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# Solutions

## 6-1. (a) Momentum = mv.

(b)Momentum = mv = (12 kg) 4.0 ms 48 kg ms .
6-2. (a) Change in momentum = mvf mv0 m(vf v0 ).

(b)Change in momentum = m(vf v0 ) (2.8 kg) 4.2 ms 1.1 ms 8.7 kg ms .
6-3. (a) Change in momentum = mass (final velocity initial velocity). The initial velocity is +v0. The
final velocity is vf. So the change in momentum is m(vf v0 ) m(vf v0 ).
(b)Any sufficiently large impulse in the x direction would do ita kick, rebounding from a wall,
etc.

(c)Change in momentum = m(vf v0 ) 0.50 kg 2.6 ms 1.0 ms 1.8 kg ms . The magnitude of
the change in momentum is 1.8 kg ms .

6-4. (a) Change in momentum = mass (final velocity initial velocity). The initial velocity is +v. The
final velocity is v. So the change in momentum is m(v v) 2mv. The magnitude of the
change in momentum is 2mv.
(b)The magnitude of the impulse is the same as that of the change in momentum = 2mv.

(c)Change in momentum = 2mv 2 0.050 kg 7.0 ms 0.70 kg ms .
6-5. (a) Impulse = Ft.
(b)Momentum = mv.

## 6-6. (a) Momentum of the truck = mv.

(b) mv (3500 kg) 18 ms 63, 000 kg ms .
(c)Because neither the temperature of the road nor the headwind speed figure into our equations we
dont have to worry about them in our solution to the problem.

## 6-7. (a) Change in momentum = (mv) = mv.

(b)Change in momentum mv (25 kg)(6.0 ms ) 150 kg ms .

## 6-8. (a) Impulse Ft (mv) mv.

mv
(b)From Ft mv F .
t
1kg

(c) Impulse mv 9.6 g 1000 g 280 ms 2.7 kg ms 2.7 N s. Note that we convert g to kg to get
mv 2.7 Ns
our answer in standard units. F 1s
750 N.
t 3.6 ms 1000 ms

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
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6-9. (a) Impulse = Ft.
(b)The change in momentum of the ball has the same magnitude as the impulse on it, Ft.
Ft
(c) v ? From Ft (mv) mv v .
m

## (d) v Ft (1350 N)(0.0080 s) 26 s

kg m2 s
26 ms .
m (0.42 kg) kg
6-10. (a) TheimpulseFt (mv) mv. The impulse on the hammer has the same magnitude as the
hammers change in momentum.

(b) The impulse mv (7.3kg) 28 ms 2.0 10 2 kg ms 2.0 10 2 N s.

F
6-11. (a) The forces acting are Katies tossing
force F upward and the gravitational
force mg downward.
(b)Net impulse = Fnet t (F mg)t.
(c)vf = ? From net impulse = change in momentummg

(F mg)t m(vf v0 ) mv v
(F mg)t
m
Fg t
m

F g t 32 N 9.8 m (0.25 s) 1.2 m .
(d) v m 2.2 kg s2 s

## 6-12. (a) Fnet =? Call downward the positive direction.

v2 v1
From Fnet t mv m(vf v0 ) Fnet m .
t

(b) Fnet m
v2 v1
48.0 kg

0.50 ms 9.9 ms 750 kg m2 750 N. An average net force of
t 0.60 s s

## (mv) m(v) m(vf v0 ) mv

6-13. (a) t ? From Ft (mv) t .
F F F F
(b)Fnew = ? We can obtain the same change in momentum from half the force acting for twice as
t0 t
much time. Formally, since (mv) Fnew t new F0 t 0 Fnew F0 F0 0 12 F0 .
t new 2t 0

6-14. (a) Since the baseball will return to its launch elevation with the same speed but moving in the
opposite direction, its momentum there will be mv, directed downward.
(b)In this case the balls speed when it returns will be less, so the magnitude of its final
momentum will be less than that of its initial momentum.

6-15. (a) The birds velocity goes from v to zero, so (the magnitude v) = v and the momentum changes
by an amount mv. The impulse acting on the bird must have the same magnitude, mv.
(b)To send the bird flying off in the opposite direction would require a bigger impulse than
simply stopping the bird. Assuming the same impact time, this would be a bigger force on the
bird, which would make the birds recovery less likely.

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6-16. (a) Impulse = ? The ball has velocity v0 v and vf V.
The impulse Ft (mv) mv m(vf v0 ) m(V v) m(V v).
The magnitude of this impulse is m(V v).
m(V + v)
(b)F = ? From Impulse Ft (mv) m(V v) F = .
t

(c) F m(V v)
(0.25 kg) 20 ms 4 ms 30 N.

t 0.2 s

mv
6-17. (a) F = ? FromFt (mv) mv F = .
t

(b) F
mv (0.045 kg) 24.0 s

m

540 kg m2 540 N.
t 1s
2.0ms 1000ms
s

6-18. (a) Fballonwall= ? The ball has initial forward velocity v0 V andreboundvelocityvf v. The
impulse acting on the ball is Fwallonballt (mv)ball mball (vf v0 ) m(v V ) m(v V )
m(v V )
Fwallonball . The negative sign tells us that the force on the ball acts opposite
t
the balls initial direction. From Newtons third law, Fballonwalland Fwallonballhave the same
magnitude but act in opposite directions.
m(v V)
SoFballonwall intheinitialdirectionoftheball.
t

(b) Fballonwall
m
m(v V ) (0.15 kg) 23 s 35 s

m

2900 kg m2 2900 N.
t 0.0030 s s

6-19. (a) Fthrust ? The gases accelerate from rest to a speed v. The magnitude of the impulse on them
equals their change in momentum = mgasesv = mv. From
mv
Frocket-on-gasest (mv)gases mv Frocket-on-gases . Newtons third law tells us that the
t
force that the exhaust gases exert on the rocket (Fthrust) has the same magnitude as the force the

rocket exerts on the gases. So Fthrust Fgases-on-rocket Frocket-on-gases
mv
t
.

(b) F mv 1 kg

8.3 g 1000 g (570 ms )
4.3 N. Note that the mass of the rocket does not affect
thrust
t 1.1 s
the thrust, but it will affect the acceleration of the rocket in response to that thrust.

6-20. (a) Impulse = ? The ball has initial forward velocity v0 = v1 and recoils at vf = v2.
The impulse on the baseball = Ft (mv) m(vf v0 ) m(v2 v1 ) m(v2 v1 ). The
magnitude of this impulse is m(v2 v1 ).

(b) The impulse m(v2 v1 ) = 0.15 kg 45 ms 55 ms 15 kg ms 15 N s.

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Impulse 15 Ns
(c) From impulse Ft F 7500 N.
t 0.0020 s
(d)From Newtons third law, these forces must be equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
6-21. (a) Fthrust = ? The thrust is the force the ejected gases exert on the jet. The gases accelerate from v to
10v because the jet exerts a force on them. The magnitude of the impulse on the gases equals
their change in momentum = 9mv.
9mv
From Fengine-on-gasest (mv)gases 9mv Fjet-on-gases . In terms of magnitudes,
t

Newtons third law tells us that Fthrust Fgases-on-jet Fjet-on-gases
9mv
t
.
m
9mv 9(20 kg)(100 s )
(b) Fthrust 18, 000 kg m2 18, 000 N.
t 1s s

## 6-22. (a) Momentum mv m(v0 at). With v0 0 and a g, mv mgt.

(b)Momentum = ? Twice the time in the air twice the impulse on the chunk of ice
twice the change in momentum. So the final momentum would be mg(2t) = 2mgt.

## 6-23. (a) Momentum mv ? Calling downward the positive direction,

from vf2 v02 2ad with v0 0, a g, and d h
vf 2gh. So the momentum is mvf m 2gh.

(b)Momentum m 2gh (1.5 kg) 2 9.8 m2 (12 m) 23 kg ms .
s
(c)Although we know the change in momentum of the balloon when it stops, we dont know the
time over which the impact force acts so we cant calculate the force.

6-24. (a) TheimpulseFt (mv) m(vf v0 ). The equation directs us to find the velocity with which the
ball hits the anvil and the velocity with which it leaves the anvil. Lets call upward the positive
direction. Well start from vf2 v02 2ad, withv0 0, vf vhittheanvil , a g, andd h.
2
On the way down, (vhit the anvil ) 2(g)(h) vhit the anvil 2gh. (We take the
negative root because the balls velocity is in the negative direction (down).)
On the way up,
v0 vleave the anvil , a g, vf 0andd 0.80h.Again,fromvf2 v02 2ad
(vleave the anvil )2 2(g)(0.8h) vleave the anvil 1.6gh.
So the impulse on the ball is
m(vleave the anvil vhit the anvil ) m 1.6gh 2gh m 1.6 2 gh 2.68m gh.

Impulse 2.68m gh
(b) F ? Fromimpulse Ft F .
t t

(c)
F
m
2.68m gh 2.68(0.41 kg) 9.8 s2 (1.0 m)
1900 kg m2 1900 N.
t 0.0018 s s

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6-25. (a) vf = ? Since no net external forces act on the two-lump system, the momentum of the system is
conserved. The systems momentum before the collision equals the momentum after.
m v m2v2
m1v1 m2 v2 (m1 m2 )vf vf 1 1 .
m1 m2

(b) vf
m
m
m1v1 m2 v2 2.2 kg 3.2 s 2.7 kg 1.2 s
2.1 ms .

m1 m2 2.2 kg 2.7 kg

6-26. (a) vf = ? Since no external horizontal forces act on the system Lynda + Duncan, the momentum of
the system before their collision equals the momentum after.
m1
m1v1 (m1 m2 )vf vf v1 .
m1 m2
m1 45.0 kg
(b) vf v1 4.6 ms 1.9 ms .
m1 m2 45.0 kg 64.0 kg

v2m-blob
6-27. (a) ? No external horizontal forces act on the two-blob system. Since the final
vm-blob
momentum of the system was zero, the initial momenta of the two individual blobs must have
been equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Using v for their speeds we can write: From
m
(mv)m-blob (mv)2m-blob mvm (2m)v2m v2m vm 0.5vm . The more massive blob
2m
was moving half as fast as the lighter one.
(b)The speed of the more massive blob was 0.5 2 ms 1 ms .
v2m-puck
6-30. (a) ? No external horizontal forces act on the two-puck system. The initial momentum
vm-puck
of the system of pucks was zero, so the final momentum of the system must also be zero. The
final momenta of the single puck and of the double puck must be equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction. Using v for their speeds we can write: From
m
(mv)2m-puck (mv)m-puck (2m)v2m mvm v2m vm 0.5vm . The more massive
2m
puck was moving half as fast as the lighter one.

(b) v2m-puck 0.5v 0.5 4 ms 2 ms .

6-31. (a) vbullet = ? No external horizontal forces act on the bullet + block system, so the momentum of the
bullet before the collision equals the momentum of the bullet + block afterward. From
m mblock m M
mbullet vbullet (mbullet mblock )vf vbullet bullet vf V.
mbullet m
m M 5.0 kg 0.050 kg m 2 m
(b) vbullet, initial V= 4.0 s 4.0 10 s
.
m 0.050 kg

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6-32. (a) vf = ? Since no external horizontal forces act on the two-car system, the momentum of the
system before the collision equals the momentum after. If we take the initial velocity of the
larger car to be positive, the velocity of the smaller car is negative (since it starts out heading in
the opposite direction).
MV mv
From (mv)system,initial (mv)system,final MV m(v) (M m)vf vf .
Mm

(b) vf
m

MV mv 1500 kg 18 s 1100 kg 29 s

m

1.9 ms . The coupled cars move off at 1.9 s
m
M m 1500 kg 1100 kg
in the direction the smaller car was heading before the collision.

6-33. (a) vAkebono = ? Since the final momentum is zero, the wrestlers initial individual momenta must
have been equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Using v to represent speeds we can write
m M
mAkebono vAkebono mKonishiki vKonishiki vAkebono Konishiki vKonishiki V.
mAkebono m
M 267 kg
(b) vAkebono V 2.0 ms 2.4 ms .
m 227 kg

6-34. (a) m2 = ? Since no external forces act on the two-astronaut system the momentum of the system is
conserved. The initial momentum of the two-astronaut-system is zero. After the push the two
astronauts individual momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. Since we are
using v to represent speeds we can write
v
(mv)astronaut1,final (mv)astronaut2,final m1v1 m2 v2 m2 1 m1 .
v2
(b)F = ? The force exerted on each astronaut has the same magnitude, so we can calculate either
(mv)1 m1v1 m v
one. FromFt (mv) F . Equivalently,F 2 2 .
t t t
6-35. (a) vgun = ? Since Carmelita holds the gun loosely, there are no external horizontal forces on the gun
+ bullet system when the gun fires, so the momentum of the system is conserved. The initial
momentum of the system is zero.
From (momentum)system,initial (momentum)system,final 0 mgun vgun mbullet vbullet
mbullet vbullet mv
vgun . The negative sign indicates that the rifle recoils in the
mgun M
opposite direction of the bullet.
(b)If she holds the gun tightly, the thing doing the recoiling is Carmelita + rifle. The same
impulse acting on a larger mass results in a lower recoil velocity.

6-36. (a) vlauncher = ? There are no external horizontal forces on the launcher + projectile system when the
gun fires, so the horizontal momentum of the system is conserved. The initial momentum of the
system is zero, so the final momenta of the launcher and projectile must be equal in magnitude
but opposite in direction. Using v to represent speeds, mlauncher vlauncher mprojectile vprojectile
mprojectile vprojectile mv
vlauncher .
mlauncher M

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mv (38 kg) 520 s
(b) vlauncher
m

8.2 ms .
M 2400 kg
638. (a) v2 = ? No external horizontal forces act on the two-puck system, so the systems momentum
before and after the collision is the same. If we take the initial and final velocity of the first puck
(V1 and v1, respectively) to be positive, then the initial velocity of the second puck (moving in
the opposite direction) is V2.
From(mv)system,initial (mv)system,final m1V1 m2 (V2 ) m1v1 m2 v2
m1V1 m2 (V2 ) m1v1 m1 (V1 v1 ) m2V2
v2 V1 v1 V2 (sincem1 m2 ).
m2 m2
(b) v2 V1 v1 V2 18 ms 2.0 ms 12.0 ms 4.0 ms .The second puck moves off at 4.0 m/s,
opposite the way it came in.
(c)No. Our expression for v2 is independent of the mass of the pucks, so the final result remains the
same.

639.(a) v = ? For the short duration of the collision itself, momentum is conserved.
m v v. N
mv (m m)vaftercrash so vaftercrash 2m 2 From the force diagram
Fnet f k N k mg ma a k g. After the crash: f

## Fromvf2 v02 2adwithvf 0, v0 2v , and d x a

0
v 2
2

v 2
. mg
2x 8x
v 8ax 8( k g)x 8 k gx .

(b) v 8 k gx 8(0.65) 9.8 m2 (12m) 25 ms .
s

distance x
640.(a) vA .
time t1
(b)vB = ? From conservation of momentum
m A vA mA x
mA vA (mA mB )vf vf .
(mA mB ) (mA + mB )t1
x mA x (m mB )t1
(c)t2 = ? From vf and vf t2 A .
t2 (mA mB )t1 mA
(mA mB )t1 (0.240kg+0.280kg)
(d) t 2 (0.360s) 0.780s.
mA 0.240kg

641.(a) From conservation of momentum mfish vfish,0 mfish vfish,f mduck vduck,f
m v mfish vfish,f m(v0 vf )
fish fish,0 vduck,f . Since the fish rebounds, vfish,f(avelocity)
mduck M
isnegative,andequalsvf(wherevfisaspeedgivenintheproblem.)

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(b) vduck,f
m
m
m(v0 vf ) 0.12 kg 2.2 s 1.8 s

0.40 ms .
M 1.2 kg

## Train Trolley BOOM! Train Trolley

~

(b)Mtrolley=?Fromconservationofmomentum,
mcar vcar,0 mtrolley vtrolley,0 mcar vcar,f mtrolley vtrolley,f
(vcar,f vcar,0 )
mtrolley (vtrolley,0 vtrolley,f ) mcar (vcar,f vcar,0 ) mtrolley mcar . All
(vtrolley,0 vtrolley,f )
ofthevelocitiesarepositiveinthiscasebecausetherearenochangesindirectioninthe
problem.

## (b) mtrolley mcar

(vcar,f vcar,0 )
3200kg

8.6 ms 11.0 ms
4800 kg.
(vtrolley,0 vtrolley,f )
9.0 ms 10.6 ms
(mv)x
6-43. (a) Fromthediagram,cos (mv)x mv cos . (mv)y
mv mv
(mv)y
Similarly, sin (mv)y mv sin .
mv

(b) (mv)x mv cos (0.15 kg) 45 ms cos 37 5.4 kg ms .

(mv)y mv sin (0.15 kg) 45 ms sin 37 4.1kg ms .
(mv)x

645.(a)and(b)(Wewillusevforspeedinthetablebelow.)

MOMENTUMBEFORE MOMENTUMAFTERCOLLISION
(momentum)final (momentum)y,final
COLLISION
xdirection ydirection xdirection ydirection
m(Jeep) mv 0 2mvf cos 2mvf sin
JEE
m(conv.) 0 +mv P
mv
(momentum)x,final
TOTAL mv +mv 2mvf cos 2mvf sin
MOMENTUM

## (c)Forthexdirection: mv 2mvf cos +mv

CONVERTIB
(d)Fortheydirection: mv 2mvf sin LE

## (e) momentum final ? Themagnitudeofthefinalmomentumisgivenby

(momentum)f (momentum)2x,final (momentum)2y,final (momentum)2x,initial (momentum)2y,initial

## (mv)2 (mv)2 2(mv)2 2 mv. Fromthediagram,thedirectionofthefinal

momentumvectorcanbefoundfrom

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(momentum)y,final (momentum)y,initial mv
tan 1
(momentum)x,final (momentum)x,initial mv
1

(f) (momentum)final 2mv 2 (1800 kg) 11 ms 28, 000 kg ms ,northwest.
(g)Wecangetvfinacoupleways.Oneistosolvethexdirectionmomentumequation.From
v 11 m
mv 2mvf cos vf 2 cos s
2 cos 45
7.8 ms . Anotherapproachistorecognizethat
themagnitudeofthefinalmomentumis(2m)vf.Frompart(d),
momentum final 2mv 2mvf vf 2
2
v 2
2
11 ms 7.8 ms .
646.(a)and(b)(Wewillusevforspeedinthetablebelow.)
MOMENTUMBEFORE MOMENTUMAFTERCOLLISION (momentum)y,final (momentum)
final
COLLISION
x y xdirection ydirection
direction direction

M +Mv 0 ( M m)vf cos ( M m)vf sin
m 0 +mv +Mv (momentum)x,final
TOTAL +Mv +mv ( M m)vf cos ( M m)vf sin
MOMENTUM
+mv

(c)vf=?=?Thediagramshowsthetruckandthecarsindividualmomentabeforethe
collisionandthemomentumofthewreck(andthecomponentsofthemomentum)after
thecollision.Becausemomentumisconservedindependentlyinthexandydirections,
(momentum)x,final (momentum)truck Mv (M M )vf cos and
(momentum)y,final (momentum)car mv (M m)vf sin . Themagnitudeofthe
finalmomentumisgivenby
(momentum)f (M m)vf (momentum)2x,final (momentum)2y,final

## (momentum)2truck (momentum)2car (Mv)2 (mv)2 (M 2 m 2 )v 2

(M 2 m 2 )
(M 2 m 2 ) v vf = v.
M+m
Thedirectionofthefinalmomentumvector(andthefinalvelocityvector)canbefoundfrom
(momentum)yf mv m m
tan tan1 .
(momentum)xf Mv M M
v02
(d) d ? Fromvf2 v02 2adwithvf 0 d . Nowweneeda,whichwecanfind
2a
Fnet
from a andfromrecognizingthatfrictionisthenetforceonthewreck,acting
m
wehaveallofthepiecesweneedtofindd.

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v02 v02 v02 v02 v2 v2 (M 2 + m 2 )v 2
d 0mg 0

.
2a 2 Fnet 2
f
2
k N
2 k 2 k g 2 k (M + m)2 g (Note
m m m m
howeachstepdictatesthefollowingstep.Equationstrulyguidethinking!)

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
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647.(a)

v
3m

2m
2v

vm

vf=?Thediagramshowsthevariouspiecesaftertheexplosion.Theinitialmomentum
ofthesystemiszero.(Wewillusevforspeedinthetablebelow.)

MOMENTUMBEFORE MOMENTUMAFTEREXPLOSION
EXPLOSION
xdirection ydirection xdirection ydirection
2m 0 0
(2m)(2v)=4mv 0
3m 0 0
0 3mv
m 0 0 mvf cos mvf,x mvf sin mvf,y
TOTAL 0 0 4mv mvf cos 3mv mvf cos
MOMENTUM
4mv mvf,x 3mv mvf,y

Becausemomentumisconservedindependentlyinthexandydirections,
(momentum)x,final 0 4mv mvf,x mvf,x 4mv and
(momentum)y,final 0 3mv mvf sin mvf,y 3mv. Themagnitudeofthefinal
momentumisgivenby
2
(momentum)f (momentum)x,final (momentum)2y,final (4mv)2 (3mv)2 5mv.
Thedirectionofthefinalmomentumvector(andthefinalvelocityvector)canbefoundfrom
(momentum)yf 3mv
tan 0.75 tan-1 (0.75) 37 south of west.
(momentum)xf 4mv
From magnitude of final momentum = 5mv mv 5mv
(b) f vf v 5v.
m

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
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648.(a)
white puck vw
initially at
v0 rest w
b

vb

(Wewillusevforspeedinthetablebelow)
MOMENTUMBEFORE MOMENTUMAFTERCOLLISION
COLLISION
x y xdirection ydirection
direction direction
black mv0 0 mvb cos b mvb sin b
white 0 0 mvw cos w mvw sin w
TOTAL mv0 mvb cos b mvw cos w mvb sin b mvw sin w
MOMENTUM 0

Fromconservationofmomentumintheydirection
w
0 mvb sin b mvw sin w vb sin
sin
vw .
b

Fromconservationofmomentuminthexdirection

sin
mv0 mvb cos b mvw cos w v0 sinw vw cos b vw cos w vw
b
sin w
sin b
cos b cos w
v0
vw = .
sin w
sin b
cos b + cos w

sin w sin w v0 v0
vb v .

sin b w sin b sin w sin b
cos b cos w
sin b
cos b + cos w sin w

(Note the symmetry between the answers for vw and vb. The answers are the same, with just the
subscripts interchanged. It HAS to be this way. Deciding which puck to solve for first cant
change the answer. The physics has to be the same!)
v0 32 ms
vw 29 ms .
(b)
sin w
sin b
cos b cos w sin 25
sin 65
cos 65 cos 25
vb
sin w
sin b
vw sin 25
sin 65 29 ms 13.5 ms .
649.Impulse=FtinNs;momentum=mvinkgm/s. Ns kg m2 s kgms . s

## 650. (mv) Ft (10.0 N)(0.010 s) 0.10 kg m2 s 0.10 kg ms .

s

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651.t=?Themassendsupatrest,soitsmomentumhaschangedbyanamountmv.Themagnitudeof
theimpulseactingonthemassmustalsoequalmv.
m
mv (20.0 kg)(3.0 s ) kg ms
From Ft (mv) mv t 4.0 4.0 s.
F (15.0 N) kg m2
s

652.F=?Thecarendsupatrest,soitsmomentumhaschangedbyanamountmv.Themagnitudeofthe
impulseactingonthecarmustalsoequalmv.
m
mv (1200 kg)(25 s )
From Ft (mv) mv F 1500 kg m2 1500 N.
t (20.0 s) s

653.F=?Theeggendsupatrest,soitsmomentumhaschangedbyanamountmv.Themagnitudeof
theimpulseactingontheeggmustalsoequalmv.

From Ft (mv) mv F
mv

50g 1000g 4 ms 1kg

1kg m2 1 N.

t (0.2 s) s

654.F=?Thepassengerendsupatrest,sohermomentumhaschangedbyanamountmv.The
magnitudeoftheimpulseactingonthepassengermustalsoequalmv.

From Ft (mv) mv F
mv (84.0 kg) 24.0 s

m

1680 kg m2 1680 N.
t (1.20 s) s

655.F=?Theballhasaninitialmomentummvandafinalmomentummv,soitsmomentumchanges
byanamount2mv.Themagnitudeoftheimpulseactingontheballmustalsobe2mv.
m
2mv 2(0.045 kg)(28 s )
From Ft (mv) 2mv F 63kg m2 63 N.
t (0.040 s) s

656.vastronaut=?Sincenoexternalforcesactontheastronauttoolkitsystemthemomentumofthe
systemisconserved.Theinitialmomentumofthesystemiszero.Afterward,theastronauts
momentumandthetoolkitsmomentumareequalinmagnitudebutoppositeindirection.Ifwe
usevtorepresentspeedswecanwrite
(mv)astronaut, final (mv)tool kit, final mastronaut vastronaut mkit vkit

vastronaut
mkit vkit

(18 kg) 4.6 ms
0.72 ms .
mastronaut 115 kg

directions.Usingvtorepresentspeeds
mSam 90.0 kg

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
613
1.5 (2.0 m) 3.0 m acrosstheicetowardSam.

658.Takingnorthasthepositivedirectionandsouthasthenegativedirection,theinitialmomentumof
thesystemwas (2.0 kg)( 10.0 ms ) (4.0 kg)( 5.0 ms ) 0. Ifnoexternalhorizontalforcesacton
thesystem,themomentumafterthecollisionwillbethesame,zero.

659.SuperdogseesSupermanandtheasteroidinitiallyatrest,withthetotalmomentumofthe
Superman+asteroidsystem=0.Usingvtorepresentspeedswecanwrite
m
mSuperman vSuperman mAsteroid vAsteroid vSuperman Asteroid vAsteroid 1000 100 ms 100, 000 ms .
mSuperman

660.vf=?Sincenoexternalhorizontalforcesactonthedart+skatesystem,themomentumof
thesystembeforethecollisionequalsthemomentumafter.
mdart 0.060 kg
mdart vdart (mdart mskate )vf vf vdart 5.0 ms 0.50 ms .
mdart mskate 0.060 kg 0.540 kg
661.(a)Thespacecraftandclayareinitiallyatrest,withthemomentumofthespacecraft+clay
system=0.Sincenoexternalhorizontalforcesactonthesystem,themomentumofthe
systembeforetheclayisfiredequalsthemomentumafter.
0 mspacecraft vspacecraft mclay vclay vspacecraft
mclay
mspacecraft
vclay
60 kg
300,000 kg 30 ms 0.006 ms 6 mms .
Sincenoexternalhorizontalforcesactonthesystem,themomentumofthesystem
(b)
beforetheclayisfiredequalsthemomentumafter.

mclay vclay mmissile vmissile mclay mmissile vf
vf
mclay vclay mmissile vmissile

(60 kg) 30 ms (40 kg) 20 ms 10 m .
mclay mmissile 60 kg 40 kg s

662.vf=?Sincenoexternalhorizontalforcesactonthetwopucksystem,themomentumofthe
systembeforethecollisionequalsthemomentumafter.Callingeastwardthepositive
direction, m80-g v0 m80-g vf,80-g m160-g vf,160-g

vf,80-g
m80-g v0 m160-g vf,160-g

(80 g) 24 ms (160 g) 16 ms 8.0 m .
s
m80-g 80 g

663.vf=?Sincenoexternalhorizontalforcesactonthebullet+Supermansystem,the
momentumofthesystembeforethecollisionequalsthemomentumafter.
mbullet v0, bullet mbullet vf,bullet mSuperman vf,Superman

vf,Superman

mbullet v0, bullet vf,bullet 0.005 kg 400 ms 400 ms 0.04 m 4 cm .
s s
mSuperman 100 kg

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
614
itselfwillmovebackslightly,sothatDainsdistancerelativetothegroundwillbeever
soslightlyless.GiventhehugemassdifferencebetweenDainandthecar,thiswill
introduceonlyaveryminorerrorthatwontshowupinthetwosignificantfigureswe
v v 2d
willgetinouranswer.) From d vt f 0 t with v0 0 vDain . From
2 t
mDain
conservationofmomentum, 0 mDain vDain mcar vcar vcar vDain
mcar
m 2d 80 kg(2)(22 m)
Dain 0.022 ms . Thespeedofthecaris2.2cm/s.
mcar t 40,000 kg(4.0 s)

66x. vA veq
Amy equip- Amy equip-
ment ment

BEFORE AFTER

Justlookingatthenumbers,ifAmysmomentumis(90kg)(1m/s)=90kgm/sandthe
equipmentsmomentumis30kg(3m/s)=+90kgm/s,thetotalmomentumbeforeand
afterthetossiszeroandtheequipmentsvelocityrelativetoAmyis4m/s.Todothis
formally:
TheinitialmomentumoftheAmyequipmentsystemiszero.Usingvasvelocity(so,
signsmatter) 0 mA vA meq veq and veq relative to Amy veq vA veq vrel vA.
Substitutingthislastexpressionfor veq inthefirstexpressiongives
0 mA vA meq (vrel vA ) (mA +meq )vA meq vrel
meq
vA vrel
mA +meq
30kg
4 ms
90kg 30kg
1 ms . Thevelocityoftheequipment

## 664.=?ThediagramshowstheSUVandthe (momentum)y,final (momentum)final

carsmomentabeforethecollisionand
themomentumofthewreck(andthe
componentsofthemomentum)after
thecollision.Becausemomentumis
(momentum)SUV (momentum)x,final
conservedindependentlyinthexand
ydirections
(momentum)x,final (momentum)SUV and
(momentum)car
(momentum)y,final (momentum)car .
We are asked for the final direction as measured from the y-axis (north).

## From the diagram, tan

(momentum)x,final

(momentum)SUV MV (2400 kg) 12.0 s
m

4.0
(momentum)y,final (momentum)car
mv (1200 kg) 18.0 ms 3.0
4
tan 1 53 .
3

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
615
66x.v15g,f =?From conservation of momentum, m15g v15g,0 m15g v15g,f m20g v20g,f

## m20g v20g,f (20 g)(+3 ms )

v15g,f v15g,0 3.5 ms 0.5 ms .
m15g 15 g

6-6x.
MOMENTUMBEFORECOLLISION MOMENTUMAFTERCOLLISION
xdirection ydirection xdirection ydirection

(0.015 kg) 3.5 ms
0 15g
piece
cos 22.4
(0.015 kg) 3.3 m
s

(0.015 kg) 3.3 ms sin 22.4

20g (0.020 kg) v20g cos 20g (0.020 kg) v20g sin 20g
piece

x-direction: (0.015 kg) 3.5 ms (0.015 kg) 3.3 ms cos 22.4 (0.020 kg) v20g cos 20g
v20g cos 20g

(0.015 kg) 3.5 ms 3.3 ms cos 22.4 0.3367 m
s
0.020 kg

y-direction: 0 (0.015 kg) 3.3 ms sin 22.4 (0.020 kg) v20g sin 20g
v20g sin 20g

(0.015 kg) 3.3 ms sin 22.4 0.9431 ms
0.020 kg
v20g sin 20g 0.9431 ms
Dividing the y- equation by the x- equation gives: tan 20g
v20g cos 20g 0.3367 ms
0.9431 ms
20g tan 1 m 70.35 70.3 and plugging this in for the angle gives
0.3367 s
0.9431 ms
v20g 1.0 ms
sin 70.35

665.

MOMENTUMBEFORECOLLISION MOMENTUMAFTERCOLLISION
xdirection ydirection xdirection ydirection

0
(0.100 kg) 5.0 m
s
40g
piece
sin 60.9
(0.040 kg) 10.3 m
s

(0.040 kg) 10.3 ms cos 60.9

60g (0.060 kg) 7.8 sin 50.2 (0.060 kg) 7.8 cos 50.2
m m

piece s s

Comparebeforeandaftermomentumsinthexandydirections:

?
x : 0 (0.040 kg) 10.3 ms sin 60.9 (0.060 kg) 7.8 ms sin 50.2 0.00044 kg ms

?
y : (0.100 kg) 5.0 ms (0.040 kg) 10.3 ms cos 60.9 (0.060 kg) 7.8 ms cos 50.2
?
0.500 kg m 0.200kg m 0.300kg m 0.500kg m
s s s s
Withintheprecisionofourgivenquantitiesthemomentumofthesystemisconserved.

PaulG.HewittandPhillipR.Wolf
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