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Chiller Plant Optimisation

Advanced HVAC Training


ACES-Trane Air Cond Clinics
30th January 2015

K Y Yow
Director, Technical Center of Excellence
HVAC & Transport , Climate Sector
API , Ingersoll Rand
Energy efficient HVAC
systems are the key
Every Building can be a High Performance Building

By Design Through Upgrade

Key: Energy Efficiency of HVAC System

Energy Use Cost Emissions

Without compromising comfort or productivity

# Good for business & Responsible to environment


Chiller Plant Optimisation
In Search of Opportunities to reduce KWI

KWI at System Components level (Chillers, Pumps, CT)

System Interactions amongst components


Low Flow Design
Variable Primary Flow (VPF)
Chiller Plant Controls
Monitoring of Temp Approach
Measurement & Verification ( M&V)-by LEE EL

Focus on System NOT Components


#
Chiller Plant Components

Power KWI is primarily a function of Cap/Flow & LIFT/Hd

Chiller KWI compr= f( Capacity & LIFT)

Tracer Summit

KWI pump = f ( Flow & Hd )


Pumps

VPF CTO

Cooling KWI fan = f ( Flow & Hd )


Tower

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Chiller Power

Chiller KWI
lvg condenser water

lift( approx DT)

lvg evaporator water

KWI compr= f( Capacity & LIFT)


Condenser

pressure
KWI reduces if LIFT
Compressor
CHW reset higher ?
Reduce Tower temp ? Evaporator

Increase Cds Flow ?


# Minimise Fouling enthalpy
Pump Power

Pump EFF = 78-83% 1

Motor EFF = 90-95% 2

VSD 3
pumps

DP
(typical)

Tracer Summit

KWI pump = f ( Flow & Hd ) LOAD

Flow(L/S) x Hd (Kpa) Strategies


Pump KWI =
103 x EFFp x EFFm
Variable Flow
VPF Low Flow
CTO (Large Delta T)
Low Pressure Drop
Select High Eff Pump
Select High Eff Motor

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Cooling Tower Fan KWI

propeller fan

louvers
outdoor air fill

Tracer Summit
Fan Laws: sump
Cfm a rpm
Strategies
Dp a rpm VSD control ( tower optimisation)
a cfm Select Smaller Tower ( retrofit)
=> Lower CFM/CMH
Hp a rpm VPF => Smaller Motor HP
Good maintenance practice

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Cooling Coil Performance

Cooling Coil Performance


MBH 504 504
Cap vs Flow
EWT 44F 41F
Capacity
Not proportional GPM 101 63
100%

GPM/ton 2.4 1.5

50% LWT 54F 57F

WTR 10F 16F

100% Flow
GPM reduction of 37.6%

#
Interactions amongst the Components-
Opportunities of Trade-offs.
KWI
Strategies Chiller Evp Pump Cds Pump C/Tower Cost

Buy Efficient Products

EWS Evp Low Flow/Low T

Cds Low Flow/ High T

VPF VPF Pumping


VSD Tower Fan
CTO
Cds AutoTube
Cleaning
Design for Low
WPD * ?
WPD : Water pressure Drop EWS: EarthWiseTM System CTO : Chiller Tower Optimisation
VPF : Variable Primary Flow

Key is Optimisation at System Level for attractive ROI

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


System Optimisation

Practical & Holistic Approach to Chiller Plant


Optimization
Chiller

Chiiller Plant Controls

Tracer Summit
(Low Flow)

Tower
Pumps Trane Optimisation
EARTHWISE
SYSTEM
CTO
VPF Cooling Tower
(Var Pri Flow)
VPF

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Chiller Efficiency

Chiller Performance Improvements


Centrifugals & Screws: 62% 0.45-0.49 Kw/rt
Smaller scrolls & recips: 41% (Trane 7.3 COP)
8.0
centrifugal
6.2 COP >600 tons
screw
6.0
150-300 tons
chiller efficiency, COP

scroll
<75 tons
4.0
reciprocating
<125 tons

2.0

0.0
ASHRAE Standard 90 best
90-75 90-75 90.1-89 90.1-99 90.1-2010 available
(1977) (1980)

Invest in Hi-E Chillers


#
Low Flow Design

Convert to Low Flow Design


Lo Flow -Delta T ( 7-10C)
Conventional 5.6C

Max Utilization of Existing Infrastructure


Reduced Pump KWI
Improved System KWI
Less Plant-room Space
Increase delivered RT with existing
infrastructure.

#
Low Flow Design

Convert to Low Flow Design

Max Utilization of Existing Infrastructure


Budget
Space Constraint

Capacity Expansion
Electrical Load

#
Scenario of Retrofit Challenge
Situation
Chiller needs to be
replaced
Cooling needs have
increased by 50%
Cooling tower and
pipes were replaced
two years ago
Pipes run under the
parking lot and
nobody wants to dig
them up!

How can I avoid piping and Tower Change-out ?

#
Power of Low Flow Design
- Upgrading Existing Plant
Present facility Desired facility
2,000 RT 3,000 RT(50% More)
Chilled water: 6.7C ; 5.6C T
4,800 gpm (302 L/S) Solution ?

#
Power of Low Flow Design
- Upgrading Existing Plant
Present facility Desired facility Low Temp
2,000 tons 3,000 tons Low Flow

CHW: 6.7C ; 5.6C T CHW 4.5C, 9.0C T


4,800 gpm Existing coils: 2,880 gpm
Coils in addition: 1,920
gpm

50% Load Increase

#
Use the existing infrastructure
to satisfy new requirements
Use existing
Use existing Pipe Coils

Evap
Lo Flow/ Lo Temp

Use existing
Use existing Cooling Towers
Cond pumps
Lo Flow/ Hi Temp

Chillers upgraded to new 3000RT)

New Hi-E Chillers New Coils (AHUs)


for additional capacity

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


ASHRAE GreenGuide
Green Guide advocate Low Flow Design

Green Guide advocates


condenser low flow rate
with delta T 7C to 10C
( 2.5 gpm/ton to
1.67gpm/ton)

#
Case Study

Location: SINGAPORE
Building type: Office, no economizer
Peak cooling load: 1500tons (5275kw), 2 x 750
ton chiller in plant
Cooling tower: Fan with VSD,12ft (3.7m)
static lift
System: Variable primary chilled
water flow in parallel
configuration and constant
condenser flow

#
Three alternatives

Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3


conventional Green 1 (smaller CT) Green 2 (Same CT)
Configuration VPF VPF VPF

2x 750tons, 3-stage Same chiller Same chiller


Chiller
centrifugal 0.532kw/ton at 0.578kw/ton at 0.562kw/ton

CHW
6.67/12.2C(44/55F) 6.67/12.2C(44/55F) 6.67/12.2C(44/55F)
(Chilled
CHWP: 30m (100ft) CHWP: 30m(100ft) CHWP: 30m (100ft)
water)

CNW
32/37C (89.6/98.6F) 32/40C (89.6/104F) 31/39C(86.9/101.3F)
(Condenser
CNP: 23m(75ft) CNP: 12m(40ft) CNP: 12m (40ft)
water)

CT VSD, 2 units VSD, 2 units VSD, 2 units

Notes:
1. Same chillers are used in all alternatives

#
Low Flow Condenser system:
System KWI comparison
Conventional Green 1 Green 2
Alt 1 (6.67/12.2C, 32/37C) Alt 2 (6.67/12.2C, 32/40C) Alt 3 (6.67/12.2C, 31/39C)

867kw 828kw
798kw

85kw 92kw 85kw 30kw 85kw 30kw

44kw 74kw
74kw

# Potential to Optimise with Low Flow Condenser Water


Chiller Plant Energy Comparison
Design Full Load

Alt 1 Alt2 (smaller CT) Alt3 (Same CT)


Conventional Green 1 Green 2
(6.67/12.2C, 32/37C) (6.67/12.2C, 32/40C) (6.67/12.2C, 31/39C)

Chiller Kw 798 867 828

CT Kw 74 44 74

CNW pump Kw 92 30 30

CHW pump Kw 85 85 85
Best , how about annualised Kwh?

Total plant Kw 1049 1026 1017

1. Assume same pipe sizing, CT motor efficiency is 90%


2. Alt 2 : smaller CT and lower first cost
3. If future expansion is considered , Alt 3 is
#
recommended
Annual KWH Simulation

#
Annualised KWH

Annual % saving kwhr saving


energy
Alternative vs vs
consumption
(Kwhr) conventional conventional

Conventional 1,553,994

Green 1
Winner (smaller CT) 1,443,325 7.1 % 110,669

Green 2 1,490,993 4.0% 63,001

Green 1 is superior based on annualised KWH


#
Cooling Tower
Cooling Tower Energy
750 ton

Conventional Green 1 Green 2


Wet Bulb 28 C 28 C 28 C
Lvg tower 32 C 32 C 31 C
Ent tower 37 C 40 C 39 C
Flow rate 529 M3/h 335 M3/h 335 M3/h
Range 5C 8C 8C
Approach 4C 4C 3C
BKW 37 KW 22 KW 37 KW

Range Capacity Can downsize to smaller Tower


Approach Capacity

Optmising Tower Selection and Operation


#
Chiller Tower
O[ptimsation

Link Is Condenser Water


Temperature

Condenser
Water Temp Chiller kW Tower kW Total kW

?
?
#
Chiller Tower
Optimsiaiton

Or Said Another Way

350 Total

300
Chiller
250
Optimal Pt Chiller kW
200
Tower kW
150 Total kW
kW
100
50 Tower

0
72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85
( 22.5 C) Condenser Water Temperature ( 29.5 C)

#
Variable Primary Flow

Convert to Variable Primary Flow (VPF)

Fewer Pumps & associated


accessories
Operating cost savings
Pump energy
Response to low DT Syndrome

Opportunity to Save Space

#
Variable Primary Flow

Letter to the Editor, HPAC July


2000

When we installed the new chillers we also


converted the existing system from conventional
primary-secondary to variable-volume-primary
operation. When we did this we eliminated the 11
existing primary-secondary pumps and replaced
them with four variable-volume-primary pumps.
Making this change allowed us to install a 1000-
ton chiller in the space previously occupied by
most of the 11 pumps
Colin T. Oakley, DuPage County Power Plant

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Variable Primary Flow

Variable primary flow

1 1

2 2

3 VSD 3
pumps

Constant speed DP
(typical)
primary pumps

Bypass (decoupler)

VS secondary
pumps

Pri-Sec Decoupled VPF System


system
#
Fewer Pumps and Optimised Flow
Variable Primary Flow

Convert Primary Secondary


to Variable PrimaryVariable
Secondary
VFDs DP

DP
Placeholder for
Manifolded P-S
System picture (Beth
T to supply)

#
Variable Primary Flow

VPF System Requirements


Limits (consult manufacturer)
Absolute flowsminimum and
maximum
Always need a method to allow
minimum flow (bypass)
Flow rate changes
2% of design flow per minute
not good enough
10% of design flow per minute
borderline
30% of design flow per minute
many comfort cooling applications
50% of design flow per minute
best

#
Low PD piping

Conventional

Avoid 90% turns

No Balancing
valves

15 HP pump

Raised Foundation
for pumps

#
System Controls Optimization

System Controls

Pump pressure
optimization
Chiller Sequencing
Chiller-tower optimization
# of towers to operate
Variable Primary flow

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Minimise Condenser Tube Fouling

Monitor Approach Temp

Condenser Approach: 2 - 5F or less (1.1 to 2.8C)


refrigerant
baffle vapor

97F liquid refrigerant

tube
bundle

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Restore Condenser & Evaporator Performance
Condenser and Evaporator Tube Cleaning
To effectively clean internally-enhanced (IE)
condenser or evaporator tubes, use a rotary-type
brush cleaner with a water flush process to remove
debris from tube interiors

Safety Hoist Ring

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Restore Condenser & Evaporator Performance

Condenser and Evaporator Tube Cleaning


Scale deposits are best removed by chemical means.

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Trending of Evap/Condenser Temp Approach
Evaporator design water temp= Entering 57F / Leaving 42F
Condenser design water temp= Entering 87F / Leaving 96F
Evaporator Approach: nominal 2F or less (1.1C)
Condenser Approach: 2 - 5F or less (1.1 to 2.8C) Increase 1oC = 3-4% EFF
Cond Leaving Water Temp

Cond Entering Water Temp

Evap Entering Water Temp

Evap Leaving Water Temp

Approach Temp Fouling build-up

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Summary

Take holistic approach KW meter is in the plantroom!


Select Efficient Equipment (Chillers, Pumps, CTs..)
Maintain them well !
Right Sizing, avoid over-redundancy
Minimise pumping resistance ( Pipe layout, Equipment PD..)
Minimise flow ( large Delta T) where make sense
Optimise system operation ( VPF, Chiller Tower optimsiation)
Chiller Plant controls
Accurate Measurement & Verification ( M&V)

# Chiller Plant Optimisation


Designing for High Performance HVAC
System
There are many good , proven practices as presented here.
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comfortable and efficient environments.
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Chiller Plant Optimisation
Thank you for your attention.