Você está na página 1de 21



Northwestern University


Dartmouth College

Prentice Hall
Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto
Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
Editorial Director: Sally Yagan Editor in Chief: Eric Creative Director: John Christiano Senior Art Director:
Svendsen Executive Editor: Melissa Sabella Development Blair Brown Text and Cover Designer: Blair Brown Lead
Editor: Elisa Adams Director of Editorial Services: Ashley Media Project Manager: Lisa Rinaldi Editorial Media
Santora Editorial Project Manager: Kierra Bloom Editorial Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project
Assistant: Elizabeth Scarpa Director ofMarketing: Patrice Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc.
Lumuba Jones Senior Marketing Manager: Anne Fahlgren Composition: Integra Printer/Binder: Courier/Kendallville
Senior Managing Editor: Judy Leale Production Project Cover Printer: Lehigh-Phoenix Color/Hagerstown Text Font:
Manager: Ann Pulido Senior Operations Supervisor: 9.5/11.5, Minion
Arnold Vila
Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page
within text.

Copyright 2012,2009,2006,2003,2000 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, One Lake Street, Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by
Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or
transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use
material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.

Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations
appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kotler, Philip.
Marketing management/Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller. 14th ed. p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-0-13-210292-6
1. MarketingManagement. I. Keller, Kevin Lane, 1956- II. Title.
HF5415.13.K64 2012
658.8dc22 2010046655
Prentice Hall
is an imprint of

PEARSON 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-210292-6

ISBN 10: 0-13-210292-7
This book is dedicated to my wife and best friend, Nancy, with love. - PK

This book is dedicated to my wife, Punam, and my two daughters,

Carolyn and Allison, with much love and thanks.

About the Authors
Philip Kotler is one of the worlds leading authorities on marketing. He is the S.
Philip Kotler

C. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at the Kellogg School
of Management, Northwestern University. He received his masters degree at the University
of Chicago and his Ph.D. at MIT, both in economics. He did postdoctoral work in
mathematics at Harvard University and in behavioral science at the University of Chicago.
Dr. Kotler is the coauthor of Principles of Marketing and Marketing: An
Introduction. His Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, now in its seventh
edition, is the best seller in that specialized area. Dr. Kotlers other books include
Marketing Models; The New Competi- tion; Marketing Professional Services; Strategic
Marketing for Educational Institutions; Marketing for Health Care Organizations;
Marketing Congregations; High Visibility; Social Marketing; Marketing Places; The Marketing of Nations; Marketing for
Hospitality and Tourism; Standing Room OnlyStrategies for Marketing the Performing Arts; Museum Strategy and
Marketing; Marketing Moves; Kotler on Marketing; Lateral Marketing: Ten Deadly Marketing Sins; and Corporate
Social Responsibility.
In addition, he has published more than one hundred articles in leading journals, in- cluding the
Harvard Business Review, Sloan Management Review, Business Horizons, California Management
Review, the Journal of Marketing, the Journal of Marketing Research, Management Science, the
Journal of Business Strategy, and Futurist. He is the only three-time winner of the coveted Alpha
Kappa Psi award for the best annual article published in the Journal of Marketing.
Professor Kotler was the first recipient of the American Marketing Associations (AMA) Distinguished
Marketing Educator Award (1985). The European Association of Marketing Consultants and Sales Trainers
awarded him their Prize for Marketing Excellence. He was chosen as the Leader in Marketing Thought by
the Academic Members of the AMA in a 1975 survey. He also received the 1978 Paul Converse Award of
the AMA, honoring his original contribution to marketing. In 1995, the Sales and Marketing Executives
International (SMEI) named him Marketer of the Year. In 2002, Professor Kotler received the Distinguished
Educator Award from the Academy of Marketing Science. He has received honorary doctoral degrees from
Stockholm University, the University of Zurich, Athens University of Economics and Business, DePaul
University, the Cracow School of Business and Economics, Groupe H.E.C. in Paris, the Budapest School of
Economic Science and Public Administration, and the University of Economics and Business Administration
in Vienna.
Professor Kotler has been a consultant to many major U.S. and foreign companies, in- cluding IBM,
General Electric, AT&T, Honeywell, Bank of America, Merck, SAS Airlines, Michelin, and others in the areas
of marketing strategy and planning, marketing organiza- tion, and international marketing.
He has been Chairman of the College of Marketing of the Institute of Management Sciences, a Director
of the American Marketing Association, a Trustee of the Marketing Science Institute, a Director of the MAC
Group, a member of the Yankelovich Advisory Board, and a member of the Copernicus Advisory Board. He
was a member of the Board of Governors of the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and a member of the
Advisory Board of the Drucker Foundation. He has traveled extensively throughout Europe, Asia, and South
America, advising and lecturing to many companies about global marketing opportunities.

Kevin La
Kevin Lane Keller is widely recognized as one of the top
marketing academics of the last 25 years. He is the E. B. Osborn Professor of
Marketing at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. Professor
Keller has degrees from Cornell, Carnegie-Mellon, and Duke universities. At
Dartmouth, he teaches MBA courses on marketing management and strate-
gic brand management and lectures in executive programs on those topics.
Previously, Professor Keller was on the faculty of the Graduate School of
Business at Stanford University, where he also served as the head of the
marketing group. Additionally, he has been on the marketing faculty at the
University of California at Berkeley and the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, been a visiting professor at Duke University and the Australian Graduate School of Management, and has two
years of industry experience as Marketing Consultant for Bank of America.
Professor Kellers general area of expertise lies in marketing strategy and planning, and branding. His
specific research interest is in how understanding theories and con- cepts related to consumer behavior can
improve marketing strategies. His research has been published in three of the major marketing journals
the Journai of Marketing, the Journai of Marketing Research, and the Journal of Consumer Research.
He also has served on the Editorial Review Boards of those journals. With over ninety published pa- pers,
his research has been extensively cited and has received numerous awards.
Professor Keller is acknowledged as one of the international leaders in the study of brands and
branding. His textbook on those subjects, Strategic Brand Management, has been adopted at top
business schools and leading firms around the world and has been heralded as the bible of branding.
Actively involved with industry, he has worked on a host of different types of marketing projects. He has
served as a consultant and advisor to marketers for some of the worlds most successful brands, including
Accenture, American Express, Disney, Ford, Intel, Levi Strauss, Procter & Gamble, and Samsung.
Additional brand consulting activities have been with other top companies such as Allstate, Beiersdorf
(Nivea), BlueCross BlueShield, Campbells, Colgate, Eli Lilly, ExxonMobil, General Mills, GfK, Goodyear,
Intuit, Johnson & Johnson, Kodak, L.L.Bean, Mayo Clinic, Nordstrom, Ocean Spray, Red Hat, SAB Miller,
Shell Oil, Starbucks, Unilever, and Young & Rubicam. He has also served as an academic trustee for the
Marketing Science Institute.
A popular and highly sought-after speaker, he has made speeches and conducted marketing seminars
to top executives in a variety of forums. Some of his senior management and marketing training clients have
included such diverse business organizations as Cisco, Coca-Cola, Deutsche Telekom, GE, Google, IBM,
Macys, Microsoft, Nestle, Novartis, and Wyeth. He has lectured all over the world, from Seoul to
Johannesburg, from Sydney to Stockholm, and from Sao Paulo to Mumbai. He has served as keynote
speaker at conferences with hundreds to thousands of participants.
An avid sports, music, and film enthusiast, in his so-called spare time, he has helped to manage
andmarket, as well as serve as executive producer for, one of Australias great rock and roll treasures, The
Church, as well as American power-pop legends Dwight Twilley and Tommy Keene. Additionally, he is the
Principal Investor and Marketing Advisor for Second Motion Records. He is also on the Board of Directors
for The Doug Flutie, Jr. Foundation for Autism and the Montshire Museum of Science. Professor Keller lives
in Etna, NH, with his wife, Punam (also a Tuck marketing professor), and his two daughters, Carolyn and

Brief Contents
Preface xvi
Chapter 1 Understanding Marketing Management 2
Chapter 2 Defining Marketing for the 21st Century 2 Developing Marketing Strategies and
Plans 32
Chapter 3 Capturing Marketing Insights 66
Chapter 4 Collecting Information and Forecasting Demand 66 Conducting Marketing
Research 96
Chapter 5 Connecting with Customers 122
Chapter 6 Creating Long-term Loyalty Relationships 122 Analyzing Consumer Markets 150
Chapter 7 Analyzing Business Markets 182 Identifying Market Segments and Targets 212
Chapter 8
Building Strong Brands 240
PART 4 Creating Brand Equity 240 Crafting the Brand Positioning 274 Competitive
Chapter 9 Dynamics 298
Chapter 10
Chapter 11 Shaping the Market Offerings 324
Setting Product Strategy 324 Designing and Managing Services 354 Developing
PART 5 Pricing Strategies and Programs 382
Chapter 12
Chapter 13 Delivering Value 414
Chapter 14 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Channels 414 Managing
Retailing, Wholesaling, and Logistics 446
Chapter 15 Communicating Value 474
Chapter 16 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Communications 474
Managing Mass Communications: Advertising, Sales Promotions, Events and
PART 7 Experiences, and Public Relations 502 Managing Personal Communications:
Direct and Interactive Marketing, Word of Mouth, and Personal Selling 534
Chapter 17
Creating Successful Long-term Growth 566
Chapter 18 Introducing New Market Offerings 566 Tapping into Global Markets 594
Managing a Holistic Marketing Organization for the Long Run 620
Chapter 19
Appendix: Sonic Marketing Plan A1
Endnotes E1
Glossary G1
Image Credits C1
Name Index I1
Chapter 20
Chapter 21 Company, Brand, and
Chapter 22 Organization Index I4 Subject
Index I14

Holistic Marketing Orientation and
Customer Value 36
The Central Role of Strategic Planning 36
Preface xvi Corporate and Division Strategic Planning 37
Defining the Corporate Mission 38 Establishing
PART 1 Understanding Marketing Strategic Business Units 39 Assigning
Resources to Each SBU 42 Assessing Growth
Management 2 Opportunities 42 Organization and
Organizational Culture 45 Marketing Innovation
CHAPTER 1 Defining Marketing for the 21st Century
MARKETING INSIGHT Creating Innovative
Marketing 46
The Importance of Marketing 3 The Business Unit Strategic Planning 47
Scope of Marketing 5 The Business Mission 48
What Is Marketing? 5 What Is SWOT Analysis 48 Goal
Marketed? 5 Who Markets? 7 Core Formulation 50 Strategic
Marketing Concepts 9 Needs, Wants, and Formulation 50
Demands 9 Target Markets, Positioning, MARKETING MEMO Checklist for Performing
and Segmentation 10 Offerings and Strengths/Weaknesses Analysis 52
Brands 10 Value and Satisfaction 10
Program Formulation and Implementation 53
Marketing Channels 11 Supply Chain 11
Feedback and Control 53 Product Planning: The
Competition 11 Marketing Environment 11
Nature and Contents of a Marketing Plan 54
The New Marketing Realities 12 Major
Societal Forces 12 New Company MARKETING MEMO Marketing Plan Criteria 55
Capabilities 14 Marketing in Practice 15 The Role of Research 55 The Role
MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing in an Age of of Relationships 55 From Marketing
Turbulence 16 Plan to Marketing Action 55
Company Orientation toward the Marketplace 17 Summary 56 Applications 56
The Production Concept 18 The Sample Marketing Plan: Pegasus Sports
Product Concept 18 The Selling International 60
Concept 18 The Marketing Concept 18
The Holistic Marketing Concept 18 PART 2 Capturing Marketing
MARKETING MEMO Marketing Right and Insights 66
Wrong 19
Relationship Marketing 20 Integrated CHAPTER 3 Collecting Information and
Marketing 20 Internal Marketing 21
Forecasting Demand 66
Performance Marketing 22 The New Four
Ps 25 Marketing Management Tasks 26 Components of a Modern Marketing
Developing Marketing Strategies and Information System 67 Internal Records
Plans 26 70
Capturing Marketing Insights 26 The Order-to-Payment Cycle 70 Sales
MARKETING MEMO Marketers' Frequently Information Systems 70 Databases, Data
Asked Questions 26 Warehousing, and Data Mining 71
Connecting with Customers 27 Marketing Intelligence 71
Building Strong Brands 27 Shaping the Market The Marketing Intelligence System 71
Offerings 27 Delivering Value 27 Communicating Collecting Marketing Intelligence on the
Value 27 Creating Successful Long-Term Growth Internet 72
Communicating and Acting on Marketing
27 Summary 28 Applications 28
Intelligence 73
Analyzing the Macroenvironment 74
CHAPTER 2 Developing Marketing Strategies and Needs and Trends 74 Identifying the Major
Plans 32 Forces 74 The Demographic Environment
Marketing and Customer Value 33 The
Value Delivery Process 33 The Value MARKETING INSIGHT Finding Gold at the
Chain 34 Core Competencies 35 A Bottom of the Pyramid 76

The Economic Environment 77 The CHAPTER 5 Creating Long-term Loyalty
Sociocultural Environment 78 The Natural Relationships 122
Environment 80 The Technological
Environment 81 Building Customer Value, Satisfaction, and
MARKETING INSIGHT The Green Marketing Loyalty 123
Revolution 82 Customer Perceived Value 124 Total Customer
Satisfaction 128 Monitoring Satisfaction 128
The Political-Legal Environment 84
Forecasting and Demand Measurement 85 Customer Satisfaction 129
The Measures of Market Demand 85 A
Product and Service Quality 131
Vocabulary for Demand Measurement 86 Maximizing Customer Lifetime Value 132
Estimating Current Demand 88 Estimating
Future Demand 90 Summary 92 MARKETING MEMO Marketing and Total Quality
Applications 92 132
Customer Profitability 133 Measuring Customer
Lifetime Value 134 Cultivating Customer
CHAPTER 4 Conducting Marketing
Relationships 134
Research 96
MARKETING MEMO Calculating Customer
The Marketing Research System 97 The Lifetime Value 134
Marketing Research Process 99 Customer Relationship Management 135
Step 1: Define the Problem, the Decision Attracting and Retaining Customers 139 Building
Alternatives, and the Research Objectives 99 Loyalty 141 Win-Backs 143
Step 2: Develop the Research Plan 100
Customer Databases and Database Marketing
MARKETING MEMO Conducting Informative 143
Focus Groups 102 Customer Databases 143 Data Warehouses
and Data Mining 143 The Downside of Database
MARKETING MEMO Questionnaire Dos and
Marketing and CRM 145
Don'ts 104
MARKETING INSIGHT The Behavioral Targeting
MARKETING INSIGHT Getting into the Heads of Controversy 146
Consumers 106 Summary 147 Applications 147
MARKETING INSIGHT Understanding Brain
Science 108
Step 3: Collect the Information 110 Step 4: CHAPTER 6 Analyzing Consumer
Analyze the Information 111 Step 5: Present the Markets 150
Findings 111 Step 6: Make the Decision 111
What Influences Consumer Behavior? 151
MARKETING INSIGHT Bringing Marketing
Cultural Factors 151 Social Factors 153
Research to Life with Personas 112
Overcoming Barriers to the Use of Marketing
Consumer Quiz 155
Research 112
Personal Factors 155 Key Psychological
Measuring Marketing Productivity 114
Marketing Metrics 114 Marketing-Mix Modeling Processes 160
116 Marketing Dashboards 116 Motivation: Freud, Maslow, Herzberg 160
MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing Dashboards to Perception 161
Improve Effectiveness and Efficiency 117 Learning 163
Emotions 163
Summary 118 Applications 119 Memory 163
The Buying Decision Process:
PART 3 Connecting with Customers The Five-Stage Model 166
122 Problem Recognition 167 Evaluation of
Alternatives 168
Purchase Decision 170 Postpurchase Behavior
172 Moderating Effects on Consumer Decision
Making 173
Behavioral Decision Theory and Behavioral MARKETING INSIGHT Chasing the Long Tail 235
Economics 174 Summary 236 Applications 237
Decision Heuristics 174
MARKETING INSIGHT Predictably Irrational 176 PART 4 Building Strong Brands 240
Framing 177
Summary 177
Applications 178 CHAPTER 9 Creating Brand Equity 240
What Is Brand Equity? 241
The Role of Brands 242 The Scope
CHAPTER 7 Analyzing Business Markets 182 of Branding 243 Defining Brand
What Is Organizational Buying? 183 Equity 243 Brand Equity Models
The Business Market versus the Consumer 245
Market 183 Buying Situations 185 Systems MARKETING INSIGHT Brand Bubble Trouble 248
Buying and Selling 187 Participants in the Building Brand Equity 249
Business Buying Process 188 The Buying Center Choosing Brand Elements 250 Designing
188 Buying Center Influences 189 Targeting Firms Holistic Marketing Activities 251 Leveraging
and Buying Centers 190 Secondary Associations 252 Internal Branding
MARKETING INSIGHT Big Sales to Small 253 Brand Communities 253
Businesses 191 Measuring Brand Equity 255
The Purchasing/Procurement Process 193 MARKETING INSIGHT The Brand Value
Stages in the Buying Process 195 Chain 255
Problem Recognition 196 General Need
MARKETING INSIGHT What Is a Brand Worth?
Description and Product Specification 196
Supplier Search 196 Proposal Solicitation 198
Supplier Selection 198 Managing Brand Equity 258
Brand Reinforcement 258 Brand
MARKETING MEMO Developing Compelling
Revitalization 259 Devising a
Customer Value Propositions 199
Branding Strategy 260 Branding
Order-Routine Specification 201 Performance Decisions 261 Brand Portfolios 262
Review 201 Brand Extensions 263 Customer
Managing Business-to-Business Customer Equity 267
Relationships 201
MARKETING MEMO Twenty-First-Century
The Benefits of Vertical Coordination 202
Branding 267
MARKETING INSIGHT Establishing Corporate Summary 268 Applications 269
Trust, Credibility, and Reputation 203
Business Relationships: Risks and
Opportunism 203 CHAPTER 10 Crafting the Brand Positioning 274
New Technology and Business
Customers 204 Developing and Establishing a Brand Positioning
Institutional and Government Markets 205
Determining a Competitive Frame of Reference
Summary 207 Applications 208
CHAPTER 8 Identifying Market Segments and Value Innovation 278
Targets 212 Identifying Optimal Points-of-Difference and
Bases for Segmenting Consumer Markets 214 Points-of-Parity 280 Choosing POPs and PODs
Geographic Segmentation 214 Demographic 283 Brand Mantras 284 Establishing Brand
Segmentation 216 Positioning 286
MARKETING INSIGHT Trading Up, Down, and MARKETING MEMO Constructing a Brand
Over 218 Positioning Bull's-eye 287
Psychographic Segmentation 225 Behavioral Differentiation Strategies 289
Segmentation 227 Bases for Segmenting Alternative Approaches to Positioning 291
Business Markets 230 Market Targeting 231 Positioning and Branding a Small Business 293
Effective Segmentation Criteria 231 Evaluating Summary 294 Applications 294
and Selecting the Market Segments 232
CHAPTER 11 Competitive Dynamics 298 MARKETING INSIGHT When Your Competitor
Competitive Strategies for Market Leaders 299 Delivers More for Less 300
Expanding Total Market Demand 301 Product and Services Differentiation 328
Protecting Market Share 302 Increasing Product Differentiation 329
Market Share 304 Other Competitive Services Differentiation 330 Design
Strategies 305 Market-Challenger Strategies 332
305 Market-Follower Strategies 307 Market- Product and Brand Relationships 333
Nicher Strategies 308
MARKETING INSIGHT Marketing Luxury Brands
MARKETING MEMO Niche Specialist Roles
The Product Hierarchy 336 Product
Product Life-Cycle Marketing Systems and Mixes 336 Product Line
Strategies 310 Analysis 337 Product Line Length 337
Product Life Cycles 310 Style, Fashion, and Fad MARKETING INSIGHT When Less Is More 339
Life Cycles 311 Marketing Strategies: Introduction
Stage and the Pioneer Advantage 312 Marketing Product Mix Pricing 342 Co-
Strategies: Growth Stage 313 Marketing Strategies: Branding and Ingredient
Maturity Stage 313 Marketing Strategies: Decline Branding 344
Stage 315 MARKETING MEMO Product-Bundle Pricing
MARKETING INSIGHT Managing a Brand Crisis Considerations 344
316 Packaging, Labeling, Warranties, and Guarantees
Evidence for the Product Life-Cycle Concept 316 346
Critique of the Product Life-Cycle Concept 317 Packaging 346
Market Evolution 317 Marketing in an Economic Labeling 348
Downturn 318 Warranties and Guarantees 349
Explore the Upside of Increasing Investment 318 Summary 349 Applications 350
Get Closer to Customers 318 Review Budget
Allocations 319 Put Forth the Most Compelling Value
Proposition 319 Fine-tune Brand and Product
Offerings 320 Summary 320 Applications 321
Managing Customer Expectations 373 CHAPTER 14 Developing Pricing Strategies and
Incorporating Self-Service Technologies (SSTs)
375 CHAPTER 13 Designing and Managing Services
Managing Product-Support Services 375 354
Identifying and Satisfying Customer Needs
376 The Nature of Services 355
Service Industries Are Everywhere 356
MARKETING MEMO Assessing E-Service
Categories of Service Mix 356 Distinctive
Quality 376 Characteristics of Services 358
Postsale Service Strategy 377 Summary The New Services Realities 361
378 Applications 378 A Shifting Customer Relationship 362
Achieving Excellence in Services
Marketing 365
PART 5 Shaping the Market
Marketing Excellence 365
Offerings 324 Best Practices of Top Service
Companies 366
Differentiating Services 368
CHAPTER 12 Setting Product Strategy 324
Product Characteristics and Call Centers 369
Classifications 325 Managing Service Quality 370
Product Levels: The Customer-Value
MARKETING MEMO Recommendations for
Hierarchy 326 Product Classifications
Improving Service Quality 372

Programs 382
Understanding Pricing 383 Legal and Ethical Issues in Channel Relations
A Changing Pricing Environment 384 438
MARKETING INSIGHT Giving It All Away 384 E-Commerce Marketing Practices 438 Pure-Click
How Companies Price 386 Consumer Companies 439 Brick-and-Click Companies 440
Psychology and Pricing 386 Setting the Price 389 M-Commerce Marketing Practices 441 Summary
Step 1: Selecting the Pricing Objective 389 442 Applications 442
Step 2: Determining Demand 390 Step 3:
CHAPTER 16 Managing Retailing, Wholesaling, and
Estimating Costs 392 Step 4: Analyzing
Competitors' Costs, Prices, and Offers 395 Step Logistics 446
5: Selecting a Pricing Method 395 Retailing 447
Step 6: Selecting the Final Price 402 Types of Retailers 448 The New Retail
MARKETING INSIGHT Stealth Price Increases Environment 451 Marketing Decisions 453
403 Channels 454
Adapting the Price 403 MARKETING MEMO Helping Stores to Sell 458
Geographical Pricing (Cash, Countertrade, Private Labels 459
Barter) 404 Role of Private Labels 460 Private-Label
Price Discounts and Allowances 404 Success Factors 460
Promotional Pricing 405 Differentiated Pricing MARKETING INSIGHT Manufacturer's Response
406 to the Private Label Threat 461
Initiating and Responding to Price Changes 407 Wholesaling 461
Initiating Price Cuts 407 Initiating Price Increases Trends in Wholesaling 463 Market Logistics
408 Responding to Competitors' Price Changes
409 Summary 410 Applications 410
Integrated Logistics Systems 464 Market-
PART 6 Delivering Value 414 Logistics Objectives 465 Market-Logistics
Decisions 466 Organizational Lessons 469
CHAPTER 15 Designing and Managing Integrated Summary 469 Applications 470
Marketing Channels 414
Marketing Channels and Value Networks 415 PART 7 Communicating Value 474
The Importance of Channels 416 Hybrid
Channels and Multichannel Marketing 416 Value
Networks 417 The Role of Marketing Channels CHAPTER 17 Designing and Managing Integrated
418 Channel Functions and Flows 418 Channel Marketing Communications 474
Levels 420 Service Sector Channels 421 The Role of Marketing Communications 476
Channel-Design Decisions 422 The Changing Marketing Communications
Analyzing Customer Needs and Wants 422 Environment 476
Establishing Objectives and Constraints 423 MARKETING INSIGHT Don't Touch That Remote
Identifying Major Channel Alternatives 424 476
Evaluating Major Channel Alternatives 426
Marketing Communications, Brand Equity, and
Channel-Management Decisions 427 Selecting
Sales 478
Channel Members 427 Training and Motivating
The Communications Process Models 480
Channel Members 428
Developing Effective Communications 482
Evaluating Channel Members 429 Modifying
Identify the Target Audience 482 Determine the
Channel Design and Arrangements 429 Channel
Communications Objectives 482
Modification Decisions 429 Global Channel
Design the Communications 484
Considerations 430
MARKETING INSIGHT Celebrity Endorsements
Channel Integration and Systems 431 Vertical
as a Strategy 486
Marketing Systems 431
MARKETING INSIGHT Channel Stewards Take Select the Communications Channels 486
Establish the Total Marketing Communications
Charge 432
Budget 488 Deciding on the Marketing
Horizontal Marketing Systems 433 Integrating Communications Mix 490 Characteristics of the
Multichannel Marketing Systems 433
Marketing Communications Mix 490 Factors in
Conflict, Cooperation, and Competition 435 Setting the Marketing Communications Mix 492
Types of Conflict and Competition 435 Causes Measuring Communication Results 494 Managing
of Channel Conflict 436 Managing Channel the Integrated Marketing Communications
Conflict 436 Dilution and Cannibalization 438
Process 494 Coordinating Media 495 Public and Ethical Issues in Direct
Implementing IMC 496 Marketing 540 Interactive Marketing 540
MARKETING MEMO How Integrated Is Your IMC Advantages and Disadvantages of Interactive
Program? 496 Marketing 540
Interactive Marketing Communication Options
Summary 497 Applications 497
MARKETING MEMO How to Maximize the
CHAPTER 18 Managing Mass Communications: Marketing Value of E-mails 543
Advertising, Sales Promotions, Events MARKETING MEMO Segmenting Tech Users
and Experiences, and Public Relations 545
502 Word of Mouth 546
Developing and Managing an Advertising Social Media 546
Buzz and Viral Marketing 549
Program 504
Opinion Leaders 551
Setting the Objectives 504
Deciding on the Advertising Budget 505 MARKETING MEMO How to Start a Buzz Fire
Developing the Advertising Campaign 506 552
MARKETING MEMO Print Ad Evaluation Criteria Measuring the Effects of Word of Mouth 552
509 Designing the Sales Force 553
Deciding on Media and Measuring Effectiveness Sales Force Objectives and Strategy 554 Sales
Force Structure 555
Deciding on Reach, Frequency, and Impact 511 MARKETING INSIGHT Major Account
Choosing among Major Media Types 512 Management 555
Alternate Advertising Options 512 Sales Force Size 556 Sales Force
MARKETING INSIGHT Playing Games with Compensation 556 Managing the Sales
Brands 516 Force 556 Recruiting and Selecting
Representatives 556 Training and
Selecting Specific Media Vehicles 516 Deciding Supervising Sales Representatives 557
on Media Timing and Allocation 517 Sales Rep Productivity 557 Motivating
Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness 518 Sales Sales Representatives 558 Evaluating
Promotion 519 Objectives 519 Sales Representatives 559
Advertising versus Promotion 519 Major
Principles of Personal Selling 560
Decisions 520
Events and Experiences 524 The Six Steps 561 Relationship
Events Objectives 524 Marketing 562 Summary 562
Major Sponsorship Decisions 525 Applications 563
Creating Experiences 526
MARKETING MEMO Measuring High PART 8 Creating Successful Long- term
Performance Sponsorship Programs 526
Growth 566
Public Relations 527
Marketing Public Relations 527 Major
Decisions in Marketing PR 528 Summary CHAPTER 20 Introducing New Market
530 Applications 530
Offerings 566
New-Product Options 567
CHAPTER 19 Managing Personal Make or Buy 567 Types of New Products
Communications: Direct and 568 Challenges in New-Product
Interactive Marketing, Word of Development 568 The Innovation
Mouth, and Personal Selling Imperative 568 New-Product Success 569
534 New-Product Failure 570 Organizational
Arrangements 570 Budgeting for New-
Direct Marketing 535 Product Development 571 Organizing New-
The Benefits of Direct Marketing 536 Product Development 572
Direct Mail 538 Catalog Marketing 539 Managing the Development Process:
Telemarketing 539 Other Media for Direct- Ideas 573
Response Marketing 539 Generating Ideas 573
MARKETING MEMO Ten Ways to Find Great Deciding on the Marketing Organization 616
New-Product Ideas 574 Export Department 616 International Division 616
Global Organization 616 Summary 617
MARKETING INSIGHT P&G's New Connect + Applications 617
Develop Approach to Innovation 574
CHAPTER 22 Managing a Holistic Marketing
MARKETING MEMO Seven Ways to Draw New Organization for the Long Run
Ideas from Your Customers 576 620
MARKETING MEMO How to Run a Trends in Marketing Practices 621 Internal
Successful Brainstorming Session 577 Marketing 623
Using Idea Screening 578 Organizing the Marketing Department 623
Managing the Development Process: Concept to MARKETING MEMO Characteristics of Company
Strategy 579 Departments That Are Truly Customer Driven
Concept Development and Testing 579 624
Marketing Strategy Development 582 Business Relationships with Other Departments 627
Analysis 583 Managing the Development Building a Creative Marketing Organization 628
Process: Development to Commercialization 585 MARKETING INSIGHT The Marketing CEO 628
Product Development 585 Market Testing 585 Socially Responsible Marketing 629
Commercialization 588 The Consumer-Adoption Corporate Social Responsibility 630
Process 589 Stages in the Adoption Process 589
MARKETING INSIGHT The Rise of Organic 633
Factors Influencing the Adoption Process 589
Summary 590 Applications 591 Socially Responsible Business Models 634
Cause-Related Marketing 634
CHAPTER 21 Tapping into Global Markets 594 MARKETING MEMO Making a Difference: Top 10
Tips for Cause Branding 637
Competing on a Global Basis 595 Deciding
Social Marketing 638
Whether to Go Abroad 597 Deciding Which Marketing Implementation and Control 640
Markets to Enter 597 Marketing Implementation 640 Marketing
How Many Markets to Enter 598 Developed Control 641 Annual-Plan Control 641
versus Developing Markets 598 Profitability Control 642 Efficiency Control 642
MARKETING INSIGHT Spotlight on Key Strategic Control 643
Developing Markets 600 The Future of Marketing 643
Evaluating Potential Markets 602 Deciding How MARKETING MEMO Major Marketing
to Enter the Market 603 Indirect and Direct Export Weaknesses 647
603 Licensing 604 Joint Ventures 605 Direct Summary 648 Applications 648 Appendix
Investment 605 Deciding on the Marketing
Tools for Marketing Control 650
Program 606 Global Similarities and Differences
606 Marketing Adaptation 607 Appendix Sonic Marketing Plan A1
MARKETING MEMO The Ten Endnotes E1
Commandments of Global Branding 608
Glossary G1
Global Product Strategies 608 Global Image Credits C1
Communication Strategies 610 Global Pricing Name Index I1
Strategies 611 Global Distribution Strategies 613
Company, Brand, and Organization Index I4 Subject
Country-of-Origin Effects 614 Building Country
Images 614 Consumer Perceptions of Country of Index I14
Origin 614

Whats New in the 14th Edition
The overriding goal of the revision for the 14th edition of Marketing Management was to create as
comprehensive, current, and engaging MBA marketing textbook as possible. Where appropriate, new material
was added, old material was updated, and no longer relevant or necessary material was deleted. Marketing
Management, 14th edition, allows those instructors who have used the 13th edition to build on what they have
learned and done while at the same time offering a text that is unsurpassed in breadth, depth, and relevance
for students experi- encing Marketing Management for the first time.
The successful across-chapter reorganization into eight parts that began with the 12th edition of Marketing
Management has been preserved, as well as many of the favorably received within-chapter features that have
been introduced through the years, such as topical chapter openers, in-text boxes highlighting noteworthy
companies or issues, and the Marketing Insight and Marketing Memo boxes that provide in-depth conceptual
and practical commentary. Significant changes to the 14th edition include:
Brand new opening vignettes for each chapter set the stage for the chapter material to fol- low. By covering
topical brands or companies, the vignettes are great classroom discussion starters.
Almost half of the in-text boxes are new. These boxes provide vivid illustrations of chapter concepts using
actual companies and situations. The boxes cover a variety of products, services, and markets, and many
have accompanying illustrations in the form of ads or product shots.
The end-of-chapter section now includes two Marketing in Action mini-cases highlighting innovative,
insightful marketing accomplishments by leading organizations. Each case in- cludes questions that promote
classroom discussion and analysis.
Dramatic changes in the marketing environment have occurred in recent yearsin particular, the economic,
natural, and technological environments. Throughout the new edition, these three areas are addressed,
sometimes via new subsections in chapters, with emphasis on marketing during economic downturns and
recessions, the rise of sustainability and green marketing, and the increased development of computing
power, the Internet, and mobile phones. These new marketing realities make it more important than ever for
marketers to be holistic in what they do, the overriding theme of this text.
Chapter 19, on personal communications, received a significant update with much new material to reflect the
changing social media landscape and communications environment.
Forecasting has been moved to Chapter 3 where it fits well with the material on the marketing environment.
Chapter 5 was re-titled as Creating Long-Term Loyalty Relationships to better reflect its stronger area of
Chapters 10 and 11 were reorganized and material swapped. Chapter 11 was also re-titled as Competitive
Dynamics to acknowledge the significant material added on marketing in an economic downturn.

What Is Marketing Management AH About?

Marketing Management is the leading marketing text because its content and organization consistently reflect
changes in marketing theory and practice. The very first edition of Marketing Management, published in 1967,
introduced the concept that companies must be customer-and-market driven. But there was little mention of
what have now become funda- mental topics such as segmentation, targeting, and positioning. Concepts such
as brand equity, customer value analysis, database marketing, e-commerce, value networks, hybrid channels,
supply chain management, and integrated marketing communications were not even part of the marketing
vocabulary then. Marketing Management continues to reflect the changes in the marketing discipline over the
past 40 years.
Firms now sell goods and services through a variety of direct and indirect channels. Mass ad- vertising is not
nearly as effective as it was, so marketers are exploring new forms of communica- tion, such as experiential,
entertainment, and viral marketing. Customers are telling companies what types of product or services they
want and when, where, and how they want to buy them. They are increasingly reporting to other consumers
what they think of specific companies and productsusing e-mail, blogs, podcasts, and other digital media to
do so. Company messages are becoming a smaller fraction of the total conversation about products and
In response, companies have shifted gears from managing product portfolios to managing customer
portfolios, compiling databases on individual customers so they can understand them better and construct
individualized offerings and messages. They are doing less product and service standardization and more
niching and customization. They are replacing monologues with customer dialogues. They are improving their
methods of measuring customer profitabil- ity and customer lifetime value. They are intent on measuring the
return on their marketing investment and its impact on shareholder value. They are also concerned with the
ethical and social implications of their marketing decisions.
As companies change, so does their marketing organization. Marketing is no longer a company department
charged with a limited number of tasksit is a company-wide undertaking. It drives the companys vision,
mission, and strategic planning. Marketing includes decisions like who the company wants as its customers,
which of their needs to satisfy, what products and services to of- fer, what prices to set, what communications
to send and receive, what channels of distribution to use, and what partnerships to develop. Marketing
succeeds only when all departments work together to achieve goals: when engineering designs the right
products; finance furnishes the required funds; purchasing buys high-quality materials; production makes high-
quality products on time; and accounting measures the profitability of different customers, products, and areas.
To address all these different shifts, good marketers are practicing holistic marketing. Holistic marketing is
the development, design, and implementation of marketing programs, processes, and activities that recognize
the breadth and interdependencies of todays marketing environment. Four key dimensions of holistic
marketing are:

1. Internat marketingensuring everyone in the organization embraces appropriate marketing principles,

especially senior management.
2. Integrated marketingensuring that multiple means of creating, delivering, and commu- nicating value are
employed and combined in the best way.
3. Retationship marketinghaving rich, multifaceted relationships with customers, channel members, and
other marketing partners.
4. Performance marketingunderstanding returns to the business from marketing activities and programs, as
well as addressing broader concerns and their legal, ethical, social, and en- vironmental effects.

These four dimensions are woven throughout the book and at times spelled out explicitly. The text
specifically addresses the following tasks that constitute modern marketing manage- ment in the 21st century:

1. Developing marketing strategies and plans

2. Capturing marketing insights and performance
3. Connecting with customers
4. Building strong brands
5. Shaping the market offerings
6. Delivering and communicating value
7. Creating successful long-term growth
What Makes Marketing Management
the Marketing Leader?
Marketing is of interest to everyone, whether they are marketing goods, Services, properties, persons, places,
events, information, ideas, or organizations. As it has maintained its respected position among students,
educators, and businesspeople, Marketing Management has kept up- to-date and contemporary. Students (and
instructors) feel that the book is talking directly to them in terms of both content and delivery.
Marketing Management owes its marketplace success to its ability to maximize three dimen- sions that
characterize the best marketing textsdepth, breadth, and relevanceas measured by the following criteria:

Depth. Does the book have solid academic grounding? Does it contain important theo- retical concepts,
models, and frameworks? Does it provide conceptual guidance to solve practical problems?
Breadth. Does the book cover all the right topics? Does it provide the proper amount of emphasis on those
Relevance. Does the book engage the reader? Is it interesting to read? Does it have lots of compelling

The 14th edition builds on the fundamental strengths of past editions that collectively dis- tinguish it from all
other marketing management texts:

Managerial Orientation. The book focuses on the major decisions that marketing man- agers and top
management face in their efforts to harmonize the organizations objectives, capabilities, and resources with
marketplace needs and opportunities.
Analytical Approach. Marketing Management presents conceptual tools and frameworks for analyzing
recurring problems in marketing management. Cases and examples illustrate effective marketing principles,
strategies, and practices.
Multidisciplinary Perspective. The book draws on the rich findings of various scientific disciplineseconomics,
behavioral science, management theory, and mathematicsfor fundamental concepts and tools directly
applicable to marketing challenges.
Universal Applications. The book applies strategic thinking to the complete spectrum of marketing: products,
services, persons, places, information, ideas and causes; consumer and business markets; profit and
nonprofit organizations; domestic and foreign companies; small and large firms; manufacturing and
intermediary businesses; and low- and high-tech industries.
Comprehensive and Balanced Coverage. Marketing Management covers all the topics an informed marketing
manager needs to understand to execute strategic, tactical, and admin- istrative marketing.

Student Supplements
Mymarketinglab gives you the opportunity to test yourself on key concepts and skills, track your progress
through the course and use the personalized study plan activitiesall to help you achieve success in the
Features include:

Personalized Study PlansPre- and post-tests with remediation activities directed to help you understand and
apply the concepts where you need the most help.

Interactive ElementsA wealth of hands-on activities and exercises let you experience and learn actively.
Current Events ArticlesConcise, highly relevant articles about the latest marketing re- lated news with
thought provoking short essay questions.
Critical Thinking Challenge QuestionThese questions measure core critical-thinking skills through the
context of marketing applications. To answer these questions, you will need to recognize assumptions,
evaluate arguments, identify relevant issues, draw infer- ences, spot logical flaws, and recognize similarities
between arguments. Knowledge of marketing content picked up through the text and the class will help you
zero in on the correct issues, but you will still need to exercise critical judgment in order to get the correct

Marketing Management Cases

Prentice Hall Custom Business Resources can provide instructors and students with all the cases and articles
needed to enhance and maximize learning in a marketing course. Instructors can create Custom CoursePacks or
Custom CaseBooks. Resources include top-tier cases from Darden, Harvard, Ivey, NACRA, and Thunderbird, plus
full access to a database of articles. For details on how to order these value-priced packages, contact your local
representative or visit the Prentice Hall Custom Business Resources Web site at

Marketing Management Video Gallery

Make your classroom newsworthy PH has updated the Marketing Management video li- brary for the 14th
edition. A full library of video segments accompany this edition featuring issue-focused footage such as
interviews with top executives, objective reporting by real news anchors, industry research analysts, and
marketing and advertising campaign experts. A full video guide, including synopses, discussion questions, and
teaching suggestions, is available on the IRC (online and on CD-ROM) to accompany the video library.

The Marketing Plan Handbook,, 4th edition, with Marketing Plan Pro
Marketing Plan Pro is a highly rated commercial software program that guides you through the entire marketing
plan process. The software is totally interactive and features 10 sample marketing plans, step-by-step guides,
and customizable charts. Customize your marketing plan to fit your marketing needs by following easy-to-use
plan wizards. Follow the clearly out- lined steps from strategy to implementation. Click to print, and your text,
spreadsheet, and charts come together to create a powerful marketing plan. The new The Marketing Plan
Handbook, by Marian Burk Wood, supplements the in-text marketing plan material with an in-depth guide to
what student marketers really need to know. A structured learning process leads to a complete and actionable
marketing plan. Also included are timely, real-world exam- ples that illustrate key points, sample marketing
plans, and Internet resources.

he 14th edition bears the imprint of many people. From Phil Kotler: My colleagues and associates at the
Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University continue to have an important impact on my
thinking: Nidhi Agrawal, Eric T. Anderson, James C. Anderson, Robert C. Blattberg, Miguel C. Brendl,
Bobby J. Calder, Gregory S. Carpenter, Alex Chernev, Anne T. Coughlan, David Gal, Kent Grayson,
Karsten Hansen, Dipak C. Jain, Lakshman Krishnamurti, Angela Lee, Vincent Nijs, Yi Qian, Mohanbir S. Sawhney,
Louis W. Stern, Brian Sternthal, Alice M. Tybout, and Andris A. Zoltners. I also want to thank the S. C. Johnson
Family for the generous support of my chair at the Kellogg School. Completing the Northwestern team is my
former Dean, Donald P. Jacobs, and my current Dean, Dipak Jain, both of whom have provided generous support
for my research and writing.
Several former faculty members of the marketing department had a great influence on my thinking when I
first joined the Kellogg marketing faculty, specifically Richard M. Clewett, Ralph Westfall, Harper W. Boyd, and
Sidney J. Levy. I also want to acknowledge Gary Armstrong for our work on Principles of Marketing.
I am indebted to the following coauthors of international editions of Marketing Management and Principles
of Marketing who have taught me a great deal as we worked together to adapt marketing management thinking
to the problems of different nations:
Swee-Hoon Ang and Siew-Meng Leong, National University of Singapore Chin-Tiong Tan,
Singapore Management University Friedhelm W. Bliemel, Universitat Kaiserslautern (Germany)
Linden Brown; Stewart Adam, Deakin University; Suzan Burton, Macquarie Graduate School of Management;
and Sara Denize, University of Western Sydney (Australia)
Bernard Dubois, Groupe HEC School of Management (France); and Delphine Manceau, ESCP-EAP European
School of Management
John Saunders, Loughborough University and Veronica Wong, Warwick University (United Kingdom)
Jacob Hornick, Tel Aviv University (Israel)
Walter Giorgio Scott, Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Italy)
Peggy Cunningham, Queens University (Canada)
I also want to acknowledge how much I have learned from working with coauthors on more specialized
marketing subjects: Alan Andreasen, Christer Asplund, Paul N. Bloom, John Bowen, Roberta C. Clarke, Karen Fox,
David Gertner, Michael Hamlin, Thomas Hayes, Donald Haider, Hooi Den Hua, Dipak Jain, Somkid Jatusripitak,
Hermawan Kartajaya, Neil Kotler, Nancy Lee, Sandra Liu, Suvit Maesincee, James Maken, Waldemar Pfoertsch,
Gustave Rath, Irving Rein, Eduardo Roberto, Joanne Scheff, Norman Shawchuck, Joel Shalowitz, Ben Shields,
Francois Simon, Robert Stevens, Martin Stoller, Fernando Trias de Bes, Bruce Wrenn, and David Young.
My overriding debt continues to be to my lovely wife, Nancy, who provided me with the time, support, and
inspiration needed to prepare this edition. It is truly our book.
From Kevin Lane Keller: I continually benefit from the wisdom of my marketing colleagues at TuckPunam
Keller, Scott Neslin, Kusum Ailawadi, Praveen Kopalle, Jackie Luan, Peter Golder, Ellie Kyung, Fred Webster, Gert
Assmus, and John Farleyas well as the leadership of Dean Paul Danos. I also gratefully acknowledge the
invaluable research and teaching contribu- tions from my faculty colleagues and collaborators through the
years. I owe a considerable debt of gratitude to Duke Universitys Jim Bettman and Rick Staelin for helping to
get my academic career started and serving as positive role models to this day. I am also appreciative of all that
I have learned from working with many industry executives who have generously shared their insights and
experiences. With this 14th edition, I received some extremely helpful research as- sistance from two former
Tuck MBAsJeff Davidson and Lowey Sicholwho were as accu- rate, thorough, dependable, and cheerful as
you could possibly imagine. Alison Pearson provided superb administrative support. Finally, I give special thanks
to Punam, my wife, and Carolyn and Allison, my daughters, who make it all happen and make it all worthwhile.
We are indebted to the following colleagues at other Albert N. Greco, Fordham University
universities who reviewed this new edition:
John A. Hobbs, University of Oklahoma
Jennifer Barr, Richard Stockton College Brian Larson, Widener University
Lawrence Kenneth Duke, Drexel University LeBow Anthony Racka, Oakland Community College,
College of Business Auburn Hills, MI
Barbara S. Faries, Mission College, Santa Clara, Jamie Ressler, Palm Beach Atlantic University
CA James E. Shapiro, University of New Haven
William E. Fillner, Hiram College George David Shows, Louisiana Tech University
Frank J. Franzak, Virginia Commonwealth
We would also like to thank colleagues who have
reviewed previous editions of Marketing
Robert Galka, De Paul University Management:
Homero Aguirre, TAMIU David Georgoff, Florida Atlantic University
Alan Au, University of Hong Kong Rashi Glazer, University of California, Berkeley
Hiram Barksdale, University of Georgia Bill Gray, Keller Graduate School of Management
Boris Becker, Oregon State University Barbara Gross, California State University at
Sandy Becker, Rutgers University Northridge
Parimal Bhagat, Indiana University of Lewis Hershey, Fayetteville State University
Pennsylvania Thomas Hewett, Kaplan University
Sunil Bhatla, Case Western Reserve University Mary Higby, University of Detroit-Mercy
Michael Bruce, Anderson University Arun Jain, State University of New York, Buffalo
Frederic Brunel, Boston University Michelle Kunz, Morehead State University
John Burnett, University of Denver Eric Langer, Johns Hopkins University
Lisa Cain, University of California at Berkeley Even Lanseng, Norwegian School of Management
and Mills College Surjit Chhabra, DePaul Ron Lennon, Barry University
University Yun Chu, Frostburg State University Michael Lodato, California Lutheran University
Dennis Clayson, University of Northern Iowa Bob Henry Loehr, Pfeiffer University-Charlotte
Cline, University of Iowa Brent Cunningham, Bart Macchiette, Plymouth University
Jacksonville State University Hugh Daubek, Susan Mann, Bluefield State College
Purdue University John Deighton, University of Charles Martin, Wichita State University
Chicago Kathleen Dominick, Rider University Tad
H. Lee Matthews, Ohio State University
Duffy, Golden Gate University Mohan Dutta,
Paul McDevitt, University of Illinois at Springfield
Purdue University Barbara Dyer, University of
Mary Ann McGrath, Loyola University, Chicago
North Carolina at Greensboro
John McKeever, University of Houston
Jackkie Eastman, Valdosta State University
Kenneth P. Mead, Central Connecticut State
Steve Edison, University of Arkansas-Little Rock
Alton Erdem, University of Houston at Clear Lake
Henry Metzner, University of Missouri, Rolla
Elizabeth Evans, Concordia University
Robert Mika, Monmouth University
Barb Finer, Suffolk University
Mark Mitchell, Coastal Carolina University
Chic Fojtik, Pepperdine University
Francis Mulhern, Northwestern University
Renee Foster, Delta State University
Pat Murphy, University of Notre Dame
Ralph Gaedeke, California State University,
Jim Murrow, Drury College
Zhou Nan, University of Hong Kong
Robert Galka, De Paul University
Nicholas Nugent, Boston College
Betsy Gelb, University of Houston at Clear Lake
Nnamdi Osakwe, Bryant & Stratton College
Dennis Gensch, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Donald Outland, University of Texas, Austin