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# Results and Discussion:

## Objective 1: To know the resonant frequency of a parallel RLC circuit.

The measured frequency for the 1st and 2nd trials at which the minimum
current is at 314.38Hz and 320Hz respectively.
The frequency at which the circuit experiences its minimum current is
called the resonant frequency.
At the measured resonant frequency in parallel RLC circuit for both
trials, has highest value of its impedance.
Total voltage is proportional to total impedance.
To compute for the resonant frequency of the RLC circuit, we use the

formula:
Objective 2: To demonstrate the characteristics of the resonant frequency of
a parallel RLC circuit.

If the supply frequency is low, below the resonant frequency r then the
current IL through L is high.
If the supply frequency is low, below the resonant frequency r then the
current IC through C is high.
At resonance the ideal circuit has a very high impedance.
Voltage is also high at resonance.
A parallel resonant circuit is resistive at resonance, inductive below
resonance, capacitive above resonance.
Objective 3: To verify the bandwidth and cut-off frequencies of the parallel
RLC circuit.
The bandwidth for the 2nd trial where the resistance is low is larger
compared to the 1st trial where the resistance is high.
Bandwidth, f is measured between the 70.7% amplitude points of
series resonant circuit.
To compute for the bandwidth of a parallel RLC circuit, the formula:
BW=f1-f2 or BW=1/(2*pi*R*C) are used.
The upper and lower cut-off frequencies given
as: upperand lower respectively denote the half-power frequencies where
the power dissipated in the circuit
To compute for the cutoff frequencies of a parallel RLC circuit, the

## following formulas are used: f 1=

1
2 RC
( 1+
2
4 C R2
L
1)
and

f 2=
1
2 RC
( 1+
2
4 C R2
L
+1)

Conclusion:
Objective 1: To know the resonant frequency of a parallel RLC circuit.

## The frequency at which the parallel RLC circuit experiences its

minimum current is called the resonant frequency. At resonance, the
current flowing through the circuit in the inductive and capacitive branch
currents are equal (IL = IC ) and are 180 degrees out of phase. A parallel
resonant circuit is resistive at the resonant frequency since at resonance
XL=XC, the reactive components cancel therefore the impedance is
maximum at resonance. Also at resonance, as the impedance of the circuit
is now that of resistance only, the total circuit current, I will be in-phase
with the supply voltage making the voltage also high.

## Objective 2: To demonstrate the characteristics of the resonant frequency of

a parallel RLC circuit.
Impedance is maximum at resonance in a parallel resonant circuit, but
decreases above or below resonance. If the supply frequency is below the
resonant frequency r, then the current IL through L will be large since the
impedance of the inductor is lower, drawing the larger proportion of current,
the circuit will appear to be inductive. If the supply frequency is above the
resonant frequency r, then the current IC through C will be greater than the
current IL through L, because the frequency is higher and XC is smaller than
XL the circuit is drawing the larger current, thus, taking on a capacitive
characteristic. Voltage is at a peak at resonance since voltage is proportional
to impedance (E=IZ)
Objective 3: To verify the bandwidth and cut-off frequencies of the parallel
RLC circuit.
Cutoff frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at
which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced. If we reduce
or increase the frequency until the average power absorbed by the resistor in
the resonance circuit is half that of its maximum value at resonance, we
produce two frequency points called the half-power points which is 70.7% of
its maximum resonance. The point corresponding to the lower frequency at
half the power is lower cut-off frequency, and the upper frequency is
upper cut-off frequency. The distance between these two points, i.e.
( H L ) is called the Bandwidth. Bandwidth, (BW) and is the range of
frequencies over which at least half of the maximum power and current.

References:
1. http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/parallel-resonance.html