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2

Algebra and
Surds
TERMINOLOGY

Binomial: A mathematical expression consisting of Rationalising the denominator: A process for replacing a
two terms such as x + 3 or 3x - 1 surd in the denominator by a rational number without
altering its value
Binomial product: The product of two binomial
expressions such as (x + 3) (2x - 4) Surd: From absurd. The root of a number that has an
irrational value e.g. 3 . It cannot be expressed as a
Expression: A mathematical statement involving numbers,
rational number
pronumerals and symbols e.g. 2x - 3
Term: An element of an expression containing
Factorise: The process of writing an expression as a
pronumerals and/or numbers separated by an operation
product of its factors. It is the reverse operation of
such as + , - , # or ' e.g. 2x, - 3
expanding brackets i.e. take out the highest common
factor in an expression and place the rest in brackets Trinomial: An expression with three terms such as
e.g. 2y - 8 = 2 (y - 4) 3x 2 - 2x + 1
Pronumeral: A letter or symbol that stands for a number
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 45

INTRODUCTION
THIS CHAPTER REVIEWS ALGEBRA skills, including simplifying expressions,
removing grouping symbols, factorising, completing the square and
simplifying algebraic fractions. Operations with surds, including rationalising
the denominator, are also studied in this chapter.

DID YOU KNOW?

One of the earliest mathematicians to use algebra was Diophantus of Alexandria. It is not known
when he lived, but it is thought this may have been around 250 AD.
In Baghdad around 700800 AD a mathematician named Mohammed Un-Musa
Al-Khowarezmi wrote books on algebra and Hindu numerals. One of his books was named
Al-Jabr wal Migabaloh, and the word algebra comes from the first word in this title.

Simplifying Expressions
Addition and subtraction

EXAMPLES

Simplify
1. 7x - x

Solution
Here x is called a
pronumeral.
7x - x = 7x - 1 x
= 6x

2. 4x 2 - 3x 2 + 6x 2

Solution
4x 2 - 3x 2 + 6x 2 = x 2 + 6 x 2
= 7x 2

CONTINUED
46 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

3. x 3 - 3x - 5x + 4
Only add or subtract like
terms. These have the Solution
same pronumeral (for
example, 3x and 5x).
x 3 - 3 x - 5x + 4 = x 3 - 8 x + 4

4. 3a - 4b - 5a - b

Solution
3a - 4b - 5a - b = 3a - 5a - 4b - b
= - 2a - 5b

2.1 Exercises
Simplify

1. 2x + 5x 16. 7b + b - 3b

2. 9a - 6a 17. 3b - 5b + 4b + 9b

3. 5z - 4z 18. - 5x + 3x - x - 7x

4. 5a + a 19. 6x - 5y - y

5. 4b - b 20. 8a + b - 4b - 7a

6. 2r - 5r 21. xy + 2y + 3xy

7. - 4y + 3y 22. 2ab 2 - 5ab 2 - 3ab 2

8. - 2x - 3x 23. m 2 - 5m - m + 12

9. 2a - 2a 24. p 2 - 7p + 5p - 6

10. - 4k + 7k 25. 3x + 7y + 5x - 4y

11. 3t + 4t + 2t 26. ab + 2b - 3ab + 8b

12. 8w - w + 3w 27. ab + bc - ab - ac + bc

13. 4m - 3m - 2m 28. a 5 - 7x 3 + a 5 - 2x 3 + 1

14. x + 3x - 5x 29. x 3 - 3xy 2 + 4x 2 y - x 2 y + xy 2 + 2y 3

15. 8h - h - 7h 30. 3x 3 - 4x 2 - 3x + 5x 2 - 4x - 6
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 47

Multiplication

EXAMPLES

Simplify
1. - 5x # 3y # 2x

Solution
- 5x # 3y # 2x = - 30xyx
= - 30x 2 y

2. - 3x 3 y 2 # - 4xy 5

Solution Use index laws


to simplify this
question.
- 3x 3 y 2 # - 4xy 5 = 12x 4 y 7

2.2 Exercises
Simplify

1. 5 # 2b 11. ^ 2x 2h
5

2. 2x # 4y 12. 2ab 3 # 3a
3. 5p # 2p 13. 5a 2 b # - 2ab
4. - 3z # 2w 14. 7pq 2 # 3p 2 q 2
5. - 5a # - 3b 15. 5ab # a 2 b 2
6. x # 2y # 7z 16. 4h 3 # - 2h 7
7. 8ab # 6c 17. k 3 p # p 2
8. 4d # 3d 18. ^ - 3t 3 h
4

9. 3a # 4a # a 19. 7m 6 # - 2m 5
10. ^ - 3y h3 20. - 2x 2 # 3x 3 y # - 4xy 2
48 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

Division

Use cancelling or index laws to simplify divisions.

EXAMPLES

Simplify
1. 6v 2 y ' 2vy

Solution
By cancelling,
6v 2 y
6v 2 y ' 2vy =
2vy
63 # v # v1 # y1
=
21 # v # y1
= 3v
Using index laws,
6v 2 y ' 2vy = 3v 2 - 1 y 1 - 1
= 3v 1 y 0
= 3v

5a 3 b
2.
15ab 2

Solution
5a 3 b
= 1 a3 -1 b1- 2
15ab 2 3

= 1 a 2 b -1
3
a2
=
3b

2.3 Exercises
Simplify

1. 30x ' 5 xy
6.
2x
2. 2y ' y
7. 12p 3 ' 4p 2
2
8a
3. 3a 2 b 2
2 8.
6ab
8a 2
4. a 20x
9.
15xy
8a 2
5.
2a - 9x 7
10.
3x 4
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 49

11. -15ab ' - 5b 42p 5 q 4


16.
2ab 7pq 3
12.
6a 2 b 3 17. 5a 9 b 4 c - 2 ' 20a 5 b -3 c -1
- 8p 2 ^ a -5 h b 4
2
13. 18.
4pqs 4a - 9 ^ b 2 h
-1

14. 14cd 2 ' 21c 3 d 3 19. - 5x 4 y 7 z ' 15xy 8 z - 2


2xy 2 z 3
20. - 9 ^ a 4 b -1 h ' -18a -1 b 3
3
15.
4x 3 y 2 z

Removing grouping symbols

The distributive law of numbers is given by

a ] b + c g = ab + ac

EXAMPLE

7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 20
= 140
Using the distributive law,
7 # (9 + 11) = 7 # 9 + 7 # 11
= 63 + 77
= 140

This rule is used in algebra to help remove grouping symbols.

EXAMPLES

Expand and simplify.


1. 2 ] a + 3 g

Solution
2 (a + 3) = 2 # a + 2 # 3
= 2a + 6

CONTINUED
50 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2. - ] 2x - 5 g

Solution
-(2x - 5) = -1 (2x - 5)
= -1 # 2x - 1 # - 5
= - 2x + 5

3. 5a 2]4 + 3ab - c g

Solution
5a 2 (4 + 3ab - c) = 5a 2 # 4 + 5a 2 # 3ab - 5a 2 # c
= 20a 2 + 15a 3 b - 5a 2 c

4. 5 - 2 ^ y + 3 h

Solution
5 - 2 (y + 3 ) = 5 - 2 # y - 2 # 3
= 5 - 2y - 6
= - 2y - 1

5. 2 ] b - 5 g - ] b + 1 g

Solution
2 (b - 5) - (b + 1) = 2 # b + 2 # - 5 - 1 # b -1 # 1
= 2b - 10 - b - 1
= b - 11

2.4 Exercises
Expand and simplify

1. 2]x - 4 g 7. ab ] 2a + b g

2. 3 ] 2h + 3 g 8. 5n ] n - 4 g

3. -5 ] a - 2 g 9. 3x 2 y _ xy + 2y 2 i

4. x ^ 2y + 3 h 10. 3 + 4 ] k + 1 g

5. x]x - 2 g 11. 2 ] t - 7 g - 3

6. 2a ] 3a - 8 b g 12. y ^ 4y + 3 h + 8y
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 51

13. 9 - 5 ] b + 3 g 20. 2ab ] 3 - a g - b ] 4a - 1 g

14. 3 - ] 2x - 5 g 21. 5x - ] x - 2 g - 3

15. 5] 3 - 2m g + 7 ] m - 2 g 22. 8 - 4 ^ 2y + 1 h + y

16. 2 ] h + 4 g + 3 ] 2h - 9 g 23. ] a + b g - ] a - b g

17. 3 ] 2d - 3 g - ] 5d - 3 g 24. 2 ] 3t - 4 g - ] t + 1 g + 3

18. a ] 2a + 1 g - ^ a 2 + 3a - 4 h 25. 4 + 3 ] a + 5 g - ] a - 7 g

19. x ] 3x - 4 g - 5 ] x + 1 g

Binomial Products
A binomial expression consists of two numbers, for example x + 3.
A set of two binomial expressions multiplied together is called a binomial
product.
Example: ] x + 3 g ] x - 2 g.
Each term in the first bracket is multiplied by each term in the second
bracket.

] a + b g ^ x + y h = ax + ay + bx + by

Proof
]a + bg]c + d g = a ]c + d g + b ]c + d g
= ac + ad + bc + bd

EXAMPLES

Expand and simplify


1. ^ p + 3h^ q - 4h

Solution

^ p + 3 h ^ q - 4 h = pq - 4p + 3q - 12

2. ]a + 5g2

Solution

] a + 5 g2 = (a + 5)(a + 5)
= a 2 + 5a + 5a + 25 Can you see a quick
way of doing this?
= a 2 + 10a + 25
52 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

The rule below is not a binomial product (one expression is a trinomial), but it
works the same way.

] a + b g ^ x + y + z h = ax + ay + az + bx + by + bz

EXAMPLE

Expand and simplify ] x + 4 g ^ 2x - 3y - 1 h .

Solution

(x + 4) (2x - 3y - 1) = 2x 2 - 3xy - x + 8x - 12y - 4


= 2x 2 - 3xy + 7x - 12y - 4

2.5 Exercises
Expand and simplify

1. ]a + 5g]a + 2g 17. ]a + 2bg]a - 2bg

2. ]x + 3g]x - 1g 18. ^ 3x - 4y h^ 3x + 4y h

3. ^ 2y - 3h^ y + 5h 19. ]x + 3g]x - 3g

4. ]m - 4g]m - 2g 20. ^ y - 6h^ y + 6h

5. ]x + 4g]x + 3g 21. ] 3a + 1 g ] 3a - 1 g

6. ^ y + 2h^ y - 5h 22. ]2z - 7g]2z + 7g

7. ]2x - 3g]x + 2g 23. ]x + 9g^ x - 2y + 2h

8. ]h - 7g]h - 3g 24. ] b - 3 g ] 2a + 2b - 1 g

9. ]x + 5g]x - 5g 25. ]x + 2g^ x 2 - 2x + 4h

10. ] 5a - 4 g ] 3a - 1 g 26. ]a - 3g^ a 2 + 3a + 9h

11. ^ 2y + 3h^ 4y - 3h 27. ]a + 9g2

12. ]x - 4g^ y + 7h 28. ]k - 4g2

13. ^ x 2 + 3h]x - 2g 29. ]x + 2g2

14. ]n + 2g]n - 2g 30. ^ y - 7h2

15. ]2x + 3g]2x - 3g 31. ]2x + 3g2

16. ^ 4 - 7y h^ 4 + 7y h 32. ]2t - 1g2


Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 53

33. ]3a + 4bg2 37. ] a + b g2

34. ^ x - 5y h2 38. ] a - b g2

35. ]2a + bg2 39. ] a + b g ^ a 2 - ab + b 2 h

36. ] a - b g ] a + b g 40. ] a - b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h

Some binomial products have special results and can be simplified quickly
using their special properties. Binomial products involving perfect squares
and the difference of two squares occur in many topics in mathematics. Their
expansions are given below.

Difference of 2 squares

] a + b g ] a - b g = a2 - b2

Proof
(a + b) (a - b) = a 2 - ab + ab - b 2
= a2 - b2

Perfect squares

] a + b g2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2

Proof
] a + b g2 = (a + b) (a + b)
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a 2 + 2ab + b 2

]a - bg2 = a 2 - 2ab + b 2

Proof
] a - b g2 = (a - b) (a - b)
= a 2 - ab - ab + b 2
= a 2 - 2ab + b 2
54 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

Expand and simplify


1. ]2x - 3g2

Solution
] 2x - 3 g2 = ] 2x g2 - 2 (2x) 3 + 3 2
= 4x 2 - 12x + 9

2. ^ 3y - 4h^ 3y + 4h

Solution

(3y - 4) (3y + 4) = ^ 3y h2 - 4 2
= 9y 2 - 16

2.6 Exercises
Expand and simplify

1. ]t + 4g2 16. ^ p + 1 h ^ p - 1 h

2. ]z - 6g2 17. ]r + 6g]r - 6g

3. ] x - 1 g2 18. ] x - 10 g ] x + 10 g

4. ^ y + 8h2 19. ]2a + 3g]2a - 3g

5. ^ q + 3h2 20. ^ x - 5y h^ x + 5y h

6. ]k - 7g2 21. ] 4a + 1 g ] 4a - 1 g

7. ] n + 1 g2 22. ]7 - 3xg]7 + 3xg

8. ]2b + 5g2 23. ^ x 2 + 2h^ x 2 - 2h

24. ^ x 2 + 5h
2
9. ]3 - xg2

10. ^ 3y - 1 h2 25. ]3ab - 4cg]3ab + 4c g

11. ^ x + y h2 2 2
26. b x + x l
12. ] 3a - b g2
1 1
27. b a - a lb a + a l
13. ]4d + 5eg2

14. ]t + 4g]t - 4g 28. _ x + 6 y - 2 @ i _ x - 6 y - 2 @ i

15. ] x - 3 g ] x + 3 g 29. 6]a + bg + c @2


Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 55

30. 7 ] x + 1 g - y A
2
36. ] x - 4 g3 Expand (x - 4) (x - 4) 2 .

1 2 1 2
31. ] a + 3 g2 - ] a - 3 g2 37. b x - x l - b x l + 2
2
32. 16 - ]z - 4g]z + 4g 38. _ x 2 + y 2 i - 4x 2 y 2

33. 2x + ]3x + 1g2 - 4 39. ]2a + 5g3

34. ^ x + y h2 - x ^ 2 - y h 40. ] 2x - 1 g ] 2x + 1 g ] x + 2 g2

35. ] 4n - 3 g ] 4n + 3 g - 2n 2 + 5

PROBLEM

Find values of all pronumerals that make this true.


a b c #
d e
f e b
i i i h g
Try c = 9.
i i c c b

Factorisation
Simple factors

Factors are numbers that exactly divide or go into an equal or larger number,
without leaving a remainder.

EXAMPLES

The numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24 are all the factors of 24.


Factors of 5x are 1, 5, x and 5x.

To factorise an expression, we use the distributive law.

ax + bx = x ] a + b g
56 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. 3x + 12

Solution
Divide each term by 3 to
find the terms inside the The highest common factor is 3.
brackets.
3x + 12 = 3 ] x + 4 g

2. y 2 - 2y

Solution
Check answers by
The highest common factor is y.
expanding brackets.
y 2 - 2y = y ^ y - 2 h

3. x 3 - 2x 2

Solution
x and x2 are both common factors. We take out the highest common
factor which is x2.
x 3 - 2x 2 = x 2 ] x - 2 g

4. 5] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g

Solution
The highest common factor is x + 3.
5 ] x + 3 g + 2y ] x + 3 g = ] x + 3 g ^ 5 + 2 y h

5. 8a 3 b 2 - 2ab 3

Solution
There are several common factors here. The highest common
factor is 2ab2.
8a 3 b 2 - 2ab 3 = 2ab 2 ^ 4a 2 - bh
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 57

2.7 Exercises
Factorise

1. 2y + 6 19. x ] m + 5 g + 7 ] m + 5 g

2. 5x - 10 20. 2 ^ y - 1 h - y ^ y - 1 h

3. 3m - 9 21. 4^ 7 + y h - 3x ^ 7 + y h

4. 8x + 2 22. 6x ]a - 2g + 5]a - 2g

5. 24 - 18y 23. x ] 2t + 1 g - y ] 2t + 1 g

6. x 2 + 2x 24. a ] 3x - 2 g + 2b ] 3x - 2 g
- 3c ] 3x - 2 g
7. m 2 - 3m
25. 6x 3 + 9x 2
8. 2y 2 + 4y
26. 3pq 5 - 6q 3
9. 15a - 3a 2
27. 15a 4 b 3 + 3ab
10. ab 2 + ab
28. 4x 3 - 24x 2
11. 4x 2 y - 2xy
29. 35m 3 n 4 - 25m 2 n
12. 3mn 3 + 9mn
30. 24a 2 b 5 + 16ab 2
13. 8x 2 z - 2xz 2
31. 2rr 2 + 2rrh
14. 6ab + 3a - 2a 2

32. ]x - 3g2 + 5]x - 3g


15. 5x 2 - 2x + xy
33. y 2 ]x + 4g + 2]x + 4g
16. 3q 5 - 2q 2
34. a ] a + 1 g - ] a + 1 g2
17. 5b 3 + 15b 2
35. 4ab ^ a 2 + 1 h - 3 ^ a 2 + 1 h
18. 6a 2 b 3 - 3a 3 b 2

Grouping in pairs

If an expression has 4 terms, it may be factorised in pairs.

ax + bx + ay + by = x(a + b) + y (a + b)
= ( a + b) ( x + y)
58 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. x 2 - 2x + 3x - 6

Solution

x 2 - 2x + 3x - 6 = x (x - 2) + 3 (x - 2)
= (x - 2) (x + 3)

2. 2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy

Solution

2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy = 2 (x - 2) + 3y (2 - x)
= 2 ( x - 2) - 3y ( x - 2 )
= (x - 2) (2 - 3y)
or 2x - 4 + 6y - 3xy = 2 (x - 2) - 3y (- 2 + x)
= 2 ( x - 2) - 3y ( x - 2 )
= (x - 2) (2 - 3y)

2.8 Exercises
Factorise

1. 2x + 8 + bx + 4b 12. m - 2 + 4y - 2my

2. ay - 3a + by - 3b 13. 2x 2 + 10xy - 3xy - 15y 2

3. x 2 + 5x + 2x + 10 14. a 2 b + ab 3 - 4a - 4b 2

4. m 2 - 2m + 3m - 6 15. 5x - x 2 - 3x + 15

5. ad - ac + bd - bc 16. x 4 + 7x 3 - 4x - 28

6. x 3 + x 2 + 3x + 3 17. 7x - 21 - xy + 3y

7. 5ab - 3b + 10a - 6 18. 4d + 12 - de - 3e

8. 2xy - x 2 + 2y 2 - xy 19. 3x - 12 + xy - 4y

9. ay + a + y + 1 20. 2a + 6 - ab - 3b

10. x 2 + 5x - x - 5 21. x 3 - 3x 2 + 6x - 18

11. y + 3 + ay + 3a 22. pq - 3p + q 2 - 3q
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 59

23. 3x 3 - 6x 2 - 5x + 10 27. 4x 3 - 6x 2 + 8x - 12

24. 4a - 12b + ac - 3bc 28. 3a 2 + 9a + 6ab + 18b

25. xy + 7x - 4y - 28 29. 5y - 15 + 10xy - 30x

26. x 4 - 4x 3 - 5x + 20 30. rr 2 + 2rr - 3r - 6

Trinomials

A trinomial is an expression with three terms, for example x 2 - 4x + 3.


Factorising a trinomial usually gives a binomial product.

x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g

Proof
x 2 + (a + b) x + ab = x 2 + ax + bx + ab
= x(x + a) + b(x + a)
= (x + a) (x + b)

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. m 2 - 5m + 6

Solution
a + b = - 5 and ab = + 6
-2
+6 '
-3 Guess and check by
-5 trying - 2 and - 3
Numbers with sum - 5 and product + 6 are - 2 and - 3. or -1 and - 6.

` m 2 - 5m + 6 = [m + ] - 2 g] [m + ] - 3 g]
= ]m - 2g]m - 3g

2. y 2 + y - 2

Solution
a + b = + 1 and ab = - 2
+2
-2 '
-1 Guess and check by
+1 trying 2 and -1 or
Two numbers with sum + 1 and product - 2 are + 2 and -1. - 2 and 1.

` y2 + y - 2 = ^ y + 2 h ^ y - 1 h
60 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2.9 Exercises
Factorise

1. x 2 + 4x + 3 14. a 2 - 4a + 4

2. y 2 + 7y + 12 15. x 2 + 14x - 32

3. m 2 + 2m + 1 16. y 2 - 5y - 36

4. t 2 + 8t + 16 17. n 2 - 10n + 24

5. z2 + z - 6 18. x 2 - 10x + 25

6. x 2 - 5x - 6 19. p 2 + 8p - 9

7. v 2 - 8v + 15 20. k 2 - 7k + 10

8. t 2 - 6t + 9 21. x 2 + x - 12

9. x 2 + 9x - 10 22. m 2 - 6m - 7

10. y 2 - 10y + 21 23. q 2 + 12q + 20

11. m 2 - 9m + 18 24. d 2 - 4d - 5

12. y 2 + 9y - 36 25. l 2 - 11l + 18

13. x 2 - 5x - 24

The result x 2 + ] a + b g x + ab = ] x + a g ] x + b g only works when the coefficient


of x 2 (the number in front of x 2) is 1. When the coefficient of x 2 is not 1, for
example in the expression 5x 2 - 2x + 4, we need to use a different method to
factorise the trinomial.
There are different ways of factorising these trinomials. One method is
the cross method. Another is called the PSF method. Or you can simply guess
and check.

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. 5y 2 - 13y + 6

Solutionguess and check


For 5y2, one bracket will have 5y and the other y:
^ 5y h ^ y h .
Now look at the constant (term without y in it): + 6.
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 61

The two numbers inside the brackets must multiply to give + 6.


To get a positive answer, they must both have the same signs.
But there is a negative sign in front of 13y so the numbers cannot be both
positive. They must both be negative.
^ 5y - h ^ y - h
To get a product of 6, the numbers must be 2 and 3 or 1 and 6.
Guess 2 and 3 and check:
^ 5y - 2 h ^ y - 3 h = 5y 2 - 15y - 2y + 6
= 5y 2 - 17y + 6
This is not correct.
Notice that we are mainly interested in checking the middle two terms,
-15y and - 2y.
Try 2 and 3 the other way around:
^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h .
Checking the middle terms: -10y - 3y = -13y
This is correct, so the answer is ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h .
Note: If this did not check out, do the same with 1 and 6.

Solutioncross method
Factors of 5y 2 are 5y and y.
Factors of 6 are -1 and - 6 or - 2 and - 3.
Possible combinations that give a middle term of -13y are
5y -2 5y -3 5y -1 5y -6

y -3 y -2 y -6 y -1
By guessing and checking, we choose the correct combination.
5y -3 5y # - 2 = -10y
y # - 3 = - 3y
y -2 -13y
` 5y 2 - 13y + 6 = ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h

SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms 30y 2
S: Sum or middle term -13y
F: Factors of P that give S - 3y, -10y
- 3y
30y 2 )
-10y
-13y
` 5y 2 - 13y + 6 = 5y 2 - 3y - 10y + 6
= y ^ 5y - 3 h - 2 ^ 5 y - 3 h
= ^ 5y - 3 h ^ y - 2 h

CONTINUED
62 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2. 4y 2 + 4y - 3

Solutionguess and check


For 4y2, both brackets will have 2y or one bracket will have 4y and the
other y.
Try 2y in each bracket:
^ 2y h ^ 2y h .
Now look at the constant: - 3.
The two numbers inside the brackets must multiply to give - 3.
To get a negative answer, they must have different signs.
^ 2y - h ^ 2y + h
To get a product of 3, the numbers must be 1 and 3.
Guess and check:
^ 2y - 3 h ^ 2 y + 1 h
Checking the middle terms: 2y - 6y = - 4y
This is almost correct, as the sign is wrong but the coefficient is right
(the number in front of y).
Swap the signs around:
^ 2y - 1 h ^ 2 y + 3 h = 4y 2 + 6 y - 2 y - 3
= 4y 2 + 4y - 3
This is correct, so the answer is ^ 2y - 1 h ^ 2y + 3 h .

Solutioncross method
Factors of 4y 2 are 4y and y or 2y and 2y.
Factors of 3 are -1 and 3 or - 3 and 1.
Trying combinations of these factors gives
2y 3 2y # - 1 = - 2 y
2y # 3 = 6y
2y -1 4y
` 4y 2 + 4y - 3 = ^ 2 y + 3 h ^ 2 y - 1 h

SolutionPSF method
P: Product of first and last terms -12y 2
S: Sum or middle term 4y
F: Factors of P that give S + 6y, - 2y
2 + 6y
-12y )
-2y
+ 4y
` 4y 2 + 4y - 3 = 4 y 2 + 6 y - 2 y - 3
= 2y ^ 2y + 3 h - 1 ^ 2 y + 3 h
= ^ 2y + 3 h ^ 2y - 1 h
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 63

2.10 Exercises
Factorise

1. 2a 2 + 11a + 5 16. 4n 2 - 11n + 6

2. 5y 2 + 7y + 2 17. 8t 2 + 18t - 5

3. 3x 2 + 10x + 7 18. 12q 2 + 23q + 10

4. 3x 2 + 8x + 4 19. 8r 2 + 22r - 6

5. 2b 2 - 5b + 3 20. 4x 2 - 4x - 15

6. 7x 2 - 9x + 2 21. 6y 2 - 13y + 2

7. 3y 2 + 5y - 2 22. 6p 2 - 5p - 6

8. 2x 2 + 11x + 12 23. 8x 2 + 31x + 21

9. 5p 2 + 13p - 6 24. 12b 2 - 43b + 36

10. 6x 2 + 13x + 5 25. 6x 2 - 53x - 9

11. 2y 2 - 11y - 6 26. 9x 2 + 30x + 25

12. 10x 2 + 3x - 1 27. 16y 2 + 24y + 9

13. 8t 2 - 14t + 3 28. 25k 2 - 20k + 4

14. 6x 2 - x - 12 29. 36a 2 - 12a + 1

15. 6y 2 + 47y - 8 30. 49m 2 + 84m + 36

Perfect squares

You have looked at some special binomial products, including


]a + bg2 = a 2 + 2ab + b 2 and ]a - bg2 = a 2 - 2ab + b 2 .
When factorising, use these results the other way around.

a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2
a 2 - 2ab + b 2 = ] a - b g2
64 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

In a perfect square, the Factorise


constant term is always a
square number. 1. x 2 - 8x + 16

Solution
x 2 - 8x + 16 = x 2 - 2 (4) x + 4 2
= ] x - 4 g2

2. 4a 2 + 20a + 25

Solution

4a 2 + 20a + 25 = ] 2a g2 + 2 (2a) (5) + 5 2


= ] 2a + 5 g2

2.11 Exercises
Factorise

1. y 2 - 2y + 1 12. 16k 2 - 24k + 9

2. x 2 + 6x + 9 13. 25x 2 + 10x + 1

3. m 2 + 10m + 25 14. 81a 2 - 36a + 4

4. t 2 - 4t + 4 15. 49m 2 + 84m + 36

x 2 - 12x + 36 1
5. 16. t 2 + t +
4
6. 4x 2 + 12x + 9 4x 4
17. x 2 - +
3 9
7. 16b 2 - 8b + 1
6y 1
18. 9y 2 + +
8. 9a 2 + 12a + 4 5 25
1
9. 25x 2 - 40x + 16 19. x 2 + 2 +
x2
10. 49y 2 + 14y + 1 20. 25k 2 - 20 +
4
k2
11. 9y 2 - 30y + 25
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 65

Difference of 2 squares

A special case of binomial products is ] a + b g ] a - b g = a 2 - b 2.

a2 - b2 = ] a + b g ] a - b g

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. d 2 - 36

Solution
d 2 - 36 = d 2 - 6 2
= ]d + 6 g]d - 6 g

2. 9b 2 - 1

Solution
9b 2 - 1 = ] 3b g2 - 1 2
= ( 3 b + 1) ( 3 b - 1 )

3. (a + 3) 2 - (b - 1) 2

Solution
] a + 3 g2 - ] b - 1 g2 = [(a + 3) + (b - 1)] [(a + 3) - (b - 1)]
= (a + 3 + b - 1) ( a + 3 - b + 1)
= ( a + b + 2 ) (a - b + 4 )

2.12 Exercises
Factorise

1. a2 - 4 7. 1 - 4z 2

2. x2 - 9 8. 25t 2 - 1

3. y2 - 1 9. 9t 2 - 4

4. x 2 - 25 10. 9 - 16x 2

5. 4x 2 - 49 11. x 2 - 4y 2

6. 16y 2 - 9 12. 36x 2 - y 2


66 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

13. 4a 2 - 9b 2 y2
20. -1
9
14. x 2 - 100y 2
21. ] x + 2 g2 - ^ 2y + 1 h2
15. 4a - 81b
2 2

22. x 4 - 1
16. ]x + 2g2 - y 2
23. 9x 6 - 4y 2
17. ] a - 1 g - ] b - 2 g
2 2

24. x 4 - 16y 4
18. z - ] 1 + w g
2 2

1 25. a 8 - 1
19. x 2 -
4

Sums and differences of 2 cubes

a 3 + b 3 = ] a + b g ^ a 2 - ab + b 2 h

Proof
(a + b) (a 2 - ab + b 2) = a 3 - a 2 b + ab 2 + a 2 b - ab 2 + b 3
= a3 + b3

a 3 - b 3 = ] a - b g ^ a 2 + ab + b 2 h

Proof
(a - b) (a 2 + ab + b 2) = a 3 + a 2 b + ab 2 - a 2 b - ab 2 - b 3
= a3 - b3

EXAMPLES

Factorise
1. 8x 3 + 1

Solution
8x 3 + 1 = ] 2x g3 + 1 3
= (2x + 1) [] 2x g2 - (2x) (1) + 1 2]
= (2x + 1 ) (4 x 2 - 2 x + 1 )
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 67

2. 27a 3 - 64b 3

Solution
27a 3 - 64b 3 = ] 3a g3 - ] 4b g3
= (3a - 4b) [] 3a g2 + (3a) (4b) + ] 4b g2]
= (3a - 4b) (9a 2 + 12ab + 16b 2)

2.13 Exercises
Factorise

1. b3 - 8 x3
12. - 27
8
2. x 3 + 27
1000 1
13. + 3
3. t3 + 1 a 3
b

4. a 3 - 64 14. ] x + 1 g3 - y 3

5. 1 - x3 15. 125x 3 y 3 + 216z 3

6. 8 + 27y 3 16. ]a - 2g3 - ]a + 1g3

7. y 3 + 8z 3 x3
17. 1 -
27
8. x 3 - 125y 3
18. y 3 + ]3 + xg3
9. 8x 3 + 27y 3
19. ] x + 1 g3 + ^ y - 2 h3
10. a 3 b 3 - 1
20. 8]a + 3g3 - b 3
11. 1000 + 8t 3

Mixed factors

Sometimes more than one method of factorising is needed to completely


factorise an expression.

EXAMPLE

Factorise 5x 2 - 45.

Solution
5x 2 - 45 = 5 (x 2 - 9) (using simple factors)
= 5 (x + 3) (x - 3) (the difference of two squares)
68 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2.14 Exercises
Factorise

1. 2x 2 - 18 16. x 3 - 3x 2 - 10x

2. 3p 2 - 3p - 36 17. x 3 - 3x 2 - 9x + 27

3. 5y 3 - 5 18. 4x 2 y 3 - y

4. 4a 3 b + 8a 2 b 2 - 4ab 2 - 2a 2 b 19. 24 - 3b 3

5. 5a 2 - 10a + 5 20. 18x 2 + 33x - 30

6. - 2x 2 + 11x - 12 21. 3x 2 - 6x + 3

7. 3z 3 + 27z 2 + 60z 22. x 3 + 2x 2 - 25x - 50

8. 9ab - 4a 3 b 3 23. z 3 + 6z 2 + 9z

9. x3 - x 24. 4x 4 - 13x 2 + 9

10. 6x 2 + 8x - 8 25. 2x 5 + 2x 2 y 3 - 8x 3 - 8y 3

11. 3m - 15 - 5n + mn 26. 4a 3 - 36a

12. ] x - 3 g2 - ] x + 4 g2 27. 40x - 5x 4

13. y 2 ^ y + 5 h - 16 ^ y + 5 h 28. a 4 - 13a 2 + 36

14. x 4 - x 3 + 8x - 8 29. 4k 3 + 40k 2 + 100k

15. x 6 - 1 30. 3x 3 + 9x 2 - 3x - 9

DID YOU KNOW?

Long division can be used to find factors of an expression. For example, x - 1 is a factor of
x 3 + 4x - 5. We can find the other factor by dividing x 3 + 4x - 5 by x - 1.
x2 + x + 5
g
x - 1 x3 + 4x - 5
x3 - x2
x 2 + 4x
x2 - x
You will study this in
5x - 5
Chapter 12.
5x - 5
0
So the other factor of x 3 + 4x - 5 is x 2 + x + 5
` x 3 + 4x - 5 = (x - 1) (x 2 + x + 5)
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 69

Completing the Square


Factorising a perfect square uses the results
a 2 ! 2ab + b 2 = ] a ! b g2

EXAMPLES

1. Complete the square on x 2 + 6x.

Solution
Using a 2 + 2ab + b 2:
a=x
2ab = 6x
Substituting a = x:
2xb = 6x Notice that 3 is half of 6.
b=3
To complete the square:
a 2 + 2ab + b 2 = ] a + b g2
x + 2x ] 3 g + 3 2 = ] x + 3 g2
2

x 2 + 6x + 9 = ] x + 3 g2

2. Complete the square on n 2 - 10n.

Solution
Using a 2 - 2ab + b 2:
a=n
2ab = 10x
Substituting a = n:
2nb = 10n Notice that 5 is half of 10.
b=5
To complete the square:
a 2 - 2ab + b 2 = ] a - b g2
n 2 - 2n ] 5 g + 5 2 = ] n - 5 g2
n 2 - 10n + 25 = ] n - 5 g2

To complete the square on a 2 + pa, divide p by 2 and square it.


p 2 p 2
a 2 + pa + d n = d a + n
2 2
70 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

1. Complete the square on x 2 + 12x.

Solution
Divide 12 by 2 and square it:
12 2
x 2 + 12x + c m = x 2 + 12x + 6 2
2
= x 2 + 12x + 36
= ]x + 6g2

2. Complete the square on y 2 - 2y.

Solution
Divide 2 by 2 and square it:
2 2
y 2 - 2y + c m = y 2 - 2 y + 1 2
2
= y 2 - 2y + 1
= ^ y - 1 h2

2.15 Exercises
Complete the square on

1. x 2 + 4x 12. y 2 + 3y

2. b 2 - 6b 13. x 2 - 7x

3. x 2 - 10x 14. a 2 + a

4. y 2 + 8y 15. x 2 + 9x

5. m 2 - 14m 5y
16. y 2 -
2
6. q 2 + 18q
11k
17. k 2 -
7. x 2 + 2x 2

8. t 2 - 16t 18. x 2 + 6xy

9. x 2 - 20x 19. a 2 - 4ab

10. w 2 + 44w 20. p 2 - 8pq

11. x 2 - 32x
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 71

Algebraic Fractions
Simplifying fractions

EXAMPLES

Simplify
4x + 2
1.
2

Solution
4x + 2 2 ] 2x + 1 g Factorise first, then cancel.
=
2 2
= 2x + 1

2x 2 - 3x - 2
2.
x3 - 8

Solution
2x 2 - 3x - 2 ] 2x + 1 g ] x - 2 g
=
x -8
3
] x - 2 g ^ x 2 + 2x + 4 h
2x + 1
= 2
x + 2x + 4

2.16 Exercises
Simplify

5a + 10 b3 - 1
1. 9.
5 b2 - 1
6t - 3 2p 2 + 7p - 15
2.
3 10.
6p - 9
8y + 2
3. a2 - 1
6 11.
a + 2a - 3
2

8
4.
4d - 2 3 ]x - 2g + y ]x - 2g
12.
x 2
x3 - 8
5.
5x 2 - 2x
x 3 + 3x 2 - 9x - 27
y-4 13.
6. x 2 + 6x + 9
y - 8y + 16
2

2p 2 - 3p - 2
2ab - 4a 2 14.
7. 8p 3 + 1
a 2 - 3a
s2 + s - 2 ay - ax + by - bx
8. 15.
s 2 + 5s + 6 2ay - by - 2ax + bx
72 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

Operations with algebraic fractions

EXAMPLES

Simplify
x-1 x+3
1. -
5 4

Solution
x -1 x +3 4 ]x - 1 g - 5 ]x + 3 g
Do algebraic fractions - =
the same way as ordinary 5 4 20
fractions. 4x - 4 - 5x - 15
=
20
- x - 19
=
20

2a 2 b + 10ab a 2 - 25
2. '
b + 27
3
4b + 12

Solution
2a 2 b + 10ab a 2 - 25 2a 2 b + 10ab 4b + 12
' = # 2
b 3 + 27 4b + 12 b 3 + 27 a - 25
2ab ] a + 5 g 4 ]b + 3 g
= #
] b + 3 g ^ b - 3b + 9 h
2 ] a + 5 g]a - 5 g
8ab
=
] a - 5 g ^ b 2 - 3b + 9 h

2 1
3. +
x-5 x+2

Solution
2 1 2 ]x + 2g + 1 ]x - 5g
+ =
x-5 x+2 ]x - 5g]x + 2g
2x + 4 + x - 5
=
]x - 5g]x + 2g
3x - 1
=
]x - 5g]x + 2g
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 73

2.17 Exercises
1. Simplify 1 1
(f) +
x 3x x+1 x-3
(a) +
2 4 2 3
(g) -
y + 1 2y x -4
2
x + 2
(b) +
5 3 1 1
(h) +
a+2 a a 2 + 2a + 1 a + 1
(c) -
3 4
2 1 5
p-3 p+2 (i) - +
(d) + y+2 y+3 y-1
6 2
2 7
x-5 x-1 (j) -
(e) - x 2 - 16 x 2 - x - 12
2 3

2. Simplify 4. Simplify
3 b 2 + 2b 3x 2 y2 - 9 x 2 - 2x - 8
(a) # (a) # #
b + 2 6a - 3 4y - 12 6x - 24 y 3 + 27
3a - 15 y - y - 2
2
p2 - 4 q3 + 1 a 2 - 5a
(b) 2 # (b) ' #
q + 2q + 1 p + 2 y 2 - 4y + 4 y2 - 4 5ay

3ab 2 12ab - 6a 3 2x + 8 x 2 + 3x
(c) ' 2 (c) + 2 #
5xy x y + 2xy 2 x-3 x -9 4x - 16

ax - ay + bx - by x3 + y3 5b b2 b
(d) ' 2 -
(d) # 2b + 6 b +b-6 b + 1
x2 - y2 ab 2 + a 2 b
x 2 - 8x + 15 x 2 - 9 x 2 + 5x + 6
x 2 - 6x + 9 x 2 - 5x + 6 (e) ' #
(e) ' 5x + 10x
2
10x 2 2x - 10
x 2 - 25 x 2 + 4x - 5
5. Simplify
3. Simplify
1 2 4
2 3 (a) - +
(a) x + x x 2 - 7x + 10 x 2 - 2x - 15 x 2 + x - 6
1 2 5 3 2
(b) - (b) - -
x-1 x x -4
2
x - 2 x + 2
3 2 3
(c) 1 + (c) +
a+b p 2 + pq pq - q 2
x2 a b 1
(d) x - (d) - +
x+2 a + b a - b a2 - b2
1 x+y y
(e) p - q + x
p+q (e) x - y + y - x - 2
y - x2

Substitution
Algebra is used in writing general formulae or rules. For example, the formula
A = lb is used to find the area of a rectangle with length l and breadth b. We
can substitute any values for l and b to find the area of different rectangles.
74 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

EXAMPLES

1. P = 2l + 2b is the formula for finding the perimeter of a rectangle


with length l and breadth b. Find P when l = 1.3 and b = 3.2.

Solution
P = 2 l + 2b
= 2 ] 1 . 3 g + 2 ] 3 .2 g
= 2 .6 + 6 . 4
=9

2. V = rr 2 h is the formula for finding the volume of a cylinder with


radius r and height h. Find V (correct to 1 decimal place) when r = 2.1
and h = 8.7.

Solution
V = rr 2 h
= r ] 2.1 g2 (8.7)
= 120.5 correct to 1 decimal place

9C
3. If F = + 32 is the formula for changing degrees Celsius ] C g into
5
degrees Fahrenheit ] F g find F when C = 25.

Solution
9C
F= + 32
5
9 ] 25 g
= + 32
5
225
= + 32
5
225 + 160
=
5
385
=
5
= 77
This means that 25C is the same as 77F.
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 75

2.18 Exercises

1. Given a = 3.1 and b = - 2.3 find,


10. Given V = 1 lbh is the volume
correct to 1 decimal place. 3
(a) ab formula for a rectangular
(b) 3b pyramid, find V if l = 4.7, b = 5.1
(c) 5a 2 and h = 6.5.
(d) ab 3 11. The gradient of a straight line is
(e) ]a + bg2 y2 - y1
given by m = x - x . Find m
(f) a-b 2 1

(g) - b 2 if x 1 = 3, x 2 = -1, y 1 = - 2 and


y 2 = 5.
2. T = a + ] n - 1 g d is the formula
for finding the term of an 12. If A = 1 h ] a + b g gives the area
2
arithmetic series. Find T when of a trapezium, find A when
a = - 4, n = 18 and d = 3. h = 7, a = 2.5 and b = 3.9.
3. Given y = mx + b, the equation 13. Find V if V = 4 rr 3 is the volume
of a straight line, find y if 3
formula for a sphere with radius r
m = 3, x = - 2 and b = - 1.
and r = 7.6, to 1 decimal place.
4. If h = 100t - 5t 2 is the height of
a particle at time t, find h when
t = 5.

5. Given vertical velocity v = - gt,


find v when g = 9.8 and t = 20.
14. The velocity of an object at a
6. If y = 2 x + 3 is the equation of
certain time t is given by the
a function, find y when x = 1.3,
formula v = u + at. Find v when
correct to 1 decimal place.
u = 1 , a = 3 and t = 5 .
4 5 6
7. S = 2r r ] r + h g is the formula for a
the surface area of a cylinder. 15. Given S = , find S if a = 5
1-r
Find S when r = 5 and h = 7,
and r = 2 . S is the sum to infinity
correct to the nearest whole 3
of a geometric series.
number.
16. c = a 2 + b 2 , according to
8. A = rr 2 is the area of a circle with
Pythagoras theorem. Find the
radius r. Find A when r = 9.5,
value of c if a = 6 and b = 8.
correct to 3 significant figures.
n-1
17. Given y = 16 - x 2 is the
9. Given u n = ar is the nth term
equation of a semicircle, find the
of a geometric series, find u n if
exact value of y when x = 2.
a = 5, r = - 2 and n = 4.
76 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

18. Find the value of E in the energy a ^rn - 1h


equation E = mc 2 if m = 8.3 and 20. If S = is the sum of
r -1
c = 1.7. a geometric series, find S if
a = 3, r = 2 and n = 5.
r n
19. A = P c 1 + m is the formula
100
a3 b2
for finding compound interest. 21. Find the value of if
c2
Find A when P = 200, r = 12 and 2 3
1 4
a = c 3 m , b = c 2 m and c = c m .
n = 5, correct to 2 decimal places. 4 3 2

Surds
An irrational number is a number that cannot be written as a ratio or fraction
(rational). Surds are special types of irrational numbers, such as 2, 3 and 5 .
Some surds give rational values: for example, 9 = 3. Others, like 2 , do
not have an exact decimal value. If a question involving surds asks for an exact
answer, then leave it as a surd rather than giving a decimal approximation.

Simplifying surds

Class Investigations

1. Is there an exact decimal equivalent for 2 ?


2. Can you draw a line of length exactly 2 ?
3. Do these calculations give the same results?
(a) 9 # 4 and 9 # 4
4 4
(b) and
9 9
(c) 9 + 4 and 9 + 4
(d) 9 - 4 and 9 - 4

Here are some basic properties of surds.

a# b = ab
a a
a' b = =
b b

^ x h2 = x2 = x
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 77

EXAMPLES

1. Express in simplest surd form 45 . 45 also equals


3 # 15 but this will
Solution not simplify. We look
for a number that is a
45 = 9 # 5 perfect square.

= 9 # 5
=3# 5
=3 5

2. Simplify 3 40 .

Solution
Find a factor of 40 that
is a perfect square.
3 40 = 3 4 # 10
= 3 # 4 # 10
= 3 # 2 # 10
= 6 10

3. Write 5 2 as a single surd.

Solution

5 2 = 25 # 2
= 50

2.19 Exercises

1. Express these surds in simplest (k) 112


surd form.
(l) 300
(a) 12
(m) 128
(b) 63
(n) 243
(c) 24
(o) 245
(d) 50
(p) 108
(e) 72
(q) 99
(f) 200
(r) 125
(g) 48
(h) 75 2. Simplify

(i) 32 (a) 2 27

(j) 54 (b) 5 80
78 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

(c) 4 98 (g) 3 13
(d) 2 28 (h) 7 2
(e) 8 20 (i) 11 3
(f) 4 56 (j) 12 7
(g) 8 405
4. Evaluate x if
(h) 15 8
(a) x =3 5
(i) 7 40
(b) 2 3 = x
(j) 8 45
(c) 3 7 = x
3. Write as a single surd. (d) 5 2 = x
(a) 3 2 (e) 2 11 = x
(b) 2 5 (f) x =7 3
(c) 4 11 (g) 4 19 = x
(d) 8 2 (h) x = 6 23
(e) 5 3 (i) 5 31 = x
(f) 4 10 (j) x = 8 15

Addition and subtraction

Calculations with surds are similar to calculations in algebra. We can only add
or subtract like terms with algebraic expressions. This is the same with surds.

EXAMPLES

1. Simplify 3 2 + 4 2 .

Solution
3 2+4 2 =7 2

2. Simplify 3 - 12 .

Solution
First, change into like surds.
3 - 12 = 3 - 4 # 3
= 3 -2 3
=- 3

3. Simplify 2 2 - 2 + 3 .

Solution
2 2- 2+ 3= 2+ 3
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 79

2.20 Exercises
Simplify

1. 5 +2 5 14. 50 - 32

2. 3 2 -2 2 15. 28 + 63

3. 3 +5 3 16. 2 8 - 18

4. 7 3 -4 3 17. 3 54 + 2 24

5. 5 -4 5 18. 90 - 5 40 - 2 10

6. 4 6 - 6 19. 4 48 + 3 147 + 5 12

7. 2 -8 2 20. 3 2 + 8 - 12

8. 5 +4 5 +3 5 21. 63 - 28 - 50

9. 2 -2 2 -3 2 22. 12 - 45 - 48 - 5

10. 5 + 45 23. 150 + 45 + 24

11. 8 - 2 24. 32 - 243 - 50 + 147

12. 3 + 48 25. 80 - 3 245 + 2 50

13. 12 - 27

Multiplication and division

To get a b # c d = ac bd ,

a # b = ab multiply surds with surds and


rationals with rationals.
a b # c d = ac bd
a# a = a2 = a

a a
=
b b

EXAMPLES

Simplify
1. 2 2 #- 5 7

Solution
2 2 #- 5 7 = -10 14

CONTINUED
80 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2. 4 2 # 5 18

Solution

4 2 # 5 18 = 20 36
= 20 # 6
= 120

2 14
3.
4 2

Solution

2 14 2 2 # 7
=
4 2 4 2
7
=
2

3 10
4.
15 2

Solution

3 10 3# 5 # 2
=
15 2 15 2
5
=
5

2
10 n
5. d
3

Solution

10 n
2
^ 10 h 2

d =
3 ^ 3 h2
10
=
3
=31
3
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 81

2.21 Exercises
Simplify

1. 7 # 3 5 8
23.
10 2
2. 3# 5
16 2
3. 2 #3 3 24.
2 12
4. 5 7 #2 2
10 30
25.
5. -3 3 #2 2 5 10

6. 5 3 #2 3 26.
2 2
6 20
7. - 4 5 # 3 11
4 2
8. 2 7# 7 27.
8 10
9. 2 3 # 5 12 3
28.
10. 6# 2 3 15

11. 8 #2 6 2
29.
8
12. 3 2 # 5 14
3 15
13. 10 # 2 2 30.
6 10
14. 2 6 #-7 6 5 12
31.
15. ^ 2 h
2 5 8

16. ^ 2 7 h
2 15 18
32.
10 10
17. 3# 5# 2
15
33.
18. 2 3 # 7 #- 5 2 6
19. 2 # 6 #3 3 2n
2
34. d
3
20. 2 5 # - 3 2 # - 5 5
2
5n
21.
4 12 35. d
7
2 2

12 18
22.
3 6

Expanding brackets

The same rules for expanding brackets and binomial products that you use in
algebra also apply to surds.
82 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

Simplifying surds by removing grouping symbols uses these general rules.

a^ b + ch= ab + ac

Proof
a^ b + ch = a# b + a# c
= ab + ac

Binomial product:

^ a + b h^ c + d h = ac + ad + bc + bd

Proof
^ a + b h^ c + d h = a # c + a # d + b # c + b # d
= ac + ad + bc + bd

Perfect squares:

^ a + b h2 = a + 2 ab + b

Proof
^ a + b h2 = ^ a + b h ^ a + b h
= a 2 + ab + ab + b 2
= a + 2 ab + b

^ a - b h2 = a - 2 ab + b

Proof
^ a - b h2 = ^ a - b h ^ a - b h
= a 2 - ab - ab + b 2
= a - 2 ab + b

Difference of two squares:

^ a + b h^ a - b h = a - b

Proof
^ a + b h ^ a - b h = a 2 - ab + ab - b 2
=a-b
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 83

EXAMPLES

Expand and simplify


1. 2 ^ 5 + 2 h

Solution

2( 5 + 2) = 2# 5 + 2# 2
= 10 + 4
= 10 + 2

2. 3 7 ^ 2 3 - 3 2 h

Solution

3 7 (2 3 - 3 2 ) = 3 7 # 2 3 - 3 7 # 3 2
= 6 21 - 9 14

3. ^ 2 + 3 5 h ^ 3 - 2h

Solution

( 2 + 3 5)( 3 - 2) = 2# 3 - 2# 2 +3 5# 3 -3 5# 2
= 6 - 2 + 3 15 - 3 10

4. ^ 5 + 2 3 h ^ 5 - 2 3 h

Solution

( 5 + 2 3 ) ( 5 - 2 3 ) = 5 # 5 - 5 #2 3 + 2 3 # 5 - 2 3 #2 3
Notice that using the
= 5 - 2 15 + 2 15 - 4#3 difference of two
= 5 - 12 squares gives a rational
answer.
= -7
Another way to do this question is by using the difference of two squares.
( 5 + 2 3)( 5 - 2 3) = ^ 5 h - ^2 3 h
2 2

= 5 - 4#3
= -7
84 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2.22 Exercises

1. Expand and simplify (m)^ 2 11 + 5 2 h^ 2 11 - 5 2 h


(a) 2^ 5 + 3h (n) ^ 5 + 2 h
2

(b) 3 ^2 2 - 5 h (o) ^ 2 2 - 3 h
2

(c) 4 3 ^ 3 + 2 5 h (p) ^ 3 2 + 7 h
2

(d) 7 ^5 2 - 2 3 h (q) ^ 2 3 + 3 5 h
2

(e) - 3 ^ 2 - 4 6 h (r) ^ 7 - 2 5 h
2

(f) 3 ^ 5 11 + 3 7 h (s) ^ 2 8 - 3 5 h
2

(g) - 3 2 ^ 2 + 4 3 h (t) ^ 3 5 + 2 2 h
2

(h) 5^ 5 - 5 3h
3. If a = 3 2 , simplify
(i) 3 ^ 12 + 10 h
(a) a2
(j) 2 3 ^ 18 + 3 h (b) 2a3
(k) - 4 2 ^ 2 - 3 6 h (c) (2a)3
(l) - 7 5 ^ - 3 20 + 2 3 h (d) ]a + 1g2
(e) ] a + 3 g ] a 3 g
(m) 10 3 ^ 2 - 2 12 h
(n) - 2 ^ 5 + 2 h 4. Evaluate a and b if
(a) ^ 2 5 + 1h = a + b
2
(o) 2 3 ^ 2 - 12 h
(b) ^ 2 2 - 5 h ^ 2 - 3 5 h
2. Expand and simplify = a + b 10
(a) ^ 2 + 3h^ 5 + 3 3 h
5. Expand and simplify
(b) ^ 5 - 2 h^ 2 - 7 h (a) ^ a + 3 - 2 h ^ a + 3 + 2 h
(c) ^ 2 + 5 3 h^ 2 5 - 3 2 h
2
(b) _ p - 1 - p i
(d) ^ 3 10 - 2 5 h^ 4 2 + 6 6 h
6. Evaluate k if
(e) ^ 2 5 - 7 2 h^ 5 - 3 2 h ^ 2 7 - 3 h ^ 2 7 + 3 h = k.
(f) ^ 5 + 6 2 h^ 3 5 - 3 h
7. Simplify _ 2 x + y i _ x - 3 y i .
(g) ^ 7 + 3 h^ 7 - 3 h
If ^ 2 3 - 5 h = a - b , evaluate
2
(h) ^ 2 - 3 h^ 2 + 3 h 8.
a and b.
(i) ^ 6 + 3 2 h^ 6 - 3 2 h
(j) ^ 3 5 + 2 h^ 3 5 - 2 h 9. Evaluate a and b if
(k) ^ 8 - 5 h^ 8 + 5 h ^ 7 2 - 3 h2 = a + b 2 .

(l) ^ 2 + 9 3 h^ 2 - 9 3 h 10. A rectangle has sides 5 + 1 and


2 5 - 1. Find its exact area.

Rationalising the denominator

Rationalising the denominator of a fractional surd means writing it with a


rational number (not a surd) in the denominator. For example, after
3 3 5
rationalising the denominator, becomes .
5 5
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 85

DID YOU KNOW?

A major reason for rationalising the denominator used to be to make it easier to evaluate the
fraction (before calculators were available). It is easier to divide by a rational number than an
irrational one; for example, This is hard to do
without a calculator.
3
= 3 ' 2.236
5
This is easier to calculate.
3 5
= 3 # 2.236 ' 5
5

Squaring a surd in the denominator will rationalise it since ^ x h = x.


2

b
Multiplying by
b
is the same as
a b a b multiplying by 1.
# =
b b b

Proof
a b a b
# =
b b b2
a b
=
b

EXAMPLES

3
1. Rationalise the denominator of .
5
Solution

3 5 3 5
# =
5 5 5

2
2. Rationalise the denominator of .
5 3
Solution Dont multiply by
5 3
as it takes
2 3 2 3 5 3
# = longer to simplify.
5 3 3 5 9
2 3
=
5# 3
2 3
=
15
86 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

When there is a binomial denominator, we use the difference of two


squares to rationalise it, as the result is always a rational number.

a+ b c- d
To rationalise the denominator of , multiply by
c+ d c- d

Proof

a+ b c- d ^ a + b h^ c - d h
# =
c+ d c- d ^ c + d h^ c - d h
^ a + b h^ c - d h
=
^ c h2 - ^ d h2
^ a + b h^ c - d h
=
c-d

EXAMPLES

1. Write with a rational denominator


5
.
2 -3
Multiply by the conjugate
surd 2 + 3.
Solution

5 2 +3 5 ^ 2 + 3h
# =
2 -3 2 +3 ^ 2 h2 - 3 2
10 + 3 5
=
2-9
10 + 3 5
=
-7
10 + 3 5
=-
7

2. Write with a rational denominator


2 3+ 5
.
3+4 2

Solution

2 3 + 5 3 -4 2 ^2 3 + 5 h^ 3 - 4 2 h
# =
3 +4 2 3 -4 2 ^ 3 h2 - ^ 4 2 h2
2 # 3 - 8 6 + 15 - 4 10
=
3 - 16 # 2
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 87

6 - 8 6 + 15 - 4 10
=
- 29
- 6 + 8 6 - 15 + 4 10
=
29

3 3
3. Evaluate a and b if = a + b.
3- 2

Solution

3 3 3+ 2 3 3^ 3 + 2h
# =
3- 2 3+ 2 ^ 3 - 2 h^ 3 + 2 h
3 9+3 6
=
^ 3 h2 - ^ 2 h2
3#3+3 6
=
3-2
9+3 6
=
1
=9+3 6
=9+ 9# 6
= 9 + 54
So a = 9 and b = 54.

4. Evaluate as a fraction with rational denominator


2 5
+ .
3+2 3-2

Solution

2 5 2^ 3 - 2h + 5 ^ 3 + 2h
+ =
3+2 3 -2 ^ 3 + 2h ^ 3 - 2h
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
=
^ 3 h2 - 2 2
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
=
3-4
2 3 - 4 + 15 + 2 5
=
-1
= - 2 3 + 4 - 15 - 2 5
88 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

2.23 Exercises

1. Express with rational 3. Express as a single fraction with


denominator rational denominator
1 1 1
(a) (a) +
7 2 +1 2 -1
3 2 3
(b) (b) -
2 2 2 - 3 2 + 3
2 3 1 3
(c) (c) +
5 5 + 2 3 2 - 5
6 7 2 - 7 2
(d) (d) #
5 2 2 + 3 2 3 + 2
1+ 2 1
(e) (e) t + where t = 3 -2
3 t
6 -5 1
(f) (f) z 2 - where z = 1 + 2
2 z2

5 +2 2 3 2 +4 2 -1 2
(g) (g) + -
5 6 - 3 6 + 3 6 -1
3 2 -4 2 +3 1
(h) (h) +
2 7 2 3
8+3 2 3 2
(i) (i) +
4 5 2 +3 3
4 3 -2 2 5 2
(j) (j) -
7 5 6 +2 5 3
2 +7 2
2. Express with rational (k) -
4+ 3 4- 3
denominator
5 - 2 2+ 3
4 (l) -
(a) 3 - 2 3 +1
3 + 2
3 4. Find a and b if
(b)
2 -7 3 a
(a) =
2 3 2 5 b
(c)
5 +2 6 3 a 6
(b) =
3 -4 4 2 b
(d)
3 +4 2
(c) =a+b 5
2 +5 5 +1
(e)
3 - 2 2 7
(d) =a+b 7
3 3 + 2 7 -4
(f)
2 5 +3 2 2 +3
(e) =a+ b
2 -1
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 89

2 -1 4 7. Write
2
+
1
-
5. Show that + is
2 +1 2 5 + 2 5 - 2
rational. 5 +1
as a single fraction with
3
6. If x = 3 + 2, simplify rational denominator.
1 2 8
(a) x + x 8. Show that + is
3+2 2 2
1 rational.
(b) x 2 +
x2
1
2
9. If 2 + x = 3 , where x ! 0,
1
(c) b x + x l find x as a surd with rational
denominator.

10. Rationalise the denominator of


b +2
]b ! 4 g
b -2
90 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

Test Yourself 2
1. Simplify 6. (a) Expand and simplify
(a) 5y - 7y ^ 2 5 + 3 h ^ 2 5 - 3 h.
3a + 12 (b) Rationalise the denominator of
(b)
3 3 3
.
(c) - 2k 3 # 3k 2 2 5+ 3
x y 3 1 2
(d) + 7. Simplify + - 2 .
3 5 x-2 x+3 x +x-6
(e) 4a - 3b - a - 5b
(f) 8 + 32 8. If a = 4, b = - 3 and c = - 2, find the
(g) 3 5 - 20 + 45 value of
(a) ab 2
2. Factorise (b) a - bc
(a) x 2 - 36 (c) a
(b) a 2 + 2a - 3 (d) ]bcg3
(c) 4ab 2 - 8ab (e) c ] 2a + 3b g
(d) 5y - 15 + xy - 3x
(e) 4n - 2p + 6 9. Simplify
(f) 8 - x 3 3 12
(a)
6 15
3. Expand and simplify 4 32
(a) b + 3 ] b - 2 g (b)
2 2
(b) ] 2x - 1 g ] x + 3 g
(c) 5 ] m + 3 g - ] m - 2 g 10. The formula for the distance an object
(d) ]4x - 3g2 falls is given by d = 5t 2 . Find d when
(e) ^ p - 5h^ p + 5h t = 1.5.
(f) 7 - 2 ] a + 4 g - 5a
(g) 3 ^ 2 2 - 5 h 11. Rationalise the denominator of
2
(h) ^ 3 + 7 h^ 3 - 2h (a)
5 3
4. Simplify 1+ 3
4a - 12 10b (b)
(a) # 3 2
5b 3 a - 27
5m + 10 m2 - 4 12. Expand and simplify
(b) '
m - m - 2 3m + 3
2 (a) ^ 3 2 - 4h^ 3 - 2 h
(b) ^ 7 + 2h
2

5. The volume of a cube is V = s 3.


Evaluate V when s = 5.4. 13. Factorise fully
(a) 3x 2 - 27
(b) 6x 2 - 12x - 18
(c) 5y 3 + 40
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 91

14. Simplify 22. Expand and simplify


3x 4 y (a) 2 2 ^ 3 + 2 h
(a)
9xy 5 (b) ^ 5 7 - 3 5 h^ 2 2 - 3 h
5 (c) ^ 3 + 2 h^ 3 - 2 h
(b)
15x - 5 (d) ^ 4 3 - 5 h^ 4 3 + 5 h
(e) ^ 3 7 - 2 h
2
15. Simplify
(a) ^ 3 11 h
2
23. Rationalise the denominator of
(b) ^ 2 3 h
3
3
(a)
16. Expand and simplify 7
(a) ] a + b g ] a - b g 2
(b)
(b) ] a + b g 2 5 3
(c) ] a - b g 2 (c)
2
5 -1
17. Factorise
2 2
(a) a 2 - 2ab + b 2 (d)
3 2+ 3
(b) a 3 - b 3
5+ 2
1 (e)
18. If x = 3 + 1, simplify x + x and 4 5-3 3
give your answer with a rational
denominator. 24. Simplify
3x x-2
19. Simplify (a) -
5 2
4 3 a+2 2a - 3
(a) a + (b) +
b 7 3
x-3 x-2 1 2
(b) - (c) 2 -
2 5 x -1 x + 1
4 1
3 2 (d) 2 +
20. Simplify - , writing k + 2k - 3 k + 3
5+2 2 2-1
3 5
your answer with a rational denominator. (e) -
2+ 5 3- 2
21. Simplify
(a) 3 8 25. Evaluate n if
(b) - 2 2 # 4 3 (a) 108 - 12 = n
(c) 108 - 48 (b) 112 + 7 = n
8 6 (c) 2 8 + 200 = n
(d)
2 18 (d) 4 147 + 3 75 = n
(e) 5a # - 3b # - 2a 180
(e) 2 245 + = n
2
2m 3 n
(f)
6m 2 n 5
(g) 3x - 2y - x - y
92 Maths In Focus Mathematics Extension 1 Preliminary Course

1 1+2 3 31. Simplify


3
+
2
-
1
.
26. Evaluate x 2 + if x = x-2 x+2
x 2
1-2 3 x2 - 4
x+5
(a)
3 ]x + 2g]x - 2g
27. Rationalise the denominator of
2 7 x+1
(b)
(there may be more than one answer). ]x + 2g]x - 2g
21 x+9
(a) (c)
28 ]x + 2g]x - 2g
2 21 x-3
(b) (d)
28 ]x + 2g]x - 2g
21
(c) 32. Simplify 5ab - 2a 2 - 7ab - 3a 2 .
14
21 (a) 2ab + a 2
(d)
7 (b) - 2ab - 5a 2
(c) - 13a 3 b
x-3 x +1
28. Simplify - . (d) - 2ab + 5a 2
5 4
-]x + 7 g
(a) 80
20 33. Simplify .
x+7 27
(b) 4 5
20 (a)
x + 17 3 3
(c)
20 4 5
(b)
- ] x + 17 g 9 3
(d)
20
8 5
(c)
29. Factorise x 3 - 4x 2 - x + 4 (there may be 9 3
more than one answer). 8 5
(d)
(a) ^ x 2 - 1 h ] x - 4 g 3 3
(b) ^ x 2 + 1 h ] x - 4 g
34. Expand and simplify ^ 3x - 2y h2 .
(c) x 2 ] x - 4 g
(a) 3x 2 - 12xy - 2y 2
(d) ] x - 4 g ] x + 1 g ] x - 1 g
(b) 9x 2 - 12xy - 4y 2
30. Simplify 3 2 + 2 98 . (c) 3x 2 - 6xy + 2y 2
(a) 5 2 (d) 9x 2 - 12xy + 4y 2
(b) 5 10
35. Complete the square on a 2 - 16a.
(c) 17 2
(a) a 2 - 16a + 16 = ^ a - 4 h2
(d) 10 2
(b) a 2 - 16a + 64 = ^ a - 8 h2
(c) a 2 - 16a + 8 = ^ a - 4 h2
(d) a 2 - 16a + 4 = ^ a - 2 h2
Chapter 2 Algebra and Surds 93

Challenge Exercise 2
1. Expand and simplify 2x + y x-y 3x + 2y
(a) 4ab ] a - 2b g - 2a 2 ] b - 3a g 11. Simplify + - 2 .
x-3 x+3 x +x-6
(b) _ y 2 - 2 i_ y 2 + 2 i
(c) ] 2x - 5 g3 12. (a) Expand ^ 2x - 1 h3.
6x 2 + 5x - 4
(b) Simplify .
2. Find the value of x + y with rational 8x 3 - 12x 2 + 6x - 1
denominator if x = 3 + 1 and
y=
1
. 13. Expand and simplify ] x - 1 g ^ x - 3 h2.
2 5-3
14. Simplify and express with rational
2 3 2 + 5 5 3
3. Simplify . denominator - .
7 6 - 54 3 +4 2 -1

b 15. Complete the square on x 2 + 2 x.


4. Complete the square on x 2 + a x. 3

5. Factorise lx 1 + kx 2
16. If x = , find the value of x when
(a) (x + 4)2 + 5 (x + 4) k+l
(b) x 4 - x 2 y - 6y 2 k = 3, l = - 2, x 1 = 5 and x 2 = 4.
(c) 125x 3 + 343 17. Find the exact value with rational
(d) a 2 b - 2a 2 - 4b + 8 1
denominator of 2x 2 - 3x + x if x = 2 5 .
6. Complete the square on 4x 2 + 12x.
18. Find the exact value of
2xy + 2x - 6 - 6y 1 1+2 3
7. Simplify . (a) x 2 + 2 if x =
4x 2 - 16x + 12 x 1-2 3
3 -4
| ax 1 + by 1 + c | (b) a and b if =a+b 3
8. d= is the formula for 2+3 3
a2 + b2
the perpendicular distance from a 19. A = 1 r 2 i is the area of a sector of a
2
point to a line. Find the exact value circle. Find the value of i when A = 12
of d with a rational denominator if and r = 4.
a = 2, b = -1, c = 3, x 1 = - 4 and y 1 = 5.
20. If V = rr 2 h is the volume of a cylinder,
^a + 1h 3
find the exact value of r when V = 9 and
9. Simplify .
a3 + 1 h = 16.

4 a2 21. If s = u + 1 at 2, find the exact value of s


10. Factorise - 2. 2
2
x b when u = 2, a = 3 and t = 2 3 .