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Annual Report 7992

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Swedish National Board for Industrial and
Technical Development
81993:2

IEA Wind Energv
Annual Report 7992

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Visitin{: atlrlress: Liljcholnrsr';ige n 32
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Covcr picttrrc:
(lamma 60 at Alta Nr.rrra, Sardirria, ltaly (1,5 MW rated power)
Niisucjclcn ll in (lotlarrcl, Srvetletr (3MW)
Aeoltrs ll at Jaclt' Wintlpark, Wilhelmshavctr, Gernrany (3MW)
All of the.m installed in 1992.

O NUTEK
I']rirrt: I 2(X) copies
I'roductiorr: N UWEC cncrgikorrsult
Place oi publicatiou arrd year: Stockhohn 1993

ISSN 1102-2566
ISBN 91-731U-218-4

(]otab 97017,Stockholm l 993

reviewing the activities during 7992. F Avia (Spain). The amended R&D Agreement incorporates the activities of the previous Large-Scale WECS Agreement which was discontinued by 31 December 1990. the Swedish Contracting Party to the Agreement. D I Page (UK). The report is published by Nutek.Foreword This is the fifteenth Annual Report of the IEA collaboration in wind energy. E Sesto (Italy). R de Bruijne (the NethLrlands). Edinburgh and Nyktiping in |anuary 1993 WG Stevenson B Pershagen Chairman of the Secretary of the Executive Committee Executive Committee . E Solberg (Norway) and R Windheim (Germany). K A Braun (Germany). P W Carlin (USA). on betratf of the IEA R&D Wind Executive Committee. T Kajishima (lapan). P Nielsen (Denmark). It is edited by B Pershagen with contributions from D F Ancona (USA). lt is also the second report undei the amended R&D Implementing Agreement for co-operation in the Research and Development of Wind Turbine Systems (IEA R&D Wind).

.....0 United Kingdom 728 2.8 Spain ... n 2.1.... 96 2................... Canada M 2.. 19 1..6 The Netherlands ...... 2't.... 94 2....7 Norway ...3 Germanv 54 2. 106 2.1 The Implementing Agreement . 749 ..4 Italy .....5 Task XII Universal wind turbine for experiments (UNIWEX) 25 1......2 Denmark 47 2.1.. 13 '1... 109 29 Sweden 120 2.....6 Task XIII Cooperation in the development of large-scale wind systems 37 National activities .... United States ...1'1.........3 Task IX Intensified study of wake effects behind single turbines and in wind turbine parks ...2 Task VItr Study of decentralised applications for wind energy 17 1......Contents Executive summary 7 The IEA R&D Wind progr:rmme 13 1..4 Task )O Base technology information exchange .M 2.. 1.............5 Japan ..... 't37 Executive Committee activities 1.............45 Appendix Executive Committe members and alternate members .

Units of 500 kW rated power are now put on the market. The purpose of IEA R&D Wind is to carry out cooperative research. known as wind farms. operation and evaluation of large-scale wind systems having a rated power of approximately 1 MW or more. about 1600 MW. the Netherlands. Spain. the activity also includes the exchange of information on the planning and execution of national programmes for the design. but utilities are taking an increasing interest in the deployment of large wind systems. Small and medium-sized wind turbines are commercially available in unit sizes up to 500 kW rated power. During the year about 40 MW were installed in Germany and Spain. Present installations are either single units or arrays of units. During 1992. and the leading manufacturers are developing megawatt-sized machines. Denmark. . Germany. |apan. is found in California. representing a capacity of around 2450 MW. The Contracting Party from New Zealand gave preliminary notice of withdrawal. Iapan. Canada. Sweden and the United Kingdom. Norway.Executive Summary The report reviews the progress during 1992 in the Agreement for Co- operation in the Research and Development of Wind Turbine Systems (IEA R&D Wind). Italy. By the end of the year about 22 000 wind turbines were installed in the member countries. Most of the capacity. Germany. Most of the plants are owned by private investors or cooperatives. IEA R&D Wind has 16 signatories from 13 countries: Austria. The average unit size in today's wind farms is about 110 kW while that of new wind farms is increasing and in 7992 was about 200 kW. Sweden. construction. Norwa/. development and demonstration projects in wind energy. The installed wind power increases about 10 7o per fear at the present. the United Kingdom and the United States. There are several wind turbine manufacturers on the market. Megawatt-sized wind farms are in operation or under construction also in Canada. Wind energy continues to stand out as one of the most promising renewable energy sources for the near term. the Technical Research Centre of Finland was invited to join the Agreement. Denmark. New Zealand. and about 30 IvtW in the United Kingdom. the Netherlands. Italy. USA. Since i991. One of the manufacturers recently delivered its 4000th unit for a total of over 500 MW rated power. set up in 7977 under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Spain.

scale prototypes were placed into operation in Germany and Sweden. Nine cooperative research Tasks have been successfully completed since the start of the programme. University of Stuttgart. usually in their home organisations. The total level of effort is typically about ten manyears per Task over a period of three years. there is still great interest for collaborative technology research and information exchange. During the year. and the production of recommended practices for wind turbine testing are examples of activities. Despite technological advances and a vast resource. wind energy still faces barriers to widespread use. government-sponsored market incentive programmes are in effect to facilitate the introduction of wind power. Two Tasks were completed during the report period: Task IX Wake Effect studies and rask VIII wind-Diesel systems. generation credits or tax reliefs. second generation large. therefore. or task-shared. Technical University of Denmark Task XI Universal Wind Turbine for Experiments (UNIWEX) Operating Agent: Institute for Computer Applications. Joint collection and evaluation of operating experience from large wind turbine systems. Germany . They are to a large extent directed to the development and demonstration of large-scale wind turbines.The national wind energy R. and planning difficulties due to environmental concerns. initiated under the Agreement. D & D programmes are set to continue. The current Tasks include: Task XI Basic Technology Information Exchange Operating Agenh Department of Fluid Mechanics. The subsidies take the form of investment support. for which there is a continuing need. In most countries. The Commission of European Communities also contributes to the funding of wind system projects. The projects are either cost-shared and carried out in a lead country. to a joint programme coordinated by an Operating Agent. such as lack of competitivity as a result of dropping oil prices. when the participants contribute in-kind. The final report of rask VrII is being printed in the form of a book to be published on the open market in early 1993 . Operating experience from prototype machines and results of technology research are used in the design of advanced systems in the lead countries. The first megawatt-sized wind turbine in Italy was connected to the grid in Iune. Although the environment in which the IEA Agreement in wind energy was set up has changed considerably.

and the organisation of Topical Expert Meetings. During 1992. the second issue of which was published during the year.4 MW for structural reasons and has generated more than 11 000 MWh of energy in nearly 17 000 hours of generating time. eleven documents in eight areas of Recommended Practices have been published. four joint Actions have been initiated. load sPectra and control strategies. The 4 MW prototyPe machine EOLE has been in operation since March 1988 at a maximum output of 2. summary data on wind farms. In Canada four wind farms with a total installed capacity of 20 MW are being set up in the province of Alberta.D&D programmes. and the validation of computer codes for wind turbine design. USA Task Xl has participants from nine countries. and government funding levels. operational behaviour. Input to a computerized information system is provided by a network of contact persons in ten countries. Main activities include the preparation of documents in the series of Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation. With an availability of about 94 % it has shown the feasibility of large scale highly reliable vertical-axis wind turbine technology. and 23 Topical Expert Meetings have been held. The current status of wind energy activities in the member countries is described in some detail in the main report and briefly summarized below. Germany' The objective of Task X111 is to further the development of large wind turbine systems by means of cooperative action and exchange of informa- tion on the planning and execution of national R. Task XII has seven participants from three countries. the undertaking of foint Actions in specific research areas where a periodic exchange of information is considered necessary. Much of the information exchange takes place at Executive Committee meetings twice a year when the activities in the participating countries are reviewed with emphasis on large-scale systems.Task XIII Cooperation in the Development of Large Wind Turbine Systems Operating Agent: National renewable Energy Laboratory. consensus was reached on the form and content of the material to be collected and disseminated. Use has been made of the UNIWEX experimental wind turbine at the Ulrich Hritter wind test site near Schnittlingen. The final report is now in preparation for this project which has comprised experimental studies of wind turbine aerodynamics. design and operational data on Prototype wind turbines. . The highlights of the national R. The information includes national wind energy installation and generation summaries.D&D programmes and the progress of the cooperative Tasks are summarized in the Wind Energy Newsletter. So far.

Okinawa. The annual generation during 1991 corresponded to 2. The national wind energy programme in lapan is part of the Sunshine Project. three of them Italian-built. two 1. Honshu. The total installed wind power in Germany is 142 MW in 964 units (October 1992). directed by AIST.and large-scale machines. The Japanese program also includes observation and numerical prediction of wind characteristics. Most of the turbines are located in the North Sea coastal states. including 98 MW (609 turbines) within the government- sponsored "250 MW Wind" programme.994 by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. The conceptual design of a 500 KW prototype has been completed and detailed design is underway. Another utility wind farm (1. The machine will be manufactured during 1. Six large-scale prototype machines are in operation. Denmark has nine large-scale wind turbines in operation. Advanced wind turbines in the range from 300 to 1000 kW are being developed by German manufacturers. Hokkaido. Some delays have been experienced due to planning difficulties.993-1. An experimental wind farm of about 1 MW rated power is under construction on Miyako Island. The first 100 MW utility programme is now fully implemented and another 100 MW programme will follow. MW wind farm is to be constructed in Sardinia. and a 500 kW unit was reently put on the market. and basic technology research. including three 640 kW single-bladed units (Monopteros 50). Five different medium-sized wind turbines. The first large-scale utility wind farm (5 x 275 kW) was set up in 1991 at Cape Tappi.2 MW three-bladed units (WKA 60) and one 2 MW two-bladed unit (Aeolus II). 10 . The Elkraft utility and three of the manufacturing companies are developing advanced concepts for around 1 MW rated capacity. Civil engineering work has started for a new test site in the Apennines. the total capacity of grid-connected wind turbines in Denmark was 437 MW in 3347 units..5 MW Gamma 60 prototype started installation in April 1. and are also undertaking their own wind farm projects. The 1. The average unit power has increased from below 140 kW in 1989 to about 200 kW today. An 11. MITI.As of 1 October 1992. and another two or three 10 MW plants will be set up in Central-Southern Italy. The ENEL utility and the ENEA research agency are cooperating with industry in setting up Italy's first wind power stations. are being tested at ENEL's Alta Nurra site in Sardinia.3 % of. The two major Italian wind turbine manufacturers are continuing the development of medium. all of the three-bladed horizontal-axis type with rated capacity from 630 kW (Nibe) to 2 MW (Tjereborg). the Danish electricity consumption. The current national energy plan in ltaly sets a target of 300 MW of wind power by the year 2000.1 MW) is under construction at Tomari.992 at Alta Nurra and was connected to the grid in june. which was placed into operation during the year.

11 . rated at 100 to 180 kW. and a 500 kW model is being developed. An advanced wind turbine. During L992 nearly 40 MW was installed in 233 wind turbines. This means that wind energy has to find particular niches in the supply system to be used with profitability. Norway has excellent wind conditions in coastal areas.995. Flowever. at least in the near term. the total installed capacity was 16 MW in 89 units. currently with a certain amount of surplus power available at a low price. which should bring the total capacity to 400 MW by then. two in the Canary Islands and one in Catalufla. A government-sponsored programme for market stimulation by investment subsidy has been in effect since mid-1991. excluding the large prototypes. A second generation control system is being developed for the experimental plant on the island of Fraya. Maglarp has generated 33 125 MWh during 25 657 hours on line (November 1992). are in the planning stage and are expected to start operation in 1. The largest concentration of wind turbines in Europe is found in the Tarifa area near the Straits of Gibraltar with 33 MW installed in272 units. delays have occurred due to planning difficulties and the current best estimate is 200 MW by 7995. completed in 1992 on top of the existing tower of Ndsudden I. over 80 7o of which in wind farms of 1 MW or more. NWP 400. Sweden has two large-scale prototypes in operation. the 3 MW Maglarp machine. The installed capacity is presently about 100 MW. The electricity system is dominated by hydro power. By September 1992.993-94. partly based on Maglarp experience and rated at 400 kW.2MW wind farm at Vikna will be enlarged with two 500 kW units next year. The demonstration programme aims at having 4 MW of wind power installed by 1993. The three main domestic manufacturers delivered about 300 units.August 1992. bringing the total capacity close to 50 N{W. New prototypes rated at 200 and 300 kW are being tested. The research programme has mainly been directed to the study of wind-diesel autonomous systems. installed in 1982. Subsidies of the order of NLG 40 million per year are available. A new cooperative organisation has been set up between the utilities to deal with site exploitation. Three large wind farms.The national target in the Nefherlands is for 1000 MW of wind power by the turn of the century. and is operated in parallel to a standard 450 kW machine at the same site. which will produce about 100 000 MWh per year. The 1. and the 3 MW Nisudden II. At present ten wind turbines for 2. The target of 100 MW wind power by "1995 in the current national renewable energy plan in Spain should be more than realized.9 MW are connected to the grid.. The electricity companies have announced plans for installing 250 MW by 1. during the period August 1991 . was erected in August near Lysekil on the Swedish west coast. which is world leading for a single wind turbine.

A National Wind Technology Test Center at Rocky Flats. will provide a complete research and development center.2 MW Mod-58 wind turbine. Since commissioning. provides wind energy generation incentives. As of the end of September the machine had run a total of 20 551 hours and generated 26 776 MWh. the net increase of wind capacity was less than 10 MW during the year. Colorado. Hawaiian Electsic Industries announced the decision to shut down its wind farm at Kahuku Point. 1600 MW. access to transmission lines. The 1 MW machine at Richborough and the 750 kW machine on Shetland were out of service until end-October and mid-November. and other programs helpful to wind energy. respectively. the 3 MW WEG L$1 machine on Orkney started a twelve month monitoring period in February. Of the four large. Operation of the Mod-58 is continuing until a disposition decision is taken. The program includes collaborative venfures with industry to develop advanced wind turbines and to help utilities to integrate wind systems in their normal operations. and the 3. and the funding amounts to USD 24. enacted in October 1992. new legislation. the total running time has been 6348 hours and energy production 8441 MWh. In October. In the Uniled States. The total installations remain approximately the same. two orders have been issued under the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation.0 million for fiscal year 1993. Oahu. The DOE wind energy program is expanding. 12 . set up in 1990. due to modification and repair. By the end of 1992 all orders of the first tranche and nearly half of the second tranche had obtained planning consent to the effect that about 33 MW (101 turbines) were installed and 55 MW (221 turbines) were under construction.In the Unifed Kingdom. consisting of fourteen Westinghouse wind turbines rated at 600 kW each.scale demonstration wind turbines in the UK.4 MW and the second order (November 1991) 192 MW of rated wind power capacity. and the retirements of outdated wind turbines. As a consequence of the phasing out of the standard power purchase contracts in effect in California since the early 1980's. The first order included 28.

National Power plc. Sweden The National Board for Industrial and Technical Development (NUTEK). Spain Instituto de Energias Renovables (IER) of the Centro de Investigaci6n Energetica Medioambiental y Tecnologica (CIEMAT). The co- operation is governed by "The Implementing Agreement for Co- operation in the Research and Development of Wind Turbine Systems". IJ .1 The Implementing Agteement The IEA co-operation in wind energy started in 1977. I'Energia e I'Ambiente (ENEA). New Zealand New Zealand Meteorological Service. Italy Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie. Societ) per azione. Mines and Resources. ENEL. Norway The Directorate of Energy of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration. Presently 16 parties. United Kingdom UK Atomic Energy Authority.The IEA R&D Wind Programme 1. United States The Department of Energy. Canada The Department of Energy. Germany Forschungszentrum |tilich GmbH. Netherlands The Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM). or IEA R&D Wind for short. Scottish Hydro-Electric plc. designated by the governments of 13 countries are participating. ]apan The Government of |apan. The Contracting Parties are: Austria The Republic of Austria.

The Tasks are defined in Annexes to the Implementing Agreement' To- date twelve Tasks have been initiated. Overall control of the programme is vested in the Executive Committee. where each Contracting Party is represented.4 . Each Task is managed by an Operating Agent. usually one of the Contracting Parties.Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories Completed in 1983 Task III Integration of Wind Power into National Electricity Supply Systems Operating Agent: Kernforschungsanlage ]iilich GmbH Completed in 1983 Task IV Investigation of Rotor Stressing and Smoothness of Operation of Large-Scale Wind Energy Conversion Systems Operating Agent: Kernforschungsanlage |i.ilich GmbH Completed in 1980 Task V Study of Wake Effects behind Single Turbines and in Wind Turbine Parks Operating Agent: Netherlands Energy Research Foundation Completed in 1984 Task VI Study of Local Flow at Potential WECS Hill Sites Operating Agent: National Research Council of Canada Completed in 1985 Task VII Study of Offshore WECS Operating Agent: UK Central Electricity Generating Board Completed in 1988 1. Task I Environmental and Meteorological Aspects of Wind Energy Conversion Systems Operating Agent: The National Swedish Board for Energy Source Development Completed in 1981 Task II Evaluation of Wind Models for Wind Energy Siting Operating Agent: US Department of Energy . as shown below. Eight Tasks have been successfully completed. Two Tasks are technically completed but the final reports are pending. and to exchange information on the planning and execution of national large-scale wind systems. called Tasks.The general objective of IEA R&D Wind is to undertake collaborative R&D projects.

and task-shared. Final report pending.Task VIII Study of Decentralised Applications for Wind Energy Operating Agent: UK National Engineering Laboratory Technically completed in 1989. Tasks XII and XIII are mixed cost.to a joint Programme coordinated by the Operating Agent. Technical University of Denmark To be comPleted in 1993 Task XII Universal Wind Turbine for Experiments (UNIWEX) Operating Agenh Institute for Computer Applications. 15 .1. the participants contribute manPower and work - usually in their home countries . GermanY Tecnically completed in 1992. University of Stuttgart. Final report pending' Task IX Intensified Study of Wind Turbine Wake Effects Operating Agent: UK National Power plc Completed in'l'992 Task X Systems Interaction Never entered into force Task XI Base Technology Information Exchange Operating Agent: Department of Fluid Mechanics. The participation in current Tasks is shown in Table 1. Task XIII Co-operation in the Development of Large Wind Turbine Systems Operating Agent: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (USA) To be completed in 1993 In Tasks VIII and XI. The total level of effort is typically about ten manyears per Task.

OA indicates Operating Agent ntry Task vilt xt xil xill Canada xxx Denmark xOAx Germany xOAx Italy xxx Japan x Netherlands xxxx New Zealand x Nonray xxx Spain xxx Sweden xxxx United Kingdom OAxx United States xxOA L6 . Table l. / Participation psr country in current Tasks.

The final report of the Task should therefore take the form of a handbook on the siting and implementation of wind-diesel systems. Define cost effective models and techniques suitable for obtaining wind and load data necessary for planning and specifying decentralised wind energy conversion installations. coordinated by the UK National Engineering Laboratory. Apply and further develop models suitable for analysing the performance of wind-diesel systems. was distributed to the Executive Committee members and Task participants in September 199'1.2 Task VIII Decentralised applications for wind energy This Task was set up in 1985 and has involved ten countries in a task- sharing arrangement.1. . who by discussion and information exchange have agreed upon the contents. The authors comprise the foremost experts from the particiPating countries. The manuscript was delivered to the printers during 1992.3) for continued communication among Task participants. A revised draft manuscript of the final report.'t.989. and the book is expected to be published in early 1993. The Executive Committee decided at its fall meeting to set up a |oint Action on Wind-Diesel Systems in Annex XI (see section 3. called Wind-Diesel Systems. 1- . which include: I Wind-diesel options and their applicability 2 Matching the wind-diesel system to the community J Assessing the wind resource A Designing a system 5 Wind-diesel case studies 6 Modelling techniques 7 Installation and setting up wind-diesel systems 8 Assessing the economics The Executive Committee has agreed to have the book published on the open market. who will publish the book and distribute it on the open market. involving about thirty experts from the participating countries. At an early stage a desire was expressed to produce a work of reference which would convey to a wider community the potential difficulties and stage of development of wind-diesel technology. A contract has been negotiated with Cambridge University Press. The overall objectives were to: . Nine technical meetings were held during 1985 .

Mines and Resources Atmospheric Environment Service Denmark Riss National Laboratory Netherlands ECN Research Centre New Zealand NZ Meteorological Service Norway Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute Spain Instituto de Energias Renovables Sweden State Power Board Chalmers University of Technology Switzerland Federal Office of Energy Oekozentrum Langenbruck Alpha Real AG United Kingdom Rutherford Appleton Laboratory National Engineering Laboratory United States Department of Energy Solar Energy Research Institute University of Massachussetts Atlantic Orient Corporation Operating Agent United Kingdom National Engineering Laboratory 18 .Participating organisations Canada Department of Energy.

the study has seen the development of more reliable wake models and the acquisition of a considerable quantity of experimental and analytical data. Prediction of turbulence within windfarms . later National Power plc. The principal conclusions are: r Site.992.T 1. when data were exchanged and models compared. The study has involved eight countries in a task- sharing arrangement. The overall objective has been to improve the knowledge of aerodynamic interaction between wind turbines operating in a windfarm. The Task has seen the development of more reliable wake models. but less than predicted by earlier wind tunnel tests. o Turbulence is enhanced in arrays. To cope with the wide diversity of array configurations. pairs of interacting turbines. but sufficient to cause measurable increases in fatigue damage rates. Four technical meetings have been held. Defining initial conditions for wake models . The experimental data and theoretical techniques were brought together in a benchmark exercise based around Niisudden (Sweden) for the evaluation of single wakes and Tendpipe (Denmark) for the evaluation of windfarm models. It is recommended that further work be considered in the following areas: . Wake-induced blade loads and rotor fatigue within windfarms 19 . Windfarm performance in hilly terrain . again less than earlier model studies indicated. It then highlights the principal results and conclusions from the studies and assesses those areas where further work may be required. and the acquisition of considerable amounts of data from single turbines. The rePort outlines the national contributions to the Task and summarizes the work completed. Overlapping wakes and rules for superposition .3 Task IX Intensified studv of wind turbine wake effects This Task was set up in 1985 as a flow-on from the earlier Task V study of wake and cluster effects. and from full size windfarms. coordinated by the UK Central Electricity Generating Board. Local flow effects and atmospheric stability . Array energy losses are real and significant at spacings below 7 diameters. The final report was issued in August 1. .and machine-specific factors have a very strong influence on array behaviour.

and The large body of data which is building up from existing windfarms the the|reticaf models now in existence would form a firm base upon which to build studies in these areas. Particip ating organisations Belgium RUCA AntwerP Denmark Riso National LaboratorY Italy ENEL Netherlands TNO Spain Universidad Politecnica de Madrid Sweden University of UPPsala United Kingdom Central Eiectricity Generating Board (later National Power Plc) ETSU for the DePartment of EnergY Garrad-Hassan Consultants United States Department of EnergY Operating Agent UK Central Electricity Generating Board.later National Power plc 20 .

as decided by the Executive Committee.t. The SC met twice during the report period. recommendations have been published in eight areus. So far.oced. The documents are available from the Operating Agent and selected representatives in the participating countries. This work may lead to a new document in the series of Recommended Practices. Topical Experts Meetings are arranged. for preparing proposals for revised or new recommendations. A Standing Committee (SC) is reviewing the needs for revising existing recommendations or for preparing new recommendations' The SC takes the necessary steps for setting up ad hoc exPert groups. Work on revised editions of Vol 2 Costing of Wind Turbine Systems. 27 . Vol 4 Acoustics. An expert group has been convened to evaluate anemometry issues in power performance testing (power curve). as agreed by the participants. acting in the Executive Committee. and Vol 8 Glossary of Terms made substantial progress during the year.4. see Table 1. The Task has two subtasks: A Development of Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation B Joint Actions As part of subtask B.4 TASK XI Base technology information exchange The objective of this Task is to promote wind turbine technology by co- operative activities and information exchange on R&D topics of common interest.es.1.L. Recommendeil practices for zoind turbine testing and eaaluation The aim of this subtask is to propose recommendations for wind turbine testing to address the development of internationally agreed test p.

proceedings of the 5th Symposium. four Joint Actions have been initiated: . the 6th Symposium was held on 30 November . Participation is by invitation from the national members of the Executive Committee. Measurement of Noise Emission from Wind Turbines 1984 1988 In prep 5 Electromagnetic Interference 1986 (Preparatory Information) 6 Structural Safety 1988 (Preparatory Information) 7 Quality of Power. Germany. held in December 7991. at the University of Stuttgart. Wind-Diesel Sysfems In the ]oint Action on Aerodynamics. Single Grid- Connected WECS 1984 8 Glossary of Terms 1987 In prep loint actions Joint Actions are set up by the Executive Committee in a specific research area of current interest. so far. The ]oint Actions have taken the form of workshops or symposia. Offshore Wind Svstems .4. were published during the report period. where a periodic exchange of information is deemed necessary. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines o Fatigue of Wind Turbine Blades . Table 1.1 December at ECN. 22 . / Documents in the series of Recommended Practices for Wind Turbine Testing and Evaluation Vol Title 1st Ed 2nd Ed 3rd Ed 1 Power Performance Testing 1982 1990 2 Estimation of Cost of Energy from Wind Energy Conversion Systems 1983 ln prep 3 Fatigue Characteristics 1 984 1989 4 Acoustics. the Netherlands.

Colorado.. see below. Proceedings are published by ihe German Contracting Party. topical expert meetings are arranged once or twice a year. The 22nd Topical Expert Meeting took place on 76-17 |une at DEWI. the KFA |tilich. Technical University of Denmark Germany KFA ]tilich Italy ENEA Norway NVE Netherlands ECN Spain CIEMAT/IER Sweden FFA United Kingdom ETSU United States Department of Energy Operating Agent Department of Fluid Mechanics of the Technical University of Denmark ZJ . USA.2. Attendance is by invitation through the national EC member. Colorado. No meetings in the ]oint Actions on Offshore Installations and Wind- Diesel Systems took place during the report period. This meeting also served as a Topical Expert Meeting. A complete list of the meetings held so far is shown in Table 1. Germany on the Effects of Environment on Wind Turbine Safety and Performance. a workshop was held on 15-16 October at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. P arti cip ating o r g anis at i on s Canada Department of Energy.3.In the |oint Action on Fatigue. as decided by the Executive Committee. on Fatigue of Wind Turbines. FulI- Scale Blade Testing and Non-Destructive Testing Methods. Wilhelmshaven. USA. Topical expert meetings In the framework of the Annex. Mines and Resources Denmark Department of Fluid Mechanics. and the number of participants is limited to a few per country. The 23rd meeting was held on 15-16 October at NREL.

I I Strategy and Problems 3-4 May 1990 London. Germany z Conlrol of LS WECS and Adaptation of Wind 4 Apr 79 Copenhagen. Eleclricity to the Network Denmark Data Acquisition and Analysis for LS WECS 26-27 Sep 79 Blowing Rock. Denmark '7 Costing ot Wind Turbines 8-19 Nov 81 Copenhagen B Safety Assurance and Ouality Control of LS WECS 26-27 May 82 Stockholm during Assembly.4.Sweden t or Variable Speed I 22 Eflects of Environment on Wind Turbine Safety 1 6-'l7 June Wilhelmshaven.Table 1. Special Respect to Fatigue Design Sweden Environmental and Safely Aspects 25-26 Sep 80 Munich. ltaly i I 17 Integrating Wind Turbines into Utility Power Systems 1 1-12 Apr 89 Herndon.2 IEA Wind Energy Expert Meetings 1 Seminar on Struclural Dynamics 12 Ocl78 Munich. Germany LS WECS lnstallations i 16 I Requirements for Safety Systems for LS WECS 17-18 Oct 88 Rome. Calilornia Wind Installations 11 General Environmental Aspects 7-9 May 84 Munich. UK 'I 0 Utility and Operational Experience from Maior 12-14 Oct 83 Palo Alto. Netherlands 14 Modelling ol Atmospheric Turbulence for Use in 4-5 Dec 85 Stockholm. Netherlands I I 19 Wind Turbine Control Systems . USA 4 Rotor Blade Technology with 21-22 Apt 80 Stockholm. Germany of the Present LS WECS o Reliability and Maintenance Problems of LS WECS 29-30 Apr 81 Aalborg. USA t i 1B Noise Generating Mechanisms lor Wind Turbines 27-28 Nov 89 Petten. Sweden t f for Wind Turbine Design I t 21 Electrical Systems for Wind Turbines with Constant 7-8 Oct 1991 Gothenburg. Erection and Acceptance Testing 9 Structural Design Criteria for LS WECS 7-8 Mar 83 Greenford. Sweden WECS Rotor Loading Calculations 15 General Planning and Environmental lssues of 2 Dec 87 Hamburg. Germany 12 Aerodynamic Calculation Methods lor WECS 29-30 Oct 84 Copenhagen 13 Economic Aspects of Wind Turbines 30-31 May 85 Petten. t and Performance I 1 992 Germany I 23 Fatigue of Wind Turbines. Full-Scale Blade Testing 15-16 Oct Golden. Colorado ] I and Non-Destructive Testino 1 992 USA t I I L at I . England I 20 Wnd Characteristics of Relevance 7-8 Mar 1991 Stockholm.

Representatives of the participants met on the following occasions: o d technical meeting.{ measurement campaign. DEWEK 92. 3-5 |une. Seven organisations from three countries are participating: Germany Forschungszentrum ]iilich GmbH (KFA).5 Task XII Universal wind turbine for experiments (UNIWEX) UNIWEX is a computer-controlled. 8-10 July on the testfield r Two EC meetings (28-29 April. Alghero. two-bladed experimental wind turbine of 16 m rotor diameter installed at the tllrich Hi. Institute for Computer Applications (ICA). Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden (FFA) Operating Agenh Institute for Computer Applications (ICA). Italy. on 28-29 October. TU Delft r . Stork Product Engineering (SPE).30 October.1. Germany. CDC DG XII JOULE Programme. Netherlands NetherlandsEnergyResearchFoundation(ECN). as well as the validation of computer codes. The main technical activities are listed below. Alghero. Sweden NUTEK (NE). Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. Germany and 29-30 October. University of Stuttgart. University of Stuttgart. load spectra and control strategies for different hub concepts. 25 .itter wind test field near Schnittlingen. Germany o Wind Energy R&D Contractors Meeting. The main goals of the project are the experimental study of aerodynamics. Wilhelmshaven. operational behaviour. Italy) . Delft University of Technologie (OUT).

r for pitch. The results are shown in Figure 3. only a few representative ones are shown here: . upwind and downwind operation. tilt angles of -7. since the results are given in [19]. +7. the turbine operated unstalled and for the higher pitch setting stalled. Do*r." bending moments could be observed' .tower By simultaneously changing the tower and nacelle tilt angle. A part of them were measurement campaigns for the Dutch participants foi further verification of their simulation software. Constant versus variable rpm (lambda = constant) For downwind operation with lambda = 10 and zero coning. zo . Distance rotor plane . . rotor tilt angle. With increasing angle the amplitudes of the flap bending moment increase. No remarkable influence on the flap-*i. keeping the rotor axis horizontal. and. The pitch angle was held constant at two different settings. b) ior different hub coniepts for pitch and stall control both for yawed and non-yawed conditions.0. Rotor tilt For a downwind configuration with lambda = 10. coning ingle under yawed conditions.rce between the bending moments for different wind speeds is smaller. o Coning angle under yaw conditions For the downwind configuration with lambda = 9 and two different coning angles (0o.stalled/unstalled. such as ro[or-tower distance.ocities. This means that for the smaller setiittg. Germany Experiments During the whole year 1992 a lot of measurements were made with the UNIW1X turbine. For constant rPm ih" diff"t".wind/upwind.n. whereas the mean values decrease. 70) the flap bending moments were evaluated for relative wind directions of -35o / 0o / +35o. the flap bending moments were monitored at different wind vel. for both constant and variable rpm (see Figures 1 and 2)' As could be expected. a) for the rigid hub configuration over the variation of typical parameters. the mean values and amplitudes are proportional to v2. the mean distance beiween the rotor plane and tower was varied. yaived op"r"iio. +15 degrees were investigated. The maioritv of the measurements considered the reaction of the turbine. .At ICA/University of Stuttgart. stall. which delivered apfroximately the same power. in the constant lambda case. yawed/unyawed The turbine was oPerated for yawing angles of -40o /0o / +40o in upwind and downwind configuration at lambda = 4. constant versus variable rpm.

Icing of rotor blades under stalled conditions Wit[ incoming fog at low ambient temPeratures the leading edges of the blades accumulated ice and at = 40 % chord length and an ice-trace of = 3 mm thickness reaching from the blade section with maximum thickness to the tip could be observed. yawed In Figure 4 the reduction in the flap bending moment for a teetering hub compared to a rigid hub operated under 30o yaw is demonstrated. For most of the measurements Rainflow and Markov evaluations were performed. see Figure 7. Based upon the re-idealised components. flap amplitudes are higher. the loads consequently lower. The investigations were conducted for the rigid. The deviations in the first 10 blade eigenfrequencies between the numerical model and the measurements could be reduced to less than 3 Vo. Numerical simulation The re-idealisation of the blade [16]. r Some aerodynamic effects Hysteresis effects were detected for stalled operation and are documented in [12]. see Figure 5. The lowest eigenfrequency was therefore lowered to 4. see Figure 5. A vibration test was simulated. the flap angles are slowly reacting on slow wind speed transients. Teetering hub. The old model had deviations of = 10 Vo in the flap modes and = 20 7o in the lead-lag modes. whereas thJ load amplitudes over one revolution are acting on the structure.. teetering and the individually flapping hub concepts (7o coning). The rotor torque was reduced a factor of two. simulation of the aeroelastic behaviour of different configurations of the UNIWEX wind turbine was performed by means of the ARLIS code and laid down in [14] and [18]. For weak damping.53 Hz from 5. as long as the bumps are not hit. Selected measurements 27 . The total turbine. e Free flapping blades If the fllpping motions of the blades are strongly darnped.67 Hz for the old OPTIWA nacelle. The nacelle had to be remodelled due to significant hardware changes. the results are given in Table 1 together with those from the corresponding measurements. the nacelle [2] and the total turbine [3] based on geometric. braked and in its rigid hub configuration. static and dynamic measurements. is now documented. . was re-idealised using all updates. Non-stationary effects in the axial downwind flow were provoked by pitch variations and monitored.

It can be seen from Figure 8 that the mean values for rigid and teetering hub are almost the same. tower and rotor fjftln. they react in a similar way to unsymmetric rotor loads. the aeroelastic simulation 174. On the experimental side the calibration methods [4.27] have been prepared.8'1. Outside the project. Correspondence was quite good and seems to be sufficient for qualification of the code. An operation with lambda = 8 was simulated. the total plant [3]. This is due to the fact that. the bending moment is dose to zero. . Flap displacements over one revolution Whereas the rigid hub exhibits only small elastic blade tip excursions (see Figure 9). the blade loads with the parametric coning.'t5. tower wake) and therefore has considerably smaller amplitudes than the rigid hub. the two other hub concepts show (apart from their mean values) a very similar behaviour.'1. . whidr means that v* . With this in mind. as it should be. Documentation ln 1992 much of the work performed in the course of the project has been documented. The teetering hub reacts with teeter excursions on asymmetric rotor loads (wind shear. reports on the blade [16]. Flap-wise bending moments Figure L0 shows the moments at radial position r = 1 m. Flap displacements over O In Figure 8 amplitudes and mean values of the flap-wise blade tip displacements are given versus O (rpm). as a result of their design philosophy. the power coefficients under yawed configurations [9] and aerodynamic effects [12].O. . For the flapping blades. measurements and their evaluation [8] were documented. whereas for the amplitudes teetering and flapping hub behave in the same way. the nacelle [2]. The two answers on the tower wake can be seen at t/T -% Vo and75 Vo.5]. 28 . the evaluation software [6]. the code [11. simulations covering the whole operational rpm-range of the LINIWEX turbine (3 < O < 8 rad/s) were conducted for the three hub concepts mentioned before. Only a few highlights of the results can be given here. On the simulation side.for each of the hub concepts were simulated both for (almost) steady state cases and gusts. whereas the rigid hub exhibits only one large answer. an application [22] artd a parameter study in the context with ARLIS [14 were documented. The final report is nearing completion and will be published in 1993. Specific topics were the determination of data needed for the numerical models [10].

a number of runs is being used for validation of the load prediction computer programs used by the Dutch participants. Conclusions and outlook Both the testbed UNIWEX and the simulation software developed for aeroelasticity have proven their usefulness. Finally a number of pitch controllers for constant speed operation were designed by the Delft University of Technology on the basis of a derived "experimental" model. control type. the 290 experimental runs at present available to the Dutch participants have been organized in a database structure. DUT and SPE. Aero- 29 . demonstrating the technology transfer to industry already achieved' The UNIWEX turbine became integrated in several new research projects of the Commision of European Communities (Dynamic Inflow. exising of transfer functions obtained from specially designed measurements. the user can select campaigns of specific interest for further analysis. depending on flapping stiffness and tip speed ratio. together with the global operation conditions (hub type. such as the relation bet- ween input and loads. For each data channel. 3) Design of controllers and experimental validation of their behaviour. This software was successfully applied to seven different commercial wind turbines. So far it has been possible due to unknown damping applied during the measurements to maintain operation. the Netherlands The Dutch participation in the UNIWEX progamme considers the following tasks: 1) Experimental study of system dynamic behaviour for different rotor and drive train concepts. For example. Specific topics of interest are teeter stability limits and soft blades in flap or in plane direction.At ECN. etc). The total work done by the Dutch participants to this Annex will be reported in the beginning of 1993. With the help of the database. A number of analyses are being performed on the basis of these data. the mean value. average tip speed ratio. In order to facilitate the analysis of the different campaigns. A number of controllers were successfully applied to the UNIWEX. 2) Validation of computer programs used for the design of wind turbines or components. the standard deviation and the range of measured quantity are recorded in the database.

update to be published A Huber. Beschreibung der programme zur Auswertung und darstellung der Messdaten im Projekt UNIWEX. to be published H Arnold. Der Einfluss von Konuswinkel. 1992 H Arnold. Dynamische Analyse der Rotorgondel der UNlWEX-Versuchswindturbine mit Hilfe der Methode der finiten Elemente (ASKA). lan "1992 I J Argyris. ICA-Bericht Nr 38. Dynamische Analyse der TNIWEX- Versuchswindturbine mit Hilfe der Methode det finiten Elemente (ASKA). Universitiit Stuttgart. parallel computing). ICA-Bericht Nr 33. ICA-Report Nr 39.992 30 . ed. Interner ICA-Bericht. H Schwartz. H Schwartz. Universitdt Stuttgart. 1992 I jArgyris.5. I i I Acoustics).. Interner ICA-Bericht. 1992 H Schwartz. ICA-Bericht Nr 37.und Rotorachsneigung auf die Blattbelastung bei einer Windturbine mit starrer Nabe. Universitdt Stuttgart 28. ETSU. Universal Wind Turbine for Experiments (UNIWEX). Publications 1992 : . M Mtiller. H Schwartz. A Hopf. K A Braun. H Schwartz. 1. IJniversitdt Stuttgart. Universitdt Stuttgart. Universi tiit Stuttgart. For the future. thus justifying the intellectual and material investments of ll the last years. Calibration methods and measurement of characteristic data of the UNIWEX wind turbine. 1992 H Arnold. Universitiit Stuttgart. Turm. K A Braun. The turbine could and should be used for further in-depth ta experimental investigations. 1992 H Arnold. Kalibrierungen an der UNIWEX- Windturbine. Proceedings of the Fifth IEA Symposium on the Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines. ICA-Bericht Nr 3L. K A Braun. Diplomarbeit. A Hopf. K F McAnulty. Power coefficients measured on the UNIWEX wind turbine at different pitch and realtive yaw angles.799'J. Zwischenergebnisse UNIWEX - Eine Sammlung von Messreihen samt vorlaufiger Auswertung. it would be highly desirable to implement recent developments into the numerical code (aerodynamics.

Diplomarbeit. 1992 17 L Holzer.und Postprocessing. Oktober 1992 31 .i . 1992 11 K A Braun. Germany 14 A Finkel. Benutzerhandbuch. 28-29 April 1992. Proceedings 79 H Arnold. H Schwartz. AeroelastischeSimulation der UNIWEX Windturbine. Universitdt Stuttgart 1992 1. Universitiit Stuttgart 1992 18 ] Argyris. Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. Satus report on UNIWEX given at the 29th IEA R&D Wind EC meeting. Einfluss der verwendeten generalisierten Freiheitsgrade auf die Ergebnisse einer aeroelstischen Simulation der Versuchswindturbine UNIWEX. Universitdt Stuttgart. Studienarbeit.ARLIS. Universitiit Stuttgart. AFinkel. Wilhelmshav en. I :' 10 H Arnold. Universitdt Stuttgart. A Finkel. ICA-Bericht Nr 30.identification. evaluation. simulation. 28-29 Oktober 1992. ICA-Report No 36. H Schwartz. M Mriller. H Schwartz. 1992 15 A Finkel. UNIWEX-Ergebnisse. Universitdt Stuttgart. K A Braun. 1992 12 H Schwartz.Messtechnische Ermittlung spezieller Daten der UNIWEX-Windturbine.j I. Pre. A Finkel. A Hopf. K A Braun. Ergebnisse aus experimentellen Parameter- und Konzeptstudien mit der Horizontalachsen-Windturbine UNIWEX. ]ahresbericht 1992 iiber die Aktivitdten der Universitdt Stuttgart auf dem lJlrich Hiitter Testfeld der Neckarwerke Esslingen. Simulation of the aeroelastic behaviour of different configurations of the LINIWEX wind turbine . 1992 13 HArnold. Computerunterstiitzte Auslegung der Struktur eines Windturbinen-Rotorblattes. Interner ICA-Bericht. ICA-Report No 40. ibid 20 K A Braun. Aerodynamic hysteresis found in post-stall at the UNIWEX wind turbine. Universitdt Stuttgart.6 H P Blatt. HSnel. Deutsche Windenergi e-Konferenz'1992. ICA-Bericht Nr 38. B Kirchgiissner.

Presentation in front of the OECD-group of experts on economic implications of information technologies. October 1992 22 A Finkel. December 1992. Numerical investigation of the aeroelastic behaviour. Simulation of the aeroelastic tehiviour of innovative wind turbines. A Finkel.71 I Argyris. . final report. AEOLUS II. Stuttgart. K A Braun.

. tr c o E {ooo. coning 0" zooo E E g g -zoa& . r600. ?000.o( rotoro ngle rotoro n gle Pig. rpm. E c P 1600. 2: Flap moments f<rr const. ?000. 1: Flap moments for ) = cortstt coning 0o Fig. 5800. 5: Free flap. 3000. 6: Free flap. P {600. . I I o o o 3c00. ?600. E uooo. 2200. weak clamping . 5200. 5q00. strong <lamping Fig. 1600. "t:t'""'"" OJ l"ig. ro00.oL too0. ?t00. 2200. 6C00. 5200. I 3c00.

... 3i00.>+' f. I c e g r{co.-. . taoo.(r) 55C0. . ttl 0. -aoo 'tn'ol 0. ---. Wlndrichlung o ll00. r. ttr E I 2r00. 0. Wndrlchlung _ tro. ro0. A r il0.400 tt00. _400 t00. E aaoo. {$0. Itoo. -. stalled uprvind. I o s 2r00. r00. o E 2t00. _ ral....t. +lQo . . stalled down-wind.-. E :uo. _ rel. -i.l... .. -. tato. r00. unstalled (reduced cr) Fig. t200. \ c o P tr 2roo... - E P co rroo. 3: Flap-wise bending moments for dillerent modes of operation (coning 0") .. \< t1200.. unstalled (reduced c) tt00. rtoo.. rotorongl€ rotorongta down-wind. 3500. o o E atoo. 3500. .... -r00. N' . Wlndrichlung _ I A 0 2100. {100. rotorongl! rotoronglc rrpwirrd. h . oo t{00. ggo oo co c . 49o lm.

.5 Hx (2. (9. 2.3 Hz ..2 Ez .3 Hs (9.04 llz 6. 9.0 H. llcExlloo€ (l-1.24 tlz 1. ' {.29 Hz 9.02 llz 6.3 Ha) l0 9.0 Fr (9.55 llt {.35 Hz) 5 4. ' 6.. t 9.0 llz) J 3. . 10.t Hz) 6 6.51 Xtl Fig. Eigenftequcnren FE-Rechnung I lt"oung 2.3(f yaw UNIWEX tutbirrc (braked. 3'07 Hz) 1 4.6 Ut ({.51 Hr 2. Tab.6 llz) 2 2.96 llr 10.3Hr (4.9 Hz (2.. i0l0i EinxE clotto i..0 Hr (2.6 !lz) .0 Br (5. l. 10.9 llz .. .03 Hz 3. 2.9 Hz .8 Hz .2. 3. l: Calculated and tttesured eigenfrc<luencie for the stalled. '. 7: First eigenmode of the UNI\\:EX turbine 35 .3 Hz) Fig.2 Hr) 6..4 ltr (6. rigid) u[trEr-ruilllG (0e. ' 6.90 H. . l: Flap moments for rigid and teetering hub.03..{ l|r .35 Hr . l99ll itct0 HU!.93 llz r0.5 tlz .9r Hz ..t llr) 9 9.9 Hr .

30 ? -0.er wake -0. r0 -1000 -t500 -0. S: Flap-rvise displacements of the blade tip versus O -t000 -tto -1000 Fig. t5 nop|m 0.30 -5@ -0. l0: Flap-rvise bending moments . 9: Flap-rvise displacements of the blade tip versus time IJ to$.E 0.t0 cnrpL o[n{/rl -0. to Fig. l0 -0.20 I 0 -0. t3 0. -0.00 0.20 -0. eo 0.60 -asa Fig. ?! E -0. [0 hra hl.50 zE -aooo -0.[5 0.

3/ .1. A list of currently designated participants and Contact Persons is attached as Table 1. The special Annex XIII workshop The most important activity this year was the workshop for Contact Persons and Participants which was hosted at the offices of the Research Association of Danish utilities (DEFU) in Lyngby. In order to participate in the Task. consideration of ease of collection. These persons will be in a position to help in collecting and reporting the data needed by the Task. For the purpose of this Task. Fifteen persons were present at the workshop with representation from eight of the ten Annex member countries.1.6 Task XIII Co-operation in the development of large-scale wind systems Introduction The purpose of this Task is to further the development of large-scale wind turbine systems (LWTS) by means of co-operative action and exchange of information on the planning and execution of national LWTS research. and discussion of problems of sensitivity and proprietary data. construction and operation of at least one LWTS. it is necessary that a country engage in national projects on the development. development and demonstration programmes. The Implementing Agreement specifies that each Participant should designate one or more Contact Persons for his country who have familiarity with some aspect of wind energy. An important component of the organization for this Task is the network of wind specialists called Contact Persons. decided on a plan for the organization and use of Contact Persons.5. Denmark on 11 September 1992. At the end of its meeting the workshop had approved a set of forms and procedures for data collection. a LWTS is defined as either a single large turbine or a group of smaller turbines with a combined power of approximately 1 MW or more. This work entailed detailed examination of technical definitions. The broad purpose of the workshop was to form a consensus among the participating countries on the form and content of the material which each country agrees to supply to the Task. and agreed on definitions of the material being collected.

Other workshop results Numerous other matters to ensure uniformity were handled during the workshop. this Participant will Present the packet to the Operating Agent or his representative at the next regular Executive Committee meeting. or could be in routine operation if there were wind. Incidents or accidents involving LWTS will also be reported on a voluntary basis under Annex XIII. 38 . is its availability. They are: 1 National energy summary form z Regional energy summary form (optional) J Wind farm data forms A Prototype wind turbine forms 5 Commercial wind turbine forms The data collection procedure instituted by the workshop is as follows: Blank forms are distributed directly to each Contact Person in each country. In view of the potentially sensitive nature of this type of report. A few typical examples follow: One of the definitions examined was wind machine aaailability. it was decided to let each member or contact person choose the method of reporting. When that Participant has received all of these completed forms. namely. Another agreement was that energy output or power leael is the energy output or power level measured at the point of delivery to the grid or external interface. This person will fill in the required information in his area of expertise and forward these forms to the Annex Participant for his country. either as a formal A/I report or an oral report to the EC. The accident/inicident report form allows Annex members to report unusual events involving their wind turbines in a confidential and timely manner to the other members. After the editing and supplementation that he deems necessary. During a given period. This definition is independent of whether wind is Present or not.Data forms The workshop attendees agreed on the format of a set of data sheets for each of the five areas of interest for Task XIII. and not the total energy output or power level produced by the wind farm or machine. the fraction of that period during which the machine is in routine operation. he will judge whether the complete set represents the appropriate balance of information for his country.

Government funding is now approaching the equivalent of USO 185 million annually for &D&D. This includes market development incentives in several countries' 39 . Wind Energy Research.5. This milder category would encourage the exchange of technical data of possible use to fellow Annex memberi. This material is an abridgement of the material on the completed forms which were just received and which is now being merged into the Annex data base.3. Development and Demonstration Government Funding has been compiled for all the countries who are participating in the R&D Wind Agreement.During the workshop it was suggested to add a third category to the A/I classification. namely that of "break down". Accident/incident reporting would still be available and would prove to be valuable in preventing rePeat problems. and is shown in Figure 1. Information from the Participants is now being processed and merged in preparation to dissemination back to the Annex Participants early in the new year' The updated Summary Table for Large Wind Systems i-s shown in the attachld table (p 42). packets of input forms were distributed to the Contact Persons and Participants prior to the Autumn Executive Committee meeting. Other information In accordance with the agreement at the Annex workshop. Note that total funding for member countries for 1992 has increased 12 percent over the previous year.

Denmatk COUNTRY ANNEX CONTACT PARTICIPANT PERSON Canada R S Rangi Ms M Jones Energy.1 Names and affiliation of Annex Xltl Participants and Contact Persons. Mines and Resouces Renewable En€rgy Info Center AWatts Energle Eolienne.und Prozesstechnik 40 .N. Listed bY country. Technologie AG Mr Benndorl Pr6ussenElektra Hauptvorwaltung GlGprn Jade Wndenergie GmbH Dr Brauer Messerschmidt-Bdlkow-Blohm Energie.A. National Renewable Energy Laboratory Consullant B Rasmussen Wind Energy Consultant.S.Tabte 1.6. Institute de rechErche d'Hydro-Queb€c Denmafi B Maribo Pedersen K S Hansen Technical University of Dept of Fluid Mechanics Denmark Gemarry R Windheim J P Molly Forsohungszentrum DEWI J0lich GmbH G Dantr Uberlandrrerk Nord-Hannover MrNrz Windenergiepaft Westk0ste Mr Hoppe-Kilpper Institute fur solare Energie- versorgung Mr Postmeyer Husumer Schilfswerft Dr Boullion PreussenElektra Windkraft AG G Huss M. Chairman W G Stevenson Scottish Hydro-Elec{dc plc Operating Agent PWGafin U.

Dept of Energy Seawest Energy Group Ltd W Steely Pacitic Gas & Electric Co MWMiller HERS Wnd Farm A Mikhail Zond Systems Inc 41 .Italy ESesto GBotta CREL ENEL ENEL CREL Netherlands HGDouma JHBBenner NOVEM Communicatie En Adviesbureau Nonray ESolberg JHernes Nonregian water Resources Nord-Trondelag and Energy Administration Elektrisitetsverk S Kotheim So r-To ndelag Kraltselskap T A Nygaard Institutt for Energiteknikk Spain ESoria FAvia Instituto de Energias Instituto de Energias Renovables Renovables Sweden O Sandberg KAverstad NUTEK AB VATTENIAII United Kingdom WGStevenson JBea Scottish Hydro-Electric plc Power Technology Center M B Anderson Renewable Energy Systems UnitedStales DFAncona M Haller U.S.

o 2a27 r7.0 60.0ffi5001 ri/D clr twrq SPAIN ASINEL.0 1662 16.itrHd tut.0 35.o 1590 750 S | 6/88 Pll 24& t26 I NSHB U.F N) WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS I.0 45.0 n. wg@uNo u GRP 60.0 35.O 3m S 197.o] 4s0 121A7 Pll | 6779 Und€n@O Opedon tdr oEFU GERMNY M.5.5 17. WEG LS-t H u S/GRP 0o.2 3a.0 Fi6t ol3unb NETHERLANOS HOLEC5M H u 35.d& NewBh&s m oEFv DENi.(Bl6d€) ro/!e la NETHERLANDS NL 5M WINOT'ASTER u GRP S.O 750 A 20.O 3m S 19r. a^nd xrll !@ w€'wsdEFrt A-ACPC/AC D6nb..0 47. MA. 516l GBP .o 47 o] I 9lt9 Pll 6i46 t313 F.@o A 9.o 6t.0 1s3 rt. I USA HAM.tun Fb. Opedbd ral oEFu DENMRK TJAEREE2MW 3 u cRp 60. IO'A €NBGI rilFo oi r* DwN talEi.0 92.K.A u wooo 4o.o Full Sps Pilcrt YFG.K. Sfherco whd EdqilO agmffil qt t on'reiut h*h.8 195a 9919 l12A tlu. No L63s )AtE G OWa.0 109S 43r9 737t | rc1u Ptr 47SA 6375 an2 NSHE u.O 40a2 6969 6a2l 2/83 Pll 11350 t200 top rs I SWEOEN reV wrs-3 6 o GRP 78.5.u ra GERUNY u.ARGER THAN sOOKW COUNTRY MACHINE SPECIFICATIONS ENERGY PRODTJCTION PERFORMA^ICE drs uP MtEo w€r6Hlw€rcH' (MWh) tota Hq OR AOTOi AOIF HUg SW€fr WINO MIEO TOPOF OF 1ofi Aval. CANAOA INOALTECHNOL 6400 A 21.) {tS ilE (rbut.o 7498 20.0.O t5O0. S .S 2@0 | 2O5.o 12s7 r4. Pll 4tm m0 Itl!7 rFc.2 1200 | ra6.ora Hl sEA src ilF GEN low8 Towa Wind Speed d lom INfqL O*EN' iuN moo.0 60.0 942 500 Fu[ Spo Pfrd NETHERLANOS sroFK-Foo NEwEcs-4s u GRP 45.-'- I U.O 47.o 630 r so.0 40.0 56.SUMER SCH.lm .O .o 50.^..2 r40o S Spdg C/l ] rrp tEA GERMANY MBB A€OLUS il u cRP 80.A.hbdd tuta S .nd ot kq )EAI STAGE OATE RCE gELGIUM WINOT'ASTER-WA u GRP .N.@ 23. HSW750 4O.8 c3s t766 2447 | 12t8 g1a 3& loo'*- gg!gp4!C_!!g Aoro' Mndd SlE4grlE sour: lt|lfubd Effity^gffiy P/a r turdF/.5 3200 C 265.0 4701 r300 r.0 2s27 r5.5 5@ A 25. HSW 750 3 u GRP/W 4O.o 7r.o 7so | 60.O 2827 12.0 1018 14.O 2376 rm lztoo Pl 2150 796 | .0 60.O t.0 5O..O 26r.A.ta.o 000 s 36.0 35.0 r r /r .o !256 13.0 a0.o 2ooo I 156.3 rao.C.0 31.o 750 | 4r.o 040 s 2ml Fdt'89 C/3 ] 1t. @tvENls INFO SOU- MEMBERS MANUFACIUFEA MOOEL v$l BIOS wlND iAL (h) (m) (64 {m/.0 2a27 12. STANOARO w'S-4 H o GRP 76.O 655 500 | 5/80 Cll 1W ra NETHERUNOS WINOMSTER WINDMASTTS u wE ao.H.2 12OO S {7O-O] 2e0 Fal 89 C/l ] ram 9$ tt/D ta GER['ANY MBB MONOPT. ?FO flF OEN['ARK SEVERAL NIAE. HOWOEN H u wE 55.2 522 | m. HOWDEN 7SO kW H a5.O s3. GI.K.s 6il2 164 14tA l'l Pl1 20561 2A7m I DF2 HAS l.0 (Rdod 39S 710s 92Sl 7167 ?!r trtro | CANADA SHAWINqN EOL-E S I 185 67S Adodic Vd.1 35.InMbn u{.{ 4778 r5. Sp€d Mod.0 r0OO | P ga 6.O iZA la.K. ol A r lsmhum CFP .6. ol 6&nh.0 I 1rs2 r3.2 102.0 63.ARK SEVERAL NBE_B 3 u wooo 40.O rs$ 750 S I s ra tQ/4 SWEDEN SWEDEN WAEBNER-MSB r{ASUDOEN Kr'A€RNEB.0 60.N.fudrhm.0 l" I ir/ol "rt rt{o i3m ts ta r0/& ra U.0 145.0 &. w€G LS -2 I tPt toFT ra u wE rtp! I U.5 ISOO A 95. I I LTD 5@l U.0 .o .O 2300 6/86 Pll 3/87 .01 9.o 12s7 rs. wg 60 3 u GRP &.oo 45. AWEC 60 H 3 u GRP 60. 50 I u cfiP 50.0 4aa3 8703 t11$ Plr t{n na47 M!gbtp & NUEX 17t62 SWEDEN HOWOEN TSkW H u wE 45.o 22eo 2@o S I DENMRK OWT WINOANE 40 3 u GRP/ri/.7 59.0 '93 lrta t4 GERMANY GERMNY TACKE rusOO u GRP 36. 8ob whd sph.0 r5S 13-9 lmo A 3r.O 75O A 20.0 2627 r3.so7 8/80 Plr I 256S r4r oEFu DENURK SEVERAL WINO D GRP s4.0 654.r Fh F. NEWTNCO N€W|NCO 500 H us34.0 77.o 5027 m 3000 s !500.s0 1256 r30 630 | 60.O '03 *' :::: '*' 9/9r Pl3 rltQ l tnt ra ITALY AERITALIA dMU 60 H u GRP 66.O 5027 3@O Fdro2 c/i ltm ta }{.N..3 595 18. | . 6/88 Od of OP.0 .r.7 r661 26e3 1r/s cls I l75m Avg.O 2B2t r7.0 4mO S tS.2 (Rdo4 2e7 602 64 5187 Cl2 | r Toltng New Folot & Clda. WESTINGHOJSE WWGM H u w€ 43.0 1257 r4.K.O 1257 14.MBB MSUODSN I I H H u u s ?5-o 4418 cRP &. usA VAWT EOEING sOOff MOO-58 u s 9o.O 45.K.O 60.o 1118 12.1 21. 21@ 550 mt4 SPAIN MADE 5m SWEDEN KMW A8 wTs -7s H u SIGRP 75. t- u GRP/W l":.0 5oo.0 15.

1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 and Switzerland Agency Source: Internatronat Energy YgafS *lncludes Investmenl Wrnd Energy Conversron Syslems Agreement or Operalrng Subsidres Executive Commitlee 10/92 cE10154.6. New Zealand.02 Figurel. DEVELOPMENT AI\TD DE MONSTRATION GOVERNMEIVT FUNDING LEGEND 180 l-] Belgium El Canada 160 E= CEC 140 El Denmark @l GermanY* 120 t'Z ltaly = o' a 100 El Japan @ Netherlands* . development and demonstration .80 E Norway e60 E Spain 40 E Sweden lM UniteO Kingdom 20 Ml United States 0 E Austria. WTND ENERGY RESEARCH.3 Government funding of wind energy research.

wind enery R&D began about 15 years ago. It has generated 470 000 kWh in 27 UB hours of generating time. The best current utility buy-back rate is about 0.052 CAD/kWh. Quebec. A considerable amount of technology base exists and technology development is continuing. It has generated 11 056 MWh of energy in 16 851 generating hours. The text is based on contributions by members of the Executive Committee as listed in the Foreword. The lack of commercialization of this and other designs in Canada is due to the poor domestic market resulting from the drop in oil prices. 2. In Canada. 44 .1 Canada In Canada.National activities This chapter overviews the wind energy R&D programmes and the status and prospects of wind energy utilization in the member countries with emphasis on large-scale applications. has been in operation since March 1988. The buy- back rates are likely to increase with increasing cost of conventional sources of energy. A number of Canadian designs of wind turbines have been successfully field tested. Owing to environmental concerns in the western countries. Currently in Canada at a good wind site the average cost is about 0. the activity in wind energy is now on the increase again. which would have been produced if the same amount of energy had been generated by fossil-fuelled plants. a number of utilities are responding to public pressure and have started to accept electricity generated by independent producers. Even with current buy-back rates. an agency set up by the provincial government of Alberta. With an availability of about 94 7o it has shown the feasibility of large-scale highly reliable VAWT technology. It has displaced about 250 to 450 tonnes of COz. four wind farms with a total installed capacity of 20 MW are to be installed in Alberta under the South West Alberta Renewable Energy Initiative (SWAERI).07 CAD/kWh. The cost of producing wind energy has been dropping steadily. a 50 kW vertical axis wind turbine designed by Indal Technologies of Mississauga has been in operation at Christopher Point on Vancouver Island since 1981. The 4 MW prototype machine EOLE at Cap Chat. For example.

Technology development . analytical tools and manufacturing facilities) and to make wind energy a safe. along with a discussion of the future plans for various elements of this Program. Technology development The major component of the wind energy program since its inception has been the development of Canadian-based technology. Wind turbine testing facilities . three companies were involved in the design and manufacture of wind 45 . The project is co-funded equally by Canadian Agra. Elements of the program The main elements and the current activities of the Canadian wind energy program are: . A private company.In the past.Wind technology is already economical in some remote Canadian communities. EMR and Ontario Hydro. in Prince Edward Island (with Atlantic Wind Test Site) and is planning a similar assessment in Saskatchewan. Outlined below are the goal and the main elements of the strategy for the Canadian wind energy R&D program. Funding The total federal funding for wind energy R&D for the year 7992/93 is about CAD 750 000. Technology transfer The program is administered by the Department of Energy. The current technology is being developed/modified to take advantage of this niche market. e. Resource assessment EMR is co-funding wind resource surveys in Alberta (with SWAERI and TransAlta Utilities). reliable and cost effective source of energy supply for the domestic and export market. is currently carrying out a resource assessment on their lands on the east shore of Lake Huron. Canadian Agra. Goal The goal of the Canadian wind energy R&D program is to establish a technology base in Canada (i. Mines and Resources (EMR). Resource assessment .

The Alberta Renewable Energy Test Site (ARETS) tests wind-water and photovoltaic-water pumping systems for agricutural applications.5 and 1 MCAD respectively. testing and evaluating an 80 kW Lagerwey wind turbine for manufacture under licence in Canada.67 MCAD project to demonstrate a community scale high-penetration wind/diesel system at the Atlantic Wind Test Site (AWTS).) Wind turbine testing facilities Current activities at AWTS include the validation of several simulation models for wind/diesel hybrid systems. Adecon Energy Systems and LavalinTech. has been building a Canadian-designed water-Pumping turbine and expects exPorts of about CAD 500 000 this year. Dutch Industries (DI) of Regina. Even though Indal had very successful designs. Adecon is still in the field. Wind/diesel development Hydro-Qu6bec has begun a three-year. Technology transfer EMR co-sponsors annual workshops in topics such as wind/diesel technology and industry updates.1. the new owners of LavalinTech.turbines: Indal Technologies. and testing and evaluation of new prototyPes. A private company (Lam. Saskatchewan. EMR and Hydro-Qu6bec are contributing about 0. An international wind/diesel workshop was held in june 1992in Prince Edward Island. it withdrew a few years ago due to lack of market. The department also supports the annual general meeting of the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA). 46 . one of the 10 MW wind farms in Southern Alberta. with AWTS contributing the balance (in Iabour etc. The company has obtained rights to manufacture the 80 kW Lagerwey turbine designed in the Netherlands. About 8 to 10 systems are tested annually. Benvest Capital.) have taken over the operation of Project EOLE and have expressed interest in designing and manufacturing wind turbines. and is assembling a 300 kW VAWT near Toronto. B6rub6 and Co. have withdrawn their involvement in wind energy as they do not have the necessary expertise. DI has also signed a contract to manufacture 44 towers for the Chinook project.

992. delayed due to planning difficulties. In |utland.2 Denmark Inttoduction The Danish programme for the development of large-scale wind turbines is sponsored jointly by the national government. The A machine is stall-controlled and the B machine has full-span pitch-control. Refurbishment of the 630 kW Nibe A wind turbine with a new 40 m stall- controlled rotor is completed. consisting of five 750 kW machines and operated by ELKRAFT. As of 1 December L992. The Nibe wind tutbines The two 630 kW wind turbines at Nibe in northwest |utland. the operating stastistics for the two Nibe turbines were as follows: Nibe A: Running time 7M7 hours Energy output 1613 MWh Nibe B Running time: 28 342 hours Energy output 7706 MWh 47 . ELSAM is proceeding with the test operation of the 2 MW Tjereborg wind turbine south of Esbjerg. As of 1 October 1992. A 1 MW prototype machine for Avedsre near Copenhagen is in the manufacturing stage and is expected to be ready for commissioning by the end of 1993.979/80. south of Zealand. the Commission of the European Communities and the Danish electric utilities. It was expected that a new 100 MW programme would be completed by the end of 1993. and the machine is now in test operation. were commissioned in'1. the total number of grid-connected small-scale wind turbines in Denmark. privately or utility owned.2. The development of private. The first 100 MW utility programme will be fully implemented by the end of 1. Reasonable pay-back rates and exemption from electricity taxation are now the main economic incentives. Both turbines have three-bladed 40m upwind rotors with active yawing. was 3347 and the total installed capacity was 437 MW. The energy generation during the first nine months of 1. The wind farm at Masnedo.992 was about 590 GWh. small-scale wind turbines is no longer promoted by investment subsidies. Nibe A and B. is in normal operation. however. This programme is. corresponding to 2.5 % of the Danish electricity consumption.

Due to blade malfunctions. 48 . the annual energy production per turbine will be about 1300 MWh. the regional power company of 7*aland. The availability is average for L992.0 years in order to test theii operition with the wood technology. oPerates a wind farm comprising five units of WnlOeNE 40. Since then this machine has operated satisfactorilY. Now the A machine has been provided with cantilevered. The same turbine experienced in Spring 1992 an overspeed accident (three times normal rpm) but no serious damage has been observed. laminated wooden blades. The first blades were made of a combined iron/fibreglass construction supported -by by nine bracing rods. % 38 89 94 91. The design of the new wind turbine is in many ways an improvement over the previous one. The average wind speed at the site is7. hrs 556 1'8 21' 454 22696 22912 Energy output. It has now been rebuilt and placed back into operation. The five Masnedo turbines were installed late in 1985. The Masneds wind farm ELKRAFT. the operating statistics were as follows: Turbine: MAV 81 MAV 83 MAV84 MAV 85 Running time. a small island close to the southern coast of Zealand. The main specifications for these machines are similar to those for Nibe B. and commissioning progressed well until October 1987 when a fire completely destroyed one of the turbines (MAV 82). Nibe A has been operating only a few hours since 1983. These blades were rather soon damaged metal fatigue. The design work was funded by the Danish government and the refurbishment by the ELSAM utility. MWh 4926 4792 5989 6707 Availability. It is intended to prolong the lifetime of both turbines by 7-1. In February 1984 the blades were replaced by three new 2b m laminated wooden blades. the blades of the B machine were fabricated with an outer sectlon made of fibreglass and an inner section of fibreglass shells attached to a tapered steel spar. Originally. As of 1 December "1992. The site is Masnedo. Power limitation is achieved by stall control. manufagtur-ed. Assuming ]00 ? availability.7 m/s at hub height (45 m).by "Danish Wind Technolog-y Ltd".

In August 1989. its gearbox failed by fracture of the main gear wheel. Later. As of 1 October 1. As a result of this.2. they have all been modified. The damaged parts were quickly replaced by the manufacturer. and the remaining three turbines are provided with new fibreglass blades. During 1992 outage time has mainly been caused by planned maintenance work. The pitch control system now seems to operate well. be operated in the stall mode. As a safety precaution. The Tjereborg wind turbine In 1988 ELSAM.992.Most of the turbines have had gearbox failures. the maximum power output of all turbines was for a certain period limited to 450 KW. Now two of the turbines are equipped with new wooden blades. Then some minor mechanical modifications will be made in order to change the operational mode to 49 . The site is the Avedsre power station 10 km south of Copenhagen. for a period of about one year. either at the site or in the workshop. Until recently provisional repairs were made. the regional power comPany of jutland and Funen. This is caused by friction between the bearing and the main shaft. Surface cracks have been observed in a number of turbine blades. but the installation of an improved bearing with better lubrication and cooling has now solved the problem. commissioned a2 MW wind turbine at Tiereborg south of Esbjerg on the west coast of ]utland. Operation and availablity over the last five years is illustrated in Figure 2. a LP sound from the first main bearing was observed. This machine has a 60 m upwind rotor with three pitch-controlled cantilevered 30 m fibreglass blades and a 1: 68 epicyclic gearbox. The 60 m tower is made of concrete. but only for a short time after a start from cold condition. The 2 mW generator is of the induction type. but then high temperature was found at the two bearings of the output shaft. The turbine will first. The mac\ine is now in the manufacturing phase. the machine had operated for 11 234 hours and generated 7708 VtWh of electricity."1. one year after commissioning. The cumulative time of availability was 16 353 hours. until the power control system was able to prevent excessive power peaks caused by wind gusts. This has further reduced the number of operating hours. and commissioning is scheduled for October 1993. The Avedore wind turbine ELKRAFT has designed a 50 m/1 MW wind turbine with blades that can be used in both pitch and stall control.

992 are. two types of towers are used: steel lattice towers or tubular towers. new accounting rules for wind-generated electricity came into force.pitch control.992. Small-scale wind turbines Data accumulated over the past six years for both private and utility- owned turbines are presented in Figure 2.2. a joint government/utility committee in cooperation with local authorities has recommended a number of suitable sites.450 kW have been commercially available. and the annual energy production was 730 GWh. committing them to install 100 MW in wind farms over the next five years. machines with ratings of 400 . There are no longer any installation subsidies. A measurement system will collect all relevant data during both periods. so this machine size is expected to be included in the range of commercially available machines rather soon. The corresponding numbers for L October 1.3 Vo of the Danish electricity production. This corresponds to 2. As a first step. an agreement was reached between the Danish government and the electric utilities. The agreement will. Utility wind farms In 1985. 50 . By the end of 1991. Generally. Stall regulation is still the most common means of power limitation. the implemen- tation of the 1990 agreement is at least one year delayed due to local opposition to wind turbines. 437 MW and 590 MWh (nine months period). however. the total number of grid-connected small-scale machines was 3230. although pitch control is gaining ground.082 ECU) per kWh delivered to the grid. in both cases they are 30 .3347 units. for which prototype testing is in progress. The power range is rapidly increasing. The utilities have asked for tenders of 1 MW machines. The latest development trend shows that the traditional "Danish design" concept is unchanged. There has been a delay caused by difficulties encountered in getting planning permissions. From that date the electric utilities pay private wind turbine owners DKK 0. By 1 November 1. and this will also soon apply to 500 kW machines. the total electrical capacity was 410 MW. The 1985 agreement will be followed by another 100 MW agreement (1990 agreement) to be implemented before the end of 1993. Despite this.65 (0. In 1992. be fully implemented by the end of 1992.35 m high.2.

AII wind turbines to be installed in Denmark after 7 luly 1992 must be approved and certified according to the new system. and subsequent servicing of the wind turbines.. quality procedure for manufacturing. New approval and cettification system In May a new approval and certification system for Danish wind 1991. safety levels. the cost of energy produced by this wind farm is estimated to be 50 % higher than for average inland sites. Although the specific energy output is expected to be about 60 Vo higher than foi onshore sites. transporting. turbines was introduced as a result of two years of preparation by the Danish Energy Agency. the Danish Wind Power Association and various insurance and certification companies. or about 1130 versus 700 kwh per m2 "ue. including a two year measuring Programme. fatigue evaluation. it is a condition for obtaining export guarantees from the Danish Wind Turbine Guarantee A/S that wind turbines must be approved and certified according to the new system. The manufacturers must also have a fully implemented and certified quality assurance system according to ISO 9002. The general purpose of the new approval and certification system is to improve the quality level of Danish wind turbines. The distance from the shoreline ranges from 1200 to 2400 m. assisted by the certification secretariat at Riso. were 10.ug" swept rotor area. Each turbine is rated at 450 kW and the hub height and rotor diameter are 37. installing. Furthermore. and the distance between turbines is approximately 300 m.5 MECU. the Test Station for Wind Turbines at Riso. The wind farm consists of 11 wind turbines in two rows.The experience and economy for Danish wind farms was outlined in the Annual Report 1991. power curves. The site is in the ELKRAFT area at Vindeby. The new approval and certification system is managed by the Danish Energy Agency. More recent data are not available. noise emission. the Danish manufacturers. Offshore wind farm The first Danish offshore wind farm was commissioned in mid 1991. The reported availability is higher than96 %. such as load cases and loads. The new system specifies requirements for documentation of all design criteria. The water depth varies between 2 and 5 m. 51 . northwest of Lolland in the Baltic Sea. The previous system of type approvals consisted mainly of a general design review and a review of the load and strength calculations.5 and 35 m respectively. The total costs of the project.

2.1 The Tjareborg wind turbine: operation and availability .s 100 80 60 N N s 40 ffi 20 0 F-NN 1988 1989 1990 1991 1110 92 ffi Op"tation N nvailability Figure 2.

2 Accumulated data for wind turbines in Denmark .2. iI Private turbines I Utility turbines 450 3500 800 400 700 3000 350 600 2500 300 500 250 2000 400 200 1 500 300 150 1 000 200 100 500 100 50 0 0 0 86 87 88 89 90 91 86 87 88 89 90 91 86 87 88 lnstalled Capacity Number of Turbines Electricity Production Figure 2.

1. non-utility electricity producers receive 90 % of the utilities' selling price of electricity according to a new law. and general issues. In addition. and optimized systems. Detailed knowledge of the wind as the source of energy is necessary since turbulence and other variations of the wind are the principal causes of fatigue loads and and resulting stresses for a wind turbine of any size. The results of this kind of research influence turbine design. advanced comPonents. the UNIWEX project at the University of Stuttgart aims at investigating improved design strategies in order to reduce investments and improve technical reliability.5. The machines are generally characterized by advanced rotor blades and 54 . The project titles indicate the relation to the underlying activities already mentioned. It has an airfoil of special quality (Wortmann FX84W) and a mass of only 2l ton. The same technology is used for the blade of Aeolus II (see below).2. They cover single-. see section 1. turbine development. applications. the develoPment of wind power is supported by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) since 1975. is made of composite fibre material (CFRP and GFRP) with supporting foam. Wind measurements using meteorological masts. Rotor stressing. For example. smoothness ol operation and aeroelastic behaviour are being studied both experimentally and numerically. Wind technology R&D covers the aerodynamics of the rotor blades. corresponding to the height of the top of the rotating blade (130 m for Aeolus II.6 ton. R&D activities now concentrate on advanced medium-sized machines and on new large-scale wind turbines (LS WECS) [1]. two. the 28 m blade for the 640 kW Monopteros 50 wind turbine. wind technology R&D. The general objective of these supports is to develop reliable wind energy conversion systems (WECS) and to stimulate the commercialization of wind Power through demonstration projects and the large scale "250 MW Wind" programme. the blade weight is reduced from 21 ton for the Swedish Niisudden I to about 9.3. Examples of LS WECS developments and applications are shown in Table 2.3 Germany Introduction In Germany.and three-bladed turbines. and by the Federal States.and large'scale WECS are: wind measurements. see below) and numerical modelling have been carried out and are continuing. This project is a cooperative task in the IEA R&D Wind Agreement. The main activities on medium. developed by MBB. The table includes medium-sized turbines of advanced design. structural dynamics. For example.

3. for the installed turbines. General R&D issues include studies of environmental impact (noise) and safety. se Table 2. called WMEP. as the manufacturer MBB has stopped wind energy activities. A successful experimental unit. The aim was an advanced concept of a single-bladed wind turbine with a counterbalance. especially in the German coastal states. and carried out by Germanischer Lloyd and Garrad Hassan and Partners Ltd. having a rated power of 1. which includes similar turbines in Denmark. Detailed evaluation of projects from WMEP should contribute to the above mentioned main activities aiming at further development of wind technology. as proposed by F X Wortmann. Spain and the United Kingdom. funded by the CEC. The first machine. and technical support for the certification of wind turbines. The advanced technical concePts will hopefully lead to a further decrease of the generating costs. A new wind map including Eastern Germany. The new 640 kW Monopteros 50 has a soft tower and a generator system with a speed range. The three Monopteros 50 were completed in 1989. The status of the 250 MW programme is described below. Monopteros 400. Wind measurements at the ]ade Windpark with a 130 m mast is supporting the measuring programmes for the Monopteros turbines and the Aeolus II.1 and 2. has been published by the German Weather service. formed the basis for the the projects "Adaptation development for Monopteros 50" and "jade Windpark: 3 MonoPteros 50".3. A steel shell tower with no guys allows a wide operational flap angle from . regional wind resource planning is continuing.1. recently considered with respect to the new Federal States in Eastern Germany [2J.3.2 MW. Further development is uncertain.9 to + 20 degrees for the downwind rotor. In addition.me is accompanied by a ten-year scientific measuring and evaluation programme.improved mechanical design as well as optimized operational behaviour. near Bremerhaven with a rated power of 400 kW. WKA 60 The WKA 60 is a typical representative of the European one-megawatt class of three-bladed wind turbines. was installed on the 2 km2 55 . the Netherlands. Also worth mention- ing is the "Study of Offshore Wind Energy in the European Community". the BMFT and the UK Department of Energy. see Tables 2.2. The 250 MW Wind Prograrr. They also cover assessments of the wind energy potential in the FRG. Monopteros This line of development started already in the seventies.

The electric system thus consists of a synchronous generator. Even if the machine is of "conventional" design. The new energy supply system was realized in the framework of the "Demonstration Programme for Wind Energy" of the CEC.S m/s annual mean wind speed at tO m). The turbine is in normal service since April/May 1990. Results from a special wind measurement Programme with an 80 m lattice tower will supplement existing wind data. The island's main energy supply system consists of diesel units (2 x 1. The main aim of the advanced development for AWEC-60 is a further reduction of the generating costs.2.3. it still takes into account the special conditions of the island. At the end of '1997. a blade was partly damaged by a lightning stroke. the design of the glassfibre reinforced blades and the control strategy. Cooperation with the German Partner 56 .T.2 MW three-bladed machine.island of Heligoland. The CEC also supported the Spanish-German machine AWEC-60. including a heat pumP and a desalination plant. The turbine is erected in the harbour near the mole. Table 2. based in principle on WKA 60 but including some important innovations in the framework of Spanish-German cooPera- tion. influence the load assumptions for the rotor (height of rock: 50 to 60 m.992 to 17 September "1992 the energy production was 720 000 kwh.3. This is also a 1. The GRFP blade was not Protected against lightning and the nearby 80 m lattice tower was not affected by the stroke. including the new WKA 60 II turbine. Special wind conditions. The annual output is estimated at 5. This is evident particularly in the subsys- tems. the AWEC-60 project has an R&D character.1 GWh (907o availability.33 GWh. caused by the island's steep sindstone rock.992 for repair of the blade. The concrete foundations are about 10 m offshore in approximately 5 m deep water. The wind turbine operates in parallel to the diesel units and is equipped with a special "shaft-driven" generator system of a type often used on ships.5 MW. Since the shaft speed can vary between wide limits.7 MW for electricity) with waste heat utilization. Total energy produced to 17 September 1992 is 3. see below. located 65 km NW of Cuxhaven in the Heligoland Bight. The minimum electric Power demand is about 1 MW and the maximum 2.3 shows a comparison of the WKA 60 and AWEC-60 turbines. The turbine was out of operation until May 1. distance from turbine: 900 m in the direction of 300 to 350 degrees). regarding meteorology and the energy system available. such as the electrical system. a frequency converter system is needed to supply constant frequency. From 1 June 1. a static inverter and a rotating phase shifter' WKA 60 was completed in Autumn 1989. see Table 2. Contrary to the demonstration project WKA 60.

Rheinisch-westfiihlische Electricitdtswerke AG). Site: )ade Windpark near Wilhelmshaven in Lower Saxony. Dezentrale Energiesysteme GnbH. o An advanced WKA 60 II.3.A. delivered the drive train. PreussenElektra has shifted its wind energy activities to two new companies. Further knowledge of the long-term behaviour of the turbines and the expected decrease in generating costs will also be obtained.Ntirnberg. based on the Swedish 2 MW Ndsudden I machine on the island of Gotland in the Baltic. . the coastal states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein agreed to share the installation costs in the ratio PreussenElektra/BMFT/coastal state = 50/25/25.consisted of adaptation of the WKA 60 concePt to Spanish conditions and of R&D work for the innovative subsystems mentioned. the PreussenElektra Windkraft Niedersachsen GmbH and the PreussenElektra Windkraft Schleswig- Holstein GmbH. 57 .1.3. the activities cover photovoltaics (300 kW up to 1 MW in a later phase. and developed in Swedish/German cooperation. see below). see Figure 2. AWEC-60 was completed in Autumn 1989.'1. the utility PreussenElektra has been engaged in a wind energy programme for electricity production by the operation of advanced LS WECS.989. based on WKA 60/ AWEC-60 technology. the BMFT. In addition. Solar-Wasserstoff Bayern GmbH). the developer of the WKA 60.N.A.3. now M.987. Wind energy programme PreussenElektta Since the beginning of 1. has abandoned further wind energy activities. The programme is part of recent activities by several German utilities to investigate renewable energy sources in an advanced approach. the German manufacturer. M. In the meantime. A planning phase for the following LS WECS demonstration projects has been running since May 1987 and was completed in December 1. and wind/solar supported pumped storage plant (Hamburger Electricitdtswerke AG. see Figure 2.2. Site: Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog in Schleswig Holstein on the foundation of Growian.N. solar energy in combination with hydrogen technology (several 100 kw plant with 350 kW photovoltaics. Two special LS turbines are now erected: o An advanced Aeolus II.In the meantime. Projects in connection with the wind energy Programme are listed under heading 3 in Table 2. In particular. In particular. PreussenElektra AG proposed to install and operate two LS WECS at two different German coastal sites. PreussenElektra.

2. Operation of the turbine started in September 1992. It is a 400 kW wind turbine with a direct-driven generator without gearbox.3 %) and the BMFT (20. Aeolus II was installed in August '1.992. The main design data are shown in Table 2.3.5 MDEM). Wind/solar energy supported pumped-storage plant In this case. see map in Table 2. The utility plans to suPPort the filling of the basin with a pump. The variable speed of the rotor ranges from 15 to 37 rpm.3. It will be installed in ]anuary 7993 at the test site in Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog.1.8 million m3 basin on a ridge 85 m above the river Elbe. WKA II was erected in late Summer 1991. wind turbine. At the same time the plant will serve as a reference with a considerable potential for application around the world.3.3. New medium-sized wind turbines E-35 is a new development by the manufacturer Enercon. manufachrred by The HM-Rof or-300 is a vertical-axis Heidelberg Motor and erected at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog Wind Test 58 . The rated power is 750 kW at 14 m/s wind speed. The turbine is integrated in the 3. HSW 750 is a three-bladed upwind machine with a rotor diameter of 40 m and a rated rotational speed of 39 rpm. The three- bladed rotor has a diameter of 36 m and the hub height is approximately 40 m. The Power of the plant is 120 MW and the capacity 600 MWh. The aim of the project is to demonstrate the combined oPeration of different subsystems.2. about 20 km east of Hamburg.5. a special filter for higher electri- city harmonics was developed and installed in WKA II to guarantee a good power quality.992 and is operated by the Energieversor- gung Weser-Ems AG (EWE). will be used. The wind power will be delivered by a turbine of about 500 kW rated power.The site of the two turbines are marked on the map in Table 2. see Figure 2.3. The hub is fixed and the rotor tips are pitch-controlled.3 MW Windpark Hamswehrum. HSW This is the largest wind turbine to be built by Husumer Schiffswerft.3.7 7o = 1. The project is delayed and first rotation of the wind turbine is expected in late 1993.2. The owner is Hamburger Electricitdtswerke AG. see Table 2. see No. This is a 2. the already existing pumped-storage plant Geesthacht. driven by electricity from wind. Enercon plans to enlarge the concept up to 1 MW. 8 in Table 2. A 60 kW photovoltaic unit will supply Power for the control system.3. The BMFT and the state of Schleswig-Holstein support the project financially. The turbine was installed in Spring '1. The project is jointly funded by the CEC (28. northwest of Emden at the mouth of the river Ems. Due to the high Peneha- tion of wind power at this particular site.

Data on selected LS WECS projects may be obtained from Table 2. now erected near the island's harbour. see Figure 2. The airfoil of the GRP blades is the NACA 63-200 series.3. The final construction permit was difficult to obtain since many areas of the island are protected as nature reserves and since the island is located in the national park "Niedersiichsisches Wattenmeer".8 MDEM. availability and particularly on the site. These numbers reflect the rapid build-up phase of the programme. The low rotor speed also helps to reduce noise. The support for the 250 MW Wind programme can be roughly estimated since it depends on wind turbine technology. Additional funding may be provided by the Federal States.992:73. Like the E-36. budget and policies reference is made to the government annual report [1]. The steel tower carries the nacelle at the hub height of 35 m. From ref [3] the wind part is estimated to reach 4 .992with support from the CEC. This will 59 .2 MDEM. TW500 is a stall-controlled 500 kW wind turbine. manufactured by Tacke Windtechnik AG. and realisation is planned is planned with CEC support.Site. The develop- ment and installation is funded at 50 % by the BMFT.3.5. The machine will be operated by Windkraft Nordseeheilbad Borkum GmbH. is about 12 MDEM. If the annual operational time (equivalent hours at rated power) is taken as between 1300 h (inland) and 2600 h (coastal area) and the support is 0. see [3]. Ref [3] shows the following funding of the pro- gramme: 1989: 0. some examples can be seen in Table 2.1. '1.992. North Sea) is estimated at 1 GWh. In addition. started in September 1.:7. this turbine has no gearbox and a directly-driven generator. The annual energy production at the site (Borkum Island. under various climatic conditions. the funding of wind energy R&D pro- jects. the required annual funding is 20 . More HM-Rotor- 300's are planned for installation at sites near the North Sea coast from 1. including demonstration but excluding the 250 MW Wind program- me. Support is obtainable from the CEC. The three-bladed rotor has a diameter of 36 m.992. see No. For each project the duration of the support is limited to 10 years. These numbers are no allocations but they demonstrate the magnitude of this large-scale experiment. For 1. The manufacturer believes that the design can be economically scaled-up to 1 MW.036 USD/kwh). BMFT support is about 50 % of the total cost.3.06 DEM/kwh (0. the government-sponsored activities include the promotion of field tests of wind turbines and hybrid systems/ like wind-diesel systems.1.5 MDEM 1992. Funding For details of funding.40 MDEM for the total installation of 250 MW rated power. 1990: 3. 9 in Table 2.8 MDEM.99'1.5 MDEM. The operation of the turbine.3.1. '1. e g in overseas countries.

increase as a new programme. have moved into the foreground of interest. and experts from neigh- bouring countries and the CEC.5. For outPuts of 400 kW and more. Promoting wind power in Germany The total wind power capacity is growing rapidly especially as a result of the 250 MW Wind programme. The mandate included the following points: Status of wind energy utilization. . and installation costs. This aim is supported by wind turbine demonstration programmes and principally the 250 MW Wind programme. LS WECS prototypes are being realized more and more within the framework of international cooperation to combine different technical approaches in the partner countries. see Figure 2. funding of R&D work is no longer considered necessary. The committe was composed of 17 experts from the German wind industry. called "Eldorado-Programme Wind". Further research for the utilization of wind energy is nevertheless considered necessary. The following points are characteristic of the present situation: . The totally installed wind power in Germany is 142 MW in 964 turbines. such as reliability. dynamic stresses in correlation with gusts. This is also stimulated by the CEC programmes (WEGA). Current investi- gations confirm earlier studies that a considerable contribution in the 1 % range to the country's electricity production could be obtained. nearly 100 MW have been installed in this Programme. Since the beginning in Summer 1989. preferably with LS WECS. utilities and research institutes. An Ad Hoc Committee on LS WECS under the auspices of the BMFT discussed strategies for the utilization of wind energy by large-scale machines. development work is needed to obtain more reliable data on the technological as well as the economic side. Three LS WECS of more than 1 lvtw rated power will produce data on availability. New materials will help to improve not only the costs but also the lifetime of wind Power plants. was established in 1991. First recommendations. lifetime. In other fields. stimulated by the increased interest by the utilities. particularly involving smaller plants. maintenance. Information of importance to the utility industry. taking into account the characte- ristics of the grid and the limited number of sites in a densely populated country. and grid interconnection issues. annual production.3. Research and development could be continued for LS WECS. potential and environmental 60 . are to concentrate the wind turbines in certain areas [2].

10 USD/kWh) to other producers of electricity from wind. In addition. These were followed in 1989 by the "100 MW Wind" programme aimed at the deployment and market introduction of small and medium-scale WECS up to an installed capacity of 100 MW. Schleswig-Holstein announced a permanent test station. The programme is being implemented by BMFT in cooperation with the Project Management Biology. Technology and generating costs should be developed to a more acceptable level. In |une 1989. The present situation is considered to be a direct result of wind energy R&D and promotion programmes by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology (BMFT). the 100 N{W Wind programme was extended to become the "250 MW Wind" programme. The environmental effects were considered favourable. This corresponds in general to about 90 7o of the utilities' selling price to the end consumer. the HM-Rotor 300 of Heidelberg Motor is being tested. 61 . . . DEWI arranged a national wind energy conference in Autumn 1992 with more than 200 participants. including the reduction of COz emissions. r An important milestone for promoting wind energy in Germany was reached when a new law was passed in"1991. 50 MW is reserved for applicants and sites in the new German states. The final report of the committee concluded that the existing potential could be advantageously used by LS WECS. measurement and evaluation programme. the funding of a research programme.. A German Wind Energy Research Institute (DEWI) has been set up in Wilhelmshaven by the state of Lower Saxony. The increasing positive attitude towards new energy sources in Germany is emphasized by the recent establishment of new research institutes in several federal states. which uses the infrastructure of the Growian site. and of the operation of about 10 machines per type. In 1986. Besides other turbines. should reduce the risk of the manufacturers and improve the knowledge for optimizing LS WECS. Early in 1991. development of LS WECS.effects of LS WECS. and technical and economic aspects. Ecology (BEO) and the Federal States concerned. The report recommended the support of manufacture and test of wind turbines with a rotor diameter > 45 m by several manufacturers. Energy.16 DEM/kWh (0.and from ]anuary 1993 the HSW 750 as well. As a result of the German unification. committing the utilities to pay about 0. including a ten-year test. tuned to the needs of the manufacturers. two demonstration programmes were initiated for wind turbines in the range of 80 to 800 kW.

Utilities only account for less than L Vo. Sites are largely distributed among the Federal States in Northern Germany.2. Figures 2. and since a goal of particularly high priority is the promotion of a large variety of systems.6 . The long-distance measuring network will be the largest of its kind in Germany. the 250 MW will be installed ovei a period of about five years until 1996. who will publish all relevant data [4]. Many facilities are single wind turbines. rated 1. the number of proposed installations is greater than 5000 with a rated power of more than 1000 MW. is connected to a central processing unit. The environmental and aesthetic issues arising from the extensive deployment of wind turbines will be more apparent as the general public become fully aware of the situation and will no doubt stimulate the 52 . for which grants have been accorded by the BMF[.3. As the technical development of small and medium-sized wind turbines is still progressing rapidly. Currently proposals for about 50 MW per year are being accepted. and (3) a certain balance among investors and producers of wind turbines. Proposers are frequently private persons and farmers (65 Vo). the operators have to report any anomalities during the ten-year observation period. Each wind turbine. To date.Under the "250 MW Wind" Programme investors will receive an additional 0. Additional criteria which will decide whether a proposal can be accpted or not are (1) the need for demonstration of a particular type of turbinei (2) the need for demon- strating the quality of a particular site. Niedersachsen and Mecklenburg- Vorpommern. WMEP. Thus it will be possible to include new systems and technologies in the future. The analysis demonstrates a trend to increase the power of individual units from an average of below 140 kW in 1989 to about 200 kW today. such as Schleswig-Holstein. which means that financial support depends on the amount of electricity fed into the grid. This means that less than 25 Eo of t}lre proposals can be accepted.5 MW and comprising 50 turbines. Proposals reflect the great variety of more than 40 different turbines and more than 20 different European manufacturers. The 250 MW programme is accompanied by a compulsory scientific measurement and evaluation programme.06 DEM/kWh from BMFT for every kWh produced. . to obtain long-term experience of wind turbine operation. BMFT's contractor for WMEP is ISET in Kassel.3. collecting relevant data for further evaluation. is being supported by the programme. In addition.2. These publications should contribute to the further optimization of wind systems. It is believed that this incentive will motivate owners and operators to carefully maintain their wind Power facilities to achieve highest possible output. in North Friesland in the state of Schleswig-Holstein. and 30 % are small companies. Thus the largest wind park in Germany at present.8 from WMEP show the actual status.

. Leopoldhafenstrasse 2. lahresbericht L99L .discussion on the benefits and disadvantages of wind power technology. Nutzung der Windenergie in Deutschland. D-3500 Kassel. ISBN 3-88-1. It is hoped that the "250 MW Wind" programme will contribute towards the reconciliation of the different positions and interests and provide facts and data required to ensure the viability and general acceptance of wind POwer. Resch Verlag. p 25ff 63 . tax7247 808656 2 W Maier. D-8032 Griifeling. Bonn. Offentlichkeitsarbeiil Erneubare Energiequellen. ISBN 3-87805 -136-5 3 ISET. October 1992. References 1 Programm Energieforschung und Energietechnologien. 7294 1.35-24+9 5 Lyn Harrison. Kcinigstor 57-61. WMEP. Windpower Monthly. available by Fachinformationszentrum Karlsruhe. D-75'14 Eggenstein. Juli 1992.00 4 BMFT-Referat. fax 56'1. rationelle Ener gieanwendung.Erneubare Energiequellen.

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379 6192 545 90. 2.894 5192 523 86.576 10t92 609 98.371 9t92 603 97.6: WMEP: lnstalled rated power/number ol turbines.561 8t92 588 95. to manufacturers ratangs) 1 0/91 362 59.594 1t92 464 76. Period: I year 69 . 120 600 100 500 80 400 60 300 40 200 20 100 0 0 10/91 11/91 '.084 1 1/91 402 65.3.484 2t92 485 81.414 3t92 495 83.454 7t92 57'.12t91 1192 2t92 3192 4192 5192 6192 7192 Al92 9192 10192 I Installedcapacity + Numberof WEcs WECs in WMEP (October 31.534 12t91 437 71.273 Flg.094 4t92 510 84.| 93.1992) Month of admission Number Installed rated capacity [MWl (a6.

l 2 12 R h ine la nd.class 0-70 t1-140 141-210 2't1-280 281-350 351420 121490 fotal kw KW kw rW kw kw kw 1 1 Baden-Wuerttemberg 1 Bavaria o 1 1 Brandenburg 1 1 Bremen 2 2 Hamburg 2 1 2 3 9 Hesse 3 1 7 'l 19 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 3 1 1 47 56 31 4 64 5 207 Lower Saxony 47 35 12 3 3 100 North Rhine-Westphalia . 120 100 80 60 40 U 0-70 71-14 141-2'tO 211'280 281-350 35'l-420 421490 Rated Power class N'mlrer rlf wFcs uv c7manstate / Rated power class (October 31'1992) Germanstate Rated power.7: WMEP: Number ol turbines as lunctlon ol power class and Federal States 70 .3. 2.P a latin ate 6 1 lSaxony 106 87 21 244 lSchleswio-Holstein 16 14 130 120 155 9t t0( 6 609 Total Fig.

18 0.27 Saxony 0.28 48.273 Fig.458 rotal IMwl 5.15 o.7 98.98 21.8: WMEP: tnstatled rated power as functlon ol power class and Federal States 71.0€ 0.2.56: 1.975 19.14 18.16 0.75 0.1 3.E25 0.242 Lower Saxony 2.095 0.1992) Germanstate Rated power class 0-70 t1-140 141-210 211-280 281 -350 151-{20 {21490 Total KW kw KW kw KW rW kw lMWl Baden-Wuerttemberg 0. .3.63 0.715 26.3 0.255 0.0€ 0.3 0.11 0. Schleswig-Holstein Lo\rver Saxony North Rhin+Westphalia D 71-1& 141-210 211-280 281-350 351{20 421490 Rated power claE6 lnstalled rated capacitv bv Germanstate / Rated power class October 31.702 North Rhine-Westphalia 2.9 't.1 2.395 Bavaria 0.45 0.3 0.75 1 .061 4.49s 6.19 Mecklenburg-Vorpommern o.161 Brandenburg 0.15 0.25 2.13! 2.22 29.112 0.21 Hesse 0.161 0.485 4.15 0.77 1.75 Hamburg 0.86 8.53 24.25 33.26t 9.825 0.84 2.255 Schleswio-Holstein 0.15 0.34 Rhineland-Palatinate 0.3 Bremen 0.

Develoomentof theAEoLUSll rotorblade(MBB Munich):01 08'87-300991 .g mittion levri: 40 %. 01. Oldenburg) 01. 01 04.3 i 05 iggs.87-300492: {BMFT: 1000/o) 2 WKA 60/AWEC 60 -Deve|opmentofamedium.if. (BMFT:65%) 01. since May 85i DM miilion..84-30. I | . He|igo|and). oil z.f".""n.0391tDM l6million(BMFT 50%) I . [5] [9] 1. wind measurements wilhelmshaven (university of Hanover. AWEC 60 spanish/German cooperation (M A N Technologie GmbH/ASINEL).89_30'06.31 12 92 i DM 14 3 million | {P'""t"nElektra windkrafr schleswig-Holstein I tgl. (BMFT: .lff 2. rjM r r .on of wind energy by LS WECS (planning phase) (PreussenElektra AG):01 I DM 0. wKA60 Il GmbH ' Hanover) : 01 02 89 . t egzr o[a t. Land Schleswis-Holstein: 10 5 HSW 750 Deve|oomentandtesloia3."".95.01.92.tizat. See ref.sb .sizedWindturbinearoundlMW(M'A'N.48 million 0M for DM 11. seewetteramt Hamburg):0108'87-31 12 1992: - DM '1.01'08'85-31'07'88.to. Hanover).Husum):o'104.o/o.d. tO.6.. 50%) 24'6 mi||ion (c.SVo): in aOOltion DM 4.17 million (BMFT: 25 %.12'89.LandSchleswrg-Holstein25oio) | Measurino proqramme AEOLUS ll (PreussenElektra Windkralt Niedersachsen GmbH Hanover)i - I or 1091-31.dFT: 20.N'Techno|ogieGmbH.sg . seerer'[s] . 2.grant: 1600kEcu 72 .6million{BMFT 50%) | oroqramme wKA 60 lt (PreussenElektra Windkratt Schleswig'Holstein GmbH Hanover): .8 million (BMFT: 1000/o) . Erection of a stall-controlled Eo*urj.. iz.7 million (BMFT: 50%) 50%) | . Land ru'"i"i.3 million (BMFT:50%) Wind measurements Hetigoland (German Weather Seruice.Tabte 2. Hanover).1 million IBMFT: 20%.nogearbox. Adaptation deve|opment for MoNoPTERoS 50 {MBB."EtektraWindkraft Niedersachsen cmbH.05 05: DM 0. oM0.Munich): I or.5%.no (=5oo kw) sotar (60 kw) supporled pump storage plant Geesthacht (Hamburger Electricitatswerke 0/o) | . JAoE Windpark: 3 MoNoPTERoS 50 (JWE. Wi|he|mshaven).b|adedT5okwwindturbine(HUsUmerSchitfswert.oriwip.09.c' DM 2'3 .1:WECS Proiects in Germany.-os.b5. rated power > 400 kW 1 MONOPTEROS 50 DM 8'70 mi||ion (BMFT: . AEOLUS II I ii. Technologie GmbH Munich)i 01 11 88 -31 1292 0M 3 7 million (BMFT: 50%) I I s wtHo pRocRAMME pREUssENELEKTRA I wtHoxnlrrNtEDEBsAcHsEN/scHLEswlcHoLsrElNGMBH 05.DM5gmillion(BMFT: |-Enoineertnqtortheadaptationo'aWKA60typeturbine_WKA60||(M'A.3.newgeneralortype(Enercon).M""rrrino I ot.891 DM 9 8 million DM31'4 mi||ion.30 06'1992'DM 1'24 million {BMFT: 50%) 7 TW500 5OO kW turbine on the island Borkum (Windkraft Nordseeheilbad Borkum GmbH.08. Ut.54 million wind turbine) 03 87-31 12 89: .01 OM 3.wKA 60 measurement programme (M A N. Energy system He|igo|and (Gemeinde Helgo|and.84_31.Techno|ogieGmbH.08.Oi. Munich). CEC 2990) 6 E-36 (Energleversorgung Erectjon of an advanced 400 kw turbine with a directly driven generator without gear box WeserEms AG.gt -'91.12..r. Federal State of Lower Saxony DM 14 8 million) DM 167 million . Lower Saxonv: 250lo) I E-55 1MW3b|adedlUrb|ne.tobecontracedend92withoGX||'Ecl grant: 1400 k ECU.tui.88-3'1."-.09 91 .E. Ci.1994i DM 7.ee-3-l.2 MW H-Rotor DeVe|opment.06.Munich).15 million to manfacturer MBB from C E C' | (Bl.AwEtio"oe"onrac"owithDGxll.manufaclur|ngandteslingofaVertica|-axiswindlurbineH-Rotorwith'1'2MW(UnionFenosaSA..6 millron (BMFT 50%) AG' I w..rd.87-31 12 88i I . DM 21 4million ZO.Ec..

in Northern Germany.Status 1) /q. HSW 750 Kaiser Wilhelm-Koog 750 kw 93 6.2 MW Antumn 89 AWEC 60 Cabo Villano (Spain) 1.2 MW Summer 89 3.3.7 refers to the Table 2. \ \ Bremerhaven \ I .. AEOLUS II Wilhelmshaven 3MW 92 WKA 60 II Kaiser Wilhelm-Koog 1.2= Protypes. The number 1. TW 5OO Borkum 500 kw 92 Table 2. 2 Geesthacht = 500 kW 93 5.3.1 . WKA 60 Helgoland 1. MON 50 Wilhelmshaven 3a640kw Summer 89 2. G BERLIN % Tvp Location o Power Realization 1.2 MW Autumn 91 4.. E-36 Hamswehrum 400 kw Spring 92 7. rated power > 400 kW.

465 Max.. 25.7 1.3: SYSTEM DATA: WKA 60/WKA WKA 60 II AWEC 60 WKA 60 Rotor ilfil6".465 0.. 25.. series Airfoil 0.3 16 . of blades 60 60 Diameter m 60 Fixed Fixed Hub Fixed 60 46 Hub heigt m 60 23 23. series NACA 44 .64 . power coeffizienl Gearbox 2 planetary.7 57. I spur Type 47. 0.78 0. 1 spur 2 planetary.8 Yaw rate '/s 0.65 0..7 Ratio Control Full span blade Pitch Full span blade Pitch Full span blade Pitch Blade control control control (hydraulic actuator) (hydraulic actuator) (hydraulic actuator) Generator torque Generator torque Power Generator torque control control control Yaw drive Svstem hydraulical hydraulical Type hydraulical 0. 1 spur 2 planetary. Bending Mode Hz 0.3 0.75 - Generator Asynchronous with Type Synchronor:s with Synchronous with Ac/static frequencY Ac/static frequencY oversynchronous convener cascaoe converler '1200 Rated power kW 1200 1200 Operation 5.3 4 4 Tilt angle degree 4 upwind upwind upwind Orientation Rotor blades GFRP GFRP GFRP Material NACA 44 .1 Rated m/s 12 24.3. 60 lllAWEC 60 Table 2..2 4.3 Rated sPeed rpm 23 20/ -25.465 0..O 24 Cut-out m/s 24 64 65 Max design m/s 65 n1 .8 Cut-in m/s 5 tz 12. series NACA 44 .6 Speed range rpm 18 .8 57.3 Tower cylin d rical/con ical cylin d rical/ con ical cylindrical Type oase oase prestressed concrete steel Material steel concrele prefabricated 0.

Table 2.3.4: SYSTEM DATA: HSW 750, TW 500, E - 36

HSW 750 TW 5OO E-36
Rotor
Number of blades 3 3
Diameter m 40 36 36
Hub Fixed Fixed Fixed
Hub heigt m 45 35 40
Rated speed rpm 31 15-37
Orientation upwind upwind upwind

Rotor blades
Material GFRP GFRP GFRP/Epoxy
Airfoil NACA NACA 63 - 200 FX 84
Control Tip Tip; stall Full span blade pitch
Max. power coeffizienl 0.415 0.449

Gearbox
Type 2 planetary spur gear box no gear box
Ratio 1 :38 1 :49

Yaw drive Svstem
Type electromechanical electromechanical electromechanical

Tower
Type conical/5 parts conical cylindrical/2 parts
Material steel steel prestressed concrete

Generator
Type Asynchronous Asynchronous directly driven
generator
Rated power kW 750 500 400

Operatlon
Cut-in m/s 4 4 3,5
Rated m/s 14 14,5 't2,0
Cut-out m/s 24 25 25

75

Tower
Material reinforced concrete
Height 88m
Diameter 6.20-4.5 m
Rotor
Hub height 92m
Number of blades 2
Diameter 80m
Speed 16-21 RPM
Rotor position upwind
Control Pitch
Tilt angle 8'
Geartype Epicyclic/Bevel

Rotor Blades
Length 38.8 m
Material CRP/GRP reinf orced dePosits
Airtoil FX84-W-series
Chord length 4'4 m max'
Electrical sYstem
Generator sYstem Synchron, convener
.t
Variable sPeed 140-1500 RPM
Rated power 3,0 MW
Voltage ca.1000V
Design Data (at hub height)
Windspeed cut in 6 m/s
''14.15 m/s
rated
cut out 25 m/s
su rvival 75 m/s
Life time 25 years
Energy outPUt 7.3 GWh/a at 8.6 m/s
(90 % availabif ity].
Weights
Blades 9.6 t each
Hub 19.0 t
Nacelle comPlete 1 20t
Tower 141 0t

-

Table 2.3.5: AEOLUS ll. Main deslgn data

76

2.4 Italy
Introduction

As already described in previous reports, the wind energy sector in Italy
involves four organisations:

- ENEA (the Italian Energy, New Technologies, and Environment
Agency) which is a state-owned organisation, playing, among
other things, the role of industrial promoter in the aforemention-
ed fields.

ENEL, which is Italy's main utility company. Formerly known as
the National Electricity Board, in August 1992 ENEL was set up as
a joint-stock company in view of being privatized. This process is
currently under way and is expected to be completed in the course
of 1.993.

The Alenia group, resulting from the merger of the Aeritalia and
Selenia companies at the beginning of 1991. Alenia entrusted the
manufacture of medium and large wind turbines to the WEST
company, which had been set up for this purpose by Alenia itself,
Ansaldo and Belleli.

- The Riva Calzoni company, which has been a well-known
manufacturer of mechanical and hydraulic equipment for over a
century. Some years ago, Riva Calzoni entered the field of wind
turbine manufacturing within a framework of a cooperation
agreement with the German MBB group.

Research, design and testing work is aimed, on the one hand, at assessing
Italy's usable wind potential, and, on the other hand, at developing a few
Italian wind turbine models, such as the medium-sized machines Medit
by Alenia/WEST and M30 by Riva Calzoni, and the large (1500 kW)
GAMMA 60 machine made by Alenia/WEST.

The sector of turbine development has since the beginning seen a close
cooperation between manufacturers, ENEA (providing technical and
financial support) and ENEL (mainly cooperating in the testing of
prototypes). Partial financial support has also been granted by DG XVII of
the Commission of European Communities.

More recently, the four organisations mentioned above have been
collaborating also in the sector of wind plant siting after a joint "Siting
Commission" was set up in 1990 with the aim of putting together all data
acquired up to that time, so as to get to the point of drawing up a
comprehensive map of sites actually suitable for wind farm installation.

.7a

.. among other things.. il. 10. These Ieeislative measures that were already described in the .. bottr ior demonstration PurPos€s on the .:. More detailed information of the various spheres of activity mentioned in the foregoing is given in the following sections with reference to each of the organisations involved.. plants (wind farms)..y:dand Riva fi.]'MWhasbeeninstalledinltalysofar. fnit price will be allowed over the first eight years of plant operutlon.135 ITL/kwh. *itti t. it should be recalled that the latest directive iri""a ty CIp..t p. 9 and 10 . allowed a price of 150 155 ITLlkWh (0..yt" in the next Installed capacity is likely to grow to a more significant vears as a consequen. both the ENEL comPany and. 78 . (Directive - No.il. since the To comply with PEN... which set a target of . 6 ii zO eyirrt'1992) has.il.UrlaZution pussed in january 1991). the energy price is reduced to 120 .estors through of plant design and construction costs (Laws no.rtui"e"iranufacturers.includingexperimental e more careful survey of the plants that are actually in operation at ""itr.'then it will drop to 7z-ITL/kwh.10 .ENEAhave end of 1988 undertaten a few projects aimed it setting up Italy's first wind and for oo*". In case the investor also blnefits from grants undei the above-mentioned Law No. e' the Alenia/wEST installation of C"iro"i companies.i".tiVSOiVWh) for tliose plants that have come on line arter go ]anuary 1991 and make available their full capacity or a fixed share of it. as"well as by means of premium payments for *ind-g"n"tuted electricity sold to ENEL' As for premium payments. energy industrv in meetins i' internal 9:..i"". it can be stated that a cumulated wind capacity of - about]." of Uoin existing projectJ (see the following sections) 'and possible commitments of private investors encouraged by the 1991 report.O.7 }l{W' f1e. have also embarked on their own a few small Plants.?." of the new"irrational Energy g0o N{w of wind generating capacity t6-be it ttuu"d with medium-sized machines by the Year 2000. the interministerial Committee on Prices. Generally speaking.onrlq.ovide for incentives to wind energy inv.fr" tt"t""t is now being mide by fNEl As a rough estimate' currently opeiating wind capacity may be put at about 6 .The scope of wind energy activities was also enlarged i1 !a1e 1988 as a plan (pEN). .

to develop a more advanced. and the medium-large M55 wind turbine (by Riva Calzoni). a national wind map containing information relating to areas suitable for power plants. with manufacturers. set up in cooperation with ENEL and the manufacturers. wind turbine instrumentation and field tests. The main objective of pinpointing sites is to produce. together with WEST. In addition. as well as. and the development of innovative subsystems. in order to meet the immediate requirement: that of being in a position to test substantial clusters of these machines at power plants of significant size (5 . by identifying suitable sites for wind power plants. ENEA's staff are engaged in research in cooperation with universities and research organisations.ENEA The general strategy underlying ENEA's wind energy programme is to contribute to the market penetration of wind energy in Italy in accordance with PEN. ENEA's programme features the following areas of activity: . The medium-term commitment is that of developing the large GAMMA 60 wind turbine (by WEST). With regard to the development of machines. Wind. With regard to the development of combined wind-diesel generator systems. on the one hand by supporting Italian manufacturers in their development of technically and financially competitive wind turbines. As regards the development of planning methods and wind turbine technology. . Development of planning methods and wind turbine technology . Development of machines . Iand. within the framework of the aforementioned Siting Commission.10 MW). more highly "transferable" aspects. on the other hand. meteorological. and legislative data banks are being set up. ENEA is taking part in a research project within the framework 79 . Development of wind turbine plants. second generation Medit wind turbine (the variable speed Medit Mk 3). the main areas of activity involve the design of wind turbine prototypes. attention is being focused on the final phase of testing of the medium-sized wind turbines Medit and M30. In the short term. and. such work being confined to the more innovative. ENEA plans. of course. The pinpointing of sites and development of siting methodologies.

ting wind survZys sltes' at some selected several paits of Italy.i"i"r" . Monte Arci in sardinia. infoimation Italy. ENEL is also considering the possibility to set up a Italian further40Mwofwindcapacitywithinthenextfiveyears.ivJ. the first ptraS of l.f. aim of which is to of the European Community s JOIJLE programme' the of system comPonents' set up a computer code for ihe optimisation the-mediurn-term Lastly. inridge order to check installing possible wind. phase of ENEL's Programme.g up.has a keen posslUfe wind farm sites and ascertaining the performance of available medium-sized and f"tg".construction of ef *"i""r. in Central_southern but another 10 MW as a whole.lgML:1/ Yind "'#il'. in its utility role.itiontotechnologyassessmentunderseaboardclimaticconditions (already under *"y Ntt"u)..set up at 40 units for an overall capacity of about 11 on this project is also given below. by terms of an agreement Government."t plants' ti"3v tt r"utiuitity und geneial design of two ."::Id farm "i. on-the-spot 80 .i"a turbines' io thii end' ENEL has been (over 90 measuring stationsin:l1t]:1. it should be recalled that.t. is also prollided for in the programme' the relevant sites have not yet been chosen by ENEL' with the In addition._of a further 2-3 plants totalling ite r"ttir.r* *iir.ENELhasalsobeendrawingup. farms on the of the ttre feasibility of have required th-e.SoaStoreacha total capacitY of 60 MW. a wind farm tvIW is going to be. firr" medium-sized units' At the same test mid-1992' GAMMA 50 prototype has also been under since Inadd.specificationsforthemanufacture use in of stand-slone wind generating plants-that the company would some areas such as C"alabria tJzupply remote dwellings.. irigh-urt"t"d""'experiments (see the Molise region a new test site at Acqua Spruzzanear Frosoloneln below). Lastly.itu Drogrammealsoprovidesforthetestingofmedium-sizedmachinesata il". "r |iJfiffiir ]or gt" former plant"and to Riva Calzoni for the latter' ENEL lntroduction interest in pointing out The ENEL company.T:. and micrositing studies Technology assessment has been in progre-ss at the AIta Nurra test site in site' the 1500 kW Sardinia 5r.tplants io be" built in itte refions of Campania and Emilia-Romagna' '"r. as regards the development of pg*. ii" itt conductiig these studies has been entrusted to fiiic.:t far) in ..*".ona. with up to Within the second. harsh environmentil conditions.

and a 400 kW Windane 34 unit by Vestas-DWT from Denmark). The Medit 320 is the 320 kW rated. reliability and availability of all machines. two M30 units by Riva Calzoni (Italy).l.5 million kWh (annual wind speed at the site is 5 m/s). Further information on GAMMA 60 will be given in the Alenia /WEST section (see below). and has been chosen for its very good wind resources (annual average wind speed 7 m/s at 15 m above ground) and its climatic conditions (heavy snowfalls. reached nearly 1. Alta Nurra Test Site At the Alta Nurra site in Sardinia. by the end of L992. Total installed capacity will therefore be 2440 kW. high wind turbulence). which make it suitable for its specific purposes. and experimental determination of the relevant power curves. manufactured by WEST (Italy).s. Installation of the 1500 kW GAMMA 60 prototype started at Alta Nurra in early April 1. have been tested together since April 1991.992. industrialized version of the Medit prototyPe. which has been granted partial support by DG XVII of the Commission of European Communities. Acqua Spruzza Test Site The Acqua Spruzza site is located in the Apennines at an average altitude of 1360 m a. two MS-3 units by WEG (United Kingdom). icing. featuring different characteristics. the 200 kW M30 prototype by Riva Calzoni.checks of the performance of prototypes produced by manufacturers in accordance with these specifications will subsequently be performed by ENEL before purchasing the systems. In addition to data recording of energy production. After thorough functional checks. a 300 kW MS-3 unit by WEG from the United Kingdom. The site will host eight wind turbines. The overall energy produced by these machines has. the machine was connected to the grid for the first time in ]une. four medium-sized wind turbines (the 225 kW Medit prototype by Alenia/WEST. specifically two Medit 320 units. and total energy yield may be estimated at about 6000 MWh per year. A Medit 320 (or Medit I) wind turbine has also been under test at Alta Nurra since the spring of 1992. specific measurements have also been made in respect of noise and electromagnetic interference. and two Windane 34 units by Vestas-DWT (Denmark). A preliminary plan of the test site was prepared in late 1989 and then delivered to the municipality of Frosolone in February 1990 together with 81 . The test site is financed entirely by ENEL.

s.e plant is iow exp-ected to be completed by the autumn of 1993' Monte Arci rttind farm Project ENEL's first large wind plant will be built in sardinia.. ENEL has also embarked on studies aimed at assessing the interaction between the wind power plant and the environment during both construction and operation' 82 I I f I . special attention was devoted to the need to minimiie ihe impact on the local environment. specifically: 320 kwM. and that local authorities intend to enhance the role of this area as a tourist resort' The total area over which machines would be spread has. Civil engineering work started at the Acqua Spruzza site-in^]uly 1992' T}l. therefore. With reference to the Monte Arci site.iitt U" around 11 MW.dscape in compliance with specific requests from local authorities. The whole procedure including p"rtiiitl"g by regional auth6rities took an unexpectedly long period of 28 months uia iu.l'. bearing in mind that forestation activitiei are in progress in some parts of the plateau. turned out to be considerably larger than usual in wind farms. The annual energy output may be estimated at between 15 and 20 GWh (an annual wind speed of 5.. Theplantwillbeequippedwithupto40Italian-madewindturbines. at altitude of about 750 m a. Total capacity .an application for a building permit.7 m/ s at 15 m above ground has been measured).. DG XVII of the Commission of the European Communities has granted the projecr its partial funding within the framework of the THEMIE programme. In September 1991' the preliminary rlesiSn of the wind farm was submitted to the concerned authorities for the building permit after ample informa- tion on the project had been provided to the municipalities and people involved. A-definitive response is expected to be given shortly' In drawing up the plant design. fhe lind involved is a part of the large Monte Arci plateau.tsea considerable delay in respect of the work time schedule.dit 320 and 250 kW M30-A units. special attention was devoted to harmonizing the plait -ith tt e-lur. in the province of Oristano. 8 km from the sea (Gulf of un urr"rug" Oristano. In the executive design phase.

5 m/s survival 50 m/s WEST is also working on the development of a new model. in series production since 1991 in WEST production facilities. whose general background philosophy comes from the experience in the development of the prototype Gamma 60 and in the industrial production of Medit 320. 48 units have already been manufactured (28 in 1992). Medium size machines The basic commercial product of WEST is Medit 320. Production plans for the forthcoming years are based upon an annual production rate of up to 100 wind turbines. As of the end of 1992. Table A Main data for Medit 320 Number ofblades 2 Rotor diameter 33 m Rotor position upwind Hub height 26 m Hub rigid Gearbox teetered Power regulation pitch control Yaw conlrol active Rated power 320 kW Wind speed @ 10 m cut-in 4. In fact. Medit Mk 3 will essentially be a turbine embodying the Gamma concepts with improvements and simplification that are expected to allow . WEST is the industrial exploitation of the experience and technologies which have become available within the Alenia (formerly Aeritalia) over many years of advanced projects.2 mls rated 11. Medit 320 is the industrial model derived from the 225 kW prototype installed in Sardinia. and an existing backlog of about 15 MW' The main features of Medit 320 are shown in Table A.Alenia/WEST The WEST Company WEST (Wind Energy Systems Taranto) is an Alenia (IRI Finmeccanica Group) company which operates in the development and production of wind energy systems within the Alenia Commercial Systems area. Medit Mk 3. improvements being introduced as a consequence of the results of operation of the machines already installed.5 m/s cut-out 17.

Large size machines Gamma60isalarge-sizedwindturbinewithinnovativefeaturestomake (teetered hub. The main features .r....aseriesofin-depthoperating WEST workshop' tests were^carried out on the int'egrated system in the Thebasicrequirementofthesetestswastohavethemachineoperatingin i"ui ti^".. maximum energy caPture adequate availabilitY.Thefoundationsofthetower. already described.consistofareinforced concrete plinti.fu on one hand. the drive train sirpervisory and control hardware and software' The tests performed with this system have assured the proper behaviour of the actuation devices (hydraullc and electrical) and sensors' the stability .ty. behaviour for extended operation. in order to test thetheoverall and svstem. have'been designed in order to increase the annual .. anq minimum series production costs. thus allowing for a simpler lower manufacturing and maintenance costs' A description of the activities performed in the last phases of the programme is reported in the following' Aftercompletionoftheassemblyin1991. the validity of the modeling of the wind turbine. yaw control). located near the base of the WTG tower.. set on 25 vertical piles of the same material' Power station building. in all possible operating conditions.thenacellewasmadereadyfor shipment io the site in the first months of 7992' In the meantime the various site activities had been completed at the Alta Nurra site: FoundationsfortheWTGtowerandfortwol00mhighwind measuringtowers. housing. Theprototypeisforeseentobeinstalledinlgg3andfieldtestedin1994.f ihi. a cost_effective maihine.g" variable speed. the AC/DClAC converter' 84 .in previous e""""f REports. fixed pitch.. the proper implementation of the regulating algorithms and supervision strategies' Aftercompletionofalltheabovesteps. and t"o eliminate all control componenrs from machine with the rotating Parts on the other. with special atteniion to hydraulics. among other things.duetothe natureof-thegroundatAltaNurra.

Other installations have been made in Sardinia (Villagrande. one month after completion of site installation.992. the first section was embedded in the reinforced concrete foundations. Wind farm deuelopments Among WEST's major programmes in the field of wind farm development is the Campania wind farm. Assembly of the WTG tower was completed in Summer 1990. Tests in various operative conditions have then been performed in order to confirm that the equipment performs according to plan. two Medit. it came to full operation in the spring. Construction of the cable conduits.1. so that the first rotation of the machine occurred on 3 |une. Static and rotation tests on the machine were performed under controlled conditions (i. building of access roads. consisting of four Medit 320 and three AIT 03 (30 kW of rated power). took place on 9 April 1. smoothing out of the ground.4. below the proper supply limit) in order to check the overall operation of the equipment and of electric. 85 . while the others were welded to each other on the ground in three separate pieces with lengths 16. Nacelle erection.e. The first module. one Medit and Alta Nurra. mechanical and control components. Thanks to the fine tuning of the system in shop. one Medit). one Medit) and in Abruzzo (Sangro.4. three Medit). 16 and 24 m respectively. After some setup activities on the control and actuation systems.2. Each piece was then hoisted and welded to the piece below it. The tower was transported to the site in eight seParate sections. A second module with two Medit 320 and 13 AIT 03 was installed and connected in the second half of the year. Oristano. the site activities were very rapidly completed. see Figure 2. by means of two 450 ton cranes. and to ensure that the operating parameters recorded were in line with the targets laid down during the design stage. was connected to the grid in the beginning of 7992. in Molise (Sannio. Other installations are under way. for which a relatively Iong period of time was spent. all other installation activities were completed by the end of the same month. All civil works were completed within the spring of 1990. the first Italian wind farm made rrp of medium-sized machines/ see Figure 2.

."gioriir.I.GJ "t"'gy yield is about 1500 MWh/year' The municipality was granted the major funding share within the FESR- VALOREN European dommunity plog:3mme' ihe remaining part of the by the Abruzzo region cosr *u.4.p'i'"*"*t'*ll u" implemented on the MS30-s1 ". in the Abruzro .*ut also in progr"rr. ri.. rit""p'.huband..blade.'itsalrea-clyinstalled. a\upgraded generator version of 350 kW rated . finictpitity itself.J".i.ratr."o?"'i-tu" 19 sites in1992' Up to 35 units of the M30 have good prorpu".: u.Riva Calzoni Introduction wind Since the beginningof this year' Riva Calzoni activities in the o" M30 activities' The industrial enersy field have b""".tSEo-S2..T}iisrotorwillpreludetotheM30-S2(Figures power' 2.. Several experimental activities on the 200 kW prototyPe in Sardinia are an R&D progra*T"...."fli..4. nlanr ind by ENEA.yp". Wind monitorin! aciivities have been Almost half of these sites ing sites in 1991 ao.ft should be ready for the end of 1'993' M30 wind farm development in A lot of activities are going on to Promote enlarged from two monitor- Italy.whichwillberealizedduringnextyear' 86 . The development of the M30 series is going on with the completion of the 2s0 kw M30-A with a the M30-s1 proro.il. c""iiuiitury_and started wind turbines' An kW M30 The plant (see Fig z'+'ei itt"f"aes two 200 ."ilt . programme' According to this completed within the CEC JOULE il.Windfarmplanning b"i"f ""uf.5il.lut"d monitoring' through wind is going well with #. Among th-ese-activities.ur.tp3"a ti^u"ut 6 m/s has been measured at the site during these two veurr.rni"ipuriiy ** tlt up in the operation in July 1992.4 and 2. the commune of Tocco de Casauria an Italian *.iJ (see Figure 2'4'3) has reached a t?-ri zSo tW rvf3O-e "rra%it"" " commercialtevelwithsome.il..''ioi t*"ff M30 realizations' customers' series have^been produced for different first wind farm ever built by within the framework of these activities..'i" i^iit""a "q:l{of newrotor.5).ihil.....

showing the good perspectives of the single'blade tedrnology reaching its commercial phase. Future perspectioes At the end of next year the M30-S2 production will start. New electric generation system with semi-variable speed for load reduction. including new design improvements in order to get a more reliable and simple wind turbine. Activities on the M55 will be emphasized more in next years when the M30-S2 will be a very competitive wind turbine. New blade. . wfricn wiU be a main key to develop the M55. 87 . . Increase of the rated power from 250 to 350 kW. especially designed for the highest energy efficiency with the lowest noise. always on the basis of operating experience of the first commercial installation. . M55 Research activities on the M55 (see 1991 report) have been kept on a lower priority in 1992 to concentrate the resources on the new M30-S1 and 52. The machine cost will be very low and interesting on the market.The main improvements are the following: . Completely new concePt for the hub design and assembly.

1 The 1.4. Figure 2.5 MW GAMMA 60 at Alta Nurra 88 .

4.2 Partialview of the wind farm set up by WEST near Bisaccia in the Campania region 89 .*tt'\" -*"---- Figure 2.

IVB TNAIil Gear 2 stage / Parallel shaft Gear ratio I z 25. llaterial tYPe CRP/GRP (Epoxy) I Profile tYPe FX84-tl series .lanuaI brake disc (maintenance) PERTONXINCB Rated poYer 250 klf t{indspeed at rated Pouer 12 nls Operating range 3.6 !.3 Characteristics of the M30-A wind turbine 90 .5-?5 m/s rr2la!llll starting vlndspeed 4 nls ftl{} Spf$ AI 1lh ttlofl (ds) survival vindsPeed 55 m/s (at hub height) Atf{lAt AVEMIE IJifetime 30 !'earB Figure 2.1. M30 A 250 kw WIND GENERATOR EHsncv PRoDUcrroN Tncnrcel cHARAcrERrsrrcs iI RO'I\]R i P0Y{!9 c'JcvE I BIade Number I 'MlO-250kr I Di amete r 33 m speed 39.l.l n ltate r ial painted galvanized steel EIJECTRICAIT SYSTEII Generator t!'Pe asynchronous (induction) Generator number 2 (lov+ high vind sPeetl) Generator Pover 250 kt{ . 250 kf nechatrical logic Pitching sYstem hydraulic actuators YaYing sYsten active Parking teathered blade.3 RPI'I Porer (kf) Rotor position alotrnvi nd Hub type teetering hub Pitch angle range 0o and 90" di I ROTOR BI.6 .26 .l- I TOIdBR si I To Hub Height 33n Shape polygonal conical Diameter 1.4.ADE l Blade + counter uF veight arm Ienght 22 n (one part) I Chord length 0./ 55 kr CONTIOIT ANNUAL ENERGY YIELD TYPe Computer + electro- Mlo .9 / 60.7? m 0i. flap locked DN.

l m Itaterial painted galvanized steel EI.06 m Haterial t!'pe CRP/GRP (Epoxy) ilF Profile type FX84-I.6 RPY Portr (kfj Rotor position dornsi nd Hub type teetering hub nf I Pitch angle range 0' and 90" I Dt.AIN Gear 2 stage / parallel shaft Gear ratio I : 28. I TOIdER $ T^ Prrh hoidht 33 m shape polygonal conical 0 Di ame te r 1.r Uindspeed at rated pover 13 m/s operating range 3.I.2. flap locked DRIVE TN.4.l serles . 350 kr mechanlcal logic Pitching S!'sten hydraulic actuators Yawing System aettve Parking feathered blade.5 m ( separate section ) I Chnrd I onnlh 0.ECTRICAI.3 n/s AMllAt AVERAGI rlm SPEFo AI 10r' ffilOfi (ds) Survival vindspeed 55 m/s (at hub height) Li f etime 30 l'ears Figure 2.4 Characteristics of the M30-52 wind turbine .6 .ADE Blade ]enqth 16m af I Counter veight arm 5.6 . M30 S2 350 kW WTND GENERATOR Ewencv PRoDUcrroN Tnc"raot cHARACTFTRTsrrcs pOY/:q ROTOR cu'\/E i Blade \umber l I 52 l___l Mlo 350 kV I Dianreter 33 nt speed 53 / 55.l cot{rRoL ANNUAT ENERGY YIELD f^mhilfor + olo^l-r^- Type li00 . SYSTEII Generator type asynchronous (induction) Generator sl ip Generator pover 350 kl.i.3 Hanual brake disc (maintenance) PERFOR}'ANCE Rated pover 350 kr.8-25 m/s a!?!tttlt! Starting windspeed 4. ROTOR BI.

\ ia \\ Eiattm o -a E ftlt6"^ll .{rawind n{ tha M3l'l-S2 wind hrrtrine .

'1r i!.... 1.'@ W"@ 's+ #r sW @t i@i.4.i@ i!ffiir :.. :'@t'i'.' :!l .1 l:!:1 ''...' Figure 2.:..6 M30 units installed at Tocco de Casauria (Abruzzo region) 93 . € :1@tt .::' .lr .

."il...inefo'rt.Tit^-::search "yt S""thiie irolect bv evaluating the wind energy "t..2.'iiiJi.ott"tPonding to Z7 MUSD)' have been identified in A number of suitable sites for wind turbines This fact has bearing on the Iapan.60.... but they .r""t"r wind " DuringFYlggzNEPoisengagedinthreemainactivities:development of the 1' MW of the 500 kW wind turbine PrototyPg' construction resource assessment' I.."r oftr.ib6servarion and The 500 kW wind turbine Prototnte has been completed' As The conceptual design of the 500 kW prototype alreadv desctibed... the ]apanese wind energy tSlS H.scate wini'Liui"". fire New sne1rylita. The turbine *riiU"-**"f"crured by Ltd.5 Japan Introduction R&D programme has been directed Since 1978.rriro"i*-"ilii.." fi"t t'"o machines' the method of operation . in 1986 and further research After completion of the 100 kW Pilot ?lant proqramme was initiated in for a large. " new R&D a soo kW ilass wind turbine and the 1e90. Utilization technologY rated is under An experimental wind farm o{ approximately 1MW wind Power turbine was construction on t"tiyalo Island..ta diameier and" GFRP blades. rhe triar *pti" of the t'rbine are under manufacture of uraies'lih-tr.. The budget for wild energy in the Sunshine Froiect increased from JPY in FY ieel and e81 MIPY for FY 370 mi'ion in fiscal G.e ali"iled design Industries liitsubishi Heavy way.naustrial main role in the the ...'54tMIPt i9ez {.il.i th" iit^g"Jgfl" testthe National construction Institute for "r.a and Mechanical nr..io".dh6te fo""t"a in complex....ri6'?..'.. 94 . As a result. Okitt"*"' A 250 kW *ill in FY 1992.t$S "L*t"q ' ila.Q.....p*-""i"f *i"d f. Based on the installed in Fy 19si..""rfg^i..*i *i".reei' it it {-:b..J.[i" ""d activities of NEDO.ign of farm started in FY 1991' construction or r vfr-"*p"iii.i be erected and ""otr.irry-ir"rnrl in Resources *a nr.) in the Agency bv the Sunshine rro..rint6 are carrying l.i. th..1"" wnbol plavs plants in the project' The op".terrain' "r"and economical rndnd energy technology.e.i.gir.il'iil.til.eiirio-otionfteaqq:irt"it of the Ministry of rrade and oi Industrial science iiri i"iititr"# 14rs3t Technology Industry (MITI).i".

with a teetered rotor. vibration. NEDO has been measuring wind characteristics at selected sites since 1983. in '199'l Cape Tappi on the northern . aeodynamic noise etc. Wind observation As a complement to the nation-wide network for local meteorological observations. has started the construction of a 1. In addition. structural mechanics. and 15 in FY 1992. Major electric power companies have their own wind energy projects aiming at a total installed power of 3700 MW by 1995. a soft tower and variable pitch/free yaw controi systems. which is expected to be completed in 1993. Hokkaido.992. the energy production was 865 vrwn wittr an availability factor of 96 %. The |apanese Wind Map will be updated in Fy 7992. Hokkjid-o dlectric Power Co. NEDO is acquiring fine-mesh data in the Rumoi area. Industrial activities The first wind farm of more than 1 MW in Japan was built by Tohoku Electric Power Co.997. Basic research MEL has been investigating basic aspects of rotor aerodynamics. 10 in FY'1. MEL is operating a two-bladed variable speed 15 kw experimental wind turbine generator system.position of additional units will be investigated in Fy 1993. called WINDMEL. controlled units with 28 m rotor diameter. NIRE is developing methods for numerical prediction of wind characteristics in some typical topographies. The wind conditions are getting better in the last half of Fy 1992 than the 6. in order to study the validity of numerical simulation over complex terrain.ouit of Honshu ^t It has five zzs kw three-bladed pitch- facing the streets of Tsugaru.1 m/s average at 30 m height during the above-mentioned period. In the period frorn April to september '1. The number of sites in each period is: 13 in Fy 1990.1 MW wind farm at Tomari. since Fy 1978. 95 . The wind conditions are worse than expected and the operation was affected by some typhoons this year.

6 The Netherlands Introduction Netherland started In the late eighties the number of wind turbines in the capacity to i*"ur" ..87 .uu" upprotimately tZlI of primall fuel per fe1' 11d-f11ther 200 MW of erowth of the installed wind port"f to 200b Mw in 2010' i"iifrr rr'tt"rd be installed offihore' In comparison' the togl-Plyary PI' annual energy consumption in the Netherlinds is about 2700 YO .1 Wind energy in the Netherlands of the In the Policy PIan concerning Energy Conservation and Renewables iJi"ir.6.installa- t0.2. witi 'r"g"ra to *Tna energy these goals-encomp^a.991YT"n tion of wind poier amounting to iOOO MVf by the year *o"fa . the governm:1'-::j:^1lbitto"t use of renewable energy eoals with respect to energy conservation and the |il. In the period 1'9.1992 the installed 1992 another 100 MW was increased from 30 to 110 ftlW' et the end of 2'6'1' under construction or in preparation' see Figure 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 year I installed l-\lNil unOer construction I I forecast Figure 2.Jpiaty.ry of Economic Aff airi (lunJ isgo).ss^the.

The general objective has been translated into a number of operational objectives of TWIN. As of 1995.55 m. reduction of the turbine cost and turbine lifetime will have to result in an average wind energy cost. Technological deaelopment The aim is to provide the technical conditions for a continued industrial product improvement and development of present generation wind turbines. which are to be met by 1995. such as physical planning and obtaining building permits. These objectives. compared to the 1990 state of technology where the average cost level is 0.20 NLG/kWh. are formulated below. TWIN is managed by the Netherlands Agency for Energy and the Environment (NOVEM). This programme component allows investment grants uP to 35 % of the total project cost for wind energy installations.990 -7995 (TWIN) concentrates on removing financial and planning obstacles which inhibit the use of wind energy and on contributing to the development and improvement of wind turbines in the Netherlands. All preparation aspects. generated at proper locations.14 NLG/kWh (0. The improvement of safety. 97 . Industrial deuelopment The aim is to improve the cost.07 USD/kWh). a national programme is in place to stimulate the use of wind energy. are included in the project. Concrete targets in these respects are the reduction of the average source noise emission level by 6 dB(A) and the extension of turbine size range up to rotor diameters of 40 .TWIN programme In order to realize the government's ambitious objectives. of 0. This National Support Programme for the Application of Wind Energy in the Netherlands 1. noise reduction and the increased size of available turbines will contribute to the efficient use of the existing wind turbine sites in the country. Implementation The aim is to implement wind energy in the Netherlands at an average rate of 60 MW per year. thereby realizing a wind Power capacity in 1995 that will save 7 P| of primary energy per year (400 MW)./performance ratio by approximately 30 Vo.

Simplification of auxilliary systems and reduction application of passive elements'- of components by the Damped transmilsio" oi ioads exertei 9f ltte wind and.. Atarotationalspeedof'6rad/sthetipsStarttopitch..Asthewindspeed.c. Elastomeric.rairsttv with sufficient design data' methods: The aims are pursued by means of the following of the number . Blade tip controls."t.o-put"i to the elaitomeric bearings vtoa-Z (USA) and MaglarP (Sweden)' the blade root .".t"nt iechnologies' demonstrate the i".rial".il.o^po..f"tions .r"i . Flexbeam for reductioi of dynamic loads in sections. the final experimental project started.g hub' A layout will be evaluated applied in the simplified ..rr"a^il p. generator in suchl way that the power t: k"f!. .cl' is to develop and test Commission of the n".... passively activated by centrifugal aerodYnamic forces' which is .-*i"g tfl. while allowing roiational sPeeds.thewindturbine for current and anticipated expertise will be ."tti' have the tes1s-1111 been Integral cost by 30 7o compat..induced . increases.".it potential of reducing the investment developed .rh+"r"er is kept constant above the rated wind speed' 98 . the rotatioJ spe"a and thL pitch angle vary accordingly' In this ..:o^ttant at converter. The aim oiittit proje. ftr applicatfon to medium and large size machines' The .ld "i Her facilitydeveloped at-Petten' to and to provide the proper functioning of il" to^ponents i.t in industrial pioduct improvement and develoPment' Oneoftheessentialtechnologydevelopmentactivitiesistheso-called which is co-financed by the FLEXHAT Project. see Figure 2'6'6' conversion system The diameter of the rotor is 22 m' The electrical feeding a twelve pulses electronic Power consists of a d.. It is controlled wide range of variable a preset rated power level. of flexible sub-structures' by the grid through the application The innovative comPonents are: and .Inconsultationwiththemarketpartiesinvolved...op"u" communities..i.. -Controlstrategiesimplementingloadcharacteristicswhichenable the functioni"fi the passive tip controls in the prescribed way' "f part of the FLEXHAT After mounting the blades.

and by a factor of two relative to the stiff rotor operating at constant rotor speed in stall condition. Yawing out of the wind in combination with a small brake is envisaged as the auxilliary system for bringing the rotor to standstill. no instabilities were observed during start. the dynamic 1P loads at the blade root were reduced by a factor of three relative to the stiff rotor with passive pitch control. a severe but still Iimited instability occurred during start and (emergency) stop at higher wind speeds (> 15 m/s). Suppression of these instabilities was achieved successfully by installing a damper between the tip and the fixed inner blade part. Stable operation was not always observed during the first part of the test. Dissemination of knowhow and programme support The aim is to make the available knowhow accessible and usable for the industry and operator. It has been shown during the test that the additional blade root bending loads. Reduction of blade loads according to design has been met. In fact. The reduction of the loads was achieved at accompanying 1P teeter amplitudes. stop and operation at high wind speed. In the FLEXHAT safety concept. In fact. so that further design optimization can result in even smaller blade loads./owner of the wind turbines. appreciably (2x) smaller than expected. 99 . Moreover. The main results are as follows. In the second part of the test after the modifications. are only of minor importance. the rotor speed is protected against overspeed by the two independent passive pitch systems. The main activities are to be started after 't993. while yawing. At this modifica- tion of the rotor. Offshore deaelopment This programme component concentrates on formulating a development scenario for wind turbines at sea. also the connection rods between the tip and the inner blade was replaced in order to increase the torsional stiffness. At these instabilities an interacting second flap-first torsion mode of the blades was measured.The rotor testing programme is essentially concluded by the end of 1992. an intermittent instability occurred during normal operation. The feasibility of yawing as an auxilliary safety system for a teetered rotor has been established herewith. to promote international cooperation and to keep track of developments abroad.

3 0. A series of progtams forming an lntegrated package has been completed by means of a description of the models manual and verification procedure. which is financed directly by the Ministry of Economic Affairs.5 3.5 2. .6.5 1. This facility will be used for research on dynamic stall and dynamic inflow phetromena (draft Annex XIV see section 3). The determination of so-called stress reserve factors gives vital information to further optimizing the use of blade materials.0 3.5 7. Delft Technical University.5 4.2 0.5 3.4 0.0 3.5 3. 1. Research in fatigue properties and evaluation methods for large blades.2 1. KEMA (Dutch institute for quality control of electrical materials and appliances).Funding The estimated funding for the TWIN Programme is shown inTable 2.8 2.8 * The amount of subsidy available is published by the government annually.5 1. TNO (Dutdt Organisation for Applied Research). and by the industry itself. Computational programs (wind field description.1 0.5 15.5 1.0 0. 100 .4 0. . lifetime and stsess calculations).2 15.0 0.0 3.6. Amounts in million NLG.5 1.Important elements of this programme are: . The construction of a 23 m diameter rotor equipped with pressure holes at three radial positions to measure the pressure distribution during operation.2 Estimated funding for TWIN.4 0. ECN programme In addition to TWIN there are other important wind energy R&D programmes in the Netherlands. ECNs wind energy programme. The development of variable speed electrical conversion with appropriate control systems.3 1. .5 2. had a budget of 3 MNLG in1992.2 Tabte 2. conducted by ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation).5 1.0 1. aerodynamic and structural dynamic response programs.

6. Most of the subsidized wind turbines are installed by utilities.7994. The projects for which subsidy has been allocated represent a total power of more than 200 MW."-. *. of which 50 7o is already realized and operational.6.4.Main results and future activities Implementation Investment subsidies have been available since 1986. The remaining 100 IvIl.6.3.V are planned to be erected in 1993 . vermogen (MW) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Uiilities Non Prolit Industry Publlc-Private Private fabri kant fil. In 1993.1992 101 . The ten largest wind farms are listed in Table 2.3 Market share per investor for approved projects 1986 . as shown in Figure 2..l Figure 2.."*@. an increase of the installed capacity to approximately 150 MW is foreseen.

5 1. the CEC Thermie programme.0 Rotterdam Hadelkanaal Nedwind 35 10 5. sdty climate.02 .4 The ten largest wind farms Num power m ber Useelmii Nordoostpolder 25 Windmaster 50 15.0 Windpaft Nederland RoggePlaat Enercon 33 12 4.4 Rotterdam Maawlalde ll Nedwind 35 10 5. This type will be scaled-up to 40 m rotor diameter. The results from Windmaster Nederland's first 40 m/750 kW wind turbine at Halsteren look promising. Nedwind's 35 m/500 kw is now used in many wind farms. The market share per manufacturer is shown in Figure 2.0 GEB Rotterdam Maasvlakte I Nedwind 35 13 65 SEP Proefwind cen- trale Oosterbierum Holec 30 18 5. which has resulted in a general decrease of the cost/performance ratio by more than 10 7o. The erection of a 50 m/1 MW prototype is foreseen for 1993. was started.1 In 1992 the construction of a 3 MW demonstration project on the island of curagao.Tabte 2.5. Industrial ileaelopment The industry is working on further improvement of their wind turbines.0 PEN Ulketocht Wieringermeer Nedwind 35 10 5.6.0 Lelystad Lelystad 25 Windmaster 35 10. T'welve Niedwind turbines witl produce 2 7o of the island's electricity demand by the end of 1993. the Netherlands Antilles.0 PNEM Volkerak Volkeraksluis Nedwind 35 10 5. During the year Lagerwey installed more than fifty 18 m/80 kW and is developing a 250 kW prototyPe. This project-is-co-financed by TWIN.5 EGD Uithuizermeedum Micon 26 40 10. and the Curaqao Kodela utility. Special attention is given to the high local wind speeds and corrosion prbtection in the aggresive.

. The platform advises NOVEM on the planning. power (Mw) 100 75 50 25 0 N€dwind windmagt€r Lagerwey Micon Enercon Others manu f acturer I Installed N under constructlon E planned 1993-1994 Figure 2. long and short term research on aerodynamic noise emission. In 1997 an industrial platform was formed with representatives from leading industries. studies were completed on: . . methodology and case study for probabilistic safety analysis. studies will be carried out on: validation of 3D-effects in stall. In 1993. In 1992. comparison of national standards with regard to IEC and CEC development of standards. analyses of effects of measures for the reduction of mechanical noise emission. safety factors of gearboxes. progress and results of R&D projects. IUJ . .6. a literature survey of new airofoil families. design guidelines for stall regulated wind turbines.1992 Technical deaelopment Involvement of the industry in the technical development is crucial. . validation of a computer code for the prediction of aerodynamic noise emission from wind turbines.5 Market share per manufacturer for projects approved 1986 . .

. effects of production tolerances on blade performance.04 . which will be completed in 1993. Ot'fshore Preliminary activities in order to get a view of the possibilities to use offshore wind farms has been started. These activities will be continued in a wider set of activities. . verification of computer codes for a 1 MW stall-regulated wind turbine through extensive measurements on a PtototyPei . 1. The further Progress of the programme will depend on the results of the evaluation. . . stochastic wind field simulation and generators. dy^amic inflow. fatigue properties of glass-fibre reinforced polyester. In 1992 an evaluation of the FLEXHAT Programme was started. Increasing commitment of the industry through financial ParticiPation in R&D piojects will be pursued in order to guarantee the applicability of the results. leading to a view on the long term market development.

6. Petten. The test concept is designed and engineered by Stork Product Engineering in cooperation with ECN.1993.6 The FLEXHAT rotor mounted on the 25 m experimental wind turbine of ECN.- 105 . The test programme willbe concluded in the first half of . (Photo:Jos Beurskens).Figure 2.

The new system will be used for converting exishng diesel power plants to wind-diesel operation. A d. Then the whole wind energy programme will be reconsidered and possibly reorganized. A second generation wind-diesel control system will be developed and installed at Frsia. corresponding to an output of about 10 GWh/year.2. A programme for testing the new control system will follow after installation of the system. In the second generation wind-diesel control system a self-commutated' -be converter will used instead of the line-commutated converter used in the present control system. manufacturing industries. the development work is being undertaken in cooperation between the Norwegian Electric Power Research Institute (EFI) and ABB Energy as the industrial partner. The programme has two areas of activity: . S^5 MNOK for 7992 The programme is implemented with theparticipatign 9f u$lity companies.6 MNOK for 1992 . and to stimulate industrial activities in the wind energy field. Tlte dutdr used between the generator and the diesel in the first system wil be dispensed with in the second system. Research and development.emonstration plant with a 55 kW wind turbine and a 50 kW diesel engine was completed in 1989 and has been tested against consumer load onlhe island of Frsia off the coast of Trondheim. 105 . Introduction and demonstration. The Proglamme started in 1989 and will end in 1993. Introduction and demonstration The demonstration programme for wind turbines consists of a 50 7o investment subsidy aimed at installing about 4MW of generating capacity. The general objective of the programme is to creite a basis for the utilization of wind energy. and research institutions' Research and develoPment Wind-diesel autonomous systems have been studied since 1985.where it i""/u" profitable.7 Norway Wind energy Ptogramme The Norwegian wind energy programme is supported Py $: Ministry of Petroleum ind Energy and is managed by the Norwegan-W-aler Resources and Enerfy Administration (NVE). budget 3.

see Figure 2. all costs are not related to the lightning stroke. Fortunately. A 400 kW Vestas/DVT at Froya was damaged in the end of December "1991'. it may be unprofitable to install wind turbines in the grid system. so that the control system did not try to restart the turbine.9 MW rated power are connected to the Norwegian grid system. However. The other two are privately owned and operated. All the Norwegian wind turbines are located along the west coast. The generator end the iontrol system were damaged. Outlook For the time being. north of Trondheim. As a consequence. since some modifications and improvements of the control and hydraulic system. The 300 kW Nordtank wind turbine at Smola in the same region was damaged by lightning in February '1992.At present. ten Danish wind turbines with 2. and a certain amount of surplus power is available at a low price. Eight of these are owned by utility companies and have been installed with supPort from the wind energy programme. the wind speed sensor was also damaged. where warm and moist air meets cold and dry air during the winter. The renovation cost amounts to 23 % of the investment cost. All blades were split and some parts of the blades were burned. at least for the next few years. The lightning activity in these areas may be quite high. was installed at Vikna.The lightning had probably struck the wind turbine during a period with high wind speed when the turbine was shut down. Wind energy has to find its own niches in the supply system if it is to be utilized with economy. and this seems to bring about problems deserving more attention in the future. Two of the wind turbines were damaged by lightning last winter. it appears that some small niches for wind turbines will exist in the Norwegian energy system in the coming years. The wind farm will be enlarged with two additional units (2 x 500 kW) next year. probably by a lightning stroke in the local grid. The wind turbine at Smsla has been rebladed and put into service again. 707 . the supply of energy to the national grid system is good. since no error messages were recorded. Fortunately. in 1991.7 l. A group of three wind turbines. 3 x 400 kW. The cost of the damage is about 12 Vo of the totalinvestment cost.

e..1 The wind turbine at smsla (300 kw Nordtank) after the - Fiaure lightning stroke 25 February 1992.7. 108 . . .-'i ..1 2.

8. On the other hand.E. The wind farms of PESUR (20 MW) and E.8. The national goal of having 100 MW of wind power installed by 1995 as expressed in the 1989 Renewable Energy PIan (PER-89) now appears to be amply fulfilled.5 (capacity > 1 MW). At the end of the year. together with a prospering wind turbine manufacturing industry. This panorama. Also shown are wind farms in the planning stage as of 20 Oitober 1. the largest conientration of 109 .6. mainly in the framework of the JOULE I-II programm-es of the CEC. together with Tarifa and Monte Ahumada.Table 2. see Figure 2.g.4 (capacity < 1 MW) and 2. a total of 233 wind turbines with a capacity of nearly 40 MW were installed in the mainland and in the Canary Islands. New installations are in the planning stage. details of which are listed in Tables 2.E. Installations The rapid increase in the number of wind turbines and the rated power is shown in Figures 2. The main center for R&D projects is the Instituto de Energias Renovables (IER) of CIEMAT.2 and 2. but there are also other public and private research centers working in wind energy. Spain will have a total installed wind power capacity of 50 MW.8.992.8.992. The development of new and larger prototypes. (10 MW) represent. such as the Ecotecnia24/300 and the Made26/300.8 1. makes the future for wind energy utilization very promising in spain.8 Spain Introduction Spain has good possibilities for wind energy utilization due to the existence of several zones of high wind potential and the high availability of land in these areas which usually have Iow population density. During '1992. six wind turbine manufacturers have deiivered a6out 300 units in sizes from 200 w to 300 kw at a total cost of about ESp 6000 million (60 MUSD). Twelve wind farms are now in operation. The most optimistic predictions envisage more than 1000 MW of wind power installed by the end of the century. During 1. 2. The PER-89 only considers Demonstration and Application renewable energy actions. is continuing. there is no specific national wind energy R&D programme in Spain.3. and several private and public initiatives from investor groups will guarantee a continued increase in the use of wind energy in the Spanish electrical system.

In the area of small wind turbines rated around 1 kW.992 due to the ongoing wind farm installations. Two are in the Canary Islands: the 10 MW Consorcio de Aguas de Fuerteventura and the 5 MW Inhalsa wind farm in Lanzarote. (asca) the Vestas V-27. It is rated at 200 kw and is known as Ecoiecnia i+/200. R&D was included in the Energy Research plan. Industrial activities The spanish wind turbine manufacturers have been very active during 7.a. equivalent to 175 000 barrels of oil. During the period August 91 . pER-g9. the lrtade company is also developing a 500 kw.8. which is an upscaling of its 20/'150 model.7. At the same time new wind turbines have been developed. see Figure 2. Including the installations by private investors the totat wind power capacity will be close to the target of 100 MW in 1995. only considers demonstratig" Td application of renewable energy sources. In addition to the 4. The prototype started operation and testing in February 1992.A. Abengoa Wind Power (AWP) is manufacturing the U. for instance the Made AE-25 with 25 m rotor diameter and 300 kW iating. Howeier. Ecotecnia and AWP. The installation of new wind turbines is expected to continue during the coming years. there is no specific national R&D programme for wind energy. and Aerogenerador-es Canarios s. The third is the 3.S.9 MW Bajo Ebro wind farm in Catalufla (Tarragona). wind turbines in Europe with a total of 272 machines and a rated power of 33 MW. Bornay S. Made. have fabricated around 300 units rated between 100 and 150 kw. pIE. The annual energy production is expected to be 100 000 MWh.Windpower 100 kw wind turbine in spain.5 MW wind farm at Cabo Villano (La Corufla) which is in operation. 110 . is continuing the manufacture of various models. Ecotecnia is also testing_a new prototype. R&D projects The national renewable energy plan. three wind farms are in the planning stage and will begin operation in'1993/94.August 92 the three main manufacturers. which is in a preliminary stage of design.

. "o*pSritl'urua" The utilities have several R&D projects in progress. Endesa is cooperatiig *itt tUua" .z Mw H-Rotor vertical-axis wind turbine (see Table 2."g th_e large-s cale type AWEC-6b a na ii coopera tin g wi th Heidelberg Motor GmbH_proto of Germany on the development of tfie r. 111 .testing and certilication of prototypes . resource assessment . stand-alone plants and wind_diesei systems. and in cooperation with other R&D centers in spain and CEC countries..1).3. wind-dieser systems. d. are working in different fields. unioi Fenosa is 9p:t" g.:tllig:lr:w rn the development of the 300 and 500 kw prototypes. for example wake effects. ranging from short term prediction moders of energy productibn Io the dev"elolment and prototy?es. University departments. the main areas of activity are: . The main R&D center is the Instituto de Energias Renovables (IER) of CIEMAT.Several R&D projects are carried out in public and private centers. For example. environmental issues . and assessment of wind characteristics. cgmposite blade development and testing .esign. The IER wind department is involved in Jeveral projecB]'some of them in the framework of the |OULE I and II programmes of the CEC.. such as at the Oniversidad polit6cnica de Madrid and the Universidad polit6cnica de Las palmas. which has been working in wind energy since 19g5. materials.

1 tNind systems in Spain .65 MW Ecofiecria I 6-7 m/s 1988 I I 7-8 m/s >8m/s MONTE AHUMADA 1.05 MW t 1.A MUELA 0. Ecotocnia 1 992 JANDIA r0 MW ACSA-Vestas 1992 Figure 2.3 MW CIEMAT .55 MW Gesa 1 988 FIOSES 0. ESTACA DE BARES N 0. Made QO 1993 W|ND SPEtrN I 4-5 m/s TARIFA E 5-6 m/s 0.36 MW Gesa 1987 I.59 MW Gesa 1 990 BAJO EBRO 4MW Ecotecnia.Octubre 1992 Mado.8.1 MW ACSA-Vestag 1992 Made trtrtr { 1 989 10.

AYlr) Figure 2.600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1986 1987 1989 1990 1991 I roraL TNSTALLED % paeDtcrED ctEMAT-lER (F.8.2 Number of wind turbines in Spain .

3 lnstalled wind power capacity in Spain . N pneDtcnoN CIEMAT-lER (F.Avle) Figure 2.H POWER INSTALLED (MW) |F 120 100 80 60 40 20 o 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 I rornL powER INsTALL.8.

55 GESA 1 0/3 30 12 1987 (ZARAGOZA) GESA AE 15 75 1 1 988 AE 18 110 1 1 988 163 1342 ESTACA DE MANON 0.65 ECOTECNIA 12/30 30 r0 1988 783 708 3475 (cADlz) ECOTECNIA 20/1 50 1s0 I 1989 442 488 1 098 ECOTECNIA 24t200 200 I 1992 CABO DE GERONA 0.36 GESA 1 0/3 30 t2 1987 588 ? 1427 BARES (LA CORUNA) ONTALAFIA ALBACETE 0.I8 'l 10 4 RO5E5 ? 45r Figure 2. WINDFARM WINDTURBINES ENERGY OUTPUT (MWH) TOTAL RATED MACHINES YEAR NAME LOCATION POWER MANUFACTURER MODEL POWER N" (MW) (kw) 1 990 1991 ACCUMULATED LA MUELA L.59 GESA AE 15 75 1 1 990 GESA AE.A MUELA 0.30 ECOTECNIA 12/30 30 10 r 988 337 238 1347 TARIFA TARIFA 0.8.4 Wind farms with rated power < 1 MW in operation in Spain as at 20 October 1992 .

E.68 MADE AE-20 150 1 990 28 376 404 TENERIFE ECOTECNIA 20t150 150 r 990 297 30s (CANARY rst-AND5) W.8.o\ WINDFARM WINDTURBINES ENERGY OUTPUT (MWH) TOTAL RATED MACHINES YEAR NAME LOCATION POWER MANUFACTURER MODEL POWER NO (MW) (kw) 1 990 1 991 ACCUMULATED GRANADILLA GRANADILLA 1.G. 25t250 250 1 990 : 216 216 CENEMESA FL-19 300 1 990 111 111 VESTAS v25 200 1 990 76 s90 666 ENERCON 34 330 991 1 168 168 MADE AE-2' 300 1992 112 | 758 1870 MONTE TARIFA 1.05 MADE AE.5 Wind farms with rated power > 1 itw in operation in Spain as at 20 October 1992 .9 VESTAS v25 200 1 1 990 386 699 r 085 VILLANO (LA CORUttA) VESTAS v20 100 I 290 251 54r (Pharelrty2nd) MADE AE-2OM r80 20 1 992 676 950 1626 Figure 2.2O 150 7 1 989 AHUMADA (cADrz) 2554 2200 4754 CABO CAMARINAS 3.

WINDFARM WINDTURBINES ENERGY OUTPUT TOTAL MACHINES NAME LOCATION RATED YEAR PREDICTED POWER MANU FACTURER MODEL POWER N' (MWH/year) (MW) (kw) PESU R TARIFA 21.P AWP-1OO 100 150 E.W.1 ACSA.000 (cADtz) A. E.800 (CANARY ISLANDS) MONTANA LANZAROTE 1. TARIFA 10.400 tSLANDS) IE N EFE GRAN CANARIA l.3 TCOTECNIA 20t150 150 50 1992 32.5 (continued) Wind farms with rated power > 1 MW in operation in Spain as at 20 October 1g92 \ .l ACSA.2O 180 to COSTA CALMA FUERTEVENTU RA l'l ACSA-VE5TA5 v 2-l 22s (CANARY 1992 3. E.8.VESTAS v27 225 5 1992 MINA (CANARY t) 2 800 Figure 2.000 (cADtZ) MADE AE.1 MADE AE-20 180 34 1992 68.VESTAS v27 225 5 1992 2.

6 MADE AE.2O r80 9 1 993 11.@ WINDFARM WINDTURBINES ENERGY OUTPUT TOTAL RATED MACHINES YEAR PREDICTED MANUi-ACTURER NU (MWH/year) NAME LOCATION POWER MODEL POWER (MW) (kw) IANDIA FU ERTEVENTURA 10 ACSA.8.6 Wind farms in planning stage in Spain as at 20 October 1992 .VESTAS v27 225 45 1992 28.2OM 180 9 8.000 CABO VILLANO CAMARINAS 15 MADE AE-26 300 50 r 993 30.000 (CANARY ISLANDS) AWP AWP-r00 r00 40 BARRANCO GRAN CANARIA 1.3 MADE AE-20 r80 7 1 993 3.000 (CANARY ISLANDS ) BAJO EBRO TORTOSA 4 ECOTECNIA 20t150 150 16 1 993 (TARMGONA) MADE AE.000 TIRAJANA (CANARY ISLANDS) Figure 2.000 (Phase 3rd) (LA CORUNA) INALSA LANZAROTE 5.

Figure 2.7 The ECOTECNIA 241200 prototype 179 .8.

" power of its own.. of 41 MSEK (= 6 MUSD) for 1990_1.ge increased after mid-1991. 2.-".ramme ]{n Ar. at a rnaxiium of 50 70 0f the cost. or electricity... About harf of the electricity is generated by hydro power. Vattenfall Board) has a subsiuntial devetop^. The instalation rate of turbines in the-150 .n"orog)t r.L:jhe rn tnree wavs: .ar. Private investors have been..og. o A market sti:n:lltiol programme in which wind power plants are subsidiz ed it zi E" of the investment cosi. financed to 100 Vo. The research is mainly carried ou"t-at universities and institutes.l9w in utilizing wind energy because of insufficient incentives in view tr tn" g"r.n1]c of Meteorology.:::". government is supporting the utitization of wind energy *r. of *i.+so tw iu..orr. structurar in Stockholm is mechanics. which facilitates the integratior.g MUSD). wind systems. and are sponsoring the demonstration of new enersv recnnologies. The subsidy will be increased to 35 % by 1 January 1993. interest.ury iE* .993.25 SEK/kWh f= O'.p. The utilities are increasingly involved in the development and utilization of wind energy-.development and demonstration programme for the support of large wind system projects. Basic research The 1992 allocation for wind e_nergy research is 13 MSEK (_ 1. advanced design methods.. controi i".u u.OSa USO/kWh) on the average. University of Uppsala (MII-ru). fo.9 Sweden Wind energy programme sweden has good wind resources and was one of the first countries to embark on a wind energy programme in 1975. due to the 25 % invesiment-subsidv. however. They jointly own the Company (KVAB) for carrying out studies utilities' wind power and projects of co*_or..Jr"tu^au.. through_ the Swedish-inergy Developmenr Coroorarion (SEU).I^Slu.fy if. about 0. nbise. inlcuding..d power bur makes irs introduction difficult due to tne r8w piice or electricity in the present system.". o A. witha three-year Ibudget i":"11:h. The Aeronautical Research Institute (FFA) national research performing studies in aerodynamics. atyosphericresearch is carried out at the Department .-. materiars.comparatively. o^-iutu effects "iu_p1" 120 .amme.

A 40 kW wind turbin" rrr . insta'ed the repair of the gearbox in 199i.1. The conditions are found on the west an'd best wind south coast.lXT:iil: Development projects The government is supporting wind energy development and demonstration proiectJ lt a miximu^ Energy technor.ra) is used at iOno."Ji"issg z or tn'e cosi tiro"rgi.r. bue to'noise probrem.r'tut"r.. Programme."l"".. The turbine contror and variable speed with a huu t u. in"**o..has operated welr since MWh durine 2e lsg hours n/5io". qr6t-DL4rs wind wrrrq turolnes turbin power Or lirger. since 1 without government"ry:1"0."r"ber it had generated z4 o4g on ri".Jii two largest lakes and on the Baltic islandr. rn" " winds' which wilr be further investigaied ""rtnu. . see Figure 2.". establirr. . support. the January 1992 limited operation permii ind is pr""""air machine has a ue shut down in May 7993. tn" oi s-o Priority is given io large_scate and managed by Nutek. and boundary rayer phenomena. for stail that can be fixed or teetered. Electric machinery and control technology for wind the Chalmers University or r""rr"oiogfibotn"nuu.oev Fund.mulated ourpur is worrd- leading for i single turbine. of approximately 1 MW rated Maglarp The 7g m..r.l i... was dismantred to.roro gy." *"rizr. mainly for testing power electronics.".r. uror.prepare for th"e insthation 1:Tg:::q/l-99t machlnery on top of theexisting of the Ndsudden rr tower. been compiled by SMHI.r ^o..."i"rr. in 721 ..g. Integration of wind power into the electric grid is studied at the of Electii car Energy syr t"rr.gjsystems are studied at the wind Turbine T_est 3tation ut uJtid *no rr* operare Gothenburg. originaty erected in 1983.*iifu""" . The new unit was instalred October 1992. in 7gg2. The wind turbine O by rhe Sydkraft utility.". wind measurements and resource assessments are undertakel by the Swedish fr.." also good in tne-coming. Nrisudden The 75 m' 2 MW win!-111uine. 3 Mw wind turbine..t.9. ""a A Swedish wind atlas has.tutuoiofogi.."'i Hydrological Institute (SMHIi NorrtOpr. R"oyal rns ti tu te o?'i".

monitoring and evaluation programme. Niisudden II has been developed in cooperation with German partners and is the sister unit of Aeolus II. uy Noiai" wind- power AB and the other one is a standard Bonus *ioir. which means that thegovernment subsidy is 25 Vo. the blades. The 450 kw Bonus was erected in June and the 400 kw NWp 400 in see Figure 2. The machine operated with high availability untit lu'ne. Kvaerner Turbin AB supplied the machinery and Messerschmidt-Bolkow-Brohm (MBB). The cost of the_swedish part of the Niisudden rllAeolus rI project is about 100 MSEK (= 14 MUSD) and is financed by Vattenfall/SEli/Nutek in the propornon 50/2s/25. to be reported in 1995. rf - all tests are satisfactory.9. when it lost a blade-tip during starting operatiori. After take-over. a stiff hub. Germany.e. 1'993. N?isudden is operated by Vattenfall.tesrin_g programme will continue until Spring 1:q":1. The intention is to-compare the standard three-bladed technology and the new flexible two-bladed technology in turbines of about the sine size and at the same location. vattenfall operltes a. The turbine technology is based on Niisudden I with an upwind two-speed rotor. and full-span pitch control. During 1992 vattenfall. one of turbines has an advancid h"rigr. maintenance. The blades are made of a carbonfibre and glassfibre composite.wasrelaired in January. called the Lyse wind Power station.?. Risholmen The 750 kw Howden wind turbine was installed by KVAB in 19gg on the island of stora Risholmen in the outer harbour of bothenburg. erected in August 1992 near wilhelmshaven. Kvaerner Turbin AB and MBB have completed a study for defining the design basis of a third generation 3 MW wind turbine. discovered il september 1997.A. The evaluation programme is funded 50/50 by Vattenfal and Nutek. Gerniiny. vltteniall will take orr". including a comparison with tG pJrformance of Aeolus II.. a two-year evaluation programme "na witt follow. The rotor diameter ii g0 m and the rated power 3 Mw. The incident is beine investigated in cooperation with the manufacturer. 122 . The crack in the blade tip actuator. op"r"tior. a NWP 400 Vattenfall has installed two medium-sized wind turbines at Basteviks- holmarna near Lysekil on the west coast in a project.

The machine is now being certified by the Norske Veritas. This will hopefully contribute to cost effectiveness and competitivity in serial production. The pitching of the outer part of the blades is aerodynamically controlled with the blade parts working against a torsional spring. f. The machine has been designed by Zephyr AB.991. based on a Swedish invention.NWP 400 is designed to minimize loads due to fatigue and extreme wind speeds at standstill. called NWP 1000.250 Zephyr is a 250 kW two-bladed. the first of which was installed during summer 1992 at Falkenberg A first prototype of the same concept has operated at the site since 1990. The parking loads are minimized by the small projected area of the unit. Zephyr WTS 28. and the owner/operator must participate in an evaluation programme of plant performance. The support should correspond to aiound 100 MW of installed capacity by 1.9. starting l July "1.3.996. The rotor has 28 m diameter and two rotational speeds at 55 and 37 rpm. several provinces have initiated planning activities as a result of the market stimulation programme. The 35 m rotor is upwind and stall-controlled. To qualify for support. The utility has ordered two units. Nordic Windpower is studying the design of a 1000 kW version.or supporting the installation of wind power plajnts. The project must obtain all local permits before receiving the support. and the blades are made of glassfibre-reinforced polyester. see Figure 2. The NWP 400 weighs only 28 tons as compared to 46 tons for the Danish machine. which will be developed in cooperation with some European manufacturers. LZJ . passively pitch-controlled wind turbine with individually flapping blades. Market stimulation The government has allocated 250 MSEK (= 35 MUSD) over a five year period. In particular. A certification procedure has been set up. The subsidy is 25 vo of the invesrment cost for plants larger than 60 kW rated power. the wind turbine must be certified. The project is funded by the local utility of Falkenberg on the west coast and Nutek. this involves a more detailed documentation of the wind resource than is possible in the national wind atlas. Short term wind speed variations due to wind shear and turbulence are decoupled from the machine by the teetering hub and the yaw control.

which is the reason why the government has increaJed the investment subsidy to35% from 1 January 1993. for example. The performance of the small and medium-sized wind turbines is reported monthly since 1989. The installation rate has been less than expected. By september the number was 89 with a total rated capacity of 16 MW. that the caplcif fictors varied from 6 to 33 vo. As a result of the market stimulation programme. r24 . the number of wind turbine installations has tripled in 15 months. including grid connection. fioiever. excluding the large prototype machines. The average investment cost. showing. All of the machines except two are panish. was 9200 SEK/kW (= 1250 usD/kw). A three-year summary was published in September L992.

1 The 3 MW Niisudden ll.Figure 2. Rotor diameter 80 m 125 .9.

9. )!t4. ffi: o.2 NWP 400 at Basteviksholmen near Lysekil 126 .. 4 "' *:. Figure 2.: | ? ffib . &..

3 Zephyr WTS 28. 1 Pitchable blade tip 2 Inner fixed part ol blade 3 Torsion spring 4 Flapping hinge 5 H-hub 6 Synchronizing yoke 7 Torque limiting hub \ N) Figure 2.9.250 hub principte .

that of the highest accepted bid. 2. (r.bid-in.1 shows details of wind farms in operation or where construction has started. The. was applied to all contracts in a single band. the second renewable order of the Non-Fossil Fuel o-bligation was issued _covering 122 projects totalling 4s7 lvrrN Declared (DNc) of which 49 were wind energy proyects totalling 821 f9!c_a-pa_city Mw DNC (192 Mw rated-capacig). but in general planners and developers have arrived at different details ( e-g_noise levels and distances) depending on their own judge- and the particular character and sensitivity of each site.responseto planning applications submitted for 2nd tranche projects has been much more positive than to those of the 1st tranche. reflecting the short period of the contracts due t-o the fgSA constraint. pto6"uiy due to gleatgr awareness and understanding of the problem.itoring. this monitoring is being undertaken at three levels: universal.nical mSr. For this tranihe a . environ- mental and economic performance.og MW) and 31' 7o (50 Mw) by september 1.all projects in NFFo L have now received planning consent. Assessment of visual intrusion. A single price.'syst6m of pricing was used with each developer having to state the price at whlch he was prepared to supply his nominated capacity. independent and full tecf. ti is the ilntention to monitor ail the NFFO projects to gathd data bn iheit techr.10. Clearly there is a need to obtain information on existing developments by a monitoring. had been refused. Table 2. being largely subjective and non- quantifiable. these numbers had increased to 49 i. by march lg92 43 yo of theNFFo 2 projects (totalling 89 Mw rated capaiig) had received planning conseni and z z. In general] planning permission is granted subject to a number of condifions. to the best 1e1ts of the auther's knowledge. are causing particular difficulties. for wind etietgy this was 11 p per kWh. six sepirate technology bands were established to allow adequate demonitrationbf each renew- able technology.992. In the agreements reached.10 United Kingdom Large scale generation Winil farms (reported by D I page) In November 199'1. The main concerns of the planners are still noise intrusion.ical. The proposals with the lowest bid-in price in each band were offered contracts. loss of landscape value and electromagnetic radiation (both reflected and emitted). there are some common elements (e g tonal noise). process to help assess proposed projects. t28 . aithougtr.

The generator manufacturer (Laurence scott) states that-failuie was du"e to the ingress of moisture and recommended the installation of a baffle in the cooli-ng air intake on the underside of the nacelle. total running time has been 6348 hours and energy production 8441 MWh. The generator has been completely rewound.rtd b" safe to run the machine.fractured capsirews which hold the tip in place.ir. inadequat e yaw brakes. This has been carried out to "Class F" insulation stindard as before but the windings have been doubly dipped. -tn" was thought thar these were caused"by water ent". HWT-1000 L MW turbine at Richborough (powerGen _ reported by A Boston) The turbine has been out of commission since December 1991 with generato-r phase to earth failure. The return to service of the machine was delayed by vibration problems. The tip became detached during operation.t blades' Flowever. In |uly a similar machine in sweden suffered a failure of the tip brake." options for adapting jhjr yaw mechanism. ii is now thought that the oi-" ^ui"'.'t Vo Load Factor L7. Howden advised powerGen not to run the Richborough until further notice. Machine generating statistics from 28 February to 23 october were: Running time Z34S hours Energyproduction 9042 MWh Availability 68. although the vibration was reduced by drainiig water from one of the blades. It appeared that the cause of the failure was probablyloose or.reported by W G Stevenson) A twelve month monitoring period started on 2g Febru ary 1. 729 .992.-windharvester u. After thoroughly checking these sciews it was decided that ii *o."rrr" instabilities is. The machine was^eventually "*ptoiir. This has been done.f llltl"tltt.g recommissioned on 27 october rggzbut the cut-out wind speed was reduced to about 12m/s to reduce yaw system loads until the difficulties are overcome. Flowever contact was made with the swedish utility. Large scale ilemonstration winil turbines (> 500 kW wEG LS-l 3 Mw turbine on orkney (scottish Hydro-Electric ..8 7o Since commissioning.

Renewable Energy systems. The actuator lever radius has been increased slightly to reduce actuator loads and utilise a larger stroke. control. materilb etc. cEC and DTI) areieassessing the need to conclude-the-monitoring of the machine in light of the substantial amount of technical andlconomic data alread! acquired. from 25 mm to 30 mm. and windharvester Ltd. ThEie studies are supplemented by projects in specific branches of wind technology such as aerodynamics. VAWT-850 500 kW (VAWTL . After corrective action the machine was available agaln in in-November. slingsby Aviation (the blade designer and manufacturer) and VAWTL have Leen engaged in re'design work with a view to re-comission the machine.* blade tip-has been manufactured and the blade tip to blade attachement set bolts on all three blades have been increased from M12 to M14. a programme of studies is being planned to clarify the technical issues 130 . vawfl in conjunction with wind farm activities the sponsors (National wind i'ower LTd. improvement. since the implementation"6f wind power on a large scale raised questions of how a scittered and diffuse source such as wind energy can be collected and delivered to users.reported by W G Stevenson) A r". The cumulative effect of the modifications is estimated to be a 3:1.aD progranane Harwell) (managed by Energy Technology Support Unit. higher priority work due to the rapid developments in the UK \19 let_ayea the work. Hgw-eyer. Government funded R&D activities ?TI R.722l\Ill{h HWT-750 kW turbine on Shetland (Scottish Hydro-Electric . Tip alignement problems were experienced due to sticking hydraulic units. The last figures available for running time and energy production are: Running time 4722 hours Exported energy 1. The stop dogs have been redesigned. Technology deoelopment (reported by K F Mc Anulty) The backbone of uK technology development programme for wind 9n9rgy consists of design. The cylinder rod diameter has been increased. ETSU) since the failure of a blade on the machine in February 1991.studies fundedby the-Defartment of Trade and Industry--and which are being clgied out 6y Wind Energy Group.D. The site assembly work was completed by the end of October.reported by N Hall-Stride.

Flow visualisation has come to play an important part in this work and the recently developed technique of particle image velocimetry (PIV) is being investigated with a view to applying the technique to studies of the behaviour of flows over stalled rotors. to arrive at amachine which will be suited to wind farm applications in the UK and abroad. The field evaluation of advanced control algorithms has been completed and a report will be published in December 7992. Control system studies have been augmented with work to investigate the dynamic and aerodynamic properties of new control devices. The control strategies appropriate to the control of stall regulated rotors when used with variable speed drives are to be evaluated in a study that is now in the opening stages. Wind tunnel studies of the mechanism of stall on rotation blades has continued in support of the decision to retrofit a stall regulated rotor to a WEG MS-3 at Myres Hill. and the uprated version of MS-3. Each of the design studies has an assessment of its market potential associated with it. fixed hub HAWT capable of generating electricity at a competitve cost. (i) Design studies Wind Energy Group is in the early stages of a project to design a two- bladed machine of about 45 m rotor diameter. The design and cost definition study of a 1 MW rated horizontal-axis wind turbine being carried out by Renewable Energy Systems Ltd will apply the results of technology development activities in the Uk to the realisation of a three-bladed.which might limit the amount of wind energy that could reasonably be accomodated on the electrical distribution network. (ii) Wind turbine technology Work continues in the DTI programme to reduce the cost of electricity by further developing the technology underlying wind turbine design. known as the WEG 400 and findings emerging from the Department of Trade and Industry's technology development programme over the past decade. This machine will be generically related to previous WEG designs while incorporating both experience gained from MS-3. Further studies of the relationship between machine configuration and control system performance has commenced. IJI . Windharvester Ltd is combinig Howden technology with recent advances in aerodynamics and control.

f th'.n.J k.r. This gave generar guidance on the siti"ng of *i"a-t"iui""s Dyfed and a detailed assessrnent of ability or i' tneianasi"p"'t ltrlru *i"a turbine developments of different sizes." collaboration with the RECs.id.a development.t " 't32 . so*"-oit-t done to establish the feasibility_of improving wind turbine control "r?""" characteristics by incorporating compliant eiementi in the ariu" tr"i" mounting. wind-energy contractors' reports issued by ETSU since october ilt:t 1991 is"rgiven in Table 2.r"ir"ut" o"i""i"tor . "' (ii) Supporting R&D on non-technical barriers to exploitation supporting R&D work contilygs looking at the topics energt mainry environmentar impact.Jfir. This irrcruder pt r". -being mainly tackred either through region'al rr"diz""r..-r"h integration with electricity distribution network locar plann'ir.tri.. Commercialisation and exploitation of the resource (reported by H G Parkinson) (i) Regional resource and planning studies These studies are being undertaken with Regionar Erectricity companies l$Crl an! C11-t1Co-uncits technologies.g ".il. Interest in structural dynamics has centered around extendine the ula. Further studies oithe feaJibility of directdiive generators using utilising permanent magnet technology have commenced.."J... Recent work in the area of visuar intrusion includes a study of the impact of wind farms on the randscape in oyfed-usil.2 anda liit of new R&D contracts offered since the same day is given in Table 2.' Much new work has recently been commiss. At the "t**k " there are five regional studies with RECs underway and five ^o^L"t with Countye.3."i"iig "r" . ""Jnacette A substantial project to determine the factors contributing to gearbox and rating by carefully conholled shop testing is welr uav"nc& life and will report in mid 1993.. Defini.....iig . ilr:ifdri"" ys."rgy with the County Councils is it introduces the perspactive of physical phhning and it v"tralte because is ril"iv *r"t planning consideiations will be bne .ng the availability of suiiable connection points"r. cross- renewables projects.t# il?.eJglan$ing of yaw loads and their effects.10. th.ter. dtt er topiis specific to wind ..."rgy the local electricity diJtribution t to i" .10.ioned rookong at alr aspects of wind turbine noise and its impact. co[aboration and cover all rnain renewable 6.

PIV stage II This work..t.r^ues). new funding has been obtained from SERC for the follSwing p-j". indeed some are seconded for long periods to the Enegry Research Unit at Ml. It is hoped that the work in hand wilienable more quantitative and relevant guidelines to be drafted over the next 1g mol. sERC have just announced thatthey.rse or the facilities on a day to day basis. It operates a wind Test site at its Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL).ev R"r"rr. This type of survey is valuable for ". Infierd of RAL's En"'. some_eigit universities haveingoing projects involving the RAL wind rest sitel During the last year. prediction and reduction of both mechanical and aerodynamic nois at s:ufce.Syi:Ltly. jo carry the work forward towards an ultimate applicatioi'of the technique to open air conditions. has been demonstrated most successfully under wind tunnel conditions.are going to fund a further period od work involvine piofessor Grant of Heriott-watt university and D.ths regarding the assessment and control of noise impacts from wind turbines.din public opinion any shift -dgmonstrating resulting from the availablility of infoimation arising from actual experience of the project. noise propagation and measurement. several general surveys of public attitudes have been carried out and recently both before and after construction surveys have been undertaken at some of the sites ofNFFo projects (Delabole ce. Another project looked at the radiation emitted by a wind turbine and concluded it would cause no problem to sensitive radioa antennas used by international telecommunications traffic.t unjt. Recent work undertaken as part of the DTI programme obtained measurements in both the UK and Denmark on the effect of wind turbines on broadcast signals. in which a sheet laser is used to illuminate the airflow and measure velocities around moving airfoils.reported by J A Halliday) sEC is responsible for funding academic research in engineering and science-in fligher Education Institutes. rJJ .. science anil Engineering Research Council R€tD programme (Rutherford Appleton Laboratory . Both graduate students and research associates from universities make . background noise levels and their variation with time and the assessment of auiibilititv and annoyance of noise.

992. The programme is collaborative.repo. between professor Clavton of Nottingham University and members of the Energy research tinit. An agreed draft standard is expectdd for grid connected wind turbines exceeding 12 m in diameter is expected to"u" isrr"a u/ih" 'r.o^pl"t"d to build and test a large scale diesel system using the 60 kw wind ^turbine at the RAL site. A key feature of the work haJbeen the introduction of an electrical variable speed drive in the system. Non-Destructiae Testing (NDT) using infra-red imagery A n9w and fairly novel technique is being applied to wind turbine blade testing. Autonomous u:indldiesel systems in new configuration The pioneering work of Imperial College and RAL in wind/diesel /flywheel studies has continued. The syudy partners indude Dr Freris of Imperial College and or Bleijs of ieicester University. all participating countries at a meetiig in Rotterdam on 6 _ T october. The above list summarizes some of the major activities at the RAL test site. Non-steady aerodynamics for a 50 kW HAWT Professor Graham of Imperial College together with RAL has recently been awarded u _*ul"l-s!RC grant to insiall an extensive set of pressure transducers on the RAL windharvester 60 kw wind turbine. It should be emphasized that SERC funds many other proiects which are based in universities and that the above list is by no exhaustive. sERC has also recently announced funding for a study cor. The drive control was developed at Leicester University by ateam led by Dr smith. work-has just been .tei U| C nUio0 Internation aI standar ils actia ities The BSI committee has submitted its comments on the draft standards document to the IEC and the IEC working Group discussed comments from. and to study its aerodynamics under open air wind conditions. end of IJ+ . the ultimate aim being to develop a technique that can be used in the field. The early work has shown that "hot spots" can be deteiied at points of weakness of blades under fatigue testing well before the ictual moment of failure. A newly announced sERC graniwill wnable the work to be extended to new materials and new situations. ^"urrc DTI standards and certification programme (managed by Nationar Engineering Laboratory .cerning the benefits of introducing-flywheel-storage to reinforie weak grii lines.

Cornwall Vestas 0 1 4.9 EcoGen Rhyd-y-Groes.Z Yorkshire Water Ovenden Moor.0 Llidiartywaun. but a draft standard is not expected until 1993. Powys Mitsubishi 60 18. Rated turer ber MW Blylhe Harbour/REGEN Blythe. Glamorgan Windharvest 20 u. Northumberland HMZ 9 2.7 Carler Wind Tubines EcoGen Orton Airport. Cumbria Carter 10 3. Powys WEG 24 I. Cormivall Vestas 15 6. UK certif i cati o n a ctio it ie s Certification procedures for the IIK continues to be addressed bv DTI aided bu consultation between Nwrc at NEL and other European test centres. Mid Glamorgan Nordtank 20 on Renewable Energy Systems Carlard Cross. Yorkshire Vestas 23 Y. Powys Mitsubishi 43 12. W Yorkshire Vestas 24 9.0 EcoGen Penrhyddlan.Z National Wind Power Cold Northcott. Table 2.10.0 Perma Energy Tafl-Ely.Z Totals 332 1 03. Num.6 Windcluster Haverigg.c Yorkshire Water Chelker. Anglesay Bonus 24 7. Dyfed WEG 20 6.3 National Wind Power Llangwyrflon.1 Windelectric Windstar Delabole. Cumbria Vestas 5 1. Cornwall WEG 2'I 6. Discussions have started between CEC member countries about the possible need for a special Directive from the CEC relating specifically to wind turbines.0 Renewable Energy Systems Coal Clough. The IEC have set up another working Group to consider standards for small wind turbines (less than 12 m diameter). Yorkshire WEG 4 I.1 NFFo Wind Farm operational or Under construction as at 1 September 1992 Developer Slte of project Manulac.2 National Wnd Power Cemmaes.0 Werfa Mynydd.9 135 .

of impact 6015 Site devetopment costs tor wind farm WS Atkins control systems on taligue of wTs 6042 Influence of advanced pitch controlofalgorithm irn turbine tailue badj Carrao naisan Ganad Hassan 99Jl lepofi on the passive control of horiz6ntal axis wind turbinei 6056 Effects of turbines on VHF lelevision reception tield tests in Denmark canad Hassan permi energy 5059 Desin and dynamic anatysis of ftexibte winb turtrines CitV Univeiiti !9q1 Fatigue strength assesshent of wetd detaits 6027 Wnd farm balance of plant cosls WEG/BAe WEG 6'l 01 control of horizonta.2 Lisl of Wind Energy Reports lssued by ETSU since October 1991 No Tltle Contractor lnvestigation of torque contro. Assesimenr and rne controior uaii"ure speJo-vfi. g2O4O1 of HAWTGs 350 Ganad Hassin Monitoring control inO-anilyris ol Carter 200/30 WTG 920g01 ?9? Ren Energy Syst Assessm.:^FTlq{^%t rmperar uorege s6 ezo4oj llsn rift aeroroirs for HAWTG' 292 Herriot Watt Univ'y Flow 39 920901 measuremenl on a tull scale slall regulaled rotor 56 341 lmp coll consultants lnduction generarors wnrr asyncnronori"rinr.ifib..cs 79 920501 284 Frow sorurions Lrd predicrion ot wino drbft ."v welding Institute 9993 Theoretical invesligation.ffi.. stall:regulated rotor WEG 5046 Fatigue evaluaiion of wood laminatesior the design of wind turbine. \ruu wind turbihe drive rriin son uutas Engtneering lmpacl study of Cemmaes wind .'. U Strathclyde Table 2. /0..3 List of Wind Energy R&D Contracts Offered by ETSU since October 1991 No. 48 920601 croup ?!2 Ren Energy Syst Estimatinglhe wind_Energv Design and tesiof an aerodynairic tip oraie " ' 170 e11oo1 221 911111 ?!9 u.r using a variabre slip induction generaror 9919 Feasibility wEG 90^2. Table 2.'..J.pr..t axis wind turbine generator by leading 5108 Wind turbine control systems modeilinfand desigri pnasei+fedge spoilers ---" wEG t-.2_ study of a leetered.arrays -"-..ehaviourorupwinoturtrines farm f7 gZO42g z29i tu l.112 Effect of blade Dynamic and aerodynamic loads on a stail-regutated VAWT VAWT 6041 root geometry on the stalting of a rotor tmperial College 601 4 Fatigue tests on tillet welded joints under viriable amplitude toading siles r '--. 65 911201 287 u of Bath optimizationfiatigue oesign or *ooo Jorp6sir-eljaoes 120 343 windelectric Measurement of-noise leiets ar oerauore iviniiirm 15 920501 920301 281t01 Nat Wind power Ecotogical studies at Cotd Northcoti 281102 Nat Wind Power Full sciale flow mealuremejts in wind turbine 5 920401 348 U of Strathclvde Non_linear .'--.10.vii"r '' 16 s2o7o6 yawb.tRD .magnerdireiiarivege. Contractor Tltle Ek Rtart u ot slrathclyde Dependence of control systems on wTG configuration ?!9 uorManchesrer 274 peimanenr. Crantietd 21. Dedbolgi fhase I zz3 920117 302 CSM Associates .nt of the 921001 frospects for Darrieus wind turtrines 157 92ol ol 289 windeleclric Technical pertormairce nronitoring.blades aitn university 2919 4erodynamic performance predistion for the stailiig HeWf rotoi ...- "nritini. or srrarhcrvde srraregieiror true energy oulput of a wind farm 93 91j 216 ?19 .'' 92ogo1 10 gzoToj 347 u of strathcryde The efreai of ya* on a g m iiameteiwino'irroine a 920401 t36 .phase | 146 920513 l# H::lTlr"]i"-".?2_ Direcily coupted slow speed wind turbine alternatois NEt . Technical iertormince monitoring of Delabole .

A setback for wind energy occurred when Hawaiian Electric Industries announced October 6 that it had decided to shut down its wind farm at Kahuku due to losses from operations and continuing mechanical problems. new wind capacity was expected to amount to less than 10 MW. Industry status Although 1. resulting in an overspeed runaway. about 1600 MW. and the 3. By the end of the year. the machine had run a total of 20 567 hours and produced 26 n6 MWh. As shown in Figure 2. In the former area.11. As of the end of September. much debated federal energy legislation was signed into law authorizing a tax credit of USD 0.992 was a landmark year for progress on new energy legislationand research. begun in California in the early 1980s.2. The company's main wind farm at Kahuku on the island of Oahu consists of two projects: the fourteen Westinghouse wind turbines.2 MW Mod-SB wind turbine. The decision to shut down the wind farm came after one of the 500 kW turbines was destroyed following a hydraulic pitch change system failure. The energy bill also authorized transmission access for third-party wind developers. some important initiatives favourable to wind were proposed and in some cases implemented on the regional and state levels in 1992.1 the total installations will remain approximately the same. was formed in 1985 to develop wind power and other alternate energy sources. but are still considered prototype machines in need of some upgrading. Rapid growth in new installations in 1. These machines have now operated over 160 000 hours and produced 36 384 MWh.ll United States Introduction Wind energy conversion in the United States in 1992 was particularly notable for progress in the two areas of legislative initiatives and Department of Energy (DOE) program initiatives. In addition.993 /94 is expected to result from the new market incentives and advanced turbine developments. Also retirements of outdated turbines were expected to be slightly greater than new installations in some regions. the unregulated.015 per kilowatt-hour for wind plants installed beginning in 1994. new wind installations were down when compared to recent years. Operation of the Mod-58 turbine is continuing until a disposition decision is made. non- utility subsidiary. This is attributed in large part to the continuing phase-out of Standard Offer 4 power purchase contracts. rated at 600 kW each. Energy production is expected to be up slightly from prior years due to improved performance of new turbines. 137 . Hawaiian Electric Renewable Systems.

0g usD/kwh.AWT program has. and24 MUSD in Fy 1993. ' 138 .s. access to transmission lines. Figure 2.4 MUSD inFy 't992. and other programs helpful to wind energy development. Energy policy and market development incentives A major step forward for wind and other renewable energy systems was the passage of the Energy Policy Act (EpACT) by the U.imillion in fiscal year 7991' to 21'. This new law provides wind energy production incentives. but that would not reasonably rplpaylhe continued reliability of the affected electric systems. Federally-funded research and development The u. Thg. A wide rangJof other energy issues are also covered by the new law. Department of Energ-y (DoE) is supporting the development of wind energy primarily through an expanding nco program. The credit is phased out as a reference price exceeds 0. it e oor wind Energy Program funding increased from USD ll. Renewable energy production incentive payments of 0.11. cooperatives and public utility districts that do not pay federal taxes) and qualified renewable energy facilities.015 USD/kWh are also authorized to publicly owned (e g municipal. The increase is.S.2 illustrates the program structure. Ado ance il winil turbines The Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) program is a collaborative venture with utilities and industry with the goit oi assisting industry efforts to incorporate advanced wind technology in to commercial machines in the near term and to develop next generation of utility grade wind turbines. other new EPAcr procedures provide for transmission access (including enlargement of transmission capacity necessary) for wholesale transac- tions that would otherwise be in the public interest. two major parts: the development of improved grbineg _incorporating incremental refinements into existeng des'igns by the mid-1990s and the development of next-generation techiologf ro. The goals of the program are to: assist utilities and industry in developing new markets and to develop advanced wind turbine technology.primarily gov-ernment/ industry cost-shared development of advanced wind-begin -to turbines for markets in the mid to late 1990s. In addition EPACT implements programs designed to encourage the use of wind systems through training and education. ]anuary 1994 and 1 |uly 1999. Congress in October of 1992. The new law provides i tai credit ofb.015 usD/kwh for wind energy and "closed loop" biomass facilities for a 10 year period at facilities placed in service between 1. wind. biomass or geothermal energy. A-qualified facility is one which generates electricity using solar.

This technology demonstration is a bridge between current advanced turbine development activities and when utilities begin large-scale purchases of wind turbines. The specific goal of the Near-Term Product Development activity is to develop wind turbine svstems to be commercially available in the 1994-95 time frame that produce electriciry for 0. is being considered for the next generation turbines. For one near-term design. NREL. Utility integration pro gran The wind program has initiated a series of activities to help address the concerns that electric utilities have expressed about their ability to integrate wind systems into their normal operations.deployment during the late 1990s. DOE. and two more being negotiated. both of which were started during 1. In field testing these airfoil families have demonstrated energy capture up to 30 Eo greater than that produced by current commercial machines. Conceptual design studies began in late 1990 and were concluded in 1. are the Utility Performance Verification activity and the Power Marketing Administration initiative. In another near-term design. 139 . The activity seeks to establish deployment and evaluation projects with at least two host utilities by mid-1993 and will document the experience from these tests over the period 1993-1997. A second phase is also being contemplated which would evaluate the next generation technology from the AWT program in the late 1990s.05 USD/kWh at 6.992. In addition. Two of these programs. The Utility Performance Verification activity is being performed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute. movable surfaces are being used for aerodynamic control of rotor speed. a single piece generator housing is being used.5 m/s wind sites. The goal of this major new activity is to deploy and evaluate commercial/prototype wind turbines in typical utility operating environments. to reduce long-term manufacturing costs. the advanced turbines will incorporate blades with advanced airfoils designed specifically for the turbines. with additional funds from EPRI and DOE. Both near-term and next generation turbines may incorporate advanced and innovative concepts. with three contracts awarded so far in 1992. based on aerodynamics research performed at the DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Variable speed operation. Funding for these activities will come primarily from the host utilities.992. For instance. with associated power electronics. EPRI and vendors will provide technical support as required. The projects will involve a statistically significant number of turbines (nominally 20 at each host utility or approximately 6 MW). The Near-Term Product Development phase of the program is currently being funded.

as well as help with aspects of system development not addressed in other programs. design. seven companies received awards under the initial round of this activity. in parallel with the EPRI project. control and uurlry rnterconnection optimization. . specific problems being addressed include. development. Co lI sb orutio e Winil T e chno Io gy pr o gr am Activities under the Collaborative wind rechnology program respond to the needs of the industry for assistance in research-io maintain current competitiveness. development and testing td verify new technology components or subsystems.s' was initiated in 1992 to asist the wind industry in developing near-term commercial wind turbines tor both the domestic and international marketplace. the cost of energy achieved by these machines has been above the goals that have 6""r.. Further. eificiency.. and ietiiuitity or current wind farms. for-wind energy. The activiiy's primary objectives are: 1) to enhance the performance. resource. These cooperative cost-shared research activities are assisting the industry in the design. a National wild_ Technology Test Center was recently announced which will provide the U.s.40 . Fi-n{ly. Many-oL these designs have proven to be suppliers of. site engineering optimization.. both domestic and international. 2) to encourage regional diversification..engineering and. Jatue Engineered rurbine (vET) effort IU. value analyses. since they came under the direcf control of DoE. The DoE Power Marketing Administration initiative is pursuing..:qYity is or re. The Cooperative wind Technology Applications activity assists the wind inrlustry in seeking near-term commeriial opportunitiei.. and commercialization of these -"ahir. The focus of this :. The VET will support. a program of testing and validation of wind turbines as a source of electricity supply for the Northwest and Midwest areas of the country. manufacturing. on a cosi-shared basis. These include the n-eed for thingi as diverse and practical as manufacturing process advances and access tjt'rbine and component testing facilities../or re-manufalcturing conventional wind rurDrne contrgurations. with aiomplete wind energy resJarch and 1. These organisations predominate in those regions of the country which have a large percentage of the national wind.. and 3) to define new applications."r. new. and anarysis of solutioni to current operational problems....electricity in California and Europe. or improved wind turbines. but are not limited to.. Hoiever."t for wind energy-. they offer a chance for close collaboration work with the Advanced Turbine program.. testing.. and application demonstrations in new_ operational environments (for example hybrid systems using small machines). verification testing of existing..

located at NREL.3). A new structural test facility.34 m vertical axis wind turbine test bed in Bushland. the program has developed new computer models for aerodynamic performance. Applieil research program Applied research is necessary to ensure that fundamental design tools will be available for performing detailed designs of future advanced wind turbines. One of the efforts has been the analysis of blade pressure measurements to determine the effects of delayed stall on wind hrrbine steady and dynamic loads. For example.1. and wind/hybrid systems. Dynamic tests using hydraulic actuators will submit components to cyclical fatigue loads similar to those experienced during actual operation. The goal of activities in this area is to define electrical characteristics and controls that will eliminate 74r . Research is continuing into the effect of wind turbines on operational control and power quality in utility grids. has been developed to perform static and dynamic tests of wind turbine components. and will significantly enhance industry's ability to compete worldwide. Colorado (Figure 2. have been conducted on the 500 kW. electrical utility interconnection... in support of all areas of applied research. and a turbine test capability for use by industry on a user facilitiy basis. Much of SNLs efforts.development center. and yaw dynamics that run on personal computers. These codes are being used by many wind turbine companies and university research programs. computer modeling facilities. enhancements to the models are required to predict the behaviour of advanced rotor configurations that will result from advanced conceptual design studies.1. This facility will support a wide variety of activities including the development of performance standards.. Colorado (see Figure 2. However.9). structural dynamics. iuch as blades. research on controls and adaptive controls will take a systems approach to all control issues. Because wind turbines usualy operate in clusters. Static tests will determine ultimate strength limits and weak points in the components designs for later detailed investigation. Aerodynamics research currently underway involves exploring the characteristics of the wind at actual wind turbine sites (atmospheric fluid dynamics) and investigates the aerodynamic phenomena experienced and created by wind turbines during operation.1. This facility is located at Rocky Flats. Texas. Testing is done on the heavily instrumented research turbine operated by NREL and located at their test facility at Rocky Flats.1.It will provide specialised component test facilities. Aerodynamic investigations on vertical axis turbines are being undertaken at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL).

992 produced few new commercial installations. and utility integration. The DoE program continued to focus on applied research. 142 . and the evaluation of aerodymamic rotor brakes. and advanced drive train research. variable speed generator. undesirable qgwer fluctuations and maximize the energy contribution that wind turbines can make to a utility grid. advanced tower concept development. In summary. more efficient designs and financial incentivei. work is continuing on development of advanced airfoils and blade designs. Installed clplctty is expected to grow substantially in 1994 as a result of new. 1. advanced turbine developme-nt.

) Ml€:NUdsE|nc|ud6rcph€dfel|Fdtufr|nes1989r€fu*lhonetlnsla|al|ondue|oapp'ox|mle|yI0WEttsd ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCED BY WIND SYSTEMS 6 5.5 2 C c) o 35 96' a . 16.ooo zz.5 : [q:gqrylt .000 '6 o 12.000 0 . r. oir!ry119"t ] 4.0oo E E :^ 1.J > . J gD ni s= P> eoo 8.rJ6> .ooo 9 e :v (or Zo 600 6.600 14.000 o E aoo 200 2.9 1.|986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 0.000 3 a 1.5 0 (est.) Figure 2.000 1.1985 '.1986 1987 1988 1989 '1992 (est.2# v> n.lZ ^.11.5 o o ^- uc I 1 IHffiffi 1982 1983 1984 1985 '.200 1o.1990 1991 1982 1983 1984 .5 c 2.S.000 Ec 4.1 Wind system installations and energy production 743 . WIND SYSTEM INSTALLATION IN THE U.

U.S. D.O.E. ADVANCED WIND TURBINE
PROGRAM

Figure 2.11.2 U.S.DOE wind energy program $ructure

744

L .

IF
(Jl Figure 2.11.3 Test facility at Rocky Flats, Colorado

Executive Committee activities
Th".?9_,1^T"e!ng of the Execurive Committee (EC) was held on 28 and 29
April 1992 at Windtest Kaiser-Wilhem_Koog GmbH, Germanv.
The
meeting was attendedby 24 persons, includlng t"pt"r*tutivei
rrom tt or
13 member states, operating Agents and obser"veri,
r"; Fig";;3.1. A visit
to wind turbine sites in thelrei was made on 30 April.

The.3Oth peejjng took place on 29 and 30 october
at Carlos V Hoter,
Alghero, sardinia, Italy. The attendance was 25 and all
member states,
except Austria and New Zearand, were represented.
A visit to the Alta
Nurra wind test site, operated by ENEL, wls made
on 31 October.
Mr w G stevenson (LIK) and Dr E sesto (Italy) served as
Chairman and
Vice-Chairman during the year. At the Autumn EC
meetins Mr
stevenson and Dr sesto were re.erected as ctrairman-""i'ir"i."-chairman
for'1.993.

ou1i1g the year, the Technical Research Institute
of Finrand was invited
to join.the Agreement. The.Contracting party from
New zeaana gave
preliminary notice of withdrawal, effeitive f
fanuary1993.

NOVEM replaced ECN as Contracting party for
the Netherlands.
The Government of fapan is making arrangements
for
replacementasContractingPartyby"adesigiatedentity its formal

sole cl-r11ses in EC membership were announced during
updated list of EC Members and Alternate the year. The
Members i, uttZ"t
"a1
During the EC meetings the progress of the
ongoing Tasks was reviewed
and the.necessary adriinistritivJ decisions
w"[
cooperative action were discussed. Information
tul"r,. rroposuis for new
was o.,
wind energy. R&D progra mmes l;rs;;"il^_iiijly,
ll,lb.i:t
activities in the member countiies. ""J
"*"n"r,L"J *^
A draft Annex XIV on fiel{,notgr. Aerodynamics
was prepared and
discussed durins the year. The objectiv"
stall-controtled iotor bl"d", by *;;; oil
i, to improve ih"'a"a" basis for
cooroinated measurino
programme in order to obrain a dara bank
for aerig" c;"
The measurements will be perfo.-"a "".lii.?ti.".
ut ih" participants, field fac'ities in
a task-shared effort. Coordination of planning,
performance and
evaluation will be made by the- operaiinf
ager,t on a cost-shared basis.
Prospecrive participants include b"n*uit,
tie Nethertands, lii u'a
USA.

746

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The efforts to establish contacts will continue. 1An .992. Both countries reported on their national wind programmes. The aim was to exchange information and explore the possibilities of closer cooperation. The problem with the others was aPparently principally due io difficulty with finance. At the Autumn EC meeting an ad hoc committe was set up to draft a strategy document for consideration at the Spring 1993 EC meeting. and will serve as a reference for regular review and evaluation of the achievements under the Agreement. While all countries responded.The second issue of the Wind Energy Newsletter appeared in October 1. reviewing the progress of the cooperative Tasks and the national wind energy activities in the member countries. Observers from Finland and six Eastern European countries were invited to the Spring EC meeting. It will be rolling document to be updated at certain intervals. The strategy document will contain information on the objectives of the Agreement and its Annexes and the means and time schedules for achieving the objectives. the Netherlands. only Finland and Estonia were able to send representatives to the meeting. The EC acts as an editorial board for the Newsletter which is edited by R I Templin (Canada) and produced by NOVEM.

1.1 The 2gth Executive committe Meeting at windtest Kaiser- Withetm_Koog.:t. Figure 3. 2g _Zg Rprii tSOZ 748 .t::r.. i: r..: I tlJ:iti:. Germany.r!t. . .

Mines and Resources Fax +7 613996941. Appendix IEA R&D Wind Executive Committee (M = Mernber.6 CANMET/EAETB 580 Booth Street.JRGH EH3 7SE United Kingdom SECRETARY MT B PERSHAGEN Tel +46755M878 NLTWEC energikonsult Fax +461.49 .6t5892 Postfachlgl3 D.55 872'11.1O4O WIEN CANADA (M) MTRSRANGI Tel +7 613 929672 Energy.5170IULrCH (A) MrG JOSWG (same address) Tel +492461614233 Fax +492457616999 1.4233 ]titch GmbH Fax +492461. A Alternate Mernber) = CHAIRMAN Mr W G STEVENSON Tel +4431 225 1361 lojtis-h Hydro-Electric plc Fax +44312203983 15 Rothesay Terrace EDINBI. mont€e Ste-|ulie VARENNES I3X tS1 I DENMARK (M) Mr B MARIBO PEDERSEN Tel +4542884622 I Technical University of Denmark Fax +454288242L Lundtoftwej 100 DK.28OO LYNGBY (A) MT P MELSEN Tel +45 4288 1400 DEFU Fax +45 4593 1288 Postbox 259 DK-2800 LYNGBY GERMAI{Y (M) DT R WINDHEIM Forschungszentrum Tel +49246161. Svanvigen 46 3-617 62 NYKOPING AUSTRIA (M) Prrof Dr H DETTER Tel +4322265764L0 Technische Universitit Wien _Institut fiir Shdmungslehre und Wiirmetiberhagung' Wiedner Hauptstrasse 7 A. Zth Floor OTTAWA KlA OE4 (A) MTAWATTS Tel +1 514 652 8388 Institut de recherche d'Hydro_euebec Fax +1 5I46528n9 1800.

O.E Casaccia Casella Postale N.ITALY (M) DrG FERRARI Tel +39 6 3048 3919 ENEA ENE-FORI Fax +39630484643 C. Fax +81.Box722 WELLINGTON (A) MrP GRAHAM Ministry of Commerce P.OOIOO ROMA A.D.22464784 ECN Research Centre Fax +31 224632]4 P.Q.Box 1473 WELLINGTON I5U .G PETTEN(NH) NEW ZEALAND (M) DTMAGRANT Tel +&4729379 New Zealand Meteorological Service Fax +644735231 P.Box8242 3503 RE UTRECHT (A) Mr Hf M BEURSKENS Tel +3'1.O.Box 1 1755z. Volta 1 I-20093 COLOGNO MONZESE (MI) (A) DrP PAOLI Tel +39272245355 (same address) Fax +39 27224 5465 JAPAN (M) MTNMORI Tel +8133501.O.9279 Sunshine Project H.R. 2400 I.33fr17926 AIST.O. MITI Kasumigaseki 1-3-1 Chiyoda-ku TOKYO 100 (A) DT H MATSUMIYA Tel +81 298547079 Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Fax +81 298Y7275 MITI 1-2 Namiki TSUKUBA 305 NETHERLANDS (M) MTHGDOUMA Tel +31 30363434 NOVEM Fax +31 3031 U9l P. (A) DTOTAMPONE Tel +3963O184418 (same address) Fax +3963M84&3 (M) DrE SESTO Tel +39272245220 ENEL CREL Fax +39272245462 Via A.

C.NORWAY (M) MTE SOLBERG Tel +47 29595 95 Norwegian Water Resources and Water Fax +472959offi Administration Postbox 5091 Mai N-0301 oslo 3 (A) MTMRYDEHELL Tel +47 2959595 (same address) Fax +472959offi SPAIN (M) Mr E SORIA Tel +34 1 346 &22 Instituto de Energias Renovables Fax +34 1 345 6005 Avda Complutense 22 280 40 MADRID (A) Mr F AVIA Tel +34L346ffi39 (same address) Fax +34 1 346 5005 SWEDEN (M) Mr O SANDBERG Tel +4687449522 NUTEK Fax +46819 4822 9117 86 STOCKHOLM (A) MrK AVERSTAD Tel +468739 ($72 Vattenfall AB Fax +.20585 (A) MrRLL@SE (same address) .16 8 739 5882 Research Wind Energy 3-162 87 VALLINGBY UNITED KINGDOM (M) DTDIPAGE Tel +.14 235834621 Energy Technology Support Unit Fax +44235432923 Harwell Laboratory DIDCOT Oxfordshire OX11 ORA UNITED STATES (M) MTDFANCONA Tel +72025t361776 Wind/Ocean Technologies Division Fax +1 2025865124 United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue WASHINGTON D.

B 1992:. r I National Board for Industrial and cumulative Llst of Publications issued by the swedish Technical DeveloPment Orders: NUTEK Fbrlag. 5'117 85 Stockholn.1 IEA Bioenerry Annual RePort 1991' B 7992:2 IEA R and D-i4rindenergy Annual Report 191' B 7992t3 The Swedish ElectricitY Market' B 192:10 Creating Viable Business Finance .SWEDEN' Phone + tl5 8 681 92 9& Fax: + 46 I 681 92 05 (B)' Nutek has published the following rePorts from the Booklist Booklist B 1991:1 Bioenerry and the Greenhouse Effect' B 1991:3 Medium-sized Industrial Firms'* B 191:9 i-gra of nesearch and Developrnent on the Production of Hydrogen from Water.

SWEDEN FAX: +46-8-6819205 . Fcirlag PHINE: +46-8-6819298 117 86 Stockholm. T cO SF 6ob TS 8\ . The report reviews the progress of the joint projects during 1992 and highlights the national wind energy activities in the member countries.o\ ttryt-tr zz cri cO 9p NUTEK. The rate of increase is presently about 300 MW per year. Thirteen countries collaborate since 7977 in wind energy research and development under the auspices of the International Energy Agency. representing an installed power of around 2450 MW. Prototype megawatt-sized wind turbines are in operation or under construction in the lead countries. By the end of the report period about 22000 grid-connected wind turbines were in operation in the member countries. The programme includes joint research projects and information exchange on large wind systems. The average rated power was 200 kW in new units and is increasing. The deployment of wind energy is promoted by national programmes for advanced technology research and market incentives in many countries.IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 1992 tAI It Y ind energy stands out as one of the most promising renewable energy sources in the near term. Commercial machines in the 500 kW range were put on the market during the year.

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