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Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Republic Act 8525 otherwise known as the Adopt-a-School Program was

established in February 14, 1998. It allows the private companies and professionals to

support government elementary, secondary, or tertiary educational institutions through

capability building programs for teachers and staff; construction of facilities;

upgrading of existing facilities, provision of books, publications and other instructional

materials; and modernization of instructional technologies. To recognize their goodwill

and act of kindness, they were granted with 150% tax free incentives by the

government (RA 8525).

In its effort to bring the spirit of the Adopt-A-School Program to the local

community, the Department of Education launched the National Schools Maintenance

Week in May 2003 through DepEd Memorandum 79, s. 2003. Dubbed as Brigada

Eskwela (BE), the program brought together teachers, parents and the community

members every third week of May to work together in repairing and preparing public

schools for school opening of classes. In the spirit of bayanihan, private institutions or

dividuals and even the local government units contributed in generating resources for

the effort (Brigada Eskwela Manual for School Heads). In 2008, Brigada Eskwela was

institutionalized through D.O. 24, s 2008.


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Brigada Eskwela is DepEds way of solving its problem on repairs and

maintenance of schools due to meager resources and to ensure schools efficiency and

preparedness before the opening of classes (DepEd Memorandum No. 79, s. 2003).

To make the program sustainable DepEd launched the search for Best Brigada

Eskwela Implementation to encourage schools to advocate the program and recognize

schools effort and best practices (DM 68, s. 2015). However, a very few schools from

the Division of Negros Occidental take part. In Central Negros for instance schools,

same schools are joining the search for the past few years. This has posed a question as

to how schools prepare and advocate the program to its stakeholders in the community,

private companies and professionals; as to how the program is being institutionalized in

the locality.

In the Municipality of Murcia, maintenance of physical facilities has been one

of the major issues that school heads are facing due to the limited budget provided

to government schools in the form of Maintenance and Other Operating Expenses

(MOOE) allocation. With the launching of Brigada Eskwela Program by the

Department of Education, not many of our professionals and private sectors are

donating to schools. They might have not known about tax incentives of the

government if they donate to schools.


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In our school, we do have encountered problems during the three stages of

Brigada Eskwela program implemention. First, teachers who are the members of

could hardly perform their basic duties due to summer vacation prior to the and

during the implementation stage some have to attend mass training. Secondly,

since ensuring schools safety and readiness for the opening of classes is crucial for

the school head and teachers most often they are most likely the ones spending

their salaries because resources generated to address school needs may not be

enough to ensure work accomplishments. Thirdly, not all parents and stakeholders

can extend more days in school volunteering because of their personal needs and

very few fathers and skilled workers are volunteering. Finally, most of the

volunteers who spend more days in school are students who are neither skilled nor

serious in doing carpentry, electrical, plumbing and painting jobs so they get into

accidents and minor injuries; while exposures to lead which are common in paints

poses health hazards (Retrieved from http://cebudailynews.inquirer,net/30179/

leadsafe-brigada-eskwela).

In research, very limited study has been conducted to evaluate the Brigada Eskwela

program implementation of the Department of Education. Since this program is one of

the prominent activities of public schools in the country, conducting the study may

provide the higher office with information on process and effectiveness of the program.

It is also beneficial for school heads and stakeholders for the promotion of co-ownership

of accountability of the education of Filipino youths. Furthermore, benefits and best


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practices as well as problems will also also identified. Hence, it is in these contexts that

the researcher is motivated to evaluate Brigada Eskwela program implementation.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to evaluate the implementation of Brigada Eskwela in the last five

years among public elementary and secondary schools in the Municipality of Murcia,

Negros Occidental. Specifically, this research sought to answer the following questions:

1. What is the public secondary and elementary schools profile in terms of:

a) Size

b) Level

c) No. of teachers

d) Enrollment

e) Best Brigada Eskwela Implementer Search Entry

2. What is the extent of the Pre-Implementation stage of Brigada Eskwela Program as a

whole and as assessed by:

a) Principals

b) Brigada Eskwela Coordinators

c) Teachers

d) Parents

e) Students

f) Alumni

g) District
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3. What is the extent of the Implementation stage of Brigada Eskwela Program as a

whole and as assessed by:

a) Principals

b) Brigada Eskwela Coordinators

c) Teachers

d) Parents

e) Students

f) Alumni

g) District

4. What is the extent of the Post-Implementation stage of Brigada Eskwela Program as

a whole and as assessed by:

a) Principals

b) Brigada Eskwela Coordinators

c) Teachers

d) Parents

e) Students

f) Alumni

g) District

5. What is the extent of Brigada Eskwela Implementation in three stages when grouped

according to the school profile?

a) Size

b) Level
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c) No. of teachers

d) Enrollment

e) BE Search Entry

6. What are the benefits derived from the Brigada Eskwela Implementation?

7. What are the identified best practices of schools in the implementation of Brigada

Eskwela?

8. What are the challenges encountered by the stakeholders in the implementation of the

Brigada Eskwela?

9. What stakeholders participation program may be drawn from the study?

Theoretical Framework of the Study

Brigada Eskwela Program or the so called National Schools Maintenance Week

Program is a local version of Adopt-A-School Act or Republic Act 8525 which

encourages the spirit of volunteerism and public-private partnership for education to the

community. It was launched by DepEd in May 2013 and encouraged civil participation

and the use of local resources and manpower to improve the public schools. The

program brought together teachers, parents and community members every third week

of May to work collectively in repairing and preparing public schools for school

opening. In the spirit of bayanihan, private institutions/individuals and even the local

government units contributed in generating resources for the effort. During the week-

long event, volunteers take time out in doing minor repairs, painting, and cleaning of

school campuses(Brigada Eskwela Manual).


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The concept of volunteerism or bayanihan spirit is supported by the Systems

Theory and the Ecological Perspective. Systems theory which originated from the fields

of sociology and biology explains human systems that exists in the social work,

individuals, groups, and communities. Human systems interact with one another and

with their environments. The ecological framework explicates transactions between

people and their environments which is characterized by the concept of goodness of

fit which can exists when transactions are sufficient and reciprocal (Retrieved from

http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf.)

Volunteerism is one way reciprocal transactions that can occur between

different systems. People volunteer to learn new things and when they feel

helpful and needed. Volunteerism allows opportunities for a greater diversity of

inputs and outputs which is important for enhancing goodness of fit. Agencies,

businesses, and organizations providing opportunities for volunteerism can

generate public relations.(Retrieved from

http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf.).

This theory shed lights on issues of stakeholders participation in Brigada

Eskwela as the focus of this study. It explains why people, professionals, private

or government organizations or companies may come to school to volunteer or

what motivates people to unite during the Brigada Week. Like the concept of

reciprocal transactions is true to private stakeholders who shared their resources

to public school and are provided by the government with 150% tax free
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incentives for their goodwill. Others donate because they feel they are part and

are happy that they have helped. People in the community too come to school

because they feel that they are needed. In return, the school tries its best to

prove to the community that their service is of quality also. The positive changes

that it creates both on the physical appearance of the schools and the outlook

of the people that take part in it are sources of great pride for the DepEd

family. (Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/ispeak/94749-what-we-

can-learn-brigada-eskwela).

The education of the Filipino youth is everybodys concern. While the

government is tasked to provide free and quality education to every Filipino child

and youth, the community where they grow is an important stakeholder in their

education. The private sector, which will sooner or later employ these young

Filipinos, is also an important stakeholder in their education. The successful

collaboration of all these stakeholders is therefore pivotal in ensuring that Filipino

children and youth go to school, remain in school and learn in school. It poses a

great challenge to educational stakeholders. (Retrieved from

http://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Brigada%20Eskwela%20 Manual.pdf)

Conceptual Framework

The framework of this study is based on Stufflebeams (2003) model. CIPP

evaluation model "which is one of the most effective model of systematic pattern",

(Eseryl, 2002, P 93-98 as cited in Mohebbi, 2011) is used as theoretical basics of this

research. CIPP evaluation model is a comprehensive framework to conduct evaluation


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of programs, projects, products, institutions and systems (Stufflebeam, 2007 as cited

in Mohebbi,2011). It, based on a systematic approach and attention to context, input or

available recourses, processes and results, could help managers and planners categorize

priority needs and also to serve available resources to the best type of activity with

continuous monitoring of program (Stufflebeam, 2002; Stufflebeam & Nevo, 1993 as

cited in Mohebbi, 2011). Stufflebeam believes that verifiable grounds regarding the

strength of various elements of the system are gathered in order to evaluate

insufficiencies and to propose change (Posadas, 2008). Stufflebeam models

components (context, input, process and product) take the form of a system linking

together to form operating structure of an organization (Retrieved from

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-6669-7_7#page-1).

The model begins with context. Context evaluation determines what needs are

addressed by a program and what program already exists which helps in defining the

objectives for the program. It serves planning decisions by identifying unmet needs,

unused opportunities and underlying porblems that prevent the meeting or needs or the

use of opportunities (Stufflebeam, 1971 as cited inTokmak, Barutay and Fadde, 2013).

In this study, the context being evaluated includes the Brigada Eskwela implementers

profile (size, level, number of teachers, total current enrollment , and if the school has

been an entry to the Annual Search for Best Brigada Eskwela Implmenter).
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Input evaluation determines what resources are available, what alternative

strategies for the program should be considered, and what plan seems to have the best

potential for meeting the needs. This facilitates the work plan of the program. It

serves as structuring decisions by projecting and analyzing alternative procedural

designs(Stufflebeam, 1971 as cited inTokmak, Barutay and Fadde, 2013).

In this study, the input includes evaluation of the Brigada Eskwela Program extent

of implementation namely: a)pre-implementation stage evaluation which covers

various strategies to ensure the success of the implementation of the program, e.i

alignment of the needs of the school to the School Improvement Plan, ocular

assessment of needs, crafting of work plan, organization of steering committees and

working committees, identifying resources needed and target partners/donors and

matching type of works with skills of volunteers needed b) implementation stage

evaluation which includes various activities or scope of works during the Brigada

week, and c) post-implementation stage evaluation which includes culminating activity,

transparency, reporting, pledge for sustainability and assessing if program objectives

are met.

Process evaluation assesses the implementation of plans or activities. It serves

implementing decisions by monitoring project operations(Stufflebeam, 1971 as cited

inTokmak, Barutay and Fadde, 2013). In this study, in order to evaluate the plans or

activities, the researcher conducted the following: a)documentary analysis taking into
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account the schools profile b)evaluation on the extent of the programs implementation

using survey, c) focused group discussion d) interview and e) open-ended written

questions on benefits, best practices and challenges encountered in implementing the

program.

The identified benefits will support the study and may help affirm the effectiveness

and limitation of the program. Best practices employed by schools will also be gathered

as basis for future program implementation. Determining the challenges or difficulties

experienced by schools in Brigada Eskwela implementation will be beneficial in

improving the program. According to Daniel L. Stufflebeam The purpose of the

evaluation is to improve and not to prove (Retrieved from http://managementhelp.org/

blogd/nonprofit-capacity-building/2012/01/08/foru-differences-between-research-

and-program-evaluation).

Product evaluation identifies and assesses outcomes, short-term and long term

effects, effectiveness of the program. It serves recycling decisions by determining the

degree which objectives have been achieved and by determining the cause of the

obtained results (Stufflebeam, 1971 as cited in Tokmak, Barutay and Fadde, 2013). In

this study, the product refers to the program that will be determined base on the result of

the study in order to improve the implementation of the program and address the

schools needs.
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The diagram below is the framework of the study.

Figure 1: Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework of the Study


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Scope and Limitation of the Study

This evaluation covered the five years implementation of Brigada Eskwela program

(2012-2016) among public elementary and secondary schools in the Municipality of

Murcia.Central Negros, Division of Negros Occidental.

The statistical population of this evaluation were the groups of school

principals/head teachers/teacher in-charge, Brigada Eskwela coordinators, teachers,

students, parents, and alumni for a total of six participants per school. In the

Municipality of Murcia, there are five (5) public secondary schools and twenty-eight

(28) public elementary schools.

The gathering of data was done using a self-made survey questionnaire, interview

and focus group discussions. Survey tool was based on the Brigada Eskwela Manual for

School Heads of the Department of Education, DepEd Memorandum 35, s. 2016 and

DepEd Regional Memorandum 212, s. 2016. There are three (3) open-ended questions

for an in-depth gathering of related details and experiences. The instrument is composed

of two parts. Part I elicits the extent of Brigada Eskwela Implementation ( in three

stages) namely: pre-implementation, pre-implementation and post-implementation

stage. Items of the questionnaire are describing specific activities for diverse

participation, and accomplishments of scope of work, roles and functions. The second

part of the survey are open-ended questions about the benefits of Brigada Eskwela, best
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practices and challenges encountered by stakeholders in the Brigada Eskwela

Implementation. Focus Group Discussion was utilized in the qualitative portion of the

study to generate a deeper understanding of experiences relative to the program and

were used to validate and back-up results of the survey and open-ended responses.

These were conducted to participants from two Districts, 3 principals, 4 Brigada

Eskwela coordinators, 6 teachers, 3 parents and 4 alumni. An interview on the benefits,

best practices and challenges was conducted to parents, Brigada coordinators, teachers

and pupils in two schools in far flung areas. Result of the interview was used to back up

written open-ended questions.

Due to time constraints and the risk for pupils/students in travelling to the venue,

the Focus Group Discussions was not conducted to the group. Interview however was

conducted to pupils in two schools to validate results.

This study did not include correlation of the extent of Brigada Eskwela Program

implementation to the schools performance and to any benefits identified. This study

did not include District Supervisors and other stakeholders of the schools namely

Municipal and Barangay LGUs and private stakeholders assessment. Due to time

constraints only available participants who came during the scheduled FGD were

included in the validation of results. Likewise, only public elementary and secondary

schools in the Municipality of Murcia were included in the study.


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Significance of the Study

The result of this study is of various importance to the different groups of people in

the community.

Students. Students are the center of learning and the most reason for the program

implementation in all public schools. The result of this study may be utilized for

improving Brigada Eskwela program that will benefit students primarily because the

school will become safe, child friendly, conducive for learning. Findings of this research

will also be a basis for improvement of the program. This study may help instill values

of bayanihan or voluntarism among our students.

Teachers. The support group, the implementers and the participants of Brigada

Eskwela implementation are the teachers. This study may benefit them by learning best

practices and how to overcome challenges. The result of the evaluation may help them

see areas for improvement. Findings on program benefits may also let them see

directions and elicit authentic support from stakeholders.

Brigada Coordinator/ School Physical Facilities Coordinator/Steering

Committees. The quality of preparations and extent of efforts determine the level of

success in every program implementation. Hence, the study may provide these groups of
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people data on how the program is assessed for improvement in their activities,

practices, and increase participation. This study may serve as a turning point for

implementers to follow the guidelines set by the DepEd for better results. Challenges

encountered may be prevented. Good results for the beneficiaries will be attained.

School Heads. School heads play the most vital role in he implementation of the

program. This evaluation may provide them with information on their performance in

the implementation of the program. The process may also provide them with basis for

decision making. Both positive and negative data may guide them in improving the

implementation of the program. They will prepare for Brigada Eskwela and gain better

results. Theories on volunteerism explain various reasons why certain group of people,

organization, professionals get to volunteer. Volunteer groups and individuals have

varied motivations and levels of satisfaction in volunteering. In order to generate more

resources and improve linkages, this study provides school heads information on how to

improve advocacy in their school especially on the preparation stage and to retain the

support of stakeholders for a sustainable BE program. The result of this evaluation may

serve as basis for designing a developmental program.

Parents and Guardians. This study may help them understand better the purpose

of the BE program for their children and their role in the school so that they will

increase their time on tasks during BE Week and in all activities that the school will

undertake. Since part of the evaluation is interview and focus group discussion, in depth
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results will be generated and this may make them realize and embrace a culture of

ownership of accountability of the school and they are always part of the program so

they volunteer and wont look at this program as a requirement but a passion to render

service and be united.

Local Government Units (Barangay, Municipal and Congressional LGUs),

Government Agencies, Private Corporations, Religious Groups, Individual

Professionals. It takes the whole village to educate a child. Findings of the evaluation

may be a basis for these group of stakeholders to put value on their support to schools.

They may see how important they are as volunteers and partners of education since they

have bigger resources. They may learn that every effort and any forms of donation they

give voluntarily generate positive outcome for the school and the students who would

someday enter into the labor force and they are partners in producing the kind of

manpower that will man the organizations, companies and any government offices.

Department of Education, Central, Division and Regional Offices. This study on

evaluating evaluation may provide them the data on the extent of the implementation of

the program in the grassroots level. The data that will be gathered on the benefits of

Brigada Eskwela may give them affirmations to what extent is really Brigada Eskwela

of benefit to the school; does Brigada Eskwela reach its objectives and whether the

schools have improved their performance or not. Findings of the study may also give

them with the information whether or not schools follow the provisions of the DepEd
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Orders and the memorandum on the implementation of the program. Determining the

best practices among schools that have successfully implemented the program is also

beneficial for replications among other divisions and regions in the country. The

challenges encountered by schools related to BE may provide them with ideas on how to

be of help to the implementing schools considering the limitation of the program and in

policy making. The result of this study may be of most value if used as basis for

decision making.

Community. The school is a pride of the community when it becomes a happy,

clean, beautiful and friendly place for all students and stakeholders. The school is

entrusted to produce future members of the society who are contributors to economic

progress and nation building. The community may gain confidence that their children

are in good hands. Brigada Eskwela Program may help promote this kind of image and

impact of the school to the community. When the school is doing good, the community

also benefit from it because this where students live. Hence, this study will provide them

with affirmation that indeed, it takes the whole village to educate a child, a sense of

ownership of accountability for education.

Future Researchers. A very limited research has been conducted to evaluate

Brigada Eskwela Program. Likewise published study on Brigada Eskwela is also

limited. Hence, the findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study may

provide information or references for a similar program evaluation.


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Definition of Terms

To have a common understanding of the salient terms used in this study, both

conceptual and operational definitions are provided herein:

Benefits. Benefits refers to the compensation/salary and other monetary and

non-monetary benefits passed on by a firm to its employees (www.mbaskool.com

Concepts Human Resource (HR). In this study this term refers to the advantages or

any forms of goodness that Brigada Eskwela Program implementation has resulted to the

school, teachers, learners and community.

Best BE Implementer Search Entry. It refers to the state wherein a school is

included as one of the contingents in the search for Best Brigada Eskwela (BE)

Implementer (DM 68, s. 2015). In this study this refers to the schools who have joined as

a nominee or winner in the search for best Brigada Eskwela Implementer within the past

five years.

Best Practices. In this study, best practices refers to the actions or unique actions

or initiatives implemented or institutionalized by the school that aided or helped

facilitated the success of the Brigada Eskwela in the school.

Brigada Eskwela Program. It is a schools maintenance program nationwide that

engages all education stakeholders to contribute their time, efforts and resources in
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ensuring that public schools are all set in time for class opening. It is a week long

event where local communities, parents, alumni, civic groups, local businesses, NGOs,

private individuals and even teachers and students to volunteer their time skills to do

minor to major repairs and maintenance work in schools (D.O. 24, s.2008). Its main

objective is to bring together teachers, parents and the community to do clean

up and repairs in public schools to prepare the facilities for the school opening

(Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/orders/do-24-s-2008). It has three stages

namely: pre-

implementation, implementation and post-implementation (Brigada Eskwela Manual).

Brigada Eskwela Pre-Implementation Stage. Pre-Implementation stage refers to

the period before the implementation of the program which starts January of each year.

It includes activities such as assessment of physical facilities and maintenance needs of

schools, resource mobilization, organization of Brigada Eskwela committees and their

orientation on specific roles and tasks among others (DepEd Order 35, s. 2016 and BE

Manual). In this study, the same definition or concept is used.

Brigada Eskwela Implementation Stage. This refers to the during or the actual

Brigada Eskwela week scheduled two week prior to the opening of classes (D.O. 24, s

2008). This is when all stakeholders: the school personnel together with the parents,

community private and public volunteers come to school to do minor repairs, painting,
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cleaning and other maintenance works, weeding, landscaping and ensure that the school

is safe and ready before the opening of classes (Brigada Eskwela Manual).

Brigada Eskwela Post-implementation stage. It is the period after the

last day of the conduct of the week-long Brigada Eskwela activities. It is

during this period that the school head puts together all the data reflected

in the different forms completed and submitted by the different working

committees, particularly by the Documentation Committee, to form part

of the schools accomplishment report. (BE Manual). In this study, the same

concept of post implementation stage is used. This is also the period when the

school head acknowledges supports of stakeholders and tries to sustain efforts

and supports of stakeholders .

Brigada Eskwela Steering Committee/s. This is an organized group that shall

spearhead the implementation of the Brigada Eskwela Program and shall

oversee the various efforts to be undertaken for the program such as marketing

and advocacy, resource mobilization, implementation, monitoring and

evaluation. This includes positions such as the Overall Chairman: School Head /

Principal, Co-Chairman: PTCA President or Representative, Members : School

Physical Facilities Coordinator, or the Barangay Chairman/Representative, School

Governing Council, Private Sector Representative, Selected Teachers/Students,

Others (BE Manual). This definition is likewise used in this study.


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Challenges. In this study challenges refer to the difficult experiences encountered

by the school in the process of implementing Brigada Eskwela.

Context Evaluation. Evaluation contexts focus on environment which is the

change will occur and problems will appear. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify

the appropriate of the environment in order to achieve the mission and objective program

(Retrieved from http://eprints.utm.my/13287/1/aziziyahcipp.pdf). It determines what

needs are addressed by a program and what program already exists which helps in

defining the objectives for the program. The context of the study refers to the

documentary analysis of the profile of the Brigada Eskwela Program implementers.

Documentary Analysis. It is a form of qualitative research in which documents

are interpreted by the researcher to give voice and meaning around an

assessment topic. Analyzing documents incorporates coding content into themes

similar to how focus group or interview transcripts are analyzed. (Retrieved from

studentresearch.ucsd.

edu/_files/assessment/Assessment-Methods.pdf). In this study the documentary

analysis refers to the analysis of the schools profile only.

Enrollment. It refers to the total number of students registered in the school.

In this study, this term refers to the sum of students enrolled in the participating schools

of the study particularly in the Municipality of Murcia for the academic year 2016-2017

including Senior High School.


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Extent of Brigada Eskwela Implementation. It is conceptually defined as the

degree of coverage or scope of carrying something into effort (Alla, 2015). In this study

the extent of implementation refers to the degree of putting into practice the functions,

efforts, resources of the Brigada Eskwela implementers and external stakeholders

particularly in the three stages of implementation: pre-implementation, implementation

and pot-implementation stages of Brigada Eskwela 2016.

Feedback. It is an information presented that allows comparison between an actual

outcome and a desired outcome. Tucker (1993) points out that feedback is particularly

important when evaluating dynamic instructional programs because its presence or

absence can dramatically affect the accuracy required of human judgment and decision

making (p. 303) as cited in Mory (p.746) (Retrieved from http://www.aect.org/edtech/

ed1/29.pdf). In this study feedback refers to the process in which the result of the study

will be communicated to the concerned persons for the improvement of the program.

Focused Group Discussions. It could be defined as a group of interacting

individuals having some common interest or characteristics, brought together by

a moderator, who uses the group and its interaction as a way to gain information

about a specific or focused issue (Retrieved from

https://ag.arizona.edu/sfcs/cyfernet/cyfar/
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focus.htm). In this study focus group discussion refers to the group of the

participants (e.g. BE Coordinators, principals, teachers, alumni, parents and

students) who will be interacting, discussing and validating the results of the

survey conducted. They will be sharing their observations, judgment to the result

of the study base on their real life observations of the program implementation

in their schools.

Input Evaluation. Input evaluation will measure the effort of the system and input

from the strategies and the sources. This evaluation is used to arrange result and will be

use for guidance in choosing the program strategies and the changes that can be done

(Retrieved from http://eprints.utm.my/13287/1/aziziyahcipp.pdf). In this study

input refers to the evaluation of Brigada Eskwela Extent of pre- implementation,

implementation and post-implementation stages of the program.

No. of Teachers. In this study this refers to the total population of teachers

employed with or without plantilla item working in the school in the current year.

Process Evaluation. This ensures the processes while program is still in progress.

The purpose of this stage is to find out the objective and mission. This respond must be

alert from time to time to control the program implementation. This evaluation will act as

the monitoring for a program that still in a progress (Retrived from http://eprints.

utm.my/13287/1aziziyahcipp.pdf). In this study process evaluation includes

documentary analysis of schools profile, evaluation of the extent of programs


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implementation using survey, focus group discussion, interview and open-ended written

questions on benefits, best practices and challenges in the implementation of Brigada

Eskwela.

Product Evaluation. Product evaluation focus to the result of the program after it is

finished. (Retrieved from http://eprints.utm.my/13287/1/aziziyahcipp.pdf). In this

study product evaluation refer to the Stakeholders Participation Program that will be

designed to improve the Brigada Eskwela Program implementation in schools.

Schools Profile. The School Profile is a piece of collateral put together by

your school (usually a brochure or flyer) that includes information about the

student body and the types of classes offered by your school, such as AP, IB, etc.

It usually lists figures like graduation rate and other notable facts about the

school, though each one is different (Retrieved from

https://questbridge.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/218777437-What-

is-a-School-Profile-)In this study, the school profile refers to the size of the school

(small and large). Small schools have a population of 1000 and below; while

small schools have a total enrollment of above 1000 as per DepEd Regional

memo 55, s. 2016.

Sequential Explanatory Design. It is a mixed method design characterized

by collection and analysis of quantitative data followed by a collection and

analysis of qualitative data. Its purpose is to use qualitative results to assist in


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explaining and interpreting the findings of a quantitative study (Retrieved from

https://researchrundowns.com/mixed/mixed-methods-research-designs/).

Size. This term refers to size category of the school base on schools enrollment:

small and large school in the context of Brigada Eskwela. The school with 1000

enrollment and below is considered small, while the school with enrollment more than

1000 is considered large school (Regional Memo 055, s.2016). The same concept of

definition will be used in the study.

Stakeholders. This refers to a group or individual that support an institution to

meet its objectives (Freeman, 2002). In this study these are internal (teachers,

students)and external stakeholders (private persons and companies, LGUs, religious

groups, government agencies, professionals, alumni) who support the schools during

Brigada Eskwela.

Stakeholders Participation. This refers to the act by which internal and

external stakeholders volunteer to do repairs, other maintanance works in

school in the entire Brigada Eskwela program implementation. It also refers to

their act of donating in cash of in kind to the school before, during and after

Brigada Eskwela implementation (Brigada Eskwela Manual). The same definition

will be used in this context.


27

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter presents concepts and studies related on Brigada Eskwela program

implementation, benefits, best practices and challenges. The purpose of this review of

related literature is to establish facts about Brigada Eskwela Program or the National

Schools Maintenance Week implementation, volunteer motivation and reasons for the

occurrence of problems and challenges while implementing a certain program in an

organization as well as schools best practices. This review also provides affirmations as

to the benefits of Brigada Eskwela based on published source both foreign and local.

Furthermore, the review of literature helps the researcher enriched her studies by

drawing out inferences related to her topic.

History of Brigada Eskwela

In February 14, 1998, during the Tenth Congress in Metro Manila, Senate and

House of Representatives of the Philippines, enacted and approved Republic Act 8525,
28

An Act Establishing an Adopt-A-School Program, Providing Incentives therefor, and

for other Purposes and was also known and cited as Adopt-A-School Act of 1998

(R.A. 8525, section 1. p.1, ). It is the policy of the state to provide quality education to

Filipino Youth and to encourage private initiative to support education. The law was

enacted during the time of President Ramos and was aimed to encourage volunteerism

and public-private partnership in public education, (Bunye, 2015). Originally, this law

was sponsored by Rep. Anne Marie Periquet at the House of Representatives. But full credit goes

to former DepEd Secretary Edilberto de Jesus who successfully pushed for the promulgation of

the necessary Implementing Rules and Regulations from the Bureau of Internal Revenue

(Sibayan, 2012).

To bring the spirit of Adopt-A-School Program in the communities, in May 2003,

during the time of President Arroyo, (Bunye, 2015), the Department of Education

launched the National Schools Maintenance Week. Dubbed as Brigada Eskwela, it

encourages all stakeholders in the community to work together and contribute support for

the minor repairs, maintenance and repainting of the school furniture, walls, roofings,

cleaning of classrooms in order to prepare the school and start the first day of classes

smoothly. DepEd Memorandum No. 79, s. 2003 includes attachment on National Schools

Maintenance Week Proposal which states the rationale for this initiative - The limited

budget of the Department of Education compromises proper maintenance and repair of

schools nationwide. As a result, individual schools face the reality of aging


29

infrastructure, increasingly dilapidated structures and, in some cases, abandoned facilities

that could pose safety hazards to students and pupils .

Brigada Eskwela is voluntary in nature, however, schools are mandated to ensure the

readiness of the school and participation of the community. Paragraph 2 of the said

DepEd memorandum 79,s. 2015 stipulates that Brigada Eskwela is a purely voluntary

effort. Principal and Teachers-in-charge are encouraged but not required to organize a

local school maintenance week. (Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/

default/files/memo/2003/DM-s.2003-079.pdf). Furthermore, DepEd Memorandum No.

35, s. 2016 paragraph 1 emphasized All education stakeholders are encouraged to

participate and contribute their time, effort and resources to this school maintenance

effort in ensuring that all public school facilities are ready for the school opening in

June. The same memorandum informs the field that all regional directors and schools

division superintendents shall mobilize their Adopt-a-School Program/Brigada Eskwela

coordinators to ensure a six-day implementation of the maintenance effort in all public

elementary and secondary schools and to ensure involvement of the community and local

stakeholder to this activity. These provisions of the tells that though it is voluntary but

schools cannot say that they will not organize efforts otherwise they will find it difficult

to ensure that schools facilities will be ready without the efforts of groups of people and

experts in doing school repairs and maintenance.


30

The school is the key to success of this program. It will organize its own effort

through the PTA or Parent-Teacher Association starting January-February of each year.

Steering committee are assigned. Needs of the schools are identified. Materials and

manpower are identified and resources are generated. Advocacy is also organized for

more participation. Brigada Eskwela Manual provides guidelines on what committees

to organize including their functions. Time frame are provided when to generate

materials base on the areas of repairs and maintenance needs of the school. Letters are

sent to all stakeholders who fills out the Interest Forms and checks items what they

can do and share to the school. Businesses are being approached for donations in kind

(paint, cement, wood, etc.The support of the local school board is necessary.. During the

National Schools Maintenance Week, the school initiates an opening program, orients

the participants on the work flow, receive donations, documents all works and on the

last day all brigada efforts are consolidated,reported and stakeholder are recognized

(Excerpt from NSMW Proposal, Attachment to D.O. 79, s. 2003).

This concerted effort did not involve budget allocation on the part of the

Department of Education, (Claro, 2007) as cited in although volunteers may have

to spend for (Retrieved from http://documents.mx/download/link/implementation-

of-brigada-eskwela).

Brigada Eskwela is a government program launched with the underlying purpose of

transferring the burden of government responsibility to the community in the light of the

decreasing budget allocation of the government education, (Brigada Manual).


31

Former DepEd Secretary Bro. Armin Luistro, described Brigada Eskwela as the

longest manifestation of people power in the Philippines because he sees that every

year the spirit of bayanihan is alive and kicking not just when calamities strike. It is a

genuine public-private partnership in action, absent any motive of gain and self-

aggrandizement but borne out ot altruism and love for the Filipino kids and their safety.

Hence, it is just timely for the Ecological waste Coalition of the Philippines, Inc.

(EcoWaste Coalition) and Philippine Associaion of paint Manufacturers, Inc. (PAPM) to

have reminded Brigada organizers to apply lead-safe work practices as schools are

cleaned, repaired or renovated. Lead dust are hazards to students or any participant

when they are taking off old paints. (http://cebudailynews.inquirere,net/30179/lead safe

-brigada-eskwela).

Paragraph 8 of the said DepEd Order 35,s.2016 presents activity matrix for the

conduct of Brigada Eskwela which includes: 1) Pre-Implementation stage (Assessment

of phyiscal facilities and maintenance, needs of schools, resource mobilization,

organization of Brigada Eskwela committees and their orientation on specific roles and

tasks among others) March 1- May 1, 2016, and Brigada Eskwela kick-off program and

caravan- May 30, 2016 2) Implementation and Monitoring of Schools- May 30-June 4,

2016, 3) Post-implementation which stipulates schedules submission of consolidated

Brigada Eskwela accomplishment reports by the Regional Coordinators to the EPS-ASP


32

Secretariat - July 30, 2016, selection and deliberation of Brigada Eskwela Awardee

Candidates- July 1 to August 8, 2016, submission of final list of school candidates as

Brigada Eskwela National Awardees to the ASP Secretariat-Central Office (CO),

conduct of Brigada Regional Awards Ceremony- Septmber 1-30 and conduct of Brigada

Eskwela National Awarding Ceremony November 24, 2016.

Included in this memorandum are the school safety and preparedness guide for safe

learning facilities, school disaster management and disaster risk reduction in

education. Disaster preparedness of schools is an important factor to achieve resilience

in our communities. DepEd, through Brigada Eskwela, seeks to mainstream disaster

preparedness principles in readying schools for the opening of classes. (Stakeholders

Engagement Strategy, p.2, Enclosure to D.O. 35, s. 2016).

Brigada Eskwela Bayanihan or Volunteerism Views and Concepts

The education of the Filipino youth is everybodys concern(Brigada Eskwela

Manual, p.3). Hence, DepEd shares its burdens to the public and puts premium on

partnership and shared responsibility on education of children.

Education Undersecretary for Partnerships and Linkages Mario Deriquito said that

Brigada Eskwela is bayanihan for schools.(Rojas, 2016). DepEd aims to unite

communities for the purpose of ensuring a better future for the next generation. (Rojas,
33

2016). It poses the challenge of this famous value of bayanihan or cooperation this

school year in which Filipino people is known of. (http://www.rappler.com/

move-ph/134497-deped-ready-brigada-eskwela-senior-high-school).

According to Teresita E. Sibayan, Principal I, Dampe Elementary School, Brigada

Eskwela is the modern day bayanihan evolved from sama-sama, tulong-tulong, and

pagkakaisa mentality of the Filipino people. Brigada Eskwela encourages and fosters amongst

its students and youth sector the value of civic action and social-responsibility gearing toward the

improving the quality of basic education system in the country (Retrieved from https://

dampeelementaryschool.wordpress.com/2012/10/16/brigada-eskwela/).

According to Adopt-a-School Program online press release, over the years, the Brigada

Eskwela effort has evolved from a week-long cleaning-up and beautification exercise to a festive

coming together of students, teachers, school officials, parents, community members, local

government officials, non-government organizations, church groups, and the private sector.

(Retrieved from https://dampeelementaryschool.wordpress.com/2012/10/16/brigada-

eskwela).

This years Brigada Eskwela with the theme Tayo Para sa Paaralang Ligtas,

Maayos, at Handa Mula Kindergarten to senior High School aims to engage

volunteerism from education stakeholders like the local government units from

provincial to barangay, private partners, academe, civil society organizations, private

corporations and individual volunteers to join school preparedness and safety measures
34

during the Brigada Eskwela. More than repair and repainting, beautification and

maintenance, the local communities need to ensure students safety. As such, they are all

encouraged to be partners in the process. (DepEd Order 35, s. 2016).

Many different types of organizations including nonprofit, government, and

education rely on the service of volunteers. Why do people volunteer? According

to Self-Determination Theory (SDT) of Deci and Ryans (1985, 2002) as cited in

Fendo, Molly(2013) a persons drive of doing something is based on the premise

that social environments satisfy the universal basic psychological needs of man

including autonomy (ability to decide ones own behavior and make ones own

decisions), competence (persons perceived ability and self-efficacy related to a

particular skill set), and relatedness (sense of connection with others, the giving

and receiving of love, and belonging to a community of peers according to

Baumeister & Leary (1995) as cited in Frendo (2013). Individuals are moved to

learn for the satisfaction of learning something new and being more effective

(Ryan & Deci, 2000b as cited in Frendo, 2013).

Ellis (2009) as cited in Alla ( 2015), enumerates reasons why people volunteer: the

feel of need, to make new friends, to help someone in need, to show belief in an impact,

to have fun and because they are being asked to volunteer. For some people its about

making choices to do things to help society in ways that go beyond their basic

obligations. Its more than working without pay. It also encourages individuals capacity

building while simultaneously addressing community social problems. According to the


35

systems theory and ecological perspective agencies, businesses, and organizations

providing opportunities for volunteerism can generate positive public relations and have

volunteers to carry out their operations. From a community perspective, volunteering

can change how people think about others, bring different cultures together and foster an

overall feeling of participation and trust among community members. (Retrieved from

http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf). From the study of

theology and philosophy phenomenology theory explains that constructed realities

develop through social interaction of people with each other. Since people have different

life experiences based on their social context, volunteerism may also occur in many

different social contexts and at the same time, though people live in the same location,

culture or family,they may have different ways of understanding similar experiences.

Consistent with the view of this theory, volunteerism is also a way of helping people

find new and more relevant meaning in their lives.(Retrieved from

http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf). That is probably one

of the reasons of foundations organized to serve the community and schools because of

this experience. While, conflict theory which centralized on power, surplus value and

subjection believes that volunteerism gives people, regardless of age, gender, education

level, marital status, and socio-economic level, with a chance to take part in the

community which allows them with access to different amounts and types of power to

interact with each other for a joint purpose and the ones who form the parameters of

volunteerism are those with bigger income, and professionals. Studies in America show

that people with higher incomes are the ones who like to volunteer. Those who have
36

finished college are also volunteering. This show that those in power have the tendency

to model volunteerism. When it come to surplus value in volunteerism, in business for

instance, an employee who volunteers create relationship with stakeholders and

consumers which help the company gain more customers. (http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/

SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf).

Social Exchange theory views volunteer commitment to have straight link to the

concept of reciprocal exchanges. People get attached to volunteering with an

organization when their self-interests blend with the interests and needs of the social

group (Kanter, 1972; Sherr 2003b)(http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_

Chapter_03.pdf).

Empowerment theory believes that volunteering promotes individual storytelling,

awareness, and eventually critical consciousness and offer potential for collective

action.(Rerieved from http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf)

Maslows theory offers a unique perspective for understanding volunteerism. It says

that volunteerism is simply an activity that let people experience self-actualization and

self-transcendence. It provides people opportunities to experience dignity, justice,

meaning mastery, and love for others. (http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf/SW_w_

Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf).
37

According to the Social Learning Theory, modeling and imitation are its

central processes of this theory and the main concept is sefl-efficacy. When

people feel that self-efficacy they tend to gain an expectation about themselves

that they can do more larger in a more involved tasks (Bandura, 1977, 1986

cited in Frendo, 2013 ).Social learning theory provides a useful framework for

conceptualizing volunteerism.

Family and and friends are often the paths by which people come to volunteer.

When children hear about their parents volunteering they also tend to volunteer.

Likewise, when friends heard colleagues at work volunteer and shared about

their experiences, they also shared their willful thoughts of volunteering. The

behavior of the people who are volunteering are reinforced by the the people

they are working with and they develop self-efficacy. The more they volunteer,

the more they develop self-confidence and later on become leaders until they

become adults and still continue volunteering. (Retrieved from

http://lyceumbooks.com/pdf SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf.).

The education of the Filipino youth is everybodys concern. While

government is tasked to provide free and quality education to every Filipino child

and youth, the community where they grow is an important stakeholder in their

education. The private sector, which will sooner or later employ these young

Filipinos, is also an important stakeholder in their education. The successful

collaboration of all these stakeholders is therefore pivotal in ensuring that Filipino

children and youth go to school, remain in school and learn in school. It poses a

great challenge to educational stakeholders.


38

( Retrieved from http://www.deped.gov.ph/sites/default/files/Brigada%20Eskwela

%20Manual.pdf).

Volunteers and partners in Brigada Eskwela are composed of diverse groups coming

from diverse cultures and orientation. The views of volunteerism explained above might

also be true to how people in our community volunteer. Irregardless of knowing what

individuals or groups motives are in volunteering the DepEd stands to its principle that

it needs the whole community to educate child. That is why it encourages the civic

participation.

Brigada Eskwela Implementation in Schools

There are various ways in which stakeholders, both private and government help

schools in our country and in other countries around the world that hold similar

activities to support education.

As cited in Alla (2015), in US, local and state taxes are being utilized to fund public

school. Federal government and some large corporations also donate funds for the

school for repairs, drop-out prevention programs, study grants, teacher capability

building programs, educational research and other programs. Parents-Teachers

Associations are also directly helping out their schools. Associations buy equipment,

books, do minor repairs and clean-up activities, sponsor health programs, support
39

scholarship and training for teachers and formulate guidelines for teenage group in the

community. They take part in innovating for instructional materials and school furniture

as well. They also engage in parenting sessions.

Americas Safe School Week is equivalent to Brigada Eskwela in the Philippines.

Americas Safe School Week 2015 was held in October 18-24. It was sponsored by the

US National School Safety Center, state governors and state school superintendents and

supported by local, state and national public officials and professional organizations.

This years Americas Safe School Week is going to be celebrated this October 16-22,

2016. It focuses also on the campaign towards a safe, secure and productive nations

schools. As such the NSSC campaigns for the active involvement of the key education

and law enforcement policymakers, students, parents and community residents, to

vigorously advocate school safety which include keeping campuses crime/violence/drug

free, improving discipline, and increasing student attendance. In preparation for this

annual activity, it has issued guidelines on primary activities to be undertaken by various

stakeholders to ensure a safe school. (Retrieved from www.school safety.us/

safe-schools-week).

DepEds practice of National Schools Maintenance Week this year is very much

similar to that of the United States of America in our practice, preparations and theme
40

on school safety. Hence, through DepEd memorandum 35, s. 2016 guidelines on how to

make our school safety for our students were also stipulated.

In Metro manila, one of their most desired volunteers are from the military group.

Philippine Army participates in the DepEds National School Maintenance Week in

Metro Manila from May 18-23, 2015. Armed with carpentry tool and painting tools,

400 soldiers from the Civil Military operations Group (CMOG), Army Support

Command (ASCOM), Headquarters and Headquarters Support Group (HHSG) and

Army Reserved Command were deployed to 18 schools in Taguig City, Makati City,

Pasig City, Muntinlupa City, Paay City, Pateros and Tondo to help teachers and parent in

doing maintenance, repair and clean-up activities. This their way of communicating to

the children that they were responsive, reliable, capable, and committed to its mandate

of serving and securing the people.(Retrieved from

http://www.army.mil.ph/pr/2015/may/180515.html).

A community repainted the fences of a public school in Tacloban City. Minor

repairs were done before the opening of classes. Maintenance works such as the

repainting of the roof and exterior walls, repair of leaking water pipes, ceiling

boards, broken furniture and windows, cleaning of toilets, and gardening were

done by volunteers with the help of donations in kind from non-government

organizations and corporations. As early as February, school heads recruit

volunteers who would participate in the brigade, by March, they would approach
41

local businesses for donations, then organize work groups by April. (Retrieved

from http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.

php/Brigada_Eskwela).

A success story of Brigada Eskwela is reported by the principal of San Rafael

Elementary School. San Rafael Elementary School published report on Brigada Eskwela

Implementation 2015. They were able to involve various stakeholders like Brgy.

Officials, Parent-Teachers Association (PTA), Ilagan Association of Women (ILAW),

Sangguniang Kabataan, Supreme Pupil Government Organization(SPGO) parents and

pupils. They had 884 volunteers, generated Php 84,895 worth of materials and cash

donations and labor cost amounting to Php75,937.50. (Retrieved from ph.shop.88db.

com/sanrafaeles/brigadaeskwela).

In their pre-implementation stage, they organized steering committee who chaired

every working committee like advocacy and marketing committee, resource mobilization

committee and program implementation committee. The committees were able to

perform their functions as oriented. Prior to Brigada Eskwela week, their school head

met with working committees to assess the readiness of the school, finalized activities for

the opening and closing, matched expected volunteers, materials and resources against

identified needs and organized working teams according to the nature of services to be

dome and appointed team leaders. (Retrieved from http://ph.shop.88db.com/

Sanrafaeles/brigadaeskwela).
42

Activities undertaken for the whole week were enumerated as follows, parade,

opening program, cleaning of classrooms, cutting of grasses, masonry works in

principals office, sweeping of dried leaves, tree and vegetable planting, construction of

storage room, painting of interior walls of all classrooms, construction of covered foot

walk, painting of windows, tables, and chairs, construction of science and math garden,,

pruning of plants. (Retrieved from http://ph.shop.88db.com/sanrafaeles/brigadaeskwela).

On day six, they conducted final inspection and closing program. After the Brigada

Week, it was noted that all working teams performed their roles and tasks, all activities

were recorded, and documented, necessary materials were available, inventory of work

accomplishment was done everyday, stakeholders were acknowledged of their

accomplishments and foods were offered to the volunteers. Daily debriefing sessions

were conducted to know what went right and what went wrong, what works were

accomplished, and what activities were to be continued the following day. (Retrieved

from http://ph.shop.88db.com/sanrafaeles/brigadaeskwela).

Vernon Go, a young Cebu professional who regularly participated in Brigada

Eskwela, blogged about his experience at a public high school in Mandaue. We woke up

real early on a Saturday to join Brigada Eskwela to help clean and beautify this small

public high school. And so we moved some furniture and some of us helped clean their

computers and did some hardware testing as well. We cleaned the rooms ceiling fans

and windows. With the help of student volunteers, we repainted the arm chairs as well as
43

the stairway rails. We even saw brave souls who took on the task of cleaning the school

restrooms.We also swapped stories and gave encouraging words to student volunteers

who helped us during the activity while taking a photo break or two. Eventually, we got

tired and took a water-food break with chit chats in between. And soon enough, it was

back to work. But with everyones help, we finished earlier than expected.With everyone

gathered, we imparted some of our life lessons with regards to education and

environmental awareness. After all the talk, it was time for games and entertainment.To

show our appreciation, we also shared our food together with giveaway school supplies

to the 30 student volunteers( Bunye, 2015).

Hongkong International Christian School (ICS) students volunteered in Brigada

Eskwela in their Week without walls program. They wanted to learn to become good

citizens of the world so that they went in some parts of Hongkong and even around the

world to learn good things about helping others, Alla (2015). Montes (2013) cited in

Alla (2015) Brian Van Tassel, ICS High School principal and his eleven Hongkong

volunteers also extended their assistance at the Living Lights Academy in Barangay

Boman Gueset where they repaired and painted damaged chairs.

PTA and students clubs in schools were also joining volunteer works as the best

option for students to become involved in schools.


44

In the Municipality of Murcia, Alla (2015) conducted a study on Brigada Eskwela

program implementation of 2014. Her findings showed that there was a great extent of

Brigada Eskwela Implementation in District II elementary schools which suggests that

the program is highly implemented also.

Benefits of Brigada Eskwela

Brigada Eskwela brought several benefits to the school and the community. It starts

from generation of resources for the schools thus augmenting the school financial status

or the MOOE, school improvement, strengthening the spirit of bayanihan between the

external stakeholders and the government, enlivens social responsibility for education,

friendships and even in the schools academic performance, the National Achievement

Test.

Schools joining the Search for Best brigada Eskwela Implementer are bold about

their schools improvements. According to Rafael Elementary school, Brigada Eskwela

strengthens partnership and builds harmonious relationship between school and the

School Governing Council, PTA officers, and members, Brgy. Officials, City and

Provincial Officials private sector and other stakeholders in the community. This idea is

further affirmed by the statement Brigada is proof that an effective partnership between

the government and citizens is possible, Carreon (2015, p.1).


45

Brigada Eskwela becomes a venue for advocating and communicating

organizational/civil mandates like that of the Philippine Army who joined Brigada

Eskwela as one way of communicating the Armys Transformation Roadmap (ATR).

To the private companies donating to the schools any resources will entitle them to

a 150% tax free incentives as provided for by Republic Act 8525. While DepEd Order

24, s. 2016 provides guidelines on accepting donations and on proceing applications for

the availment of tax incentives by private donor-partners supporting the K to 12

program.

Sibayan (2012) affirms Surely, this project has been organized and implemented, one, for the

purpose of advancing professional, administrative, and leadership skills of teachers and

administrators of public schools . Second, it has also helped strengthen the relationship of school to

the community where it is housed the families, baranggay, PTA, and other institution.

Whereas the main objective according to Sec. Bro. Armin Luistro is that Brigada Eskwela

aims to make the school ready for the teachers and students; engage participation of community

stakeholders in education; and revive the bayanihan spirit among Filipino youth.

On its own, Brigada Eskwela has generated over P10 billion in savings in man-hour services

and donations in kind and had 100% participation of over 45,000 schools nationwide in addition to

its mother volunteering and school adoption program called Adopt-a-School. Brigada

Eskwela also offers a more direct means of intervention through volunteerism and a mechanism
46

for quick, efficient, and effective information dissemination of information to share best practices,

(Sibayan, 2012).

Aside from promoting the spirit of volunteerism, since its launch, public schools

have benefited in terms of their Community Maintenance and Operating Expenses

(MOOE). In 2003: 12,000 public schools (30% of all schools) saved P392 million of

community MOOE. In 2004: 16,000 schools (38% of all schools) saved P717.1 million

community MOOE. In 2005: 26,000 schools (62% of all schools) saved over P1 Billion

community MOOE (Alla, 2015).

The brigade has saved the government the amount of P153.16 million in donations,

services, and volunteer hours and in 2008, it saved the government about P2.9 billion

(Alla, 2015).

DepEd reports that in 2007, Brigada Eskwela hit a record high of 90%

participation among school communities, generating more than P2.5 billion worth of

support-in-kind and volunteer man hours. It has proven to continue to gain more

mileage among communities, corporations, small-medium enterprises, government and

non-government organizations and private individuals. While, over 8 million people

have volunteered in the National Schools Maintenance Week since 2010 to 2015 (Alla,

2015).

As per recent report of the Division of Negros Occidental of the Resource

Mobilization Coordinator and In-Charge of Brigada Eskwela of the Division, JF


47

Balinas during the DEDP Monitoring and Evaluation Workshop, the total resources

generated in 2016 Brigada Eskwela when converted to cash is Php 16,909,900.91; while

the total Adopt-a-School Program generated resources is 126,950,422.55.

Life Span Theory and Life Course Theory view volunteerism as a useful

phenomenon. Volunteerism can modify foreseeable life transactions. It can help

teenagers create constructive self-identities and place young adults in friendly situations

with a larger, more diverse group of people. (Retrieved from http://lyceumbooks.com/

pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf).

By volunteering people can develop a sense of generativity that they can be of

service to society in a way that goes on the far side of their work. Volunteering can also

prevent people in a stressful occupations from burning out and help them maintain a

healthy perspective on all the areas in their lives. (Retrieved from http://lyceumbooks.

com/pdf/SW_w_Volunteers_Chapter_03.pdf).

Learning are always part of the benefits that the program gives to participants. Like

Vernon Go, a young Cebu professional who regularly participates in Brigada Eskwela,
48

blogged about his learning, Friendship was the bond created between the volunteers and

students. Perhaps, this event can become a memory shared by us for life. I have seen

many photos of Brigada Eskwela events with participants wielding native brooms (walis

na tingting). A very fitting symbol, I would say, of the collective strength of the public

and private sectors when bound by a unity of purpose, (Bunye, 2015, p1).

Every summer for 12 years now, Brigada Eskwela has been transforming public

schools into a venue where people from the community get the chance to be directly

involved in an endeavor with the government (Carreon, 2015, p.1).

The annual implementation of Brigada Eskwela has brought a new outlook towards

social responsibility. One of the public school students who grew up in the culture

of Brigada Eskwela is Russell de Guzman, a student leader at Makati High School. Since

he was in elementary, he has been taking part in this activity. When I was in elementary,

I would do it because it was a requirement for officers, and I had nothing to do during the

summer vacation, he shared. But as I kept on doing it every year, I realized it was also

my responsibility to help, (Carreon, 2015).More and more people from different

sectors of the society extend help to our school every year, De Guzman affirmed. De

Guzman shared that Brigada Eskwela made him realize that while the government has a

duty to its citizens, the citizens also have a duty to the government. The government

cannot do everything for us. We have to do what we can to help each other, too,

(Carreon, 2015 p.1).


49

Brigada Eskwela helps improved volunteers perspectives. Brigada

Eskwela also forces us to evaluate our willingness as members of the community

to serve when we are called for. With the opportunity it provides us to be a part

of the solution to the challenges of the education system in the country we

realize how we see ourselves and our duty to the community and the country in

general. It allows us to understand that, if we are willing, we can become a part

of the change we want to see.(Retrieved from http://www.rappler.com/move-

ph/ispeak/94749-what-we-can-learn-brigada-eskwela).

Brigada Eskwela was borne out of the need to address the challenges of

public school education in the Philippines. It started with the simple mission of

cleaning up and beautifying public schools to prepare for the opening of classes.

But by allowing everyone to contribute, big or small, to this worthy endeavor, it

has also opened multiple doors for learning and reflection (Retrieved from

http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/

ispeak/94749-what-we-can-learn-brigada-eskwela).

The whole experience influenced De Guzman as a student leader. He shared

that despite the exhausting door-to-door solicitation that he and fellow leaders

had to do, they never questioned the value of what they were doing. Despite

collecting only a considerable amount of donations each day, they always chose

to spend their own money for lunch or snacks. As they went through the

process, they allowed it to mold them into young leaders with integrity. "It was a

very tiring experience, but its fruits are fulfilling," he said. (Retrieved from

http://www.rappler.com/move-ph/ispeak/94749
50

-what-we-can-learn-brigada-eskwela).

The positive changes that it creates both on the physical appearance of the

schools and the outlook of the people that take part in it are sources of great

pride for the DepEd family. The Brigada is proof that an effective partnership

between the government and citizens is possible (Retrieved from

http://www.rappler.com/move-

ph/ispeak/94749-what-we-can-learn-brigada-eskwela).

After a week of Brigada Eskwela, schools will be all set for the opening of

classes. The students who are the primary beneficiary of the program will be

welcomed with safer and more conducive environment which will definitely help

energize their innate passion to learn. (Retrieved from

http://www.edgedavao.net/index.php?option=com_

content&view=article&id=11366:the-bigger-picture-brigada-eskwela-vol-10)

Brigada Eskwela was found to have benefits on the academic performance of

the students. A research on perception of stakeholders on Brigada Eskwela

showed the steady increase of participants of Brigada Eskwela volunteers was

glaring evidence and significantly affected the rate of enrolment and the mean

percentage score of the National Achievement Test. The NAT-MPS score was

somehow a laudable achievement since this success was very rare for a big

school category(Retrieved from http://

rimmon-educationinthephilippines.blogspot.com/2015/08/perception-of-

Stakeholders-
51

to-brigada.html).

From the outside, Brigada Eskwela might only count as one of DepEds mandates

for public schools, a project that generates funds to beautify the campus. But scratching

the surface will reveal an effective model of public-private partnership that creates

ripples of impact among the different sectors of society by revolutionizing the Filipino

trait of bayanihan.

It shows that volunteerism is still abundant in our country, and that there are a lot of

people who are willing to cooperate with the governments worthwhile endeavors if

given the chance.

Best Practices of Brigada Eskwela

One of the best practices to sustain Brigada Eskwela is the Search for Best Brigada

Eskwela Implementer every year. In 2014 for instance, to honor the school-awardees,

the DepEd, throught the office of the undersecretary for partnerships and external

linkages and adopt a school program secretariat, announced a total of 95 schools

nationwide as the 2014 Best implementing schools of brigada Eskwela during the

awarding ceremony on Nov 26 2014 at Meralco Theatre, Ortigas Ave, Pasig City. The

department congtratulated the 22 Best Implementing Schools elevated to the Hall of

Fame Category for consistently and successfully implementing the Brigada Eskwela for

several years. (Retrieved from http://depedteacher.blogspot.com/2015/01/2014-best-

implementing-school-of.html).
52

Challenges Faced by Brigada Eskwela Implementers

A lot of challenges are also faced by schools and stakeholders in the implementation

of the program. These includes risk of students, both physical, intellectual and in health

and existence of negative attitudes of the community members.

Doing minor repairs in schools placed students at risk. Paint which uses lead

content are hazardous to the health of the students. In most cases, students come to

school without any PPE. According to the Henry So, President of the PAPM in the news

published by Gloria Ramos of the Cebu daily Inquirer, the lead dust that may be created

as a result of renovation activities can cause serious health problems for the Brigada

Eskwela participants, with the children at highest rick of exposure. Aileen Lucero,

coordinator of the EcoWaste Coalition, warned parents and teachers that children may

ingest the lead paint chip or dust through normal hand-to-muth activities as they move,

eat and play around the classroom, hallway or school ground. Ingesting or breathing

in lead dust has a potential of permanently damaging a childs developing brain and

nervous system, causing learning disabilities and decreased intelligence as measured by

IQs score she siad, stressing that health authorities have identified no safe blood lead

levels for children (Retrieved from http://cebudailynews.inquirer,net/30179/lead safe-

brigada-eskwela).
53

Furthermore stated, childhood lead exposure is estimated to contribute at about

600,000 new cases of children with intellectual disabilities every year, according to the

World Health Organization, which has listed lead as one of the ten chemicals of major

public health concern (Retrieved from http://cebudailynews.inquirer,net/30179/lead

safe-brigada-eskwela). This news had not been known by all teachers and parents in

school.

The existence of negative attitudes in the community is one of the challenges faced

by schools every year. Critics of the program often say that local governments should

be the one to fund the maintenance of public schools, and schools should not have to

generate resources from private companies or individuals, (Carreon, 2015). In fact,

during their solicitations around the community, De Guzmans group received mixed

reactions. Some questioned the need to raise funds for a project that should be funded by

the government, while others willingly donated money or materials upon learning

of Brigada Eskwela's purpose (Carreon, 2015, p.1). Not many realize their role as

partners of the government in creating positive change in society. More often than not,

we are quick to point out the diseases of our country, yet we only wait for the

government to act on them. We either fail to recognize the opportunities we have to

contribute to the cure of these diseases, or we turn a blind eye on them because taking

part involves change that may inconvenience us (Carreon, 2015, p.1).


54

De Guzman shared that even some of his schoolmates do not fully understand the

program, and complain that they only go to school to study, not to make repairs or clean

the campus. If they will take part in the activity, they will realize a lot of things that

will change their outlook(Carreon, 2015, p.1).

Issues on Maintenance of School Facilities

A study was conducted in South Africa analyzing facilities maintenance which is

considered as a school governance function. Findings show that schools generally do

not have organizational structures for planned facilities maintenance, nor do they have

policies on facilities maintenance and the maintenance of school facilities was done

merely as needs arise and mostly on cleaning the school campus. There is no such thing

as preventive maintenance. Therefore, there is a need for interim facilities maintenance

committees and, in the long term, a whole-school approach to facilities maintenance that

makes facilities maintenance a strategic lever for school functionality (Xaba, 2012).

The analysis of data collected revealed a number of important factors and challenges

regarding facilities maintenance practices at schools. Firstly, the general appearance of

school environments indicated that maintenance work is carried out, albeit ad hoc and

unplanned. The average extent of participants' experience as facilities maintenance

coordinators indicates that whatever approaches schools used for the maintenance of

facilities, is a result of trial and error and experiential knowledge (Xaba, 2012).
55

Secondly, facilities maintenance at school connotes its narrow definition of facilities

repairs and upkeep against facilities maintenance having a strategic dimension covering

issues like facilities design and maintenance programmes, upgrading the knowledge and

skills of the workforce, and deployment of tools and "manpower" to perform

maintenance work and provide a clean and safe environment, as well as creating a

physical setting that is appropriate for learning. (Tsang, 1998:88; Szuba & Young, 2003:2

as cited in Xaba, 2012).

Thirdly, it is evident that without policy directives informing school facilities

management and maintenance, schools would have systematic processes aimed at

ensuring that school facilities maintenance promoted educational programmes. Clearly

participants' attempts at facilities maintenance without a policy framework are

constrained by numerous challenges, including: a) Creating an organizational structure

for facilities maintenance programmes being curtailed by poor resourcing. For instance,

there are no qualified and properly trained facilities maintenance people b)Staffing of

general workers at schools being based on the staff provisioning norms, which are also

based on the enrollment of schools. For example, a secondary school with science

laboratories would require more maintenance staff than a primary school offering the

mainstream curriculum. This results in one school prioritizing more security guards

instead of maintenance workers c)Funding for maintenance being less than adequate

regardless of the nature of facilities at schools and the concomitant maintenance

requirements (Xaba, 2012).


56

Fourthly, it was evident that participants generally did not have knowledge of school

facilities maintenance. This clearly implies that facilities maintenance at schools, and

possibly at departmental level, is not accorded a priority status (Xaba, 2012).

Fifthly, there is absence of sense of direction among schools on how to systematize

maintenance of school facilities because of no policies concerning for such. Hence in

schools' development and improvement planning processes, facilities maintenance was

not considered a component. It is not regarded as an aspect of strategic planning in terms

of being facilitative of school performance effectiveness.

Finally, it was also evident that stakeholder involvement in planning for facility

usage, management and maintenance is lacking. The fact that the administrative clerk

heads facilities maintenance at one school attests to this. In essence, this implies that

school governing bodies do not have facilities maintenance sub-committees and,

consequently, do not engage in strategic facilities maintenance planning where all school

stakeholders would be involved. It must, however, be stated that there was evidence of

some form of school facilities maintenance, with each school on an ad hoc basis,

attempting to maintain its facilities in its own way. The main weakness is the fact that

these attempts were not formal, planned, and organizationally structured practices (Xaba,

2012).

There is therefore a need for, firstly, school facilities maintenance to be placed at the

core of school programmes and since schools already compile school development plans,

facilities maintenance should be regarded as one of the major strategic levers in the
57

development planning processes. This will ensure that it is planned and budgeted for, and

included in implementation plans of school development processes. Secondly, in the

short term, interim school facilities maintenance committees should be established so as

to have some functional organizational structure for facilities maintenance, which will

assist in determining systems for ensuring planned preventive, routine and corrective

maintenance. Where workers and gardeners are also responsible for small-scale repairs

of equipment and service systems, they should be provided with training in basic skills in

such functions (Xaba, 2012).

A study on the perception of stakeholders was conducted in Kidapawan City

National High School. Findings of the study includes: a)disclosure of the

optimistic response of the respondents towards the implementation of Brigada

Eskwela Program b) Parents perceived Brigada Eskwela as requirement for

enrolment because they have to attach Brigada Eskwela Slip in their enrolment

forms before their children could be duly enrolled c) The concept Bayanihan as

an innate moral value emphasized by Brigada Eskwela was now observed as one

of the steps in enrolling students to schools all over the Philippines d)

Professionals believed that the tasks for Brigada Eskwela is not only for them but

also by the community in the preparation of the school before opening its classes

in June e) The simple tasks of sweeping, weeding, cutting of grasses, clearing the

gutters and getting rid of cobwebs and dusts arose to repainting, additional

construction jobs, electrical repairs, plumbing and many others but these

complicated jobs should be done by the professionals to avoid waste of

materials, accidents, and repeating the jobs as the workmanship of volunteer


58

parents, Civil Society Groups and individuals f) 37% were driven to help because

of volunteering in nature, 28% felt that it was a duty and obligation to the

community, 20% were encouraged to join through infomercials and 15%

responded indifferently. Parents who were constantly online and have social

network account were also influenced in joining the Brigada Eskwela as they

made a groufie or selfie documentation. Thus, helping in the positive

outcome of the program. Radio, print media, internet, TV infomercials and news

updates are also badgering to those who were reluctant to join the Brigada

Eskwela. There were still an insignificant percentage to parents and a number of

people who were still feeling indifferent towards the program (Retrieved

fromhttp://rimmon-educationinthe

philippines.blogspot.com/2015/08/perception-of-stakeholders-to-brigada.html).

School buildings are of critical importance to the teaching and learning process. A

study of 24 elementary schools in Georgia attributed quality of school design to a 14.2

percent difference in third grade achievement scores and a 9.7 percent difference in fifth

grade achievement scores on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (University of Georgia, 2000

as cited in Saeed and Wain, 2011). Corcoran et al. (1988 as cited in Saeed and Wain,

2011) found that physical conditions have direct positive and negative effects on teacher

morale, sense of personal safety, feelings of effectiveness in the classroom, and on the

general learning environment. Building renovations in one district led teachers to feel a

renewed sense of hope, of commitment, a belief that the district cared about what went

on that building.
59

Research shows that availability of the physical facilities including drinking water,

electricity, boundary wall, toilets, furniture, playgrounds, libraries, and dispensaries have

a significant positive influence on the performance of the students and their achievement.

The study undertaken by Shami and Hussain (2005 as cited in Saeed and Wain, 2011)

revealed that the availability of physical facilities in a school had a significance impact

on students performance. In the context to school facilities, environment in which the

students learn is very crucial and without the suitable environment effective learning can

not take place. Bruce (2006 as cited in Saeed and Wain, 2011) has rightly called the

learning environment as the third teacher but it is important that the environment is not

an end in itself; we have to look at the settings.

Synthesis

Related literature presents legal basis, theoretical foundations on the spirit of brigada

Eskwela, success stories, benefits, practices and challenges in the implementation of the

program of schools. It also present related studies on Brigada Eskwela and on facilities

maintenance.
60

These related concepts and studies presented provide background information on the

research problem as presented and discussed herein which enhance and support the

study. Related literature serves as basis for a wider understanding of Brigada Eskwela

Program Implementation in the public schools foreign and local and has aided the

researcher in formulating the open-ended questions and which has inspired her the in

conduct of the study.

Findings related study on the extent of Brigada Eskwela Implementation and

schools maintenance will be used to support or negate future result of this evaluation of

the Brigada Eskwela Program Implementation in public elementary and secondary

schools in the Municipality of Murcia.

Chapter 3

METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses the research design, participants of the study, sampling

design and research instruments, validity and reliability of the research instrument, data

gathering procedure and statistical treatment of the results.


61

Research Design

This researcher used mixed method research design. .Mixed method is a

method that focuses on collecting, analyzing, and mixing both quantitative and

qualitative data in a single study or series of studies(Creswell, J. W., & Plano

Clark, V. L., 2011). This design aimed to collect and analyze two independent

strands of quantitative and qualitative data at the same time in a single phase.

Quantitative or descriptive research survey was utilized in determining the extent

of Brigada Eskwela Implementation while the qualitative analysis will utilize

Creswells categorization and thematic approach. This research

specifically utilized sequential explanatory design in which quantitative data was

collected and analyzed followed by a collection and analysis of qualitative data.

Qualitative results was used to assist in explaining and interpreting the findings of

a quantitative study (Retrieved from https://researchrundowns.com/mixed/

mixed-methods-research-designs).

Participants of the Study

The participants of the study were the Brigada Eskwela Coordinators, school

principals, teachers (faculty president/teacher representative), students (SSG/SPG

President), parents (PTA president or representative) and alumni representatives of the

twenty-eight (28) elementary and five (5) secondary schools in the Municipality Negros

Occidental. These participants are actively engaged in the implementation of Brigada


62

Eskwela in their respective schools. They answered both the quantitative (survey) and

the qualitative (open-ended questions) parts of the study.

Focus Group Discussion participants came from two Districts, 3 principals, 4

Brigada Eskwela coordinators, 6 teachers, 3 parents and 4 alumni. Interview on benefits,

best practices and challenges include parents, Brigada coordinators, teachers and pupils

in two schools in far flung areas. Result of the interview was used to back up written

open-ended questions as well.

Sampling Design

In determining the sample school for the conduct of the study, the researcher made

used of total enumeration in which all 28 public elementary and 5 public secondary

schools in the Municipality of Murcia were included; while for the specific participants

per school, quota sampling was used. The table below shows the population of the study.

Table 1. Distribution of Brigada Eskwela Participants Per School Level


63

Research Instrument

The researcher utilized a self-made survey tool. The formulation of

questionnaire was based from Brigada Eskwela Manual for Schools Head and Annex A

of Enclosure No.1 of DepEd Memorandum 35, s.2016 entitled Implementing Brigada

Eskwela 2016 and DepEd Regional Memorandum 212, s. 2016 as well as Brigada

Eskwela Manual for Schools Heads which provide guidelines on how to implement the

program in local schools. This manual explicitly enumerates suggestive strategies,

various functions, scope of works or activities of both internal and external

stakeholders.

The tool has two parts. Part 1 (quantitative part) has three three categories

asking for assessment of the three stages of Brigada Eskwela Implementation

and are contained in item number 1-50).

To measure the extent of the Brigada Eskwela pre-implementation stage,

question items were included in numbers 1-11 specifically on the following

activities: alignment of Brigada Eskwela needs with the School Improvement Plan

(SIP) (item no.1) , conduct of ocular needs assessment (item no. 2 3), organization and

orientation of Steering and Working committees (item no. 4 & 5 ) identifying activities,

resources, target donors (item no. 6,8,9), matching expected volunteers, materials and

resources with Needs (item no.7), awareness campaign (item no. 10) and ensuring the

delivery and acceptance of materials (item no. 11).


64

The extent of Brigada Eskwela implementation stage was measured with items

number 12-43 which are activities specifying scope of works or the actual scenario of

Brigada Eskwela which can be summarized in the following sub-ideas: accomplishment

of various works according to work plan (items no. 13-34,40-42), provision of logistical

support to volunteers and fund management (items no. 35-37), documentation of

activities (item no.38-39) and ensuring arrival of donations (item no. 43).

The extent of Brigada Eskwela Post-implementation was measured using items

number 44-50 which are about organizing culmination activity (item no. 44 ),

transparency (item no. 45), recognition of donors and volunteers (item no. 46), Pledge

for sustainable improvements (item no. 47), reporting of accomplishments (item no. 48),

meeting program objectives(item no. 49-50).

Part II, the open-ended questions for the qualitative part of the study are related

questions framed by the researcher in order to suffice or enhance her study on the

program.

A separate template was used to ask about school profile which includes the size of

the school (small and large), level of the school (elementary or secondary), the number
65

of teachers in each school (20 and below, 21-40, 41-60 and 61 & above teachers),

enrollment of the school (500 & below, 510-1000, 1001 and above) and if the school is

an entry to the annual search for Best Brigada Eskwela Implementer of not.

Validity

A research instrument is said to be valid if it measures what is desires to measure

(Kelly, 1927 cited in McLeod, 2007).

Validity of the survey instrument was tested using the criteria developed for

evaluating survey questionnaire set forth by Carter V. Gord and Douglas B Scates (cited

in Alla, 2015). The researcher requested five (5) jurors to validate the instrument. One is

a teacher who is a Ph.D graduate; the other is the SGOD personnel of the Division of

Negros Occidental, In-charge of Resource Mobilization and Networking and Brigada

Eskwela Program; the third juror is the Education Program Supervisor of the T.L.E.

Department of the Division of Negros Occidental, the 4th juror is also and Eduation

program Supervisor, Science Department of the same Division and the fifth juror is a

school principal and is a Brigada Eskwela implementer.

One of the jurors made some corrections or suggestions for the improvement of the

quality of the test items and these corrections were applied. Using the said validity
66

instrument, jurors rated the survey tool as valid having the score of 10 Yes in all

validation sheets.

Reliability

Reliability is the degree to which an assessment tool produces stable and

consistent result ( Phelan and Wren, 2005-06). The survey tool was conducted to 30

participants from a different city and whose positions are similar to the participants of

the study. To test the reliability, Cronbach Alpha was used. Using the tool, the

alpha coefficient is 0.98748809 suggesting that the items have relatively

high internal consistency.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researcher sent a letter seeking for the approval on the conduct of the study

to the office of the Schools Division Superintendent of the Division of Negros

Occidental through the ASDS. The same procedure was made to the District

Supervisors and likewise to the school head of every public elementary and

secondary school in Murcia attaching the approved letter of the ASDS . Data

collection activities that require more than casual interaction with a person

require individual informed consent from that person, regardless of whether

community-level permissions exist (Qualitative Research Methods: A Data

Collectors Field Guide, p 10).


67

To answer statement of the problem number 1 on school profile, the

researcher solicited the data from the school head using separate tool.

To answer statements of the problem number 3, 4, 5, 6 the survey

questionnaire was used.

To answer statements of the problem number 7, 8 & 9, the open-ended

questions were used. A Focus Group Discussion was arranged and conducted to

validate results in which more detailed questions and thorough validation of the

result and eliciting of ideas surmounted following the guidelines on how to

conduct an FGD. Ethical considerations were applied in this process. A letter was

sent through the District supervisor and a copy was furnished to the school

heads requesting for the presence of the different participants in the FGD

session. The proper procedure was strictly adhered to. There was a statement of

consent form given to each participant to be involved in the FGD. Each form was

read and signed prior to the conduct of the FGD. FGD result was used to back-up

data gathered in the survey tool. In like manner, separate interviews generated

from the participants were also used to back-up written answers in the open-

ended questions.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The schools profile was consolidated and presented in tabular form.

Frequency and percentage were used to analyze data on this aspect. The data

gathered on the extent of the pre-implementation, implementation and post-

implementation stages were consolidated by stage and by group of participants


68

and were analyzed using the mode. The scaling used were 1(low extent), 2

(moderate extent), 3 (high extent) and 4 (very high extent). The overall mode

was arrived and reflected in each stage of implementation per group of

participants.

The result on the extent of Brigada Eskwela Implementation by stage was

grouped and analyzed according to the group of participants, by school, by

district and as a whole and schools profile (size, level, number of teachers,

enrollment and Brigada Eskwela search entry).

Answers on the open-ended questions on Part II- benefits derived, best

practices and challenges, were transcribed. Results of all participants were

consolidated, grouped into categories using the coding scheme for content or

thematic analysis. Similar responses were given sub-themes and global themes.