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A richer theology of marriage can be developed by correctly understanding:

(a) its evolution from a rather negative presentation arising from certain assertions in the Pauline corpus;
-imminent parousia/end of the world; I want you to be free of anxieties (1 Corinthians 7)
-Paul realizes Eph 5
(b) the development it underwent from its predominantly agricultural context to a highly urbanized and
heavily industrialized society;
-also important to look at history of marriage because of the reason that is first a human reality
-family => role society; chooses spouse for you (recall quiz)
(c) its structure that the sacrament is first a human reality possessed of the bona of community and
friendship, children and fidelity and commitment.
-relationship between natural human reality and the sacrament
-marriage is a good in itself appropriate carrier of meaning
-sacrament of marriage, as well as other sacraments, are based on human realities
-Paul in his letter to Ephesians 5: people seem to mature overnight they learn to love, more
other-oriented, considerate more forgiving and more tolerant of others
-moved Paul to recognize that God is present and must be working in a very special way in

Friendship: people go out of their way, give up many things, and die a little to be able to develop this
marriage they committed so they are challenged and encouraged and inspired to mature & become
better persons
Procreative possibility: child will challenge them to challenge and inspire them to change for the better
Fidelity & commitment: indicative of the direction of relationship
-assertion that this human reality is a good and value in itself
Ephesians 5

6. The indissolubility of marriage was affirmed by Jesus to be the original intention of the
Creator [Mark 10, 1-9]. It is this characteristic which conspicuously endows marriage with
the potential to be the language to image Gods unconditional fidelity to his people [Hosea
1-3]. Paul understands this to be the task and responsibility of the Christian spouses so they
can be a faithful witness to this same unconditional fidelity of God [Ephesians 5].
To understand the indissolubility of marriage which was affirmed by Jesus to be the original intention of
the Creator, we must first look into the difference between the accounts of Mark and Matthew on the issue
of divorce.
In Mark, Jesus was asked about the possibility of divorce, and He answered that no divorce is allowed;
anyone who divorces his wife and marries another, and anyone who divorces his husband and
marries another, commits adultery.
Matthews account, on the other hand, presupposes that divorce is allowed and the question raised to
Jesus here was would divorce be allowed for any reason, or would divorce be only allowed for grave
reasons? and
The two accounts seemed contradictory at first, but Jesus was trying to explain that Yes, divorce was
allowed according to the Mosaic law in Deuteronomy, but this was not so in the beginning. In Mark, Jesus
was saying no to this kind of divorce no to the easy, do-it-yourself divorce that Moses allowed the
type of divorce where you only had to issue a certificate to divorce ones wife/husband. Moses may have
allowed divorce, but this was not so from the beginning. Jesus was appealing to the original intention of
the Creator mentioned in Genesis.

Hosea and Gomer

-The indissolubility of marriage allows it to be a carrier of the message of Gods love and fidelity to the
-For instance, the marriage of Gomer and Hosea, concretized and explained to us the fidelity of Yahweh
through the fidelity of Hosea. (You see <INSERT HOSEAS STORY 1-3>)
-Yahweh tells his people (through Hosea): He will always be faithful to the covenant, and He will not
abandon his people, no matter what (recall Israel worshipping other gods).
-But this could not have been possible if Hosea werent faithful and obedient to God; Yahweh depended
on Hosea to be able to show his fidelity to Israel = this explains the aspect of human responsibility and
cooperation with Yahweh (man is free, but to live fuller lives, we must recognize ones own
responsibility, exercise our fundamental freedom, and cooperate with God, in order to become most fully
ourselves to follow our own personal vocation that God has called us to
-So in a sense, Hosea and Gomer served as prophets and spokesmen of Christ; they were our
predecessors, and we are their successors (by virtue of baptism). We have the responsibility to continue
their vocation, their mission.

Pauls reflection on marriage as a human reality, enabled him to make the claim in Ephesians 5: that
marriage must be a particularly rich and profound reality that God must be present and working
in a special way in marriage.
(a) Being male & female is part of what it means to be created in the image and likeness of God.
Their union, is likewise part of Gods plan and therefore it is very good, and need not be justified.

(b) Marriage has a capacity to be a language; it has the depth and richness to carry a meaning over
and beyond its natural reality. God used the marriage of Hosea and Gomer to assure Israel of his
unconditional fidelity and commitment to them. We shall say later on that the marriage of
Hosea and Gomer are a predecessor of Christian marriages in that the marriages of Christian is
also the language of God, the vehicle of Gods reassurance to his people.

(c) A quality of marriage that is affirmed by Jesus in Mark is its stability its indissolubility. It is
this quality of fidelity and commitment that makes marriage such maturing context even as a
human and natural reality. It is also this same characteristic that makes it an appropriate symbol
and witness to Gods own unconditional fidelity to his people.

Paul = READ pp.14-16

Paul understands this to be the task and responsibility of the Christian spouses so they can be a
faithful witness to this same unconditional fidelity of God [Ephesians 5].
Task & responsibility Hosea & Gomer: free responsibility to cooperate with Gods plan in order to
have the capacity to be a language/carrier of meaning marriage not a ready made language of God
Unconditional fidelity of God Mark: what God has put together, let no man go asunder /
indissolubility of marriage appropriate symbol and witness to Gods own unconditional fidelity to his

Paul goes beyond these interpretations and proceeds to say that there is a greater truth and
mystery that is hidden from the beginning, but is partially revealed through the life of the
prophets, through death of Jesus
This mystery is revealed through the Faithful and committed relationship bet Man & woman
reveals truth bet rel Christ and Church

7. A proper understanding of the sacraments, and therefore of marriage, must include the
following aspects: [a] sacraments are essentially acts of the Church towards the
accomplishment of the mission entrusted to it by Christ; [b] they are signs revelatory of
divine realities; [c] they are moments of grace, mans way to fullness of life with God. (3.1.3.
p. 19)
[a] sacraments are essentially acts of the Church towards the accomplishment of the mission entrusted
to it by Christ; p. 20
-it is Christ himself who acts in and through the sacraments.
-this is why Baptism is necessary for the other sacraments for it is through baptism that we are
incorporated in the body of Christ in the church
-when we are constituted members of the church, then Christ acts in and through us
-the general responsibility to participate in this mission of the church assumed in baptism is focused and
specified in marriage
[b] they are signs revelatory of divine realities;
-the sacraments are also a language through which God speaks to us, in order that we may know him
better and more intimately
-when we know God, we become better persons, we appropriate his teaching and values, we realize
Gods image in us

[c] they are moments of grace, mans way to fullness of life with God
Augustine-procreation only legitimate reason for sexual relations
-salvific but in a negative sense limited to only one person, so limited frequency limits sinfulness
of man ; salvific in a sense of a damage control
Gaudium et spes renewed understanding

8. Gaudium et spes renews the understanding of marriage by collocating it under the paradigm of
consortium totius vitae, thus broadening the restrictive model of contract which sees marriage
primarily as an exchange of rights.

-contract/exchange of rights

This renewed understanding makes it possible to see marriage as healing, in which intimacy
and sexual relation are a positive value,
-renewed understanding
Consortium totius vitae:
Period of original justice = procreation
First sin = pleasure
Third meaning = expresses conjugal love between husband and wife (familiaris consortio)
significance of act is rooted in and it arises from the committed and responsible love they have
for each other
=sexual acts lead to greater love it nourishes the relationship process of building and
strengthening relationship
=refer to not stand alone reality rather it is part of a multifaceted reality (matrix consortium
totius vitae)
=becoming better persons is a good human reality to symbolize and make concrete salvation as
a/or fuller life with God
and where they are collocated as belonging naturally and constitutively to the human
matrix assumed and elevated into the economy of salvation. p. 22
=God speaks to us in a language we understand; God loves us through the love of other people
sexual act truly human way of expressing love between spouses
=Gods dealings with us are mediated through a human realities the humanity of Jesus Christ,
the human symbols in religious rites, that are familiar to us and that becomes sacraments
=marriage belongs to this economy of salvation

=through marriage, God uses a natural reality familiar to us the committed, loving, stable
relationship bet man & woman a salvific tool by means of which he draws man back to himself
to help us become most fully ourselves so in a way helps orient ourselves to a fundamental
direction towards the ultimate good which is God

9. Marital union is not only a contract but a covenant in grace and faith, a relationship freely
chosen, founded on friendship, and actively nurtured through love and sacrifice.
=before, marriage is just a contract right to bodies
= gaudium et spes reference to consortium totius vitae -- covenant

=relationship of love freely chosen

=will norm relationship freely chosen

In its human aspects, marriage is a sign of Gods love and mans engagement in Gods
work in the world.
=marriage carrier of meaning = Gods love and fidelity to people can be reflected in
marriage like Hosea & Gomer
=he uses natural human realities which are familiar to us marriage; stable, loving, committed,
relationship between man & woman

=we participate in the work of Christ through marriage (p.31) Paschal mystery = Mackin

The active faith of the couple is an essential prerequisite not only for the fruitfulness of the
sacrament but also for its very validity. 3.3 p.32

=canon law: marriage sacrament cos 2 people are baptized

=Mackin says it is not enough for 2 people to just be baptized, they need to have active faith in order to
recognize that we have the responsibility to participate in Gods work
=this awareness is what sets apart sacramental and non sacramental marriage:
---certainty principle: refer to notes [d]