the drum is positioned in a stable place and that the student is able to hit the drum
with part of their body without hurting themselves on the rim of the drum.

Adapting Musical Instruments


Sometimes instruments and other musical items need to be adapted so they can be used
easily by a student with a physical disability. You could try:
Adding a piece of sponge wrapped around a handle of an instrument (such
as a tone block handle or a xylophone beater) to increase the grip size.
Mounting an instrument onto a flat board so it remains still, or clamping it
to a table top using a monkey grip
Adding a circle of soft elastic to a handle of an instrument so it is not lost
by a student who has trouble maintaining a strong hand grip.
Using a nail brush to act as a holder to keep a piece of music upright
(laminate the page first to give it the necessary stiffness; otherwise it will fall over)--
This can be placed on a wheelchair tray or table top so it can be seen while playing an
instrument.
Consulting with a therapist (such as an occupational therapist) about more
technical ways of making instruments and music accessible to an individual student.

Respecting Different Intelligences


You've know the concept of different types of intelligences. Remember that musical
intelligence is another form that needs to be cared for and nurtured so that it can grow
and develop. Find the music intelligence in all your students and take the time to adapt
and plan for their individual needs. If you do, you will discover that music activities for
kids with special needs could become one of the most rewarding parts of your week as a
teacher.

Source:- http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-physical-disabilities/43084-
classroom-music-activities-for-students-with-physical-challenges/

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Children with Special Needs Thrive in Music Program That
Teaches Music for Music's Sake
A New Jersey music school helps special needs students
achieve more than learning an instrument opening a
world of opportunity
Article ID: 642341
Released: 30-Oct-2015 9:05 AM EDT
Source Newsroom: Rutgers University
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KEYWORDS
special needs children, Autism, autistic adults, autistic child, Music Education

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Credit: Photo: Courtesy of Octopus Music School
Octopus Music School founder Joseph Fekete and guitar instructor Ariella Gizzi.

Credit: Photo: Courtesy of Octopus Music School


Guitar instructor Ariella Gizzi has taught Victor Grigorov, who has autism, for three years.

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Credit: Photo: Courtesy of Octopus Music School
Octopus Music School founder Joseph Fekete and guitar instructor Ariella Gizzi.

Credit: Photo: Courtesy of Octopus Music School


Guitar instructor Ariella Gizzi has taught Victor Grigorov, who has autism, for three
years.
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Music can be life changing. Newswise Just ask Dimitar Grigorov. When his then-12-
year-old son, Victor, asked to take guitar lessons, the Highland Park, N.J., father was
skeptical. Victor, who is autistic, was prone to anxiety and had difficulty focusing his
attention on one task. But Victor was insistent: He was going to play the guitar. Theres
no denying Victor when he sets his mind on something, Grigorov says. I figured it was
worth a shot. Grigorov started calling music schools but became discouraged: Most

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teachers had never taught a child with special needs and werent sure they could. He had
almost given up when a friend recommended Octopus Music School in downtown New
Brunswick, owned by Rutgers University alumnus Joseph Fekete. It was wonderful to
finally hear a yes, Grigorov says. The school had never taught a child with special
needs. But Fekete and guitar instructor Ariella Gizzi, a fellow Rutgers graduate who
works during the day as a special education teacher, were willing to try. We are music
teachers, not music therapists, but we saw a child who just wanted to learn how to play
an instrument, Fekete says. We decided: Why not teach music for musics sake, and if
in doing so, we provide something therapeutic, all the better. In his early sessions,
Victor was anxious and experienced panic attacks. Teaching him guitar was secondary
to keeping him engaged in the lesson, Fekete says. But soon, Victor started to express
his understanding and appreciation of music. It was pretty amazing what he achieved.
Today, Victor, 15, practices daily, researches music that hed like to play and has
performed in the schools annual spring showcase along with his typically functioning
peers at the George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick. Beyond the technical skills,
Grigorov ticks off the personal benefits: Victors communication, patience and
interaction with the world around him have improved. And the teen, who at one time
could only tolerate the lowest volumes while watching television, now can be found in
the audience at rock concerts. Weve seen the loudest bands we could The Rolling
Stones, Whitesnake, AC/DC, says Grigorov. I have to wear cotton in my ears, but
Victor takes his out. Since enrolling Victor, Octopuss special needs program has taken
off, primarily through word of mouth: Of the approximately 200 students the school
teaches each week, one-quarter has disabilities, such as autism and Down syndrome. As
a Division of Developmental Disabilities service provider, Octopus also offers music
instruction to special needs adults attending area day programs.
Victor opened our eyes to the fact that there is a population of people who want to learn
music, but have few opportunities, says Fekete. Students come to us from across the
state. Fekete a French cultural studies and political science double major who worked
his way through college by teaching guitar at his off-campus home opened Octopus
Music School upon his graduation from Rutgers in 2008. Since then, the business has
grown from one to four rooms and boasts a stable of 10 instructors who teach guitar,
bass, piano, violin, drum and voice. The quirky name is a nod to Feketes original home
studio. The street number was eight, and the room where I taught was so tiny that the
equipment cables unraveled all over the place, he says. I referred to it as the octopus
and the name stuck. He says the greatest satisfaction comes from watching children,
regardless of ability, learn to appreciate music. Teaching a special needs student is no
different than teaching a typically functioning student, Fekete explains. Every person
is unique in how he or she learns. We get to know the individual first and create lessons
accordingly. Gizzi, who previously worked at Rutgers Douglass Developmental
Disabilities Center, draws upon her education and experience to apply instructional
techniques to teaching music theory. Some students do not require modified content,
she says. For others, I focus more on providing the foundations and basics of rhythm
and note reading. I add visuals, body movements and verbal cues to enhance my
instruction. Beyond music education, students in the program have reaped other
benefits, such as improved motor or communication skills. Gizzi encourages parents to
see their special needs children as capable of learning an instrument. The progress they

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see is incredible, she says. They will leave their lessons with a sense of purpose and
with a skill that they themselves have worked to achieve.

Source:- http://www.newswise.com/articles/children-with-special-needs-thrive-in-music-
program-that-teaches-music-for-music-s-sake

Key Roles in Planning the Transition to College and Careers

by Margo Vreeburg Izzo

Students with disabilities have the most important role in planning their own transition
from high school to postsecondary education, employment, and independent living.
However, parents, educators, and adult services personnel also have crucial roles in the
teams that work with the students to prepare for post-high school life. This article
provides an overview of some of the key roles of those adults in assisting students to
explore, plan for, and move into further education and career preparation opportunities
after high school.

The Role of the IEP Team

Federal legislation provides very clear guidance on how educators and parents must
design special education and related services to prepare students with disabilities for
further education, employment, and independent living. The Individuals with Disabilities
Education Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires school personnel to begin planning transition
services with the student, parents, and other agency representatives prior to the student's
16th birthday, or younger if determined appropriate. The Individualized Education
Program (IEP) team must review the IEP annually and update the:

(aa) "appropriate measurable postsecondary goals based upon age-appropriate transition


assessments related to training, education, employment, and, where appropriate,
independent living skills;
(bb) transition services (including courses of study) needed to assist the child in reaching
those goals."
(IDEA of 2004, Section 614, d, VIII)

The IEP team meets on an annual basis to discuss the student's vision for the future,
present levels of performance, transition services, and annual goals. The IEP is developed
to prepare the student for postsecondary education and employment. Once students reach
the age of 16, they assist the IEP team to develop measurable postsecondary goals.
Examples of such goals are: "After high school, Liz will obtain a two-year degree in
Allied Health's Patient Care Program" and "After high school, Juan will attend classes at
Independence Community College and work part-time on campus in the bookstore or
student center." Once these measurable postsecondary goals are developed, the IEP team
writes annual goals and identifies transition services needed to prepare students to reach

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their postsecondary goals. Since students' postsecondary goals guide what types of annual
goals and transition services are delivered, it is essential to identify postsecondary goals
that students are motivated to achieve. For example, if a student wants to go to college
but doesn't currently have the study habits and educational track record to make that a
realistic goal, then teachers and parents need to share their concerns with the student.
They need to give him or her an opportunity to take steps toward better preparation to
achieve that goal or to revise the goal. Going to college will require attending classes,
doing homework, and receiving grades. If a student does not like these tasks, perhaps the
student could look at alternative forms of post-high-school education, such as attending
non-credit adult learning classes through the local adult and community education
program where participants do not have to complete homework or take tests.

The IEP team is also involved in planning community experiences with the student to
confirm potential employment and postsecondary goals and to explore various work and
college settings. Research indicates that the best predictor of employment following high
school is paid work experience in high school. Gaining the skills to maintain employment
is critical even if a student wants to go to college. Ultimately, employment is the goal of
both high school and college programs.

Finally, the IEP must include a statement of the interagency responsibilities or any needed
linkages. For example, a rehabilitation counselor may support a summer work experience
by funding a job developer and coach to work with a student. By including descriptions
of both educational and adult services in the IEP, a coordinated set of transition services
leading to postsecondary education and careers is more likely to occur.

The Role of Transition Services

Transition services are designed to facilitate movement from school to adult settings
including college, vocational education, employment, continuing and adult education,
adult services, independent living, and community participation. IEP teams consider
students' strengths, preferences and interests when planning these services. Transition
services are provided by teachers and related services personnel such as occupational
therapists, transition specialists, and rehabilitation counselors. These school and adult
services personnel provide instruction and community experiences to develop the skills
students need to navigate college and employment settings. Bridge programs located on
college campuses, but designed for high school students, are becoming increasingly
popular. These programs give students opportunities to navigate college settings with
their age-peers without disabilities, enroll in or audit college classes, and move toward
employment and adult participation in the community.

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The Role of Rehabilitation Services

The Rehabilitation Act was reauthorized under the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to
consolidate, coordinate, and improve employment, training, literacy, and vocational
rehabilitation services. The act mandates that vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors
participate in transition planning for students served under IDEA, at the very least, in the
form of consultation and technical assistance (National Council on Disability, 2009).
Students with disabilities are eligible for VR services if they meet the following three
criteria:

Their physical or mental impairment constitutes or results in a substantial


impediment to employment.

They can benefit from VR services in terms of an employment outcome.


They require VR services to prepare for, secure, retain or regain employment.

However, not all eligible students can be served by VR due to a lack of funds.

Vocational rehabilitation counselors provide direct services to help transition-age youth


gain the educational and vocational skills needed to transition to living, working, and
participating as adults in community life. The VR counselor works with eligible youth
and the IEP team to develop an Individual Plan for Employment (IPE) designed to assess,
plan, develop and provide VR services to prepare for, and engage in, gainful employment
(National Council on Disability, 2009). An IPE contains the specific employment
outcome that is chosen by the eligible individual, and any services provided by VR listed
and described in the IPE must be focused toward securing a reasonable employment
outcome. VR counselors provide services to enable youth with disabilities to leave high
school, attain postsecondary education and training, and achieve employment rates and
levels of wages comparable to their peers without disabilities. Services provided through
the IPE to youth and adults eligible for VR include assessment, counseling and guidance,
referral, job-related services, corrective surgery, therapeutic treatment that may reduce or
eliminate an employment impediment, prosthetics, employment-related transportation,
related personal services, interpreter services, and rehabilitation technology.

Several studies have reported that students with intellectual and developmental
disabilities who participate in postsecondary education have increased their earnings
(Grigal & Dwyre, 2010). Despite this, not all VR counselors will include the costs for
college as a VR service in the IPE. However, many professionals and parents can attest to
the significant growth in employability skills that occurs when young adults with
disabilities are participating in college classes with their age-peers. The skills of being a
good student overlap considerably with those skills needed for successful employment.

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Conclusion

In summary, professionals and parents should encourage high school students with
intellectual disabilities to take the lead in exploring the skills and education needed to
transition to college and careers of interest. Students must take an active role in
developing their IEPs and be comfortable talking about the nature of their disabilities
with both educators and other professionals. Encouraging students to advocate for
necessary accommodations in the high school setting will prepare them for college.
Finally, empowering students to embrace their futures with the self-determination needed
to set goals and make adjustments on a daily basis will help ensure their success.

References

Grigal, M. & Dwyre, A. (October 2010). Employment activities and outcomes of college-
based transition programs with students with intellectual disabilities. Insight, 3. Retrieved
1/12/11 from http://www.thinkcollege.net/about-us/publications

Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq. (2004).

National Council on Disability. (2009). National disability policy: A progress report.


Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved 5/24/09 from
http://www.ncd.gov/newsroom/publications/2009/publications.htm

Margo Vreeburg Izzo is Associate Director and Program Director of Special Education
and Transition at the Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus. She may be
reached at 614/292-9218 or izzo.1@osu.edu.

Creating a Transition Portfolio

The transition portfolio is a collection of documents students prepare to help develop


their postsecondary goals and their plans to achieve those goals. Students print out and
place these documents in a binder and save them electronically for easy updating in the
future. Many of the documents can be developed in English or technology classes to meet
required academic standards and course objectives. The following items are suggested for
inclusion in the portfolio:

PowerPointTM presentation outlining results of students' transition assessment


surveys, careers of high interest, postsecondary goals, and transition activities
they will implement to prepare for college and careers.

Job comparison chart outlining the nature of work, working conditions, salary and
education needed to enter their top two careers.

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College comparison chart outlining the costs, size, residential options, majors and
supports available at two or three colleges of high interest.
Career narrative explaining their postsecondary plans.
Measurable postsecondary goals for employment and education or training that
students and their IEP team can consider including in the IEP.
Short-term, annual goals students can complete this year to help them meet their
long-term postsecondary goals.
Resume and cover letter for students to attach to a job or college application.
Completed job and college applications to use as samples for future applications.
Written interview with a professional from their chosen career area.
Checklist of tasks that must be completed to reach their postsecondary goals.
Bookmarks listing Web sites that have been helpful in clarifying the students'
career goals and transition plans.

Contributed by Margo Izzo, Associate Director and Program Director of Special


Education and Transition at the Nisonger Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus.

Using Individual Supports to Customize a Postsecondary


Education Experience

by Cate Weir

With special programs for students with intellectual disabilities now in place on
approximately 200 college campuses in the U.S., the opportunities for people with
intellectual disabilities to attend college as part of an organized program are greater than
they have ever been. While a program may offer classes and social events specifically for
students with intellectual disabilities, and for many individuals this may be the route they
would like to go, others may want to go a different route. They may want to attend a
college that is near to their home or one that offers the courses they are interested in even
though it does not have a program specifically for them. It is still possible for people with
intellectual disabilities to attend a college of their choice, even if a special program does
not exist. This can be accomplished through the creative use of individualized,
collaborative supports that are designed around the unique needs and desires of the
student.

What Are Individual Supports?

It may be helpful to describe what individual supports are not. They are not
predetermined, they are not on a menu to pick from, and they are not packaged together
into anything that would resemble a program. Where programs may be developed on a
campus with the generic needs of a group of students in mind (for example, those with

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labels of autism) and then students with this label are directed into that program,
individual supports start with the unique needs and desires of the student. A key
difference between programs and individual supports is the level of choice one has of
which college to attend. Another critical distinction is that individual supports utilize
existing college support systems, perhaps supplementing those with additional services
such as vocational rehabilitation and other adult support agencies; but it does not create a
special support system designed only for program participants.

The essence of individual supports is person-centeredness the student her or himself is


determining the process, and supports are coordinated by the student or a person that
student picks. This may be a friend, a case manager, a high school teacher, a vocational
rehabilitation counselor or a staff person from an adult support agency. This method
requires good communication among the people involved in supporting the student, and
that all parties be knowledgeable about how college supports work.

The Process of Creating Supports

To prepare for college while still in high school, students who receive special education
services must be assisted to develop independence in the use of accommodations they
need, be encouraged to pursue the academic coursework needed for college courses that
they desire to take, and have the opportunity to attend college fairs along with their peers.
Once a student has decided to attend a particular college, if it is in or near the student's
home community the student's school district can assist him or her to prepare for entry to
that college by including a college support person on the transition team. The district can
also provide the student with a document to share with the college that explains the best
learning and teaching strategies for this student's success. In some instances, when a
student is under the age of 21 and still eligible for their school district's support, tutoring,
transportation or classroom assistance may be provided by the district on the college
campus.

In planning for individual supports for attending college, the person with an intellectual
disability whether still in high school or post-high school and a team of people
representing both professional and personal relationships meet to identify challenges the
student may face in college and to plan for supports for those areas. Collaboration and
person-centered planning are both key features of individual supports for college. The
person is supported to attend regular college classes and activities, and supports are
provided in much the same fashion as supports are provided to any student who requires
assistance. Key considerations in creating individual supports include the following:

Resource mapping: Identify all resources available to the person that can offer
supports and services to assist at college. Examples of resources that students
have used include vocational rehabilitation services, developmental disability
agencies, Medicaid funding, private pay tutors, public transportation, college

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disability services, Americorps, mentor programs on college campuses, family
resources, along with school district resources for those under age 21.

Creative use of generic resources: It may not be readily apparent that some of the
supports a person has can be used to attend college. For example, an adult
developmental disability agency may offer staff support to a person to do their
shopping or learn to clean their apartment; but that staff support could also be
used to help them with homework or learning to use the college cafeteria.
Technology: For individuals with disabilities technology can be a critical support
in attending college and can also offer long-term independence. Perhaps the best
technology solutions are devices that all students are using, such as cell phones,
smart phones, iPods, and computers with their many applications that can be used
to help support students on campus and improve communication and personal
organization. In addition, many campuses have technology centers equipped with
special software and hardware to assist students with disabilities in their school
work, and vocational rehabilitation services may also be able to help with
obtaining assistive technology to help the student be more independent.
Person-centered planning: With a commitment to planning that puts the person's
dreams at the center, it is more likely that the services and assistance that are
designed to support their college education are aligned with the true wishes of the
person. It also opens up the type of creative, out-of-the-box thinking that
effectively supporting a college education requires. Rather than fitting a person
into a pre-existing "slot" the resources can be aligned with what that person wants
to do.
Coordination: An individual approach to services and supports for people with
disabilities seeking postsecondary education requires someone who is aware of all
the pieces and can coordinate them to maximize the usefulness of each one. This
role can be filled by a transition coordinator at a school district, by a case
coordinator at an agency, or sometimes by a parent. Certainly it is sometimes the
student himself or herself who does the coordinating. But someone who is always
seeing the big picture is a key to success.
Collaboration and communication: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities
who want to attend college have had less-than-successful experiences when the
communication between and among all the players, especially college faculty and
staff, is not effective. For many college personnel, their experience with people
with intellectual disabilities is limited, and their understanding of why people with
significant disabilities want to go to college may be lacking. Many students have
found it helpful to identify a "champion" on campus. That "champion" can help
college faculty and staff understand the student's commitment to a college
education, help address concerns and answer questions, and facilitate
collaboration and communication between all involved parties.
Knowledge of how college differs from high school: Because a college education
is not a guaranteed right like a K-12 educatio