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Table of Contents

1.0 INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................................
1.1 SUMMARY................................................................................................................................
2.0 IN-PLACE ANALYSIS...............................................................................................................
2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN...................................................................................................................
2.2 PARAMETERS AND CRITERIA...............................................................................................
2.2.1 DESIGN THEORY AND ASSUMPTIONS.................................................................................
2.2.2 SOIL PARAMETERS................................................................................................................
2.2.3 PRELIMINARY INFORMATION PROVIEDED BY VENDOR...................................................
2.2.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS............................................................................................................
2.2.5 PRELIMINARY SIZINING OF FOUNDATION..........................................................................
3.0 MODEL DESCRIPTION..........................................................................................................
3.1 CALCULATION OF UN-BALANCED FORCES FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF
FOUNDATIONS......................................................................................................................
3.2 NATURAL FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF FOUNDATION.........................................................
3.3 RESONANCE FREQUENCY CHECK.....................................................................................
4.0 SOIL BEARING CAPACITY CHECK......................................................................................
4.1 SOIL BEARING CAPACITY CHECK BY STAAD PRO Model................................................
4.1.1 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS....................................................................................................
4.1.2 MODEL UNITS........................................................................................................................
4.1.3 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS.....................................................................................................
4.1.4 STAAD PRO Model.................................................................................................................
5.0 Reinforcement Minimum reinforcement as follows........................................................

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1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 SUMMARY
The report presents the foundation design of a Gas compressor turbine package foundation. The
analysis was based on the foundation Design philosophy, Design codes and Specifications listed
in this report.

A three-dimensional (3-D) model of the foundation was produced with STAAD Pro software and
the foundation was Preliminary analyzed and designed for strength, serviceability and stability
criteria under the Preliminary Vendor (Nuevo Pignone) Reaction, wind loading conditions and
combinations.

The results show that the proposed foundation is adequate.

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2.0 IN-PLACE ANALYSIS

2.1 BASIS OF DESIGN


Codes, Standards and References:

American Concrete Institute (ACI - 318)

Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-02)

Uniform Building Code (UBC -1997)

BS 5950-1:2000 Structural Use of Steelworks in Buildings

Loadings for Gas Turbine is provided by Nuovo Pignone Machinery found. Load and notes
MS5002E Dwg # N. S0m6663299/0 REV -1 Sheet 1 to 3.

Foundation Design Philosophy for Rotating Equipment

Design of Structures and foundations for Vibrating Machines by Suresh Arya Michael o Neill
George Pincus.

Foundations for Dynamic Equipment (ACI 351.3R-04)

2.2 PARAMETERS AND CRITERIA


2.2.1 DESIGN THEORY AND ASSUMPTIONS
All R.C.C structural members shall be in accordance with ACI

Foundations shall be founded on either undisturbed soil or compacted fill and the depth shall
be based on the result of soil test and the required lateral resistance but in no case be less
than 1500 mm below the existing or finished grade surface (finished ground level),

The Net bearing capacity of the soil shall be taken as 155 KN/m 2. After the bearing capacity of
the soil has been improved with stone columns and vibro-replacement method, it shall be re-
determined by the geotechnical engineer.

Live Load shell be 2.9 KN/m2

The concrete grade shall be C40 for foundation and the reinforcement shall be F y = 60 Ksi
(420 MPa )

The reinforcement in each direction shall not be less than 0.0018 times the gross area
perpendicular to the direction of reinforcement.

Foundation Slabs with the thickness of 500 mm or more shall be provided with shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318.

Unless foundation settlement calculations for dynamic loads show otherwise, the allowable soil
bearing pressures shall be limited as indicated below:

For high-tuned foundations: soil bearing pressures shall not exceed 50% of the allowable
bearing pressure permitted for static loads.

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For low-tuned foundations: bearing pressures shall not exceed 75% of the allowable
bearing pressure permitted for static loads.

Foundations for centrifugal rotating machinery greater than 500 horsepower shall be designed
for the expected dynamic forces using dynamic analysis procedures. For units less than 500
horsepower, in the absence of a detailed dynamic analysis, the foundation weight shall be at
least three times the total machinery weight, In our Case dynamic analysis required but Vendor
(Nuoveo Pignone) have provided the Preliminary Dynamic Reaction.

The minimum concrete cover shall be as follows

Pedestal Columns 2 inches 50 mm

Foundation 3 inches 75 mm

The loads used for this footing design shall be service load reactions provided by Vendor
(Nuovo Pignone). see Appendix -1

In computing moments and shears for footing slab design, the service load soil pressures are
factored.

Factor Of Safety against Sliding is 1.5 while F.O.S against overturning shall be 1.5

Wind velocity shall be taken as 145 kilometer/hour (40.3 m/s)

Concrete strain at ultimate strength shell be 0.003

2.2.2 SOIL PARAMETERS


Net Bearing capacity of the soil shall be taken as 155 KN/m 2

Soil weight density shell be 16.5 to 17 KN/m 3

Soil Angle of friction is 22.5 deg.

Coefficient of Friction between concrete to soil/ Rock is 0.30.

Assume Soil Poissons ratio is 0.4

Water density shell is 10. KN/ m3

Assume the Soil Dynamic Shear modules is 34473 KN/m2 (5000 psi)

Assume Dynamic modulus of sub grade reaction is 34.5 KN/m2

Assume soil shear wave velocity is 30

Assume soil internal Damping Ratio is 0.05

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2.2.3 PRELIMINARY INFORMATION PROVIEDED BY VENDOR

Plan, section and Elevation of equipment and foundation

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Reaction

Machine Weight and Speed

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2.2.4 LOAD COMBINATIONS

Basis Loads
Dead Loads

Live Loads

Thermal Expansion Friction Forces

Align Forces

Dead Operating Loads

Dynamic Operating Loads

Dynamic Emergency Loads

Service Load Combination


Dead Load

Dead Load + Live Load

Dead Load + Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead
Operating Loads

Dead Load + 0.75*Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead

Operating + 0.75Wind Load

Dead Load + 0.75*Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead

Operating + 0.75Wind Load + Dynamic Operating Loads

Dead Load + Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead Operating +
Dynamic Operating Loads + Dynamic Emergency Loads

Dead Load + Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead
Operating + Dynamic Operating Loads + Dynamic Emergency Loads

Ultimate Load Combination


1.4*Dead Load

1.2*Dead Load + 1.6*Live Load

1.2*Dead Load + 1.6*Live Load +1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + 1.2*Align


Forces + 1.2*Dead Operating Loads

1.2*Dead Load +1.6* Wind Loads

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1.2Dead Load + 1.6*Live Load +1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces +1.2* Align
Forces + 1.2*Dead Operating load+ 1.5*Dynamic Operating Loads

1.2Dead Load +1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces +1.2* Align Forces + 1.2*Dead
Operating Load +1.6*Wind Load

1.2*Dead Load + 1.6*Live Load +1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + 1.2*Align


Forces + 1.2*Dead Operating + 1.6*Wind Load + 1.5*Dynamic Operating Loads

1.2*Dead Load + 1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + 1.2*Align Forces +1.2* Dead
Operating + 1.5*Dynamic Operating Loads + 1.5*Dynamic Emergency Loads

1.2*Dead Load + 1.6*Live Load +1.2*Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + 1.2*Align


Forces +1.2*Dead Operating +1.5*Dynamic Operating Loads + 1.5*Dynamic Emergency
Loads

0.9*Dead Load + 1.6*Wind

2.2.5 PRELIMINARY SIZINING OF FOUNDATION


The preliminary sizing of block foundation shell is based on the following:

Weight of the block foundation should be at least 4 times the weight of reciprocating machines
and 3 times the weight of centrifugal machines.

Foundation Weight 3.6 Time of Machine Weight

The width of foundation should be at least 1.5 times the vertical distance from the bottom of
foundation to the center line of the shaft / rotor.

Vertical distance from the bottom of foundation to the center line of the shaft / rotor
= 1.6+3.39 = 4.99 m = 1.5x 4.99 = 7.5 m

Width of foundation consider = 7.5 m

The center of mass of machine foundation (machine foundation system) should coincide with the
centroid of the soil foundation or pile group resistance. Horizontal eccentricity should be limited to
5% of the corresponding foundation dimension.

For a rigid mat, following criteria to be followed:

Minimum thickness of the mat will be 600 mm or 1/5 th of least foundation dimensions or 1/10 th of
largest foundation dimensions, whichever is greater . Maximum thickness of the mat will be 1500
mm Least Foundation Dimensions 7500/ 5 = 1500 mm

Largest Foundation Dimension 20000/ 10 = 2000 mm

Consider the Maximum Depth of the Foundation 1500 mm from NGL.

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CALCULATION OF FOUNDATION WEIGHT MORE 3 TIME OF MACHINE WEIGHT

FOUNDATION WEIGHT

329.2
M3
Total Volume of Foundation 5
7757.
KN
Total Weight of Foundation 1

MACHINE WEIGHT ( As per Vendor)

Reaction at support
A1 = 32 KN
A2 = 32 KN
A3 = 98 KN
A4 = 98 KN
A5 = 127 KN
A6 = 127 KN
A7 = 83 KN
A8 = 83 KN
A9 = 23 KN
A 10 = 23 KN
B1 = 122.3 KN
B2 = 122.3 KN
B3 = 269.3 KN
B4 = 269.3 KN
B7 = 180 KN
B8 = 180 KN
B9 = 280 KN
2149.
Total Machine Dead = 2 KN
Foundation is 3.6
FOUNDATION WEIGHT/MACHINE 3.609 Time of Machine
WEIGHT = 31 weight

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LIVE LOAD CALCULATES BY CATCHMENT AREA
METHOD

Reaction at support
A1 = 20.450 KN
A2 = 20.450 KN
A3 = 29.798 KN
A4 = 29.798 KN
A5 = 30.450 KN
A6 = 30.450 KN
A7 = 16.639 KN
A8 = 16.639 KN
A9 = 10.289 KN
A 10 = 10.289 KN
A 11 8.984 KN
B1 = 25.743 KN
B2 = 25.743 KN
B3 = 40.731 KN
B4 = 40.731 KN
B5 = 13.213 KN
B6 = 46.491 KN
B7 = 21.170 KN
B8 = 21.170 KN
B9 = 25.192 KN

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3.0 MODEL DESCRIPTION

Figure 3.1: Foundation Plan and Elevations

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3.1 CALCULATION OF UN-BALANCED FORCES FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF
FOUNDATIONS

Un-balance force for motor: Fmotor = mm-rotor x e x w2

Where, mp-rotor = weight of pump rotor, mm-rotor = weight of motor rotor

w = circular frequency = 2 x pi x (f / 60), f = speed of machine from vendor drawing (RPM ).

Eccentricity Table

Machine Operating Speed (f in RPM) Eccentricity e (mils)

Pump /compressor f < 3000 (1.8-107) / (f)2

Pump / compressor f > 3000 (12000/f)1/2

Motor f < 1500 1.5

Motor 1500< f < 3000 1

Motor f > 3000 0.5

UN-BALANCED FORCES FOR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS


OF FOUNDATIONS

= mm-rotor x e x
Fmotor =Un-balance force for motor w2
2 x pi x (f / 60) =
w = circular frequency = rad/sec
(12000/f
= 1/2
e=Eccentricity ) (mils)
DUE TO GENERATOR
mm-rotor = weight of motor rotor = 66.39 KN
f = speed of machine from vendor
=
drawing 7455.00 rpm

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e=Eccentricity
1.27 mils =
rad/se
w = circular frequency =
780.69 c
Un-balance force due to Generator = 1303.93 KN

DUE TO POWER TURBINE


mm-rotor = weight of motor rotor = 22.06 KN
f = speed of machine from vendor
=
drawing 5715.00 rpm
e=Eccentricity = 1.45 mils
rad/se
w = circular frequency =
598.47 c
Un-balance force due to Power
=
Turbine 290.81 KN
= 40.73 KN
TOTAL UN-BALANCE FORCE DUE TO = 1594.75 KN
GENERATOR AND POWER TURBINE
VENDER PROVIDED THE TOTAL = 1499.60 KN
DYNAMIC EMERGENCY LOAD
3.2 NATURAL FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF FOUNDATION
This rigid block has six degree of freedom. So, we calculate all the following uncouple natural
frequencies:

Sliding Frequency along horizontal X-direction

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Sliding Frequency along horizontal Y-direction

Sliding Frequency along vertical Z-direction

Rocking Frequency about X, rotational mode

Rocking Frequency about Y, rotational mode

Rocking Frequency about Z, rotational mode

When the CG of foundation system is far above the foundation base, coupling effect needs to be
considered to calculate the foundation natural frequency. In this case sliding mode and rocking
mode frequencies overlap each other and as a result foundation dynamic analysis may be more
critical. So we calculate the coupled natural frequency using the formula mentioned in the table.
Coupled condition: 1. Sliding along X & Rocking about-Y and 2. Sliding along Y & Rocking about

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X

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COUPLED CONDITION FREQUENCIES, SLIDING ALONG -X AND
ROCKING ABOUT - Y

1/2f2nx+f2n +((f2nx+f2n 2 -4f2nx


=
f12= f2n 0.5]
1/2f2nx+f2n ((f2nx+f2n 2 -4f2nx
=
f22= f2n 0.5]

Uncoupled sliding frequency along -x


= f2nx= = 1/2*( Kx/m)0.5
Uncoupled sliding frequency along -y
= f2n= = 1/2*( K/I)0.5
SOIL SPRING CONSTANTS FOR RECTANGULAR FOUNDATION
Horizontal Soil Kx = 2 (1+ )G x ( BL)0.5 x
Rocking Soil K = (G / (1- )) BL2
Coefficients for soil spring calculation
due to embedment effect in horizontal = 1+0.55(2-)[h/ro]
X direction = x
Coefficients for soil spring calculation
due to embedment effect in horizontal = 1+0.6(1-)[h/ro]
Z direction = z
Coefficients for soil spring calculation
due to embedment effect rocking about = 1+1.2(1-)[h/ro]+0.2(2-)[h/ro]3
=Y ()=
Equivalent Radiusfor horizontal X
=
direction ro= ( BL/)0.5
Equivalent Radiusfor Rocking about Y
=
ro= ( BL3/3)0.25
Mass moment of inertia at the = Io + mh2,
foundation base =I=
= = Io/I
Length of foundation=L= = 20.000 m
Width of foundation=B= = 7.500 m
KN/m
=
Unit weight of Concrete = 23.560 3
Equivalent Radiusfor horizontal X
=
direction ro= 6.910 m
Equivalent Radiusfor Rocking about Y
=
ro= 8.932 m

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Foundation embedment depth, the
distance between the CG of a machine
=
foundation system and the foundation
base= h= 1.153 m
Poisson's ratio of soil = = 0.400 Appendix 5

Coefficients for soil sof embedment =


effect in horizontal X direction=x= 1.147
Coefficients for soil sof embedment =
effect in horizontal Z direction=z= 1.060
Coefficients for soil of embedment =
effect rocking about =Y ()= 1.094
KN/
Soil Dynamic Shear modules =G= =
34473.000 m2
Geometrical coefficients for soil =x= = 1.000 Appendix 2-2
Geometrical coefficients for soil == = 0.400 Appendix 2-2
Horizontal Soil Kx = 1355814.695
75402916.35
Rocking Soil K =
4
Total mass of a machine foundation
system =m= = 790.737 kg
Mass moment of inertia at the C.G. of
a machine foundation system= Io= = 87.891 m4
I= = 1139.677
Uncoupled sliding frequency along -x
f2nx= = 6.590 rad/sec
Uncoupled sliding frequency along -y
f2n= = 40.938 rad/sec
= = 0.077
f12= = 610.565 rad/sec
f22= = 5.730 rad/sec
NO RESONANCE BETWEEN MACHINE AND FOUNDATION FREQUENCY

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3.3 RESONANCE FREQUENCY CHECK
Calculate resonanace frequency and check that the ratio of machine frequency vs resonance
frequency (f / fd) is either less than 0.8 or greater than 1.2.
Resonance frequency fd = fn / (1-2 x D2)
where, fn = foundation natural frequency, D = Damping ration

RESONANCE FREQUENCY
fn / (1-2 x
Resonance frequency = fd = D2)
GEOMETRICAL DAMPING RATIOS FOR RECTANGULAR FOUNDATION
(INCLUDING THE EMBEDMENT EFFECT)

DAMPING RATIO (D)


(0.425/(Bz)^0.5)
Vertical (Z) =Dz = ( z)
Horizontal (X or Y) =Dx = 0.288/(Bx)^0.5* x
Rocking ( about Y) = D = 0.15 ^0.5))
MASS RATIO
((1-)/4)(m/( sro3)]
Vertical (Z) = Bz =
((7-8)/(32*(1-))(m/
Horizontal (X or Y) = Bx = ( sro3)]
(3(1-)/8))(I/
Rocking ( about Y) = B = ( sro5)]
DAMPING COEFFICIENTS FOR SOIL DAMPING CALCULATION INCLUDING
EMBEDMENT EFFECT
(1/(z)^0.5)
Vertical (Z) = z = [ 1+1.9(1-)(h/ro)]
(1/(x)^0.5)
Horizontal ( X or Y) = x = [ 1+1.9(2-)(h/ro)]
(1/()^0.5)[ 1+0.7(1-)(h/ro)
Rocking ( about Y) = = +0.6(2-)(h/ro)^3]
Vertical (Z) = z = 1.156
Horizontal ( X or Y) = x = 1.408

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Rocking ( about Y) = = 1.010
KN/
Soil Density= s = 17.000 m3
Vertical (Z) = Bz = 0.021
Horizontal (X or Y) = Bx = 0.028
Rocking ( about Y) = B = 0.00027
Vertical (Z) =Dz = 3.379
Horizontal (X or Y) =Dx = 2.427
Rocking ( about Y) = D = 7.865

Resonance frequency along -x = fdx = 2.007


Resonance frequency along -y = fd = 3.695
RATIO OF MACHINE FREQUENCY VS RESONANCE FREQUENCY (f / fD)
Due to power turbine along -y =f /
fD = 161.948
Due to generator along -y =f / fD = 211.255
NO RESONANCE BETWEEN MACHINE AND FOUNDATION FREQUENCY

4.0 SOIL BEARING CAPACITY CHECK

4.1 SOIL BEARING CAPACITY CHECK BY STAAD PRO Model


4.1.1 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Spring support condition was adopted for the model to simulate pad foundations.
Note: Soil bearing capacity is Net Bearing Capacity so reduce the Foundation Concrete Density.
4.1.2 MODEL UNITS
Standard S.I units were adopted in the STAAD pro model.

4.1.3 CO-ORDINATE SYSTEMS


The global coordinate system adopted in the model is the conventional Cartesian co-
ordinate system (X, Y, and Z) which follows the orthogonal left hand rule where the Y is
upwards vertical positive, X is horizontal right positive and Z is perpendicular to X on the
same plane. Z is positive pointing back.

Y Y

X Z

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Z X
(a) (b)

Figure 1.3: (a) Global Co-ordinate System, (b) Local Co-ordinate System

The local coordinate system is also similar except that the X and Z axes interchange
orientations. While general modeling and loading were based on the global coordinate
system, analysis result member stresses are based on the local co-ordinate system.

4.1.4 STAAD PRO Model


STAAD Pro was used to create a 3D model of the proposed GAS COMPRESSOR TURBINE
PACKAGE FOUNDATION based on vendor drawing # MS5002E N. S0m6663299/0 REV -1
Sheet 1 to 3.

Figure 4.1 STAAD 3D Models

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Figure 4.2: STAAD 3D Dimensional Model

SUMMARY OF BEARING PRESSURE CHECK IN DIFFERENT LOAD COMBINATION

Figure 4.3 BEARING PRESSURE

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Figure 4.4 MOMENT IN X-DIRECTION

Figure 4.5 MOMENT IN Y-DIRECTION

BEARING
LAOD
DESCRIPTION PRESSURE
CASE
IN KN /m2

101 Dead Load 50

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102 Dead Load + Live Load 53

Dead Load + Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces +
103 Dead Operating Loads 61

Dead Load + 0.75*Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align


105 Forces + Dead Operating + 0.75Wind Load 60

Dead Load + 0.75*Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align


106 Forces + Dead Operating + 0.75Wind Load + Dynamic Operating Loads 61

Dead Load + Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces + Dead


107 Operating + Dynamic Operating Loads + Dynamic Emergency Loads 100

Dead Load + Live Load +Thermal Expansion Friction Forces + Align Forces +
108 Dead Operating + Dynamic Operating Loads + Dynamic Emergency Loads 103

5.0 REINFORCEMENT

Minimum reinforcement as follows

0.2% rebar on all face of concrete block and mat.


1% rebar for all concrete pedestal.
Rebar spacing should not be more than 300 mm.

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