Você está na página 1de 294

Kings of the ancient world

The Complete Guide


Contents

1 Overview 1
1.1 Kings of the ancient world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.1 Babylonian Kings, 747539 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1.2 Persian Kings, 538332 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.3 Macedonian Kings, 331305 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.4 Ptolemies of Egypt, 30430 BC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.5 Roman Emperors, 29 BC160 AD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.6 Notes and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.7 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Assyrian kings 3
2.1 Puzur-Ashur I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.1.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Shalim-ahum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3 Ilu-shuma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.3 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.3.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4 Erishum I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.4.2 Limmu during Erishum Is reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.4 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5 Ikunum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.5.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.5.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

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ii CONTENTS

2.6 Sargon I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.6.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.7 Puzur-Ashur II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.7.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.8 Naram-Suen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.8.1 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.8.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.9 Erishum II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.9.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.10 Shamshi-Adad I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.10.1 Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.10.2 Conquests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.10.3 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.10.4 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.10.5 Fall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.10.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.10.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.10.8 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.11 Ishme-Dagan I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.11.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.11.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.11.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.11.4 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.12 Mut-Ashkur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.12.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.13 Rimush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.13.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.13.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.14 Asinum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.14.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.15 Adasi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.15.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.16 Bel-bani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.16.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.16.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.17 Libaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.17.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.18 Iptar-Sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.18.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.18.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.18.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
CONTENTS iii

2.18.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.19 Bazaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.19.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.19.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.19.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.20 Lullaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.20.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.20.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.20.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.21 Shu-Ninua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.21.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.21.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.21.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.22 Shamshi-Adad II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.22.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.22.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.22.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.23 Ishme-Dagan II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.23.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.23.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.24 Shamshi-Adad III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.25 Ashur-nirari I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.25.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.25.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.25.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.26 Puzur-Ashur III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.26.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.27 Enlil-nasir I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.27.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.28 Nur-ili . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.29 Ashur-shaduni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.29.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.29.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.29.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.30 Ashur-rabi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.30.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.31 Ashur-nadin-ahhe I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.31.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.32 Enlil-Nasir II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.32.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.33 Ashur-nirari II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
iv CONTENTS

2.33.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.33.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.33.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.34 Ashur-bel-nisheshu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.34.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.34.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.34.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.35 Ashur-rim-nisheshu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.35.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.35.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.35.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.36 Ashur-nadin-ahhe II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.36.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.36.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.36.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
2.37 Eriba-Adad I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.37.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.37.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.37.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.38 Ashur-uballit I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
2.38.1 Amarna letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.38.2 Babylonian wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.38.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.38.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.38.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.39 Enlil-nirari . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.39.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.39.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.40 Arik-den-ili . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.40.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.40.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.40.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.41 Adad-nirari I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.41.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.41.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.41.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.41.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.41.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.42 Shalmaneser I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.42.1 Limmu ocials by year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.42.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
CONTENTS v

2.42.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.43 Tukulti-Ninurta I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.43.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.43.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.44 Ashur-nadin-apli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.44.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.44.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.44.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.45 Ashur-nirari III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.45.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.45.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.45.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.46 Enlil-kudurri-usur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.46.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.46.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.46.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.47 Ninurta-apal-Ekur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.47.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.47.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.48 Ashur-dan I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.48.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.48.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.48.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.49 Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.49.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.49.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.49.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.50 Mutakkil-Nusku . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.50.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.50.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.50.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
2.51 Ashur-resh-ishi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.51.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.51.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.51.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
2.52 Tiglath-Pileser I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.52.1 Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.52.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.52.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.52.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.53 Asharid-apal-Ekur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
vi CONTENTS

2.53.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.53.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.53.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.54 Ashur-bel-kala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.54.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.54.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.54.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
2.55 Eriba-Adad II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.55.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.55.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.55.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
2.56 Shamshi-Adad IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.56.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.56.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.56.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.57 Ashurnasirpal I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.57.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.57.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.57.3 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.57.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.58 Shalmaneser II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.58.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
2.58.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.58.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.59 Ashur-nirari IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.59.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.59.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.59.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.60 Ashur-rabi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.60.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.60.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.60.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.61 Ashur-resh-ishi II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.61.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.61.2 Inscriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.61.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.62 Tiglath-Pileser II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.62.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.62.2 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.62.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.63 Ashur-dan II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
CONTENTS vii

2.63.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.63.2 Accomplishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.63.3 Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.63.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.64 Adad-nirari II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.64.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.64.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.65 Tukulti-Ninurta II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.65.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.66 Ashurnasirpal II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.66.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.66.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.66.3 Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.66.4 Palace of Kalhu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
2.66.5 Current location of Nimrud reliefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.66.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
2.66.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.66.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.67 Shalmaneser III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.67.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.67.2 In Biblical studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.67.3 Construction and the Black Obelisk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.67.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.67.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.67.6 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.67.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.68 Shamshi-Adad V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.68.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.68.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.68.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.68.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
2.69 Adad-nirari III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.69.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.69.2 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.69.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.69.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
2.70 Shalmaneser IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.70.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.71 Ashur-dan III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.71.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.71.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
viii CONTENTS

2.72 Ashur-nirari V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.73 Tiglath-Pileser III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
2.73.1 Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
2.73.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.73.3 Biblical account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
2.73.4 Reforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.73.5 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.73.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.73.7 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.73.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
2.74 Shalmaneser V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.74.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.75 Sargon II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.75.1 Early reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.75.2 Military campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.75.3 Later reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.75.4 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.75.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.75.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.75.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.75.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.76 Sennacherib . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.76.1 Background: the Neo-Assyrian empire, 911-612 BCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.76.2 The Babylonian problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
2.76.3 Accession and military campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.76.4 Administration and building projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.76.5 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
2.76.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.76.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
2.76.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.76.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.77 Esarhaddon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.77.1 Rise to power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.77.2 Military campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.77.3 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.77.4 Popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.77.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.77.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.77.7 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.77.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2.78 Ashurbanipal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
CONTENTS ix

2.78.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76


2.78.2 Royal succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.78.3 Military accomplishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.78.4 End of the Assyrian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
2.78.5 Art and culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2.78.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.78.7 References and footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
2.78.8 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.78.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.78.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.79 Ashur-etil-ilani . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.79.1 Problems with source material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
2.79.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.79.3 Dating his reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.79.4 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.80 Sin-shumu-lishir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.80.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.80.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.81 Sinsharishkun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.81.1 Early years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
2.81.2 Last Strike against Babylon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.81.3 War in the Assyrian heartlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.81.4 In literature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.81.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.82 Ashur-uballit II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.82.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
2.82.2 Fate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
2.82.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

3 Babylonian kings 84
3.1 Nabopolassar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.1.1 Nineveh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.1.2 Harran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.1.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3.1.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.1.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2 Nebuchadnezzar II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.2 Construction activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.2.3 Portrayal in the Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.2.4 Portrayal in medieval Muslim sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.5 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
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3.2.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88


3.2.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.2.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3 Amel-Marduk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3.3 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.3.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.4 Nergal-shar-usur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.4.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.5 Labashi-Marduk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.5.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.5.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.6 Nabonidus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.6.1 Historiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.6.2 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.6.3 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.6.4 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.6.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.6.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.7 Belshazzar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.7.1 Book of Daniel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.7.2 Historicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.7.3 Commentaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.7.4 Jewish tradition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.7.5 Art and popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.7.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.7.7 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.7.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.7.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
3.7.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

4 Persian kings 101


4.1 Cyrus II of Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.1.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
4.1.2 Rise and military campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
4.1.3 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
CONTENTS xi

4.1.4 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


4.1.5 Family tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
4.1.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.1.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
4.1.8 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
4.1.9 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
4.1.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2 Cambyses II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.2 Rise to power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.3 The traditions of Cambyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
4.2.4 Darius account . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.2.5 The lost army of Cambyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
4.2.6 In ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.2.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
4.2.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3 Bardiya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3.1 Name and sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3.2 Traditional view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3.3 Revisionist view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
4.3.4 Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.3.5 Biblical references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.3.6 Bardiya in ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.3.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
4.4 Darius the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.4.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.4.2 Primary sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
4.4.3 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.4.4 Accession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
4.4.5 Early reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4.4.6 Military campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
4.4.7 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.4.8 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.4.9 Government . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.4.10 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.4.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.4.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.4.13 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.4.14 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.5 Xerxes the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.5.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
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4.5.2 Campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135


4.5.3 Construction projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.5.4 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.5.5 Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.5.6 Cultural depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.5.7 Etymology and transliteration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.5.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.5.9 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.5.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.6 Artaxerxes Longimanus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.6.1 Succession to the throne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.6.2 Egyptian revolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.6.3 Relations with Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
4.6.4 Portrayal in the Book of Ezra and Nehemiah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.6.5 Interpretations of actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.6.6 Medical analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.6.7 Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
4.6.8 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.6.10 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.7 Xerxes II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.7.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.7.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.8 Sogdianus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.8.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.8.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.9 Darius Nothus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.9.1 Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.9.2 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.9.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.10 Artaxerxes Mnemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.10.1 Rise to power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.10.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.10.3 Building projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.10.4 Issue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.10.5 Identication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
4.10.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.10.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.10.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.11 Artaxerxes Ochus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.11.1 Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
CONTENTS xiii

4.11.2 Early life and accession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146


4.11.3 First Egyptian Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.11.4 Rebellion of Cyprus and Sidon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.11.5 Second Egyptian Campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
4.11.6 Later years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
4.11.7 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
4.11.8 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.11.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.11.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
4.11.11 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.12 Artaxerxes Arses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.12.1 Etymology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.12.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.12.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.13 Darius Codomannus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.13.1 Early reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.13.2 Conict with the Greeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
4.13.3 Flight, imprisonment and death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
4.13.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.13.5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.13.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.14 Bessus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.14.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.14.2 Capture and execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.14.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
4.14.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

5 Macedonian kings 156


5.1 Alexander the Great . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.1.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
5.1.2 Philips heir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
5.1.3 King of Macedon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
5.1.4 Conquest of the Persian Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
5.1.5 Indian campaign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
5.1.6 Last years in Persia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
5.1.7 Death and succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
5.1.8 Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
5.1.9 Battle record . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.1.10 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
5.1.11 Historiography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.1.12 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
5.1.13 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
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5.1.14 Annotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176


5.1.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
5.1.16 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
5.1.17 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.1.18 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.2 Philip III . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
5.2.1 Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
5.2.2 Tomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.2.3 Arrhidaeus in ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.2.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.2.5 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.3 Alexander IV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.3.1 Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.3.2 Regents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.3.3 Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.3.4 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.3.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.3.6 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
5.3.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

6 (Greek) Ptolemies of Egypt 188


6.1 Ptolemy I Soter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.1.1 Early career . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.1.2 Successor of Alexander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.1.3 Rivalry and wars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
6.1.4 Successor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1.5 Lost history of Alexanders campaigns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1.6 Euclid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1.7 Fictional portrayals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1.8 Gallery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
6.1.9 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
6.1.10 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
6.1.11 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.1.12 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2 Ptolemy II Philadelphus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
6.2.2 Relations with India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
6.2.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.5 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.2.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
CONTENTS xv

6.3 Ptolemy III Euergetes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194


6.3.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
6.3.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
6.3.3 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.3.4 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.3.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.3.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.3.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.4 Ptolemy IV Philopator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.4.1 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.4.2 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
6.4.3 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.4.4 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.4.5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.4.6 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.4.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.5 Ptolemy V Epiphanes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.5.1 Reign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
6.5.2 Succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
6.5.3 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
6.5.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
6.5.5 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6.5.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6.6 Ptolemy VI Philometor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
6.6.1 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.6.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.6.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.7 Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.7.1 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.7.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.8 Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Physcon) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.8.1 Origins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.8.2 Antiochus withdrawal and the joint rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.8.3 Designs on Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
6.8.4 Marriage to Cleopatra II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.8.5 Revenge and intrigues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.8.6 Civil war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.8.7 Later rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
6.8.8 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.8.9 In media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.8.10 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
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6.8.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202


6.8.12 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.8.13 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.9 Ptolemy IX Lathyros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
6.9.1 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.9.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.9.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.10 Ptolemy X Alexander I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.10.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.10.2 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.10.3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.10.4 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
6.11 Ptolemy XI Alexander II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.11.1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.11.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.11.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.12 Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (Auletes) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.12.1 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.12.2 Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.12.3 His rst reign (8058 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
6.12.4 Exile in Rome (5855 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.12.5 Restoration (5551 BC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
6.12.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.12.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
6.12.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13 Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.1 Co-ruler of Egypt, inner turmoil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.2 Civil war . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.3 In Popular Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.4 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
6.13.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.13.7 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.14 Ptolemy XIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.14.1 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.14.2 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.15 Ptolemy XV Caesarion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.15.1 Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
6.15.2 Depictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.15.3 Egyptian names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.15.4 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
CONTENTS xvii

6.15.5 Caesarion as ctional character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210


6.15.6 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.15.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
6.15.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
6.15.9 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

7 Roman emperors 212


7.1 Augustus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
7.1.1 Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
7.1.2 Early life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
7.1.3 Rise to power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
7.1.4 Change to Augustus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
7.1.5 War and expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
7.1.6 Death and succession . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
7.1.7 Legacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
7.1.8 Physical appearance and ocial images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
7.1.9 Ancestry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.1.10 Descendants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.1.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
7.1.12 Footnotes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
7.1.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
7.1.14 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
7.1.15 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

8 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses 241


8.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
8.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
8.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
Chapter 1

Overview

1.1 Kings of the ancient world ages concerned.

The Canon of Kings was a dated list of kings used by


ancient astronomers as a convenient means to date astro- 1.1.1 Babylonian Kings, 747539 BC
nomical phenomena, such as eclipses. The Canon was
preserved by the astronomer Claudius Ptolemy, and is Nabonassar (Nabonassros): 747734 BC
thus known sometimes as Ptolemys Canon. It is one
of the most important bases for our knowledge of ancient Nabu-nadin-zeri (Nados): 733732 BC
chronology.
Nabu-mukin-zeri (Khinzr) and Pulu (Pros): 731
The Canon derives originally from Babylonian sources. 727 BC
Thus, it lists Kings of Babylon from 747 BC until the con-
quest of Babylon by the Persians in 539 BC, and then Per- Ululas (Iloulaos): 726722 BC
sian kings from 538 to 332 BC. At this point, the Canon
was continued by Greek astronomers in Alexandria, and Marduk-apla-iddina II (Mardokempdos): 721710
lists the Macedonian kings from 331 to 305 BC, the BC
Ptolemies from 304 BC to 30 BC, and the Roman and
Byzantine Emperors, although they are not kings; in some Sargon II (Arkeans): 709705 BC
manuscripts the list is continued down to the fall of Con-
stantinople in 1453.[1] no kings: 704703 BC
The Canon only increments by whole years, specically
the ancient Egyptian year of 365 days. This has two con- Bel-ibni (Bilbos): 702700 BC
sequences. The rst is that the dates for when monarchs
began and ended their reigns are simplied to the begin- Ashur-nadin-shumi (Aparanados): 699694 BC
ning and the ending of the ancient Egyptian year, which
moves one day every four years against the Julian calen- Nergal-ushezib (Rhegeblos): 693 BC
dar.[2] The second is that this list of monarchs is over-
simplied. Monarchs who reigned for less than one year Mushezib-Marduk (Messimordkos): 692689 BC
are not listed, and only one monarch is listed in any year
with multiple monarchs. Usually, the overlapping year no kings: 688681 BC
is assigned to the monarch who died in that year, but
not always. Note that the two periods in the Babylo- Esarhaddon (Asaradnos): 680668 BC
nian section where no king is listed the rst represents
two pretenders who legitimacy the compiler did not rec- Shamash-shum-ukin (Saosdoukhnos): 667648 BC
ognize, and the second extends from the year Babylon was
Kandalanu (Kinladnos): 647626 BC
sacked by Sennacherib, King of Assyria to the restoration
of Esarhaddon.[2]
Nabopolassar (Nabopolassros): 625605 BC
The Canon is generally considered by historians to be
accurate, and forms part of the backbone of the com- Nebuchadrezzar II (Nabokolassros): 604562 BC
monly accepted chronology from 747 BC forward that
all other datings are synchronized to.[1] It is not, however, Amel-Marduk (Illoaroudmos): 561560 BC
the ultimate source for this chronology; most of the names
and lengths of reigns can be independently veried from Neriglissar (Nrigasolassros): 559556 BC
archaeological material (coinage, annals, inscriptions in
stone etc) and extant works of history from the historical Nabonidus (Nabonados): 555539 BC

1
2 CHAPTER 1. OVERVIEW

1.1.2 Persian Kings, 538332 BC Vespasian: 6978

Cyrus: 538530 BC Titus: 7981

Cambyses: 529522 BC Domitian: 8296

Darius I: 521486 BC Nerva: 97

Xerxes I: 485465 BC Trajan: 98116

Artaxerxes I: 464424 BC Hadrian: 117137

Darius II: 423405 BC Aelius Antoninus: 138160

Artaxerxes II: 404359 BC


1.1.6 Notes and sources
Artaxerxes III (Ochus): 358338 BC
Notes
Arses (Arogus): 337336 BC

Darius III: 335332 BC [1] A modern misreading here of ,


of Alexander Augus, for , of the
other Alexander, has caused Alexander IV to be some-
1.1.3 Macedonian Kings, 331305 BC times erroneously called Aegus. See e.g. s.v. Alexander
the Great. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1. 1911. p. 549.
Alexander the Great: 331324 BC At Google Books.

Philip III: 323317 BC References


Alexander IV: [n 1]
316305 BC
[1] E.J. Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World (Ithaca:
Cornell University Press, 1968), pp. 81f
1.1.4 Ptolemies of Egypt, 30430 BC [2] Bickerman, Chronology of the Ancient World, p. 107

Ptolemy I Soter (Ptolemy, son of Lagus): 304285


BC Sources

Ptolemy II Philadelphus: 284247 BC Reprint of the Canon in Ginzel, Friedrich Karl


Ptolemy III Euergetes: 246222 BC (1906). Handbuch der Mathematischen und Tech-
nischen Chronologie (in Greek and German). 1.
Ptolemy IV Philopator: 221205 BC Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs. p. 139. At the Internet
Archive.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes: 204181 BC

Ptolemy VI Philometor: 180146 BC 1.1.7 See also


Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II: 145117 BC
List of lists of ancient kings
Ptolemy IX Soter II: 11681 BC
Mesopotamia in Classical literature
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysus: 8052 BC

Cleopatra Thea Philopator: 5130 BC 1.1.8 External links


Explanation of Ptolemys Canon
1.1.5 Roman Emperors, 29 BC160 AD
Augustus: 29 BC14 AD

Tiberius: 1536

Gaius: 3740

Claudius: 4154

Nero: 5568
Chapter 2

Assyrian kings

2.1 Puzur-Ashur I 2.1.2 References

Puzur-Ashur I was an Assyrian who . c. 2000 BC. His [1] Arthur Ungnad interpreted these names as Hurrian (BA
VI, 5, S. 13) but Ungnads thesis can no longer be sus-
clearly Assyrian name (meaning, servant of Ashur) dis-
tained nowadays and was rejected as unconvincing by
tinguishes him from his three immediate predecessors on Arno Poebel (The Assyrian King List from Khorsabad,
the Assyrian King List, who possibly bore non-Semitic Journal of Near Eastern Studies 1/3, 1942, 253) as early
names,[1] and from the earlier, Amorite-named, kings as 1942.
who are ancestors (also translatable as, kings whose fa-
thers are known), often interpreted as a list of Shamshi- [2] Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie.
Adad I's ancestors.[2] He is known only from his place in 6. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 101102. ISBN
the Assyrian King List and from references in the inscrip- 3110100517.
tions of later kings (his son and successor Shalim-ahum
[3] Albert Kirk Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions,
and the much later Ashur-rim-nisheshu and Shalmaneser
Volume 1. Otto Harrassowitz.
III.)[3]:6,8,12,15 These later kings mentioned him among
the kings who had renewed the city walls of Assur begun [4] Hildegard Levy, Assyria c. 2600-1816 B.C., Cambridge
by Kikkia.[4] Ancient History. Volume 1, Part 2: Early History of the
Middle East, 729-770, p. 746-747.
Puzur-Ashur I may have started a native Assyrian dy-
nasty that endured for eight generations until Erishum II [5] Albert Kirk Grayson (2002). Assyrian Rulers. Volume 1:
was overthrown by the Amorite Shamshi-Adad I. Hilde- 1114 859 BC. p. 14.
gard Levy, writing in the Cambridge Ancient History, re-
jects this interpretation and sees Puzur-Aur I as part [6] Barbara Cifola (1995). Analysis of variants in the Assyr-
of a longer dynasty started by one of his predecessors, ian royal titulary from the origins to Tiglath-Pileser III. Is-
[4] tituto universitario orientale. p. 8.
Sulili. Inscriptions link Puzur-Aur I to his immediate
[3]:78[5]
successors, who, according to the Assyrian King
List, are related to the following kings down to Erium
II.[3]:14 The Assyrian King List omits Zariqum, who is 2.2 Shalim-ahum
known from inscriptions to have been governor (ens) of
Assur for the Third Dynasty of Ur under Amar-Sin; this
Shalim-ahum or alim-ahum was a ruler of the city-
Zariqum (whose name is Semitic) is sometimes placed by
state of Assur . c. 1900 BC (short chronology.)[1]
scholars immediately before Puzur-Ashur I, and follow-
The Assyrian King List records his name as allim-ae,
ing Akiya.
inscribed al-lim-PAB-ME, meaning, keep the broth-
Puzur-Ashur Is successors bore the title Iiak Aur, ers safe, and he appears among the six kings whose
vice regent of Assur, as well as ens.[6] eponyms are not found,[2] meaning that the length of
his reign was unknown. He was described as the son
of Puzur-Ashur I (dumu Puzu Assur) in his only known
2.1.1 See also inscription.[3] He is the earliest independent ruler to be
attested in a contemporary inscription.[1] Carved in cu-
Timeline of the Assyrian Empire
rious archaic character mirror-writing in Old Assyrian
Early Period of Assyria on an alabaster block found during the German excava-
tions at Assur under Walter Andrae, this sole exemplar of
List of Assyrian kings his contemporary inscriptions records that the god Ashur
Assyrian continuity requested of him the construction of a temple and that
he had beer vats and storage area built in the temple
Assyria area.[4]:67

3
4 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

He ruled during a period when nascent Assyrian merchant historians to believe Ilu-shuma may have engaged in con-
companies were branching out into Anatolia to trade tex- ict with his southerly neighbor. A brick inscription
tiles and tin from Assur for silver.[1] He was succeeded of Ilu-shuma describes his relations with the south and
by his son, Ilu-shuma, as recorded in his brick and lime- reads:
stone inscriptions[4]:78 and he appears in the genealogy
of his grandson, Erishum I.[4]:12,15 His name appears in
The freedom[nb 3] of the Akkadians and
an inscription of Adad-nirari I and one of Shalmaneser
their children I established. I puried their cop-
I but only in the context of references to his son, Ilu-
per. I established their freedom from the bor-
shuma.[4]:68,91 Shalim-ahum and his successors bore the
der of the marshes and Ur and Nippur, Awal,
title iiak Aur, vice regent of Assur, as well as ens.[5]
and Kismar, Der of the god Ishtaran, as far as
Assur.[1]:78
2.2.1 References
The historian M. Trolle Larsen has suggested that this
[1] J. A. Brinkman (2001). Assyria. In Bruce Manning represented an attempt to lure traders from the south of
Metzger, Michael David Coogan. The Oxford companion Assur with tax privileges and exemptions, to monopolize
to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 63. the exchange of copper from the gulf for tin from the
east.[3] The cities cited therefore are the three major car-
[2] K. R. Veenhof (2003). The Old Assyrian List of Year
Eponyms from Karum Kanish and is Chronological Impli-
avan routes the commodities would have traveled rather
cations. Turkish Historical Society. p. 21. than campaign routes for the king.[4]
Ilu-shumas construction activities included building the
[3] Albert Kirk Grayson (2002). Assyrian Rulers. Volume1:
old temple of Ishtar, a city wall, subdivision of the city
1114 859 BC. p. 14.
into house plots and diversion of the ow of two springs to
[1]:8
[4] Albert Kirk Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, the city gates Aushum and Wertum. Tukult-Ninurta
Volume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 68. I recorded that he preceded him by 720 years, on his own
inscriptions commemorating his construction of an adja-
[5] Barbara Cifola (1995). Analysis of variants in the Assyr- cent Ishtar temple.[2] From this it might be deduced that,
ian royal titulary from the origins to Tiglath-Pileser III. Is- despite later being among the kings whose year names
tituto universitario orientale. p. 8. are not known, the reign length of Ilu-shuma was still
known in the time of Tukulti-Ninurta I to be 21 years.[5]
Larsen has suggested that he may have been a contem-
2.3 Ilu-shuma porary of Iddin-Dagan and Ishme-Dagan of Isin, which
would clash with the synchronization with Sumu-abum,[2]
Ilu-shuma or Ilu-ma, inscribed DINGIR-um-ma,[i 1] but make more sense given the current chronology fa-
son of Shalim-ahum[1]:78 was the thirty-second king of vored.
Assyria, c. 1900 BCE (short chronology.) The length of
his reign is uncertain, as the Assyrian King List records
him as one of the six kings whose names were written 2.3.2 See also
on bricks, but whose eponyms are not known,[2] refer-
ring to the lists of ocials after which years were named. Timeline of the Assyrian Empire
His son, Erishum I, is identied as the king who suc-
ceeded him and reigned for 30 years (or 40, depend- Early Period of Assyria
[nb 1]
ing on the copy of the Assyrian King List), followed
by Ilu-shumas other son, Ikunum. He titled himself List of Assyrian kings
vice-regent of Assur, beloved of the god Ashur and the
Assyrian continuity
goddess Ishtar. The Synchronistic King List [i 2] records,
eighty-two kings of Assyria from Erishum I, son of Ilu- Assyrian people
shuma, to Ashurbanipal, son of Esarhaddon", in the con-
cluding colophon. Assyria

2.3.1 Biography 2.3.3 Inscriptions


The Chronicle of Early Kings records his contemporary as [1] Khorsabad copy of the Assyrian King List i 24, 26.
Su-abu, who was once identied with the founder of the
First Dynasty of Babylon, Sumu-abum, c. 1830 BCE.[i 3] [2] Synchronistic King List iv 17.
The word battles[nb 2] is discernible on the subsequent,
fragmentary line of the Chronicle and this has led some [3] Chronicle of Early Kings, BM 26472, 37.
2.4. ERISHUM I 5

2.3.4 Notes Karums were established along trade routes into Anato-
lia and included: Kanesh, Ankuwa, Hattusa, and eigh-
[1] Lines 27 to 28: [I E-r]i-u dumu I ilu-um-ma [ li-ma- teen other locations that have yet to be identied, some
ni]-u-ni 40 mume lugalta du . of which had been designated as warbatums (satellites
of and subordinate to the karums) The markets traded
[2] Battles, gigam.didli.
in: tin (inscribed AN.NA, Akkadian: annukum), textiles,
[3] Freedom = addurru. lapis lazuli, iron, antimony, copper, bronze, wool, and
grain, in exchange for gold and silver. Around 23,000
tablets have been found at Kanesh spanning a period of
2.3.5 References 129 years from the thirtieth year of Erishum Is reign
through to that of Puzur-Ashur II or possibly Naram-
[1] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- Sin with the earliest from level II including copies of his
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. inscriptions. These were discovered in 1948 with three
other similar though fragmentary lists and two copies of
[2] Jean-Jacques Glassner (2005). Mesopotamian Chronicles. an inscription of Erishum I detailing the regulations con-
SBL. pp. 137, 7, 271. cerning the administration of justice in Assur, including
the possibility of plaintis to obtain a rbium (attorney)
[3] M. Trolle Larsen (1976). The Old Assyrian City-State and
to represent them:
its Colonies. Akademisk Forlag. p. 87.

[4] Emlie Kuhrt (1998). The Old Assyrian merchants. In The one who talks too much in the Step
Helen Parkins, Christopher Smith. Trade, traders, and the Gate, the demon of ruins will seize his mouth
ancient city. Routledge. p. 20. and his hindquarters; he will smash his head
like a shattered pot; he will fall like a broken
[5] Cambridge Ancient History: Assyria 2060-1816 BC, 1966, reed and water will ow from his mouth. The
p. 22. one who talks too much in the Step Gate, his
house will become a house of ruin. He who
rises to give false testimony, may the [Seven]
2.4 Erishum I Judges who decide legal cases in [the Step
Gate, give a false] decision [against him]; [may
Assur], Adad, and Bel, [my god, pluck his
Erishum I or Eriu(m) I (inscribed m e-ri-u, or m APIN-
seed]; a place [] may they not give to him.
in later texts but always with an initial i in his own seal,
[The one who] obeys me, [when he goes]
inscriptions, and those of his immediate successors,[1]:40
to the Step Gate, [may] the palace deputy
he has desired,[2] ) c. 1905 BC c. 1866 BC (short
[assist him]; [may he send] the witnesses and
chronology) or c. 1974 BC c. 1935 BC (middle
plainti (to the court); [may] the judges [take
chronology),[nb 1] son of Ilu-shuma, was the thirty-third
the bench] and give a proper decision [in
ruler of Assyria to appear on the Assyrian King List.
A]ur.[5]:13
He reigned for forty years.[i 1] One of two copies of the
Inscription of rium I[i 4]
Assyrian King List[i 2] which include him gives his reign
length as only 30 years,[3] but this contrasts with a com-
plete list of his limmu, some 40, which are extant from
tablets[i 3] recovered at Karum Kanesh.[1]:35 He had ti- Following the example set by Erishum Is father (Ilu-
tled himself both as, "Ashur is king, Erishum I is vice- shuma), he had proclaimed tax exemptions, or as Michael
regent[nb 2] and the, Iiak Aurki (steward of As- Hudson has interpreted, Erishum I proclaimed a remis-
sur), at a time when Assur was controlled by an oligarchy sion of debts payable in silver, gold, copper, tin, barley,
of the patriarchs of the prominent families and subject wool, down to cha. This appears in an inscription on
to the judgment of the city, or dn alim. According one side of a large broken block of alabaster,[i 5] appar-
to Veenhof, Erishum Is reign marks the period when ently described as a uppu. The shallow depression on its
the institution of the annually appointed limmu (eponym) top has led some to identify it as a door socket.[6]
was introduced. The Assyrian King List observes of his His numerous contemporary inscriptions commemorate
immediate predecessors, in all six kings known from his building of the temple for Assur, called Wild Bull
bricks, whose limmu have not been marked/found.[4] with its courtyard and two beer vats and the accompa-
nying curses to those who would use them for their in-
tended purposes. Erishum Is other civic constructions
2.4.1 Biography included the temple of Ishtar and that of Adad. He had
exercised eminent domain to clear an area from the Sheep
As Assurs merchant family rms vigorously pursued Gate to the Peoples Gate to make way for an enlargement
commercial expansion, Erium I had established distant of the city wall, so that he could boast that I made a wall
trading outposts in Anatolia referred to as karums. higher than the wall my father had constructed.[5]:11 His
6 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

eorts had been recalled by the later kings ami-Adad List of Assyrian kings
I,[5]:20 in his rebuilding dedication, and ulmanu-aared
Assyrian continuity
I, who noted that 159 years had passed between Erishum
Is work and that of Shamsh-Adad I, and a furthet 580 Assyrian people
years until his own when a re had gutted it.[5]:8485

2.4.4 Inscriptions
2.4.2 Limmu during Erishum Is reign
[1] Khorsabad kinglist.
The following is a list of the annually-elected limmu from [2] SDAS Kinglist: [m E-ri- ] u DUMU m DINGIR-um-ma,
the rst full year of Erishum Is reign until the year of his [ li-ma-ni? -u-ni 10] + 30 MU.ME LUGAL-ta D-
death c. 1935 BC (middle chronology):[1]:610 u.
1974 BC u-Itar, son of Abila [3] KEL A (kt 92/k 193), at CDLI.
1973 BC ukutum, son of Iuhum
1972 BC Iddin-ilum, son of Kurub-Itar [4] Tablet copies: An 201139 and An 20114.
1971 BC u-Anim, son of Isalia [5] BM 115689, Ass. 16850.
1970 BC Anah-ili, son of Kiki
1969 BC Suitaya, son of Ir'ibum
1968 BC Daya, son of Iuhum 2.4.5 Notes
1967 BC Ili-ellat
[1] Some historians quote ca. 19391900 BC (after Amlie
1966 BC ama-t.ab
Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, C. 3000-330 BC, Volume
1965 BC Agusa
1, Routledge, 1996, p. 82).
1964 BC Idnaya, son of udaya
1963 BC Quqadum, son of Buzu [2] d a-r LUGAL i-ri-u-um PA.
1962 BC Puzur-Itar, son of Bedaki
1961 BC Laqip, son of Bab-idi
1960 BC u-Laban, son of Kurub-Itar 2.4.6 References
1959 BC u-Belum, son of Iuhum [1] K. R. Veenhof (2003). The Old Assyrian List of Year
1958 BC Nab-Suen, son of u-Itar Eponyms from Karum Kanish and its Chronological Im-
1957 BC Hadaya, son of Elali plications. Turkish Historical Society. pp. 40, 310.
1956 BC Ennum-Aur, son of Begaya
1955 BC Ikunum, son of udaya [2] E. Frahm (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography of
the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II: A. The Neo-
1954 BC Is.mid-ili, son of Idida
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 404.
1953 BC Buzutaya, son of Iuhum
1952 BC u-Itar, son of Amaya [3] I. J. Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. Journal of
1951 BC Iddin-Aur, son of the priest Near East Studies. VIII (4): 213.
1950 BC Puzur-Aur, the ghee maker [4] Klaas R. Veenhof, Jesper Eidem (2008). Mesopotamia:
1949 BC Quqadum, son of Buzu the Old Assyrian period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p.
1948 BC Ibni-Adad, son of Susaya 29.
1947 BC Irium, son of Adad-rabi
1946 BC Minanum, son of Begaya [5] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 815, 20, 8485.
1945 BC Iddin-Suen, son of alim-ahum
1944 BC Puzur-Aur, son of Idnaya [6] J. E. Reade (2001). A monument of Erium I from
1943 BC uli, son of Uphakum Aur. Revue d'assyriologie et d'archologie orientale. 94
1942 BC Laqip, son of Zukua (2): 177178. doi:10.3917/assy.094.0177.
1941 BC Puzur-Itar, son of Erisua
1940 BC Aguwa, son of Adad-rabi
1939 BC u-Suen, son of S.illia 2.5 Ikunum
1938 BC Ennum-Aur, son of Begaya
1937 BC Enna-Suen, son of Pussanum Ikunum was a king of Assyria between 1867 BC 1860
1936 BC Ennanum, son of Uphakum BC and the son of Ilushuma. He built a temple for the
1935 BC Buzi, son of Adad-rabi god Ninkigal.[1] He strengthened the fortications of the
city of Assur and maintained commercial colonies in Asia
Minor.[2] The following is a list of the sixteen annually-
2.4.3 See also
elected limmu ocials from the year of accession of
Timeline of the Assyrian Empire Ikunum until the year of his death.[3] BC dates are based
on a date of 1833 BC for the recorded solar eclipse in the
Old Assyrian Empire limmu of Puzur-Itar:[4]
2.6. SARGON I 7

1920 BC Buzi son of Adad-rabi which Sargon I identied with the prestigious Dynasty of
Akkad.
1919 BC uli son of almah
Sargon I is known for his work refortifying Assur.[3] Very
1918 BC Iddin-Suen son of almah little is otherwise known about Sargon I.[2] The following
is a list of the 41 annually-elected limmu ocials from the
1917 BC Ikunum son of udaya
year of accession of Sargon I until the year of his death.[4]
1916 BC Dan-Wer son of Ahu-ahi Dates are based on a date of 1833 BC for the solar eclipse
recorded in the limmu of Puzur-Ishtar:[5]
1915 BC u-Anum from Nerabtim
1905 BC Irium son of Iddin-Aur
1914 BC Il-massu son of Aur-ab 1904 BC Aur-malik son of Agatum
1903 BC Aur-malik son of Enania
1913 BC u-Hubur son of uli 1902 BC Ibisua son of Suen-nada
1901 BC Bazia son of Bal-Tutu
1912 BC Idua son of ulili
1900 BC Puzur-Itar son of Sabasia
1911 BC Laqip son of Puzur-Laba 1899 BC Pia-Ili son of Adin
1898 BC Asqudum son of Lapiqum
1910 BC u-Anum the hapirum 1897 BC Ili-pila son of Damqum
1896 BC Qulali
1909 BC Uku son of Bila
1895 BC Susaya
1908 BC Aur-malik son of Panaka 1894 BC Amaya the Weaponer
1893 BC Ipurum son of Ili-ellat
1907 BC Dan-Aur son of Puzur-Wer 1892 BC Kudanum son of Laqipum
1891 BC Ili-bani son of Ikunum
1906 BC u-Kubum son of Ahu-ahi
1890 BC u-Kubum son of Susaya
1905 BC Irium son of Iddin-Aur 1889 BC Quqidi son of Amur-Aur
1888 BC Abia son of Nur-Suen
1887 BC u-Itar son of ukutum
2.5.1 Notes 1886 BC Bazia son of epa-lim
1885 BC u-Itar son of Ikunum, the starlike (kakka-
[1] Rogers, Robert (2003). A History of Babylonia and As- banum)
syria. Lost Arts Media. ISBN 978-1-59016-317-7.
1884 BC Abia son of u-Dagan
[2] Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient 1883 BC Salia son of abakuranum
Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP. p. 88. 1882 BC Ibni-Adad son of Baqqunum
1881 BC Amari son of Malkum-iar
[3] Cahit Gnbatt, An Eponym List (KEL G) from Kltepe 1880 BC Sukkalia son of Minanum
Altoriental. Forsch. 35 (2008) 1, 103-132.
1879 BC Iddin-Aur son of Kubidi
[4] C. Michel, Nouvelles donnes pour la chronologie du IIe 1878 BC udaya son of Ennanum
millnaire, NABU 2002, Nr. 20, 17f. 1877 BC Al-ab son of Pila-Aur
1876 BC Aur-dammiq son of Abarsisum
1875 BC Puzur-Nira son of Puzur-Suen
2.5.2 References 1874 BC Amur-Aur son of Karria
1873 BC Buzuzu son of Ibbi-Suen
Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in An- 1872 BC u-ubur son of Elali
cient Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP. 1871 BC Ilu-rabi son of Bazia
1870 BC Alaum son of Ina-ili
1869 BC ab-Aur son of Suarum
2.6 Sargon I 1868 BC Elali son of Ikunum
1867 BC Iddin-abum son of Narbitum
Sargon I (also transcribed as arru-kn I and Sharru- 1866 BC Adad-bani son of Iddin-Aur
ken I) was the king (Iiak Aur, Steward of Assur") 1865 BC Aur-iddin son of uli
of the Old Assyrian Empire from c. 1920 BC c. 1881
BC. On the Assyrian King List, Sargon appeaars as the
2.6.1 References
son and successor of Ikunum, and the father and prede-
cessor of Puzur-Ashur II. [1] Chavalas, Mark William (29 Jun 2006). The ancient Near
The name Sargon means the king is legitimate in the East: historical sources in translation. Wiley-Blackwell. p.
23. ISBN 978-0-631-23580-4.
Akkadian language.[1] Sargon I may have been named af-
ter Sargon of Akkad,[2] perhaps reecting the extent to [2] Bromiley, Georey (31 Dec 1996). The international
8 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

standard Bible encyclopedia (Revised ed.). William B later Assyrian King Lists, where he is inscribed m na-
Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3784-4. ram-d EN.ZU,[i 1][i 2][i 3] or a fragmentary list where he ap-
pears as -d 30.[i 4] He was named for the illustrious Naram-
[3] Leick, Gwendolyn (2001). Whos Who in the Ancient Near
East. Routledge. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-415-13231-2.
Sin of Akkad and took the divine determinative in his
name (just like Naram-Sins grandfather: Sargon I, who
[4] Klaas R. Veenhof, The old Assyrian list of year eponyms may have been named after Sargon of Akkad.) Naram-
from Karum Kanish and its chronological implications Sin should not be confused with the Naram-Sin who
(Ankara, Turkish Historical Society, 2003) had ruled Eshnunna for around twelve years (the succes-
[5] C. Michel, Nouvelles donnes pour la chronologie du IIe sor and son, as identied on an inscription, of the long-
millnaire, NABU 2002, Nr. 20, 17f. reigning Ebiq-Adad II.)[1] It is probable that Naram-Sin
of Assur was, however, contemporaneous with the ear-
lier part of Ebiq-Adad IIs reign (whose last attestation
was in the Mari Eponym Chronicle B line 25 some 56
2.7 Puzur-Ashur II years after Naram-Sins inauguration.)[2]:46 Naram-Sin of
Assyria was the son and successor of the short-reigning
Puzur-Ashur II (also transcribed as Puzur-Aur II) Puzur-Ashur II, liation preserved in his seal impres-
was the king (Iiak Aur, Steward of Assur") of the sion on the envelopes of the waklum-letters to his expat
Old Assyrian Empire for eight years between 1865 BCE Anatolian-based traders at the karum Kanesh and in the
and 1857 BCE. Puzur-Ashur II had been both the son and later Assyrian King Lists.
successor of Sargon I. Due to Sargon Is long reign, Puzur-
Ashur II came to the throne at a late age since one of his The length of Naram-Sins reign is uncertain, however;
sons, named Ili-bani, was a witness in a contract (and so based on various excavated "limmu" (eponym) lists, the
already a grown man) eleven years before Puzur-Ashur II reigns of Naram-Sin and his son and successor Erishum
became ruler. Puzur-Ashur II was succeeded by his son II had a combined length of 64 years.[3]:29 The Assyr-
Naram-Sin. The following is a list of the nine annually- ian King List records that Shamshi-Adad I, went away
elected "limmu" (eponym) ocials from the year of ac- to Babylonia in the time of Naram-Sin. Shamshi-Adad I
cession of Puzur-Ashur II, the "waklum" (overseer), in did not return until he had taken Ekallatum, after which
the limmu of Ashur-iddin (son of Shuli) to Puzur-Ashur he paused for three years and then overthrew Erishum
IIs death in the limmu of Inaya (son of Amuraya.)[1] BC II.[4] The Mari Eponym Chronicle, which resumes the
dates are based on a date of 1833 BC for the recorded listing until the seizure of Ekallatum by Shamshi-Adad
solar eclipse in the limmu of Puzur-Itar:[2] I, provides no clue as to when the succession of Erishum
II had taken place. As the reign of Erishum II was pre-
1865 BC Aur-iddin son of uli maturely ended by the conquests of Shamshi-Adad I, it is
1864 BC Aur-nada son of Puzur-Ana likely that Naram-Sins reign was the greater part of the
1863 BC Kubia son of Karria period, additionally; the broken gure on the Nassouhi
1862 BC Ili-dan son of Elali King List ends on four, so perhaps Naram-Sin reigned
1861 BC ilulu son of Uku 44 or 54 years (c. 1872 BC onward, middle chronol-
1860 BC Aur-nada son of Ili-binanni ogy).[2]:45 Despite this, there are no extant monumental
1859 BC Ikuppi-Itar son of Ikua inscriptions recording his activities.[5]
1858 BC Buzutaya son of uli
1857 BC Innaya son of Amuraya The following is a list of the last 27 annually-elected
limmu ocials listed on the extant Kltepe Eponym
Lists (KEL) representing Naram-Sins rst years (end-
2.7.1 References ing nearly a decade before Naram-Sins 35th year during
which the karum Kanesh was destroyed c. 1837 BC, the
[1] Klaas R. Veenhof, The old Assyrian list of year eponyms II layer.)[3]:29 The city-state of Assur which Naram-Sin
from Karum Kanish and its chronological implications had inherited would have been fairly wealthy as the hub
(Ankara, Turkish Historical Society, 2003). of the trading network at the height of the Old Assyrian
[2] C. Michel, Nouvelles donnes pour la chronologie du IIe Empire's activity and despite the destruction of the trad-
millnaire, NABU 2002, Nr. 20, 17f. ing post at Kanesh partway through his reign, commerce
apparently continued elsewhere. A gap of up to four years
is apparent between the end of the KEL and the begin-
ning of the Mari Eponym Chronicle (MEC B.)[2]:5 There
2.8 Naram-Suen are no extant monumental inscriptions recording his ac-
tivities. The dating on this list uses the middle chronology
Naram-Sin, or Narm-Sn or Suen, inscribed in for the ancient near east:
cuneiform on contemporary seal impressions as d na-ra-
am-d EN.ZU, had been the en5 .si ("ens") or waklum 1872 BC Shu-Suen, son of Bab-ilum
(d a-r) or "Iiak Aur" (Steward of Assur) of the city- 1871 BC Ashur-malik, son of Alahum
state Assur, listed as the 37th king of Assyria on the 1870 BC Ashur-imitti, son of Ili-bani
2.9. ERISHUM II 9

1869 BC Enna-Suen, son of Shu-Adhur the Assyrian King List as the 38th king of Assyria from
1868 BC Akkutum, son of Alahum 1815 BC to 1809 BC. Shalim-ahum (the 31st king of As-
1867 BC Mas.i-ili, son of Irishum syria c. 1900 BC as listed in the Assyrian King List.)[1]
1866 BC Iddi-ahum, son of Kudanum and his successors bore the titles Iiak Aur (Steward
1865 BC Samaya, son of Shu-Balum of Assur) and ens.[2] The length of Naram-Sins reign is
1864 BC Ili-Anum, son of Sukkalia uncertain, however; based on various excavated "limmu"
1863 BC Ennam-Anum, son of Adhur-malik (eponym) lists, Naram-Sins and Erishum IIs reigns had
1862 BC Ennum-Ashur, son of Duni-Ea a combined length of 64 years.[3]:29
1861 BC Enna-Suen, son of Shu-Ishtar
The Amorites had overrun the kingdoms of Lower
1860 BC Hannanarum Mesopotamia and the Levant between c. 2100 BCE and
1859 BC Dadia
c. 1809 BCE, but had hitherto been repelled by the As-
1858 BC Kapatia syrian kings. However, after having reigned for only six
1857 BC Ishma-Ashur, son of Ea-dan
years, Erishum II was to be the last king of the dynasty
1856 BC Ashur-mutappil, son of Azizum of Puzur-Ashur I (founded c. 2025 BC) as he was de-
1855 BC Shu-Nirah, son of Azuzaya
posed and the throne of Assyria was usurped by Shamshi-
1854 BC Iddin-abum Adad I during the expansion of the Amorite tribes from
1853 BC Ili-dan, son of Azuza the Khabur River delta in the north-eastern Levant. Al-
1852 BC Ashur-imitti, son of Iddin-Itar though regarded as an Amorite by later Assyrian tradi-
1851 BC Buzia, son of Abia tion, Shamshi-Adad Is descent is suggested to be from
1850 BC Dadia, son of Shu-Ilabrat the same line as the native Assyrian ruler Ushpia within
1849 BC Puzur-Ishtar, son of Nur-iliu the Assyrian King List. Shamshi-Adad I had inherited the
1848 BC Isaya, son of Dagan-malkum throne in Terqa from his father Ila-kabkabu. The Assyr-
1847 BC Abu-Shalim, son of Ili-Anum ian King List records that Shamshi-Adad I, went away
1846 BC Ashur-re'i, son of Ili-emuqi to Babylonia in the time of Naram-Sin while Naram-Sin
of Eshnunna had been attacking Ekallatum. Shamshi-
2.8.1 Inscriptions Adad I had not returned until he had taken Ekallatum,
after which he had paused for three years and then had
[1] SDAS List, IM 60484, i 34. overthrown Erishum II.[4] The Mari Eponym Chronicle,
which resumes the listing until the seizure of Ekallatum
[2] Nassouhi List, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), i 33. by Shamshi-Adad I, provides no clue as to when the suc-
[3] Khorsabad List, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS cession of Erishum II had taken place. As the reign of
32-54), i 34. Erishum II was prematurely ended by the conquests of
Shamshi-Adad I, it is likely that Naram-Sins reign was
[4] Assyrian Kinglist fragment VAT 9812 = KAV 14: 3 the greater part of the period, additionally; the broken
gure on the Nassouhi King List ends on four, so perhaps
Naram-Sin reigned 44 or 54 years (c. 1872 BC onward,
2.8.2 References
middle chronology.)[5]:45
[1] Stephanie Dalley, A. T. Reyes (1998). Mesopotamian
Contact and Inuence in the Greek World. In Stephanie
Dalley. The Legacy of Mesopotamia. Oxford University 2.9.1 References
Press. p. 87.

[2] Klaas R. Veenhof (2003). The Old Assyrian List of Year [1] J. A. Brinkman (2001). Assyria. In Bruce Manning
Eponyns from Karum Kanish and its Chronological Impli- Metzger, Michael David Coogan. The Oxford companion
cations. Turkish History Society. to the Bible. Oxford University Press. p. 63.
[3] Klaas R Veenhof (2008). Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian
Period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. [2] Barbara Cifola (1995). Analysis of variants in the Assyr-
ian royal titulary from the origins to Tiglath-Pileser III. Is-
[4] I. J. Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. Journal of tituto universitario orientale. p. 8.
Near Eastern Studies. 13 (4): 212213.
[3] Klaas R Veenhof (2008). Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian
[5] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
Period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
ume I. Otto Harrassowitz. p. 18.

[4] I. J. Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. Journal of


Near Eastern Studies. 13 (4): 212213.
2.9 Erishum II
[5] Klaas R. Veenhof (2003). The Old Assyrian List of Year
ErishumI or Erium II, the son and successor of Eponyns from Karum Kanish and its Chronological Impli-
Naram-Sin, was the king of the city-state Assur, listed in cations. Turkish History Society.
10 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.10 Shamshi-Adad I c. 1809 BC) Shamshi-Adad I conquered Assur and


emerged as the rst Amorite king of Assyria (c. 1808
Shamshi-Adad I (Akkadian: ami-Adad I; Amorite: BC)[3] Shamshi-Adad I attempted to legitimize his po-
Shamshi-Addu I; . c. 1809 BC c. 1776 BC by sition on the Assyrian throne by claiming descent from
the middle chronology) was an Amorite who had con- Ushpia (an early native Assyrian king who . c. 2050
quered lands across much of Syria, Anatolia, and Upper BC c. 2030 BC) Although regarded as an Amorite
Mesopotamia for the Old Assyrian Empire.[1] by later Assyrian tradition, earlier archaeologists assumed
that Shamshi-Adad I had indeed been a native Assyrian.
Ushpia was the second last in the section kings who lived
2.10.1 Rise in tents of the AKL, however; Ushpia has not been con-
rmed by contemporary artifacts. Ushpia is succeeded
on the AKL by his son Apiashal (. c. 2030 BC c.
2027 BC)[4]
Apiashal was a monarch of the Early Period of Assyria,
according to the AKL.[2] Apiashal is listed within the sec-
tion of the AKL as the last of whom altogether seven-
teen kings, tent dwellers.[2][5] This section shows marked
similarities to the ancestors of the First Babylonian Dy-
nasty.[5] Apiashal is also listed within a section of the
AKL as the rst of the ten kings whose fathers are
known. This section (which in contrast to the rest of the
list) had been written in reverse orderbeginning with
Aminu (. c. 2003 BC c. 2000 BC) and ending with
Apiashal altogether ten kings who are ancestorshas
often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of Shamshi-
Adad I. In keeping with this assumption, scholars have
A map of the Ancient Near East showing the geopolitical situ-
ation around the Old Assyrian Empire (light brown) near con-
inferred that the original form of the AKL had been writ-
temporary great powers such as: Eshnunna (light blue), Yamhad ten (among other things) as an attempt to justify that
(dark blue), Qatna (dark brown), the First Dynasty of Babylon Shamshi-Adad I was a legitimate ruler of the city-state
(yellow), and the Third Mariote Kingdom (shortly before the con- Assur and to obscure his non-Assyrian antecedents by in-
quest of the long-abandoned town of ubat-Enlil c. 1808 BC by corporating his ancestors into a native Assyrian geneal-
the Amorite conqueror ami-Adad I.) ogy. However, this interpretation has not been accepted
universally; the Cambridge Ancient History rejected this
Shamshi-Adad I inherited the throne in Terqa from Ila- interpretation and instead interpreted the section as being
[6]
kabkabu (. c. 1836 BC c.1833 BC) Ila-kabkabu that of the ancestors of Sulili (. c. 2000 BC)
is mentioned as the father of Shamshi-Adad I in the In the city-state Assur, Shamshi-Adad I held the title
"Assyrian King List" (AKL);[2] a similar name (not nec- Governor of Assur. Stone tablets with Akkadian in-
essarily the same gure) is listed in the preceding sec- scriptions (formatted in three columns and a one hundred
tion of the AKL among the kings whose fathers are and thirty-ve lines, from Shamshi-Adad I) have been
known.[2] Shamshi-Adad I did not inherit the Assyrian found near the temple of the god Assur. Archaeology
throne from his father, but was instead a conqueror. Ila- supports this claim because excavations of the temple of
kabkabu had been an Amorite king not of Assur (Aur) Assur show that many bricks and objects inside have the
(in Assyria (Aryu)), instead; Ila-kabkabu was king of inscription Shamshi-Adad I, Builder of the Temple of
Terqa (in Syria) during the same time as that of the King Assur carved into them. In this inscription he claimed
Yahdun-Lim of Mari (also in Syria, c. 1800 BC c. to have been King of the Universe and Unier of the
1700 BC) According to the Mari Eponyms Chronicle, Ila- Land Between Tigris and Euphrates". He asserted that
kabkabu seized Shuprum (c. 1790 BC), then Shamshi- the king of the Upper Land had paid tribute to him and
Adad I entered his fathers house (Shamshi-Adad I suc- that he had built the temple of Enlil. He outlined the mar-
ceeded Ila-kabkabu as the king of Terqa, in the follow- ket prices of that time as being one shekel of silver being
ing year.)[2]:163 ami-Adad I had been forced to ee to worth two kor of barley, fteen minas of wool, or two
Babylon (c. 1823 BC) while Narm-Sn of Eshnunna (. seahs of oil.
c. 1850 BC c. 1816 BC) had attacked Ekallatum.
Shamshi-Adad I had remained in exile until the death
of Naram-Sin of Eshnunna (c. 1816 BCE.) The AKL 2.10.2 Conquests
records that Shamshi-Adad I went away to Babylonia in
the time of Naram-Sin. Shamshi-Adad I did not return Shamshi-Adad I took over the long-abandoned town of
until taking Ekallatum, pausing for some time, and then Shekhna (today known as Tell Leilan), converted it into
overthrowing King Erishum II of Assur (. c. 1815 BC the capital city of the Kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia,
2.10. SHAMSHI-ADAD I 11

and then renamed it ubat-Enlil (meaning the resi- While here your brother is victorious,
dence of the god Enlil in the Akkadian language)[7] down there you lie about among the women.
c. 1808 BC.[8] During his reign, the Kingdom of
Upper Mesopotamia competed for power in Lower Shamshi-Adad I clearly kept a rm control on the ac-
Mesopotamia against: King Naram-Sin of Eshnunna tions of his sons, as shown in his many letters to them.
(who died c. 1816 BC), Naram-Sins successors, and At one point he arranged a political marriage between
Yahdun-Lim of Mari.[9] A main target for expansion was Yasmah-Adad to Beltum, the princess of his ally in Qatna.
the city of Mari, which controlled the caravan route be- Yasmah-Adad already had a leading wife and had put Bel-
tween Anatolia and Mesopotamia. King Yahdun-Lim of tum in a secondary position of power. Shamshi-Adad I
Mari (. c. 1800 BC c. 1700 BC) was assassinated by did not approve and forced his son to keep Beltum in the
his own servants (possibly on Shamshi-Adad Is orders.) palace in a leading position.[3]
The heir to the throne of Mari, Zimri-Lim, was forced
to ee to Yamhad. Shamshi-Adad I seized the opportu- Shamshi-Adad I sent a letter on a tablet to Ishi-Addu (Bel-
nity and occupied Mari c. 1795 BC. He placed his sons tums father, the King of Qatna) in which he discussed
(Ishme-Dagan I and Yasmah-Adad) in key geographi- their alliance, the attacks of their enemies, and the suc-
cal locations and gave them responsibility to look over cessful marriage between their children. In it Shamshi-
those areas. Shamshi-Adad I put his eldest son (Ishme- Adad I wrote:
Dagan I) on the throne of Ekallatum, while Shamshi-
Adad I remained in ubat-Enlil]]. Shamshi-Adad I put I heard that you gladly dispatched my
his second son, Yasmah-Adad, on the throne in Mari].[3] daughter-in-law on a safe way back to me, that
With the annexation of Mari, Shamshi-Adad I had carved you treated my servants when they stayed with
out a large empire[1] encompassing much of Syria, Ana- you well, and that they were not hindered at all.
tolia, and the whole of Upper Mesopotamia (this em- My heart is very happy.[10]
pire often referred to as either the "Kingdom of Upper
Mesopotamia" or the Upper Mesopotamian Empire.)
Shamshi-Adad I proclaimed himself as King of All (the 2.10.4 Reign
title had been used by Sargon of the Akkadian Empire c.
2334 BC c. 2279 BC) Shamshi-Adad I was a great organizer and he kept rm
controls on all matters of state, from high policy down
King Dadusha of Eshnunna (. c. 1800 BC c. 1779 to the appointing of ocials and the dispatching of pro-
BC), made an alliance with Shamshi-Adad I to conquer visions. Spies and propaganda were often used to win
the area between the two Zab rivers c. 1781 BC. This over rival cities. He allowed conquered territories to
military campaign of joint forces was commemorated on maintain some of their earlier practices. In Nineveh he
a victory stele which states that Dadusha gave the lands used state resources to rebuild the Ishtar temple. The lo-
to Shamshi-Adad I. Shamshi-Adad I later turned against cal rulers of the city Qattara maintained authority (but
Dadusha by attacking cities including Shaduppum and became vassals) when they were incorporated into the
Nerebtum. On inscriptions Shamshi-Adad I boasts of Kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia. User of these Assyr-
erecting triumphal stelae on the coast of the Mediter- ian Eponym dating system was enforced throughout the
ranean, but these probably represent short expeditions Kingdom of Upper Mesopotamia in cities such as: Mari,
rather than any attempts at conquest. His campaigns were Tuttul, Terqa, and the capital city ubat-Enlil.[3]
meticulously planned, and his army knew all the classic
methods of siegecraft, such as encircling ramparts and
battering rams. 2.10.5 Fall
Shamshi-Adad I continued to strengthen his kingdom
2.10.3 Family throughout his life, but as he got older, the state be-
came more vulnerable and the neighboring great pow-
See also: Ishme-Dagan I and Yasmah-Adad ers Yamkhad and Eshnunna began attacking. The em-
pire lacked cohesion and was in a vulnerable geograph-
While Ishme-Dagan I was probably a competent ruler, ical position. Naturally, Shamshi-Adad Is rise to glory
his brother Yasmah-Adad appears to have been a man earned him the envy of neighboring kings and tribes, and
of weak character; something the disappointed father throughout his reign, he and his sons faced several threats
(Shamshi-Adad I) was not above mentioning: to their control. After the death of Shamshi-Adad I, Es-
hnunna captured cities around Assur.[3] When the news
of Shamshi-Adad Is death spread, his old rivals set out to
Are you a child, not a man, have you no topple his sons from the throne. Yasmah-Adad was soon
beard on your chin?" expelled from Mari] by Zimri-Lim (. c. 1775 BC
c. 1761 BC), and the rest of the empire was eventually
Shamshi-Adad I wrote in another letter: lost during the reigns of Ime-Dagn I and Mut-Ashkur
12 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[8] Leilan.yale.edu, Harvey Weiss et al., The genesis and col-


lapse of Third Millennium north Mesopotamian Civiliza-
tion, Science, vol. 291, pp. 995-1088, 1993

[9] Chavalas, Mark W. (2006). The Ancient Near East: His-


torical Sources in Translation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
p. 95. ISBN 0-631-23581-7.

[10] Chavalas, Mark W. (2006). The Ancient Near East: His-


torical Sources in Translation. Malden: Blackwell Pub-
lishing. pp. 114115. ISBN 0631235817.

2.10.8 Sources
OBO (Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis) 160/4
A map of the Ancient Near East showing the geopolitical situ- Nelson, Glueck (1959). Rivers in the Desert. HUC.
ation around Assyria near contemporary great powers such as:
Yamhad (dark blue) and Qatna (dark brown), after the conquests McNeil, William H.; Jean W. Sedlar (1962). The
of Hammurabi of the First Dynasty of Babylon (green) c. 1750 Ancient Near East. OUP.
BC.
George, Andrew (2000). The Epic of Gillgamesh.
Penguin. No14-044721-0.
(. c. 1730 BC c. 1720 BC) to another Amorite ruler,
Hammurabi of Babylon (. c. 1810 BC c. 1750 BC) Pritchard, James B. (1968). The Ancient Near East.
OUP. ISBN 0-691-03532-6.

2.10.6 See also Al Khalifa, Shaika Haya Ali; Michael Rice (1986).
Bahrain through the Ages. KPI. ISBN 0-7103-0112-
Assyrian continuity X.
List of Assyrian kings Nayeem, Muhammed Abdul (1990). Prehistory and
Protohistory of the Arabian Peninsula. Hyderabad.
Timeline of the Assyrian Empire
Roaf, Michael (1990). Cultural Atlas of
Chronology of the ancient Near East Mesopotamia and the Ancient Near East. Equinox.
ISBN 0-8160-2218-6.
2.10.7 References Awde, Nicholas; Putros Samano (1986). The Arabic
Alphabet. Billing & Sons Ltd. ISBN 0-86356-035-
[1] Some of the Mari letters addressed to Shamsi-Adad by 0.
his son can be found in the Mari Letters section of Shaika
Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice (1986). Bahrain Herm, Gerard (1975). The Phoenicians. William
through the Ages. KPI. ISBN 0-7103-0112-X. Morrow & Co. Inc. ISBN 0-688-02908-6.
[2] Glassner, Jean-Jacques (2004). Mesopotamian Chroni- Pedersn, Olof (1998). Archives and Libraries in the
cles. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 137. ISBN Ancient Near East: 1500-300 B.C. Bethesda: CDL
1589830903. Press.
[3] Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient
Shiloh, Y. (1980). The Population of Iron Age
Near East ca. 3000-323 BC (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publish-
Palestine in the Light of a Sample Analysis of Ur-
ing. p. 107. ISBN 9781405149112.
ban Plans, Areas and Population Density. Bulletin
[4] Roux, Georges (Aug 27, 1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (239):
Books Limited. ISBN 978-0140125238. 2535.
[5] Meissner, Bruno (1990). Reallexikon der Assyriologie. 6. Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the An-
Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. p. 103. ISBN 3110100517. cient Near East ca 3000-323 BC (2nd ed.). Malden:
[6] Hildegard Levy, Assyria c. 2600-1816 BC, Cambridge Blackwell Publishing. pp. 89, 99, 104, 10611.
Ancient History. Volume 1, Part 2: Early History of the ISBN 9781405149112.
Middle East, 729-770, p. 745-746.)
Chavalas, Mark W. (2006). The Ancient Near East:
[7] Harvey Weiss, Tell Leilan and Shubat Enlil, Mari, An- Historical Sources in Translation. Malden: Black-
nales de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, vol. 4, pp. 269- well Publishing. pp. 93, 956, 103, 116, 102
92, 1985 3,1156, 11820, 370. ISBN 0631235817.
2.11. ISHME-DAGAN I 13

2.11 Ishme-Dagan I Entered his fathers house.[1]:163

Ishme-Dagan I (Akkadian: Ime-Dagn I; . c. 1776 Shamshi-Adad I succeeded Ila-kabkabu as the king of


BCE c. 1736 BCE) was a monarch of the Old Assyr- Terqa, in the following year. Shamshi-Adad I was forced
ian Empire. The much later Assyrian King List (AKL) to ee to Babylon (c. 1823 BCE) while Naram-Suen of
credits Ishme-Dagan I with a reign of forty years, how- Eshnunna (. c. 1850 BCE c. 1816 BCE) attacked
ever; it is now known from a limmu-list of eponyms un- Ekallatum. Shamshi-Adad I remained in exile until the
earthed at Kanesh in 2003 that his reign in Assur lasted death of Naram-Suen of Eshnunna. The AKL records
eleven years. According to the AKL, Ishme-Dagan I was that Shamshi-Adad I:
the son and successor of Shamshi-Adad I. Also accord-
ing to the AKL, Ishme-Dagan I was succeeded by his son Went away to Babylonia in the time of
Mut-Ashkur. Naram-Suen.

2.11.1 Biography Shamshi-Adad I did not return until taking Ekallatum,


pausing for some time, and then overthrowing King
Family Erishum II of Assur (. c. 1815 BCE c. 1809 BCE.)
Shamshi-Adad I conquered Assur and emerged as the rst
[2]
See also: Shamshi-Adad I, Ila-kabkabu, Ushpia, Amorite king of Assyria (c. 1808 BCE.) Shamshi-
Apiashal, Yasmah-Adad, and Mut-Ashkur Adad I attempted to legitimize his position on the As-
Shamshi-Adad I inherited the throne in Terqa from Ila- syrian throne by claiming descent from Ushpia (a native
Assyrian monarch who . c. 2050 BCE c. 2030 BCE.)
Although regarded as an Amorite by later Assyrian tradi-
tion, earlier archaeologists assumed that Shamshi-Adad I
had indeed been a native Assyrian. Ushpia was the sec-
ond last in the section of the AKL:

Kings who lived in tents.

However, Ushpia has not been conrmed by contempo-


rary artifacts. Ushpia is succeeded on the AKL by his son
Apiashal (. c. 2030 BCE c. 2027 BCE.)[3] Apiashal
is listed within a section of the AKL[1] as the rst of the
ten:

Kings whose fathers are known.


A map of the Ancient Near East showing the geopolitical situ-
ation around the Old Assyrian Empire (light brown) near con-
This section (which in contrast to the rest of the list) had
temporary great powers such as: Eshnunna (light blue), Yamhad
(dark blue), Qatna (dark brown), the First Dynasty of Babylon
been written in reverse orderbeginning with Aminu (.
(yellow), and the Third Mariote Kingdom (shortly before the con- c. 2003 BCE c. 2000 BCE) and ending with Apiashal:
quest of the long-abandoned town of Shubat-Enlil c. 1808 BCE
by the Amorite conqueror Shamshi-Adad I.) Altogether ten kings who are ancestors.

kabkabu (. c. 1836 BCE c. 1833 BCE.) Ila-kabkabu


This has often been interpreted as the list of ancestors of
is mentioned as the father of Shamshi-Adad I in the AKL;
Shamshi-Adad I. In keeping with this assumption, schol-
a similar name (not necessarily the same gure) is listed
ars have inferred that the original form of the AKL had
in the preceding section of the AKL[1] among the:
been written (among other things) as an, attempt to jus-
[1] tify that Shamshi-Adad I was a legitimate ruler of the city-
Kings whose fathers are known.
state Ashur and to obscure his non-Assyrian antecedents
Shamshi-Adad I did not inherit the Assyrian throne from by incorporating his ancestors into a native Assyrian ge-
his father, but was instead a conqueror. Ila-kabkabu was nealogy. However, this interpretation has not been ac-
an Amorite king not of Ashur (in Assyria), instead; Ila- cepted universally. The Cambridge Ancient History re-
kabkabu was king of Terqa (in Syria) during the same jected this interpretation and instead interpreted the sec-
time as that of the King Yahdun-Lim of Mari (also in tion as[4]being that of the ancestors of Sulili (. c. 2000
Syria, c. 1800 BCE c. 1700 BCE.) According to the BCE.)
Mari Eponyms Chronicle, Ila-kabkabu seized Shuprum (c. Shamshi-Adad I ruled from the capital city of the Old As-
1790 BCE), then Shamshi-Adad I: syrian Empire: Shubat-Enlil. Shamshi-Adad I placed his
14 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

oldest son (Ishme-Dagan I) on the throne of Ekallatum. War against Eshnunna Ishme-Dagan Is main chal-
Shamshi-Adad I placed his youngest son (Yasmah-Adad) lenge was in keeping his enemies in check. To Ishme-
on the throne of Mari. Ishme-Dagan I ruled the south- Dagan Is south was the King Dadusha of Eshnunna (.
eastern region in Upper Mesopotamia. Ishme-Dagan Is c. 1800 BCE c. 1779 BCE.) To Ishme-Dagan Is
realm of inuence included the city-state of Assur. east were the warlike, nomadic, pastoral peoples inhabi-
tating the foothills of the Zagros mountains. Eshnunna
was to be Ishme-Dagan Is chief enemy, and although
Correspondence A number of letters relating the fa- records are sparse, there are some accounts of some polit-
milial relationships between Shamshi-Adad I and his two ical conicts involving Eshnunna. An instance of defeat
sons have been excavated, and these letters provide a occurs in a year-name coined by the King Dadusha of Es-
glimpse into the tensions of this family of rulers. Ishme- hnunna which commemorates a victory over an army led
Dagan I appears to have been: by Ishme-Dagan I.[5]
King Dadusha of Eshnunna made an alliance with
A forceful soldier not afraid to risk his Shamshi-Adad I to conquer the area between the two Zab
own skin. rivers (c. 1781 BCE.) This military campaign of joint
forces was commemorated on a victory stele which states
that Dadusha gave the lands to Shamshi-Adad I. Shamshi-
A quality which allowed Shamshi-Adad I to rely on him Adad I later turned against Dadusha by attacking cities
unhesitatingly.[5] Shamshi-Adad Is correspondence to his including Shaduppum and Nerebtum. On inscriptions
younger son is not as generous, and Ishme-Dagan I ap- Shamshi-Adad I boasts of erecting triumphal stelae on
pears to have picked up his fathers censure of his younger the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, but these probably
brother and contributed to it. As one letter attests, Ishme- represent short expeditions rather than any attempts at
Dagan I asks his brother: conquest. His campaigns were meticulously planned, and
his army knew all the classic methods of siegecraft, such
as: encircling ramparts and battering rams.
Why are you setting up a wail about this
thing? That is not great conduct.[5]
Conquest of Mari During Ishme-Dagan Is reign, the
In one other letter; Ishme-Dagan I bluntly commands Old Assyrian Empire competed for power in Lower
Yasmah-Adad to: Mesopotamia against Yahdun-Lim of Mari,[8] King
Naram-Suen of Eshnunna and his successors. A main tar-
get for expansion was the city of Mari, which controlled
Show some sense.[5] the caravan route between Anatolia and Mesopotamia.
King Yahdun-Lim of Mari (. c. 1800 BCE c. 1700
BCE) was assassinated by his own servants (possibly on
In another, Ishme-Dagan I tells his brother to stop writing
Shamshi-Adad Is orders.) The heir to the throne of Mari
their father directly, and use him as an intermediary. The
(Zimri-Lim) was forced to ee to Yamhad. Shamshi-
reasons behind this move could be political, as a way for
Adad I seized the opportunity and occupied Mari c. 1795
Ishme-Dagan I to gain more political standing with their
BCE.
father, or perhaps Ishme-Dagan I was sincere in his desire
to help his brother appear more competent in their fathers He placed his sons (Ishme-Dagan I and Yasmah-Adad) in
eyes. key geographical locations and gave them responsibility
to look over those areas. Shamshi-Adad I put his eldest
son (Ishme-Dagan I) on the throne of Ekallatum, while
Conquests of Shamshi-Adad I Shamshi-Adad I remained in Shubat-Enlil. Shamshi-
Adad I put his second son, (Yasmah-Adad) on the throne
[2]
Conquests of Shekhna, Ekallatum, and Assur in Mari. With the annexation of Mari, Shamshi-Adad
[9]
Shamshi-Adad I inherited the throne in Terqa c. 1833 I had carved out a large empire encompassing much of
BCE. He was forced to ee to Babylon c. 1823 BCE. He Syria, Anatolia, and the whole of Upper Mesopotamia.
remained in exile until c. 1815 BCE. He rst conquered Shamshi-Adad I proclaimed himself as King of All (the
Ekallatum, and then Assur after overthrowing King Er- title had been used by Sargon of the Akkadian Empire c.
ishum II (. c. 1815 BCE c. 1808 BCE.)[6] Shamshi- 2334 BCE c. 2279 BCE.)
Adad I took over the long-abandoned town of Shekhna
(today known as Tell Leilan), converted it into the capi-
tal city of the Old Assyrian Empire, and then renamed it Campaign against Qabra and Nurugum Shamshi-
Shubat-Enlil (Akkadian) meaning: Adad I, along with Ishme-Dagan I, embarked on a new
campaign against both Qabra and Nurugum. During the
course of the campaign on Nurugum, Ishme-Dagan I and
The residence of the god Enlil.[7] his armies besieged the city of Nineveh. Once Ishme-
2.11. ISHME-DAGAN I 15

Dagan I conquered Nineveh, he allowed some prisoners I acceded to my fathers throne, but hav-
to enter his army, and gave special treatment to skilled ing been very busy, I havent sent you my news.
prisoners (according to letters excavated from the pe- Now you are my brother, and aside from you I
riod.) These expeditions betray the dierent attitudes of have no brother. I will make peace with any
the urban peoples toward the tribal peoples. The people city or king that you take as a vassal. Dont
of the kingdoms were treated dierently than the tribal ever worry. Your throne is yours to keep.[11]
people.
This letter led historians to believe that Yasmah-Adad
Campaign against the Yailanum Another campaign held the throne of Mari for a while after his father
for which records exist is a campaign that Ishme-Dagan died. However, this letter was proven to actually be from
I appears to have engaged in was against the nomadic Ishme-Addu of Ashnakku, (written to Ibal-Addu of Ash-
tribe called the Yailanum. Shamshi-Adad I had ordered lakka, thus disproving many chronologies that had been
Yasmah-Adad to execute all the members of this tribe. based on the letter.[11]
However, it was the troops of Ishme-Dagan I who later In addition to letters whose authorship can be veried
exterminated the entire tribe. There are two accounts of to Ishme-Dagan I, Shamshi-Adad I and Yasmah-Adad,
this annihilation, one from Shamshi-Adad I, and one from there have been letters attributed to this family that were
Ishme-Dagan I. Shamshi-Adad I seems to have slightly re- not written by them. One such letter caused issues in the
neged on his earlier bloodthirstiness[10] toward the tribes, chronology of the ancient near east, as it allowed histori-
as his account appears to limit the killing to the lead- ans to place dates on Hammurabi of Babylon.
ers and the combatants of the army, but in a letter from
Ishme-Dagan I to Yasmah-Adad, it seems the whole pop-
ulation was eradicated, as he states: Subservience to Babylon

Some evidence indicates that after his reduction in power,


Mar-Addu and all the sons of the tribe
Ishme-Dagan I appeared to hold tolerable relations with
of Yailanum were killed, and all its servants
Babylon, Eshnunna, and Mari. Hammurabi requested
and soldiers were killed, and not one enemy es-
reinforcements from Ishme-Dagan I at least once, and
caped.
Ishme-Dagan I responded, though it seems his response
was grudging, and Hammurabi was not entirely pleased
Death of Shamshi-Adad I with the poor support. However, Ishme-Dagans troops
were present in Hammurabis war against Elam, and
Although his father counted Ishme-Dagan I as politically Hammurabi even allowed Ishme-Dagans generals into
astute and a capable soldier, commending him as he be- his secret council meetings, to the dismay of Zimri-
rated Yasmah-Adad in their letters, Ishme-Dagan I was Lim, Hammurabis then ally.[12] Ishme-Dagans reputa-
not able to hold his fathers empire for long after his fa- tion with Hammurabi uctuated with Hammurabis goals,
ther died. Ishme-Dagan I eventually lost most of his do- and there is some evidence that Hammurabi sent troops
main, and was reduced to holding Ashur and Ekallatum, to aide Atamrum, one of Ishme-Dagans rivals, during
despite waging several counter oensives to try to regain Babylons war with Larsa.[12] Later, it is likely that Ishme-
the upper Khabur area. The year-name of the fth year of Dagan I was the king of Ashur when Hammurabi van-
Ibalpiel IIs reign (indicating some reverence to Shamshi- quished her king and occupied Assyrian lands.[5]
Adad I at his passing) suggests that Eshnunna had been
become subservient to the Old Assyrian Empire. Ishme-
Dagan I wrote a letter to his brother, after Ishme-Dagan I 2.11.2 See also
assumes their fathers throne and the rule of all of Upper
Assyrian people
Mesopotamia, that he:
Assyrian continuity
Has the Elamites on a leash as well as their
ally, the king of Eshnunna.[5] List of Assyrian kings

Timeline of the Assyrian Empire


His condence was overstated, however; as year-names of
the eighth and ninth years of King Ibalpiels reign indicate Chronology of the ancient Near East
Eshnunna attacked and destroyed the armies of Ashur and
Mari, and Ishme-Dagan Is control over his fathers entire
realm slipped, as his hold was reduced to the region of 2.11.3 References
Ashur and Ekallatum.
[1] Glassner, Jean-Jacques (2004). Mesopotamian Chroni-
A letter that was purportedly from Ishme-Dagan I, writing cles. Society of Biblical Literature. p. 137. ISBN
to his brother after their father had died, states: 1589830903.
16 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[2] Van De Mieroop, Marc (2004). A History of the Ancient 2.13 Rimush
Near East ca. 3000-323 BC (2nd ed.). Blackwell Publish-
ing. p. 107. ISBN 9781405149112.
Rimush (or Rimu) was the second king of the
Akkadian Empire. He was the son of Sargon of Akkad
[3] Roux, Georges (Aug 27, 1992). Ancient Iraq. Penguin
and Queen Tashlultum. He was succeeded by his brother
Books Limited. ISBN 978-0140125238.
Manishtushu, and was an uncle of Naram-Sin of Akkad.
[4] Hildegard Levy, Assyria c. 2600-1816 B.C., Cambridge According to his inscriptions, he faced widespread re-
Ancient History. Volume 1, Part 2: Early History of the volts, and had to reconquer the cities of Ur, Umma,
Middle East, 729-770, p. 745-746.) Adab, Lagash, Der, and Kazallu from rebellious ensis.
There are also records of victorious campaigns against
[5] The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume II, Part I (Third Elam and Barakhshe. A number of his votive oer-
ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN ings have been found in excavated temples in several
0521082307. Mesopotamian cities.[1]
According to the Sumerian King List, his reign lasted 9
[6] Leilan.yale.edu, Harvey Weiss et al., The genesis and col-
lapse of Third Millennium north Mesopotamian Civiliza-
years (though variant copies read 7 or 15 years.) There
tion, Science, vol. 291, pp. 995-1088, 1993 is one surviving year-name for an unknown year in his
reign: Year in which Adab was destroyed. Tradition
[7] Harvey Weiss, Tell Leilan and Shubat Enlil, Mari, An-
gives that he was assassinated, as the Brtu, art of the
nales de Recherches Interdisciplinaires, vol. 4, pp. 269- diviner, a rst millennium compendium of extispicy,
92, 1985 records Omen of king Rimu, whom his courtiers killed
with their seals.[2] He was succeeded by his elder
[8] Chavalas, Mark W. (2006). The Ancient Near East: His- brother Manishtushu, leading to speculation by Mario
[3]
torical Sources in Translation. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Liverani that the two were twins, as in: man ituu?
p. 95. ISBN 0-631-23581-7. rmu! Who is with him? His beloved!, as apparently
the second born was thought to be the rst conceived.[4]
[9] Some of the Mari letters addressed to Shamsi-Adad by
his son can be found in the Mari Letters section of Shaika
Haya Ali Al Khalifa and Michael Rice (1986). Bahrain
through the Ages. KPI. ISBN 0-7103-0112-X.

[10] Vidal, Jordi (2013). ""Kill Them All!" Some Remarks


on the Annihilation of the Ya'ilanum Tribe. Jour-
nal of the American Oriental Society. 133 (4): 684.
doi:10.7817/jameroriesoci.133.4.0683.
Clay tablet which lists some victo-
ries of Rimush
[11] Sasson, Jack M. (1993). Albright as an Orientalist. The
Biblical Archaeologist. 56 (1): 3. doi:10.2307/3210355.

[12] Van de Mieroop, Marc (2005). King Hammurabi of Baby-


lon (Third ed.). Malden, Ma: Blackwell. pp. 5463.
ISBN 1-4051-2660-4.

Akkadian language
2.11.4 Sources
cuneiform on Murex shell, with name of Rimush,
23rd century BC
2.12 Mut-Ashkur
Mut-Ashkur was the king of Assyria from 1730 BC to
1720 BC. He was the son and successor of Ishme-Dagan.
2.13.1 See also
His father arranged for him to marry the daughter of the
Hurrian king Zaziya.[1] History of Sumer

2.13.2 References
2.12.1 References
[1] Whos Who in the Ancient Near East - Page 137; by Gwen-
[1] Whos who in the ancient Near East By Gwendolyn Leick dolyn Leick
2.17. LIBAYA 17

[2] Ulla Koch-Westenholz (2000). Babylonian Liver Omens: 2.16.1 Biography


The Chapters Manzazu, Padanu, and Pan Takalti of the
Babylonian Extispicy Series Mainly from Assurbanipals He was the son of Adasi, the last of the seven monarchs
Library. Museum Tusculanum. p. 394. who were sons of nobody, i.e. unrelated to previous
kings, and who had competed for the throne over a pe-
[3] Samuel Noah Kramer (2010-09-17). The Sumerians:
Their History, Culture, and Character. University of riod of six years. He was to be revered by later monarchs,
Chicago Press. ISBN 0 226 45238 7. notably Esarhaddon (681 669 BC) but also his second
and third sons Shamash-shum-ukin and Ashurbanipal,
[4] Mario Liverani (2002). Reviewed Work: for restoring stability and founding a dynasty which en-
Mesopotamien. Akkade-Zeit und Ur III-Zeit. Or- dured and where he assumed semi-mythical status as their
bis Biblicus et Orientalis 160/3 by Walther Sallaberger, ancestor gure.[3] Esarhaddon described himself as a
Aage Westenholz, P. Attinger, M. Wer. Archiv fr lasting ospring (liplippi dr) of Belu-bani the son of
Orientforschung. 48/49: 180181. JSTOR 41668552. Adasi, precious scion of Baltil (pir'i BAL.TIL squru).
Baltil, the city of wisdom, was the name of the ancient
precincts of the god Ashu in the innermost part of the
2.14 Asinum city of Assur.[4]
He was succeeded by Libaya, which the Assyrian King
Asinum was an Assyrian king, grandson of Shamshi- List gives as his son, although Landsberger has suggested
Adad I, driven out by vice-regent Puzur-Sin because he that he was in fact his brother.[3]
was of Amorite extraction; not included in the standard
King List, but attested in Puzur-Suens inscription.
2.16.2 References
2.14.1 References [1] K. R. Veenhof (2008). Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian
Period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 24.
Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq [2] A. Leo Oppenheim (1969). Babylonian and Assyrian
Historical Texts. In J. B. Pritchard. Ancient near east-
ern texts. Princeton University Press. p. 565.
2.15 Adasi [3] J. A. Brinkman (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopogra-
phy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II: BG.
Adasi was an Assyrian king, the last in a line of 7 kings The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 288.
designated by the Assyrian King List as usurpers of the
[4] Barbara N. Porter (1994). Images, Power, and Poli-
Assyrian throne, who reigned from 1720 - 1701 BC after
tics: Figurative Aspects of Esarhaddons Babylonian Pol-
the ejection of the Amorite ruled Babylonians from As-
icy. Amer Philosophical Society. p. 122.
syria. He is credited in the Assyrian King List with sta-
bilising Assyria and freeing it from civil war and Amorite
inuence.[1] The Adaside dynasty of Assyria was named
after him. He was succeeded by Bel-bani. 2.17 Libaya
Libaya was a king of Assyria from 1690 - 1674 BC.
2.15.1 References He succeeded Bel-bani in the Adaside Dynasty which
came to the fore after the ejection of the Babylonians and
[1] Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq Amorites from Assyria.[1]
Little is known of his reign, however Assyria appears to
Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq have been a relatively peaceful, secure and stable nation
during this period.[2]

2.16 Bel-bani
2.17.1 References
Bel-bani or Bl-bni, inscribed md EN-ba-ni, the Lord is [1] K. R. Veenhof (2008). Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian
the creator, was the king of Assyria ca. 1700 BC (short Period. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 24.
chronology) and was the rst ruler of what was later to
be called the dynasty of the Adasides.[1] His reign marks [2] Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
the inauguration of a new historical phase following the
turmoil of the competing claims of the seven usurpers Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq K. R. Veenhof (2008).
who preceded him. He was the 48th king to appear on Mesopotamia: The Old Assyrian Period. Vandenhoeck
the Assyrian King List and reigned for ten years.[2] & Ruprecht. p. 24.
18 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.18 Iptar-Sin during a fty-two period, stretching genealogical credi-


bility. All three extant copies give his father as Bel-bani,
Iptar-Sin or IB.TAR.Sn [nb 1]
(reading uncertain), was the second in the sequence, whose reign had ended forty-
the 51st Assyrian king according to the Assyrian King one years earlier and who had been the great-grandfather
[2]
List.[i 1] He reigned for 12 years some time during the 17th of his immediate predecessor. The literal reading of the
century BC. list was challenged by Landsberger who suggested that the
three preceding kings, Libaya, Sharma-Adad I and Iptar-
Sin may have been Bel-bani's brothers.[3]
2.18.1 Biography The Synchronistic Kinglist[i 4] gives his Babylonian coun-
terpart as Peshgaldaramesh of the Sealand Dynasty. He
The Assyrian King List provides a sequence of ve kings was succeeded by Lullaya, a usurper, whose brief reign
with short reigns purported to be father-son successions, was followed by that of Bzius own son, Shu-Ninua.[4]
leading Landsberger to suggest that Labaia, Sharma-
Adad I and Iptar-Sin may have been brothers of Belu-
bani rather than his descendants. It reports him as the son 2.19.2 Inscriptions
of Sharma-Adad I. He is omitted from the list on another
fragment.[i 2][1] He is called LIK.KUD-ama on the Syn- [1] Khorsabad List, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS
chronistic King List [i 3] which gives his Babylonian coun- 32-54), ii 20.
terpart as m DI+U-EN (reading unknown), an unidenti-
[2] SDAS List, IM 60484, ii 18.
ed person inserted between the reigns of Gulkiar and
his son Pegaldarame of the Sealand Dynasty. [3] Nassouhi List, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), ii 15.
He was succeeded by Bazaya, son of Belu-bani. [4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), I 6.

2.18.2 Inscriptions 2.19.3 References


[1] orsbd King List ii 18. [1] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 3031.
[2] KAV 14.
[2] B. Newgrosh (1999). The Chronology of Ancient As-
[3] Synchronistic King List A.117, Assur 14616c, i 5. syria Re-assessed. JACF. 8: 7980.

[3] J. A. Brinkman (1998). Bl-bni. In K. Radner. The


2.18.3 Notes Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1,
Part 2: BG. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p.
m
[1] IB.TAR-d 30. 288.

[4] K. Radner (1998). Bziu. The Prosopography of the


2.18.4 References Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part 2: BG. The Neo-
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 278.
[1] J. A. Brinkman (1999). Dietz Otto Edzard, ed.
Reallexikon Der Assyriologie Und Vorderasiatischen
Archologie: Ia Kizzuwatna. 5. Walter De Gruyter. pp. 2.20 Lullaya
2324.

Lullaia or Lullaya, inscribed in cuneiform phonetically


m
lu-ul-la-a-a,[i 1][i 2] a hypocoristic name, was the 53rd
2.19 Bazaya king of Assyria to be added to the Assyrian King List.
He was a son of a nobody, i.e. unrelated to a previ-
Bazaya, Bzia or Bziu, inscribed m ba-za-a-a and of ous monarch, and reigned six years, from 16211616 BC
uncertain meaning, was the ruler of Assyria rather specu- (middle chronology) or 15991594 BC (short chronol-
latively c. 1649-1622 BC, the 52nd listed on the Assyrian ogy), during a quiet and uneventful period in Asyrian
King List, succeeding Iptar-Sin, to whom he was suppos- history.[1] Reade speculates that he may be identied with
edly a great-uncle. He reigned for twenty-eight years and the earlier king, Ar-dugul, on the basis of their similar
has left no known inscriptions.[1] lengths of reign and lack of royal parentage.[2]

2.19.1 Biography 2.20.1 Biography


The Assyrian king lists[i 1][i 2][i 3] give Bazayas ve pre- He was the last in the sequence of kings omitted from the
decessors as father-son successors, although all reigned dissident Assyrian Kinglist known as KAV 14,[i 3] which
2.22. SHAMSHI-ADAD II 19

otherwise provides the only extant sequence of Shamshi- beginning with []- and Weidner read it as []I- on an-
Adad Is later successors, Mut-Ashkur and Rimush.[3] other fragmentary copy of the kinglist.[i 3] J. A. Brinkman
The Synchronistic Kinglist[i 4] gives his Babylonian coun- observed that with the exception of this disputed inter-
terpart as Ayadaragalama of the Sealand Dynasty.[4] pretation, all transliterations gave , reinforced by the
There are no extant inscriptions from Lullaias or his pre- Synchronistic Kinglist,[i 4] m -ni-nu-a, which had led to
decessors reigns in marked contrast with their Sealand the preponderance for interpreting his name as Shu-Ninua
contemporaries.[1] in recent years,[2] he of Ishtar,[3] if Nina is correctly
He was succeeded by Shu-Ninua, the son of his predeces- identied as a Babylonian name for this deity, although
this remains unproven. A recleaning of the fragmen-
sor, Bazaya, for whom he may have acted as regent until [i 3]
reaching his majority as there is no tradition that Lullaia tary kinglist, however, has revealed a name collated
by Heeel to be [m ki-d]in-d NINUA.[4]
was a usurper.
There are no contemporary inscriptions of his reign.[5]
He is recorded as having been a contemporary of Akurd-
2.20.2 Inscriptions uana of the Sealand Dynasty in southern Babylonia in the
Synchronistic Kinglist,[i 4] rather than any supposed ruler
[1] Khorsabad List, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828, DS from the Kassite dynasty. The Assyrian Kinglist records
32-54), ii 22. that he reigned for fourteen years before being succeeded
[2] SDAS List, IM 60484, ii 19. by his sons, Sharma-Adad II and then Erishum III.

[3] Assyrian Kinglist fragment VAT 9812 = KAV 14: 5.

[4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), I 7.


2.21.2 Inscriptions

[1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS


2.20.3 References 828, DS 32-54). ii 24, 26, 28 and 35,

[1] Stephanie Dalley (2009). Babylonian Tablets from the [2] SDAS Kinglist, tablet IM 60484, ii 20, 21, 22 and 27.
First Sealand Dynasty in the Schoyen Collection. CDL
Press. p. 3. [3] Kinglist fragment VAT 9812 (KAV 14), 6.

[2] Julian Reade (Jan 2001). Assyrian King-Lists, the Royal [4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass. 14616c, i 8.
Tombs of Ur, and Indus Origins. Journal of Near Eastern
Studies. 60 (1): 7. doi:10.1086/468883. JSTOR 545577.

[3] Jean-Jacques Glassner (2005). Mesopotamian Chronicles. 2.21.3 References


Society of Biblical Literature. p. 88.
[1] K. Radner (1999). The Prosopography of the Neo-
[4] A. Leo Oppenheim (1969). Babylonian and Assyrian Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II: BG. The Neo-
Historical Texts. In J. B. Pritchard. Ancient Near East- Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 278.
ern Texts Relating to the Old Testament (ANET). Princeton
University Press. p. 273. [2] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nassouhi
Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition. Orientalia.
42: 318319.
2.21 Shu-Ninua [3] u, CAD 3, p. 160.

Shu-Ninua or - or Kidin-Ninua, inscribed m - [4] Nils P. Heeel (2003). Zur Lesung der Knigsnamens
URU.AB x A,[i 1][i 2] the 54th king to appear on the -URU.NINA. NABU (3): 6061.
Assyrian Kinglist, was the ruler of Assyria, ca. 1615-
1602 BC (short chronology) or 1567-1554 BC (ultra- [5] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni-
short), and was the son of his predecessor-but-one, , cles. J. J. Augustin. pp. 3132.
succeeding the presumed usurper, Lullaya, a son of
nobody.[1]
2.22 Shamshi-Adad II
2.21.1 Biography
Shamshi-Adad II or ami-Adad II, inscribed
The reading of the rst element in his name is uncer- m(d) am-i-d IM, was an Old Assyrian king who ruled in
tain, as Ignace Gelb and Benno Landsberger originally the mid-second millennium, ca. 1585-1580 BC (short
proposed BAR, giving Kidin-Ninua, "[Under] the protec- chronology). His reign falls within the dark age period
tion of Nineveh, while Arno Poebel read the name as of Assyrian history where written records are scarce.
20 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.22.1 Biography 2.23.1 Biography

There are no extant contemporary sources witnessing his He belonged to the so-called Adasi dynasty, founded by
reign. He was the son and successor of Erishum III the last of seven usurpers who succeeded in the turmoil
and ruled for six years (6 MU.ME) according to the following the demise of Shamshi-Adad Is Amorite dy-
Khorsabad[i 1] and the SDAS [i 2] copies of the Assyrian nasty. He is only known from king lists.[1] The relation-
Kinglist, where he appears as the 57th name (the Nas- ship with his successor is uncertain as the copies describe
souhi Kinglist [i 3] is poorly preserved in this part). He was Shamshi-Adad IIIs father as Ishme-Dagan, the brother of
succeeded by his son Ishme-Dagan II.[1] Sharma-Adad II, who was in turn the son of Shu-Ninua.
The Synchronistic Kinglist [i 4] somewhat implausibly gives This Ishme-Dagan, however, has his liation clearly given
eight dierent early Kassite rulers as his contemporaries as son of Shamshi-Adad II. This led Yamada to suggest
although only the rst ve and part of the sixth are leg- that Shamshi-Adad IIIs father was a dierent homony-
ible. These are Agum IGI au, Katil[...]u, Abirata, mous individual from a collateral line of descent from
Katilyau, Tazziguruma, and Harba[...]. Brinkman ar- Shu-Ninua.[2]
gues that this is a stylistic device and points to the previ-
ous reign of Irium III who is shown as contemporary to
Ea-gmil, the last king of the Sealand Dynasty and Gan-
2.23.2 References
da, the rst of the Kassite Dynasty, despite the Chronicle
[1] D. O. Edzard (1999). Im-Dagn II. Reallexikon der
of Early Kings[i 5] recording that Ea-gmil ed ahead of Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archologie, Volume
the army of Ulam-Buria, possibly the 12th Kassite king, 5. Walter de Gruyter. p. 196.
at least a hundred years later.[2]
[2] Heather D. Baker (2008). "ami-Adad III. Reallexikon
der Assyriologie: Prinz, Prinzessin - Samug, Bd. 11. Wal-
2.22.2 Inscriptions ter De Gruyter. p. 636.

[1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS


828, DS 32-54) ii 3031.
2.24 Shamshi-Adad III
[2] SDAS Kinglist, tablet IM 60484, ii 23.
Shamshi-Adad III was the King of Assyria from 1545
[3] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836).
BC to 1529 BC. He was the son of Ishme-Dagan II.
[4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c, KAV 216, i 1118.

[5] Chronicle of Early Kings (ABC 20) BM 96152, tablet B,


rev. 1214.
2.25 Ashur-nirari I
Aur-nrri I, inscribed m a-ur-ERIM.GABA,
2.22.3 References "Aur is my help, was an Old Assyrian king who ruled
for 26 years during the mid-second millennium, spec-
[1] Heather D. Baker (2008). "ami-Adad II. Reallexikon ulatively ca. 15341509 (Landsberger) or 15231499
der Assyriologie: Prinz, Prinzessin - Samug, Bd. 11. Wal- BC (Gasche). He was the 60th king to be listed on
ter De Gruyter. pp. 635636. the Assyrian Kinglist and expanded the titles adopted
by Assyrian rulers to include muddi, restorer of,
[2] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A political history of post-Kassite
Babylonia, 1158-722 B.C. (AnOr. 43). Ponticium Insti-
and bni, builder of, to the traditional epithets ensi,
titum Biblicum. p. 29. governor, and iiak, vice-regent, of Aur.[1]

2.25.1 Biography
2.23 Ishme-Dagan II
He was the son of Ime-Dagn II, and succeeded his
Ishme-Dagan II or Ime-Dagn II, inscribed m i-me brother ami-Adad III to the throne, ruling for twenty
d
da-gan and meaning (the god) Dagan has heard, was six years, an identication that all three Assyrian Kinglists
a rather obscure ruler of Assyria, sometime during the (Khorsabad,[i 1] SDAS [i 2] and Nassouhi[i 3] ) agree on.[2]
rst half of the 16th century BC in the midst of a dark The Synchronistic Kinglist [i 4] gives his Babylonian con-
age (Edzards dunkles Zeitalter), succeeding his father, temporary as Katil[...], possibly identied as Katiliau
Shamshi-Adad II, and in turn succeeded by Shamshi- III, the son and (eventual) successor of Burna-Buriy
Adad III from whose reign extant contemporary inscrip- I, the Kassite kings of Babylon during the period when
tions resume. According to the Assyrian Kinglist, he the dynasty was beginning to exert control over southern
reigned sixteen years. Mesopotamia.
2.27. ENLIL-NASIR I 21

Evidence of his construction activities survives, with 2.27 Enlil-nasir I


four short inscriptions commemorating work building
the temple of Bel-ibria on bricks recovered from an Enlil-nasir I was the king of Assyria from 1479 BC
old ravine, restoring the Abaru forecourt and rebuilding to 1466 BC. In the List of Assyrian kings appears the
the Sn-ama (Moon-god/Sun-god) temple,[3] called the following entry (king # 62): Enlil-nasir, son of Puzur-
.l.l.dir.dir.ra, House of Surpassing Joys, which Ashur(III), ruled for thirteen years.[1] His name is present
would be later restored by Tukulti-Ninurta I and Aur- on two clay cones from Ashur. He is mentioned in the
nir-apli II.[4] He ruled in a peaceful and uneventful pe- Synchronistic King list, but the name of the Babylonian
riod of Assyrian history following the overthrow of the counterpart is illegible.[1]
Babylonians and Amorites by Puzur-Sin c. 1732 BC and
the rise of the Mitanni in the 1450s BC. He was suc-
ceeded by his son Puzur-Aur III. 2.27.1 References
[1] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
2.25.2 Inscriptions ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. p. 36. 224231.

[1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS


828, DS 32-54) ii 36.
2.28 Nur-ili
[2] SDAS Kinglist, tablet IM 60484, ii 28.

[3] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), ii 32. Nur-ili was the king of Assyria from 1466 BC to 1454
BC. He was the son of the king before him, Enlil-nasir I.
[4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c, KAV 216, i 21.

2.25.3 References 2.29 Ashur-shaduni


[1] Barbara Cifola (1995). Analysis of variants in the Assyr-
Aur-addni or -aduni,[1] inscribed m a-ur-KUR--
ian royal titulary from the origins to Tiglath-Pileser III. Is-
tituto universitario orientale. p. 18. ni[i 1] or [m a-ur-K]UR-u-ni[i 2] and meaning (the god)
Aur (is) our mountain,[2] was the ruler of Assyria for
[2] A. Fuchs, K. Radner (1998). Aur-nerari. In K. Rad- just one complete month[3] (1 UTU UD.ME-te[4] ) dur-
ner. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Vol- ing the mid-15th century BC, the 64th to appear on the
ume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. Assyrian King List. He succeeded his father, Nur-ili, but
p. 208.
was ousted in a coup by his uncle, Aur-rabi I.
[3] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 3334.
2.29.1 Biography
[4] A. R. George (1993). House Most High: The Temples of
Ancient Mesopotamia. Eisenbrauns. p. 100.
There remains uncertainty concerning the dating of his
accession, as the two subsequent Assyrian kings have
unknown reign lengths, eectively disconnecting him
2.26 Puzur-Ashur III and his predecessors from the rmer chronology of the
later Assyrian King List.[5] Although there are no ex-
Puzur-Ashur III was the king of Assyria from 1503 BC tant contemporary inscriptions for him or his immedi-
to 1479 BC. According to the Assyrian King List, he was ate predecessor or successors, his name appears on two
the son and successor of Ashur-nirari I and ruled for 24 of the Assyrian King Lists (Khorsabad and SDAS) and
years. He is also the rst Assyrian king to appear in the faintly at the end of the rst column of the Synchronis-
synchronistic history, where he is described as a contem- tic Kinglist,[i 3] level with where one of the successors to
porary of Burnaburiash of Babylon.[1] A few of his build- Kassite Babylonian king Katiliau III might be supposed
ing inscriptions were found at Assur. He rebuilt part of to appear.[3]
the temple of Ishtar in his capital, Ashur, and the southern The King lists describe his overthrow: ina GI.GU.ZA
parts of the city wall.[2] -at-bi GI.GU.ZA i-bat, "(Aur-addni) from the
throne, he deposed, the throne he (Aur-rabi) seized.[4]
2.26.1 References
[1] Whos who in the ancient Near East By Gwendolyn Leick 2.29.2 Inscriptions
[2] The Cambridge Ancient History edited, by I. E. S. Ed- [1] Khorsabad Kinglist tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS
wards, C. J. Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond, E. Sollberger 828, DS 32-54), ii 43.
22 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[2] SDAS Kinglist, tablet IM 60484, ii 32. 2.32 Enlil-Nasir II


[3] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), i 25'.
Enlil-Nasir II was the king of Assyria from 1420 BC to
1414 BC. The brother of Ashur-nadin-ahhe I, he seized
2.29.3 References the throne in a successful coup.

[1] ad q CAD 1 p. 58.


2.32.1 References
[2] E. Frahm (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography of
the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo- James B. Pritchard (30 March 2016). Ancient Near
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 215. Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament with Sup-
[3] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- plement. Princeton University Press. pp. 565.
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 3738. ISBN 978-1-4008-8276-2.

[4] I. J. Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. Journal of


Near Eastern Studies. 13 (4): 212, 226.
2.33 Ashur-nirari II
[5] Margaret S. Drower (1973). Syria, c. 15501400 BC.
In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. G. L. Hammond; Aur-nrr II, inscribed m a-ur-ERIM.GABA
E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 2, (=D), "(the god) Aur is my help,[1] was the king
Part 1: The Middle East and the Aegean Region, c.1800-
of Assyria, the 68th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist,
1380 BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 443.
ca. 14241418 BC or 14141408 BC depending on a
later uncertainty in the chronology, at the tail end of the
Old Assyrian period. The small city state of Aur was
2.30 Ashur-rabi I a vassal state of the Mitanni empire at this time and still
recovering from their sacking of the city under autatar.
Ashur-rabi I was the King of Assyria from 1453 BC to
1435 BC. The son of the former king Enlil-nasir I, he
seized the throne after a successful coup against Ashur- 2.33.1 Biography
shaduni, who had been the king for only one month.[1]
He was the son of IIlil-nir II, who had preceded him
on the Assyrian throne. According to the Khorsabad
2.30.1 References Kinglist [i 1] he reigned for seven years, the correspond-
ing columns on the Nassouhi and SDAS Kinglists are
[1] Whos Who in the Ancient Near East, by Gwendolyn Le- damaged at this point.[2] A legal text[i 2] from Aur is
ick dated to the Eponym of Ber-ndin-ae, son of Aur-
nrr, supreme judge and another[i 3] gives the witness
ama-kidinnu, son of Ibai-ilu, son of Ber-ndin-ae,
2.31 Ashur-nadin-ahhe I supreme judge. The title and genealogy suggest Ber-
ndin-ae may have been an otherwise unattested suc-
cessor to Aur-nrr.[3]
Ashur-nadin-ahhe I was the king of Assyria from 1435
BC to 1420 BC. He took power after the death of his He was succeeded by his son, Aur-bl-nieu.
father, Ashur-rabi I. During his reign, Assyria became a
sporadic vassal of Mitanni. After a 15-year rule, he was
overthrown by his brother Enlil-Nasir II.[1] 2.33.2 Inscriptions
A letter survives from him congratulating Egyptian [1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS
Pharaoh Thutmose II on his victories in Palestine and 828, DS 32-54), iii 3.
Syria.[2]
[2] KAJ 174.

2.31.1 References [3] KAJ 8.

[1] Gwendolyn Leick (31 January 2002). Whos Who in the


Ancient Near East. Routledge. pp. 29. ISBN 978-1- 2.33.3 References
134-78796-8.
[1] A. Fuchs, K. Radner (1998). Aur-nrr II. In K. Rad-
[2] Stephen Bertman (14 July 2005). Handbook to Life in An- ner. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Vol-
cient Mesopotamia. OUP USA. pp. 79. ISBN 978-0-19- ume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project.
518364-1. p. 208.
2.35. ASHUR-RIM-NISHESHU 23

[2] I. J.Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. ate successor, Aur-rim-niu, as his son, but Aur-
Journal of Near Eastern Studies. XIII (4): 217. rim-nius own contemporary inscription[i 6] names
doi:10.1086/371224. his father as Aur-nrr II, suggesting that he may have
[3] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
been a brother of Ar-bl-nu. The confusion is
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. p. 37. further compounded with the Khorsabad Kinglist [i 3] and
the SDAS Kinglist [i 4] identifying Eriba-Adad I, who as-
cended the throne eighteen years later, as his son[3]:209
while the Nassouhi copy[i 2] identies him as the son of
2.34 Ashur-bel-nisheshu Aur-rim-niu.[5]

2.34.2 Inscriptions
[1] Cone VAT 7442, rst published KAH 2 no. 22 (1922).

[2] Nassouhi King List, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iii 11


12.

[3] Khorsabad King List, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828,


DS 32-54), iii 56.

[4] SDAS King List, tablet IM 60484, ii 38.

[5] Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), tablet K4401a, i 14.

[6] Cone VAT? 2764, rst published KAH 1 no. 63 (1911).


Schroeders line art for one of Ar-bl-nus memorial
cones.[i 1]
2.34.3 References
Ar-bl-nu, inscribed md a-ur-EN-UN.ME--
,[i 2][i 3][i 4] and meaning (the god) Aur (is) lord of his [1] K. kerman (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography
of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-
people,[1] was the ruler of Assyria from 14171409 BC
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 171.
or 14071398 BC (short chronology), the variants due to
uncertainties in the later chronology. He succeeded his [2] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
father, Aur-nrr II, to the throne and is best known ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. p. 38. 236240.
for his treaty with Kassite king Karainda.
[3] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni-
cles. J. J. Augustin. pp. 158, 209.
2.34.1 Biography
[4] C. J. Gadd (1975). XVIII: Assyria and Babylon, 1370
As was the practice during this period of the Assyr- 1300 B.C.. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. G. L.
ian monarchy, he modestly titled himself vice-regent, Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient His-
or ii'ak Aur, of the god Ashur.[2] The Synchronis- tory, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the
Aegean Region, 1380 1000 BC. Cambridge University
tic Chronicle[i 5] records his apparently amicable terri-
Press. pp. 3839.
torial treaty with Karainda, king of Babylon, and re-
counts that they took an oath together concerning this [5] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nasouhi
very boundary.[3]:158 His numerous clay cone inscrip- Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition. Orientalia.
tions (line art for an example pictured) celebrate his re- 42: 312.
facing of Puzur-Aur IIIs wall of the New City district
of Assur.[2]
Contemporary legal documents detail sales of land, 2.35 Ashur-rim-nisheshu
houses, and slaves and payment in lead. The Assyrian
credit system was fairly sophisticated, with loans issued Aur-rim-niu, inscribed md a-ur-G-UN.ME-
for commodities such as barley and lead, interest coming u, meaning (the god) Aur loves his people,[1] was
due when repayment way delayed. The security posted ruler of Assyria, or iiak Aur, vice-regent of Aur,
for loans could include property, the person of the debtor written in Sumerian: PA.TE.SI (=NSI), c. 14081401
or indeed his children.[4] BC or c. 13981391 BC (short chronology), the 70th to
There is a discrepancy in the data about his son and even- be listed on the Assyrian King List. He is best known for
tual successor. The Assyrian King List gives his immedi- his reconstruction of the inner city wall of Aur.
24 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[2] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nasouhi


Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition. Orientalia.
42: 312.

[3] B. Newgrosh (1999). The Chronology of Ancient As-


syria Re-assessed. JAVF. 8: 80.

[4] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-


ume I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 3940.

[5] Hildegard Lewy (1966). The Cambridge Ancient History:


Assyria c.2600-1816 B.C. p. 21.

[6] L. Messerschmidt (1911). Keilschrifttexte aus Assur His-


Messerschmidts line art for Aur-rim-nius memorial torischen Inhalts, Erstes Heft. VDOG. p. xii.
cone.[i 1]

2.35.1 Biography 2.36 Ashur-nadin-ahhe II


All three extant Assyrian Kinglists[i 2][i 3][i 4] give his l-
iation as son of Aur-bl-niu, the monarch who Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (Aur-ndin-ahh II) was king of
immediately preceded him, but this is contradicted by Assyria from 1393 to 1383 BC. Preceded by Ashur-rim-
the sole extant contemporary inscription, a cone giv- nisheshu, he is considered to be the last king of the Old
ing a dedicatory inscription for the reconstruction of the Assyrian Period. He was succeeded by his brother, Eriba-
wall of the inner city of Aur, which gives his father Adad I, the rst king of the Middle Assyrian period.[1]
as Aur-nrr II (written phonetically on the third line Ashur-nadin-ahhe is an Assyrian personal name meaning
of the illustration),[2] the same as his predecessor who the god Ashur has given a brother in the Akkadian lan-
was presumably therefore his brother. With Ber-ndin- guage. Two Assyrian kings ruling in the 15th or early
ae, another son of Aur-nrr who was given the title 14th century BC were called Ashur-nadin-ahhe. Hardly
supreme judge, it seems he may have been the third of anything is known about these kings, but one of them is
Aur-nrr's sons to rule.[3] mentioned in one of the Amarna letters. In the letter from
The cone identies the previous restorers as Kikkia (c. king Ashur-uballit of Assyria to the Pharaoh of Egypt,
2000 BC), Ikunum (18671860 BC), Sargon I (1859 BC numbered EA 16, Ashur-nadin-ahhe is referred to as his
?), Puzur-Aur II, and Aur-nrri I (15471522 BC) ancestor who wrote to Egypt and received gold in return.
the son of Ishme-Dagan II (15791562 BC).[4] The ref- This would imply an earlier diplomatic marriage and al-
erence to Kikkias original fortication of the city is re- liance between Assyria and Egypt during his reign. The
peated in one of the later kings, Salmnu-aard III, own name Ashur-nadin-ahhe mentioned in EA 16 has recently
inscriptions.[5] It was recovered from an old adobe wall been contested as a faulty writing of Ashur-nadin-apli,
three meters from the northern edge of the ziggurat.[6] another Assyrian king.[1]
He was succeeded by his son, Aur-nadin-a II.
2.36.1 See also
2.35.2 Inscriptions
Kings of Assyria
[1] Cone VAT? 2764, rst published KAH 1 no. 63 (1911).

[2] Khorsabad Kinglist iii 7. 2.36.2 References


[3] SDAS Kinglist iii 1.
[1] Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (king of Assyria) -- Britannica On-
line Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-11-
[4] Nassouhi Kinglist iii 11.
24.

2.35.3 References
2.36.3 External links
[1] K. Radner (1998). The Prosopography of the Neo-
Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Ashur-nadin-ahhe II (king of Assyria) -- Britannica
Text Corpus Project. p. 209. Online Encyclopedia
2.38. ASHUR-UBALLIT I 25

2.37 Eriba-Adad I 2.37.2 Inscriptions


[1] Bricks Ass. 16315 and Ass. 17991.
Eriba-Adad, inscribed m SU-d IM or m SU-d 10 ("[the god]
Adad has replaced), was king of Assyria from 1392 BC [2] Khorsabad king list, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828,
to 1366 BC. His father had been the earlier king Aur- DS 32-54).
bel-nieu, an aliation attested in brick inscriptions,[i 1]
king-lists[i 2][i 3] and a tablet[i 4][1] although a single king [3] SDAS King list, IM 60484,
list[i 5] gives his father as Aur-rim-niu, probably in
[4] Tablet VAT 9836, copy of a cone inscription commemo-
error.[2] He succeeded his nephew, Aur-ndin-ae II, rating building work.
being succeeded himself by the rather more prominent
king Aur-uballi I, who was his son. He was the 72nd [5] Nassouhi king list, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836),
on the Assyrian King List and ruled for 27 years, his reign
being generally considered the start of the middle Assyr- [6] Tablet VAT 9009, Ass. 14446t.
ian period.
[7] Tablet VAT 8804 = KAJ 153.

2.37.3 References
2.37.1 Biography
[1] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
ume I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 4042.
The circumstances surrounding his accession are
unknown, although most nephew-uncle successions [2] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nasouhi
recorded in Assyrian history were bloody aairs. He Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition. Orientalia.
styled himself regent of Enlil, the rst Assyrian 42: 312.
monarch to do so since ami-Adad I. His uninscribed
royal seal shows a heraldic group which includes two [3] Hans J. Nissen; Peter Heine (2009). From Mesopotamia
winged grin-demons anking a small tree and sup- to Iraq: A Concise History. University Of Chicago Press.
porting a winged sun-disc above their wings and a pp. 8586.
double-headed grin-demon holding two grin-demons [4] Joan Aruz; Kim Benzel; Jean M. Evans (2008). Beyond
by their ankles, a radical departure from the earlier Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millen-
style, which was to set a precedent for the later Assyrian nium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 211.
glyptic.[3] It was found impressed into middle Assyrian
contract tablets.[i 6][i 7][4] [5] H. Lewy. Assyria c. 26001816 B. C. Cambridge Univer-
sity Press. p. 16.
He probably began his reign overshadowed by the power-
ful Mitanni. However, the Mitanni Empire became en- [6] Friedhelm Pedde (2012). The Assyrian Heartland. In
tangled in a dynastic battle between Tushratta and his D. T. Potts. A Companion to the Archaeology of the An-
brother Artatama II, and after this, his son Shuttarna III, cient Near East. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 854.
who called himself king of the Hurri, while seeking sup-
port from the Assyrians. A pro-Assur faction appeared [7] P. Talon (1998). Eriba-Adad. In K. Radner. The Proso-
at the royal Mitanni court, which enabled Assyria to - pography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II:
nally break Mitanni inuence upon Assyria, and in turn A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 400.
make Assyria an inuence on Mitanni. His son and suc-
cessor Ashur-uballi I would take full advantage of this
and destroy the Mitanni Empire. 2.38 Ashur-uballit I
Several of the Limmu ocials, the noblemen from which
the Assyrian Eponym dating system was derived, are Ashur-uballit I (Aur-uballi I), who reigned between
known for this period as they date commercial records, 1365 and 1330 BC, was the rst king of the Middle As-
but relatively few can be assigned directly to Eriba-Adads syrian Empire (13651050 BC). After his father Eriba-
reign rather than that of his successor. One ocial might Adad I (1392-1366 BC) had broken Mitanni inuence
be Aur-muttakil, (the governor of Qabra, a fortress on over Assyria, Ashur-uballit Is defeat of the Mitanni king
the lesser Zab), who inherited his position from his fa- Shuttarna II marks Assyrias ascendancy over the Hurri-
ther Aur-dayyn and bequeathed it to his son.[5] Eriba- Mitanni Empire, and the beginning of its emergence as
Adad Is stela was the earliest of the stelae identied in the a powerful empire. Later on, due to disorder in Babylo-
Stelenriehe, row of stelae, the two rows of stone mon- nia following the death of the Kassite king Burnaburiash
uments uncovered in Aur.[6] The later Assyrian king, II, Ashur-uballit established Kurigalzu II on the Babylo-
Ninurta-apal-Ekur, son of Il-pad, was to claim descent nian throne, in the rst of what would become a series of
from him in his inscriptions.[7] Assyrian interventions in Babylonian aairs.
26 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.38.1 Amarna letters [2] J. Oates Babylon, 2003, pp 9192

From the Amarna letters, a series of diplomatic letters [3] Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
from various Middle Eastern monarchs to Amenhotep III
and Akhenaten of Egypt, we nd two letters from Ashur-
uballit I, the second being a follow-up letter to the rst. 2.38.5 External links
In the letters, Ashur-uballit refers to his second prede-
cessor Ashur-nadin-ahhe II as his father or ancestor, 2 Letters by Assur-uballit I to Pharaoh, EA 15, EA
rather than his actual father, Eriba-Adad I, which has led 16.
some critics of conventional Egyptian chronology, such as
David Rohl, to claim that the Ashur-uballit of the Amarna
letters was not the same as Ashur-uballit I. This, however, 2.39 Enlil-nirari
ignores the fact that monarchs in the Amarna letters fre-
quently refer to predecessors as their father, even if they Enlil-nirari (Enlil is my helper)[1] was King of Assyria
were not their biological sons. In this case, Ashur-uballit from 1330 BC to 1319 BC, (or from 1317 BC to 1308
presumably referred to Ashur-nadin-ahhe because the lat- BC short chronology) during the Middle Assyrian Empire
ter, unlike Eriba-Adad I, had previously corresponded (1365 - 1050 BC). He was the son of Aur-uballi I.[2]
with the Egyptian court. He was apparently the earliest king to have been identied
as having held eponym, or limmu, oce.[3]
2.38.2 Babylonian wars
2.39.1 Biography
With Assyrian power rmly established, Ashur-uballit
started to make contacts with other great nations. His He recorded on clay cones his repairs to a dilapidated
messages to the Egyptians angered his Babylonian neigh- stretch of the wall from the Craftsmans Gate to the Sheep
bour Burnaburiash II, who himself wrote to the Pharaoh: Gate around his capital, the city of Assur, now the tell-site
with regard to my Assyrian vassals, it was not I who sent of Qalat Shergat which lies beside the Tigris. He prof-
them to you. Why did they go to your country without fered a prayer that future restorations would preserve his
proper authority? If you are loyal to me they will not ne- inscriptions.[4]
gotiate any business. Send them to me empty-handed![1]
His sister, Muballiat-ra, was married to the Kassite
Yet the new Assyrian power could not be denied, and king Burna-Buria II, and his nephews, Kara-arda and
Burnaburiash even married the daughter of the Assyrian Kurigalzu would succeed to the Babylonian throne, sep-
king. He was succeeded by his son from the Assyrian arated by a short-lived revolt which was put down by
wife, prince Kara-hardash, but a revolt soon broke out Aur-uballi and the Assyrian army.[5] Around this time,
that showed the unpopularity of the Assyrians. Asshur- there is evidence of the exchange of gifts of textiles and
uballit would not allow his grandson to be cast aside, votive ornaments between the Kassite and Assyrian ruling
and duly invaded Babylon. Because Kara-Hardash was classes.[6]
killed in the rebellion, the Assyrians placed on the Baby-
lonian throne a certain Kurigalzu, who may have been Despite their earlier close ties, he fought against Kuri-
Burnaburiashs son or grandson. But this new puppet galzu, who grew to become one of the mightiest and most
king did not remain loyal to his master, and soon invaded belligerent kings of the Kassite dynasty, in the battle of
Assyria. Ashur-uballit stopped the Babylonian army at Sugagu to establish the boundary between both states.
Sugagu, not far south from the capital Assur.[2] The two extant chronicles which record the battle pro-
vide contradictory accounts of the outcome.[7] The As-
However, Ashur-uballit I then counterattacked, and in- syrian version describes the division of land from Shasili
vaded Babylonia, appropriating hitherto Babylonian ter- of Subartu, which was a region thought to be northeast of
ritory in central Mesopotamia, and forcing a treaty in As- Assyria and possibly their vassal during this time. A sec-
syrias favour upon Karigalzu.[3] ond battle may have taken place at Kilizi as recorded on
a poorly preserved chronicle fragment,[8] possibly dated
to the limmu-year of Silli-Adad.[9] This was a provincial
2.38.3 See also town in Qasr Shamamok not far from modern Mosul.[10]
Amarna letter EA 15 He had left very specic instructions in the event of a
death in the royal family. If the passing took place when
he was a few hours travel away, a sealed message should
2.38.4 References be sent, but if he was more distant, the wives of the palace
were to mourn as prearranged and no message was neces-
[1] M. van de Mieroop A history of the ancient near east, sary. A warning was given to those who might be tempted
2006, pp. 127128 to spread the news without the assent of the head-steward,
2.40. ARIK-DEN-ILI 27

risking a no longer legible part of their anatomy (tongue?) goats and a hundred head of their cattle [...] he brought
to be amputated.[4] to Aur.[3]
Arik-den-ilis rst victories were against his eastern
neighbours (the Pre-Iranic inhabitants of what was to be-
2.39.2 References
come Persia), Turukku and Nigimhi, and all the chiefs of
[1] Samuel Henry Hooke (1953). Babylonian and Assyrian the (Zagros) mountains and highlands in the broad tracts
religion. Hutchinsons University Library. p. 25. of the Gutians to subdue the nomadic tribes on Assyrias
northern and eastern frontiers. The Gutians had been vas-
[2] Assyrian King List, number 74, Enlil-nirari, son of Aur- sals of the Kassites who ruled in Babylon and may have
uballi, ruled for 10 years. acted as their agents.[4] Nigimhis ruler was Esini. The
[3] I. E. S. Edwards; et al., eds. (1970). Chronology. The
Assyrians had invaded and carried o their harvest and in
Cambridge Ancient History Volume 1, Part 1: Prolegom- retaliation Esini led a force into Assyria which resulted in
ena and Prehistory. Cambridge University Press. p. 194. a massacre of his forces. Arik-den-ili besieged the town
of Arnuna, in which Esini was holed up. Destruction of
[4] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- the gate and walls forced Esinis capitulation and so he
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 5154. swore allegiance to his Assyrian overlord.[5]
[5] J. A. Brinkman (1976). The Chronicle Tradition Con- The chronicle then lists Habaruha, Kutila, Tarbiu,
cerning the Deposing of the Grandson of Aur-uballi I. Kudina, Remaku and Nagabbilhi. Of these only Tarbiu
Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I. Oriental is known, a town a short distance from Nineveh. The res-
Institute of the University of Chicago. pp. 418423. idents of Halahhu seem to have borne the brunt of his
[6] Tablets CBS 3235, CBS 3776 and BE XVII 91. wrath as he claimed to have killed 254,000 of them,[3] a
fairly preposterous boast even for the period. He then
[7] The Assyrian Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), tablet A, turned westward into The Levant (modern Syria and
obverse, lines 18 to 23 and the Babylonian Chronicle P Lebanon), where he subjugated the Suteans, the Alam
(ABC 22), tablet BM 92701, column 3, lines 20 to 22. and the Yauru, the nomadic West Semitic tribesmen who
would become the Arameans, in the region of Katmui
[8] VAT 13056, the name Kizili appears on lines 2, 6 and 7
of the 10 line obverse of this tablet. in the middle Euphrates.[5]
But his activities were not limited to warfare. The temple
[9] Jean-Jacques Glassner (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles.
of ama at Aur, as a mud-brick construction, had de-
Society of Biblical Literature. p. 185. note the name is
distinct but the context is not.
cayed into a mound of dirt surrounded by ad hoc shrines.
In order that the harvest of my land might prosper, he
[10] Simo Parpola (2009). Letters from Assyrian Scholars to had them cleared and rebuilt the temple, laying its foun-
the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal: Commentary dation during the eponym year of Berutu, a son of the
and Appendix No. 2. Eisenbrauns. p. 86. earlier king Eriba-Adad I. His own son credited him with
the construction of the great Ziggurat of Aur in one of
his own building dedications.[5]
2.40 Arik-den-ili Like his father, Enlil-nirari, before him he had to battle
inconclusively against Babylonia, in this case against king
Arik-den-ili, inscribed m GD-DI-DINGIR, long- Nazi-Marutta. His son was to recall my father could not
lasting is the judgment of god,[1] (1319 BC1308 BC or rectify the calamities inicted by the army of the king of
1307 BC1296 BC) (short chronology) was an Assyrian the Kassite land in a contemporary Assyrian epic.[4] That
king of the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366- 1050 BC) dispute was nally resolved with his son, Adad-nirari Is
who succeeded Enlil-nirari, his father, and was to rule victory over the Babylonians.
for twelve years and inaugurate the tradition of annual
military campaigns against Assyrias neighbors.

2.40.2 Inscriptions
2.40.1 Biography
md
[1] Nassouhi list, iii 2223: Adad-nrr mr Arik2 -de-
The sources are slim for his reign, less than ten inscrip- en-[ili].
tions, a fragmentary chronicle and references to his af-
fairs in those of his son[i 1] or perhaps brother,[i 2][i 3] md
Adad-nirari Is accounts. He seems to have been the rst [2] Khorsabad list, iii 1624: Adad-nrr au- a
m
of the Assyrian kings to have institutionalized the con- Arik2 -dn2 -ili.
duct of annual military campaigns,[2] some of which ap-
pear to be little more than livestock-rustling expeditions, [3] SDAS list, iii 1718: md
Adad-nrr au- a m Arik2 -
as the chronicle mentions a hundred head of sheep and dn2 -ili.
28 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.40.3 References of Nazi-Marutta Kassite forces must have been partic-


ularly sweet as his father could not rectify the calami-
[1] K. Fabritius (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography ties inicted by the king of the Kassite lands, during
of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The Neo- his reign.[4] It took place at the town of Kr Itar in the
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. pp. 131132. province of Ugarsulu and victory was assured when Adad
Niraris army fell on the Kassite camp like a devastat-
[2] A. Leo Oppenheim (1964). Ancient Mesopotamia: por-
ing ood, as described gloatingly by Tukulti-Ninurta I in
trait of a dead civilization. University of Chicago Press.
his eponymous epic,[i 5] plundering and carrying o his
[3] Jean-Jacques Glassner (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles. royal standard.[i 6] This triumph resulted in a border re-
Brill. p. 185. alignment with Assyria extending its territory south, into
Pilasqu, the city of Arman in Ugarsallu and Lullumu.
[4] I. E. S. Edwards, ed. (1975). Cambridge Ancient His-
tory, Volume 2, Part 2, History of the Middle East and the
Nazi-Marutta successor, Kadaman-Turgu was su-
Aegean Region, c. 1380-1000 BC. Cambridge University ciently motivated to secure peace that he seems to have
Press. pp. 32, 275. agreed to a humiliating treaty with Adad Nirari where
he pardoned his (Nazi-Marutta) son of the crime,
[5] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- twice.[i 7] This allowed the Assyrians to turn their atten-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 5457, 58, 67. tion to the conquest of the Mitanni. Under Shattiwaza,
Hanigalbat had become a vassal state of the Hittite em-
pire, celebrated with a treaty, as a buer to the ascendant
2.41 Adad-nirari I Assyrians. But treaties were between individual kings
during the late bronze age as nation states had yet to
emerge and with the accession of Shattuara I in Hani-
galbat and Urhi Teup as Mursili III of the Hittites and
a waning of Hittite engagement in international aairs,
the former may have sought to adopt a more indepen-
dent position. According to Adad-nrr, conict was
triggered by Shattuaras preemptive attack which resulted
in the defeat and capture of the Mitanni king, who was
taken to Aur and forced to swear fealty as a vassal of
the Assyrians,[i 8] apparently without the intervention of
the Hittites, providing regular tribute for the remainder of
his reign. Bolstered by his military victories, Adad-nrr
pronounced himself ar kiati, king of the universe,
Axe blade with the name Adad-nrr I: Kassite period.[i 1] in the in imitation of his ancient predecessor Shamshi-Adad I,
Louvre. and impertinently greeted his Hittite counterpart on equal
terms as a fellow great king. He invited himself to visit
Adad-nrr I, rendered in all but two inscriptions ideo- Amman Mountain (Amanus, a cult center perhaps?) in
graphically as md adad-ZAB+DA, meaning Adad (is) his brothers territory,[5] drawing a scathing put down
my helper,[1] (13071275 BC or 1295 - 1263 BC short from Urhi Teup,
chronology) was a king of Assyria during the Middle As-
syrian Empire. He is the earliest Assyrian king whose an- So youve become a Great King, have
nals survive in any detail. Adad-nrr I achieved major you? But why do you still continue to speak
military victories that further strengthened Assyria. In his about brotherhood and about coming to
inscriptions from Assur [2] he calls himself son of Arik- Mt. Ammana?... For what reason should I
den-ili, the same liations is recorded in the Nassouhi call you brother?Do those who are not
kinglist.[i 2] He recorded as a son of lIlil-nerari in the on familiar terms with each other call each
Khorsabad kinglist[i 3] and the SDAS kinglist,[i 4] prob- other brother? Why then should I call you
ably in error. brother? Were you and I born of the same
mother? As my grandfather and my father
did not call the King of Assyria brother,
2.41.1 Biography you should not keep writing to me (about)
coming and Great King-ship. It displeases
He boasted that he was the defeater of the heroic armies me.
of the Kassites (their Babylonian neighbors to the south), Urhi Teup, Tablet KUB 23:102, obverse
Qutu (their eastern Gutean neighbors), Lullumu (the column I lines 1 to 19, edited.[i 9][6]
Lullubi tribesmen of Ancient Iran immediately east of
Assyria) and Shubaru (northerners in Asia Minor).[3]
Pacier of all enemies above and below.[2] The defeat By the time Hattuili overthrew Urhi Teup, the con-
2.41. ADAD-NIRARI I 29

quest was a fait accompli and a sheepish Hattuili was restorations in the city of Assur were celebrated in
to request that Adad-nrr intervene to curb the incur- monumental inscriptions and include the Step Gate of
sions of the people of Turira, a Hanigalbat frontier town, the temple of the god Ashur, various of the citys walls,
against those of Carchemish, still a loyal Hittite vassal, If its quay along the river Tigris, the temple of Ishtar and
Turira is yours, smash it!...If Turira is not yours, write the storehouses of the gate of An and Adad.[2]
to me so that I may smash it. The possessions of your His reign lasted for 33 years, but only around 12 Limmu
troops who are dwelling in the city shall not be claimed. ocials, from the Assyrian Eponym dating system have
Hattuilis main complaint, however, was the breach in been identied, primarily from monumental inscrip-
protocol caused when Adad-nrr snubbed his inaugu-
tions, and these include Shulmanu-qarradu, Andarasina,
ration: It is the custom that when kings assume king- Ashur-eresh, variant Ashur-erish (son of Abattu), Ana-
ship, the kings, his equals in rank, send him appropriate
Ashur-qalla (ocer of the palace), Iti-ili-ashamshu, Sha-
[gifts of greeting]. Clothing betting kingship, and ne Adad-ninu, Qarrad-Ashur,[2] Assur-dammiq,[i 12] Sin-
[oil] for his anointing. But you did not do this today. He
n[a.],[i 13] Ninurta-emuqaya,[i 14] Bbu-aa-iddina and
was at great pains to placate his Assyrian counterpart fol- Adad-umu-lesir, the eponym in whose year he died.
lowing the sad experiences encountered by his envoys
Bbu-aa-iddina was a high-ranking ocial, some
in their dealings with his predecessor and call on Adad- sources say chancellor, son of Ibassi-ili, who served un-
nrr to conrm with his own envoy, Bel-qarrad, that he der Adad-nrr and his two successors. He celebrated
had been treated well by Hattuili. Although still in the his eponym year towards the end of Adad-nrrs reign
Bronze Age, iron was not unknown and Hattuili goes on as attested in texts relating the activities of Assur-kasid
to discuss Adad-nrrs request for the metal: son of Sin-apla-eris at Billa. His archive, called archive
14410, consisting of 60 tablets was found in a tomb un-
In regard to the good iron about which der a house in Assur.[7]
you wrote to me good iron is not available in
my armory in the city of Kizzuwatna. I have A bronze sword of Adad-nrr I can be seen in the
written that it is a bad time for making iron. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
They will make good iron, but they have not
yet nished it. When they nish it, I will send The Adad-nrr epic
it to you. For the moment, I have sent you a
dagger blade of iron. This historical epic is extant in four fragments[i 15] and
Hattuili, Tablet KBo I:14, lines 20 to concerns the conict between Adad-nrr and his Baby-
24.[i 10] lonian contemporary Nazi-Maruttash, with whom he
clashes and ultimately vanquishes in battle. The surviving
pieces do not allow for a detailed narrative to be recon-
Conict with Hanigalbat resumed when Shattuaras son, structed. They do, however, suggest a sequence of events,
Wasashatta, rebelled and engaged with the Hittites for where Adad-nrr harks back to the setbacks faced by
support. Adad-nrr was later to gloat that the Hit- his father, the seed of the men has disappeared forever,
tites took his gifts but gave nothing in return when he his petitioning of the god ama, O ama you are the
counterattacked, sacking and plundering the cities of true judge, in preparation for his denouement with the
Amasaku, Kahat, Shuru, Nabula, Hurra, Irridu, Shuduhu unjust Kassite king, and so on.
and Washshukanu,[i 8] places largely as yet unidentied,
destroying the city of Taida and sowing kudimmus over
it.[nb 1] The denouement took place at Irridu (Ordi?) 2.41.2 Inscriptions
where he was captured and, along with his extended fam-
ily and court, deported in fetters to Aur where he van- [1] Axe blade, AO 29146.
ished from history. Adad-nrr annexed the kingdom of
[2] Nassouhi kinglist, iii 23.
Hanigalbat, enslaved its people,[nb 2] and appointed a gov-
ernor drawn from the Assyrian aristocracy. While the [3] Khorsabad kinglist iii 17.
name of this individual is unknown, one of his succes-
[4] SDAS kinglist, iii 8.
sors, during the later reign of ulmanu-aaredu, was Qibi
Assur who founded a short dynasty of Assyrian viceroys [5] Tukulti-Ninurta Epic, extant in several fragments, for
ruling over this region. example BM 98496, BM 98730, BM 98731 and BM
121033 in the British Museum.
The seat of Assyrian governance was possibly
Wasashattas former capital, Taida, because his monu- [6] Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21) tablet C, column 1, lines
mental steles recounted that it had become dilapidated 24 to 31.
and (he) removed its debris. (He) restored it,[i 11]
[7] Tablet VAT 15420.
rebuilding the palace replete with a suitably boastful
commemorative inscription prepared but never installed [8] BM 115687 dark grey stone in the British Museum, in-
as it was found in the ruins of Assur. His building scribed on all six sides.
30 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[9] Tablet 7499, text KUB 23:102, Urhi Teup letter to


Adad-nrr, see Bryce (2003), p. 87 note 21 for sum-
mary of provenance.

[10] Tablet KBo I:14 Hattuili letter to Adad-Nirari.

[11] Assur 5764 and 9309.

[12] Tablet KAJ 262, Urad-serua #23 corn loan.

[13] Tablet KAJ 77, Urad-serua #53 corn loan.

[14] Tablet KAJ 76, Urad-serua #11 corn loan.

[15] Tablets Rm 293, in the Rassum siglum in the British Mu-


seum and VAT 10084, VAT 9820 and VAT 10889 in the
Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin.

2.41.3 Notes
[1] The kudimmu plant, which exuded a kind of salt or lye,
was planted on ruins to symbolically pronounce them bar-
ren and uninhabitable.

[2] Imposing the hoe, spade and basket.

2.41.4 References
Shalmaneser I pours out the dust of Arina before his God, illus-
[1] Dietz Otto Edzard (1999). Reallexikon Der Assyriologie tration in Hutchinsons Story of the Nations
Und Vorderasiatischen Archologie: A - Bepaste. Walter
De Gruyter Inc. p. 29.

[2] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-


ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 5779. 2.42 Shalmaneser I
[3] Marc Van De Mieroop (2009). The Eastern Mediter-
ranean in the Age of Ramesses II. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 64.
Shalmaneser I (Shulmanu-asharedu;[1] 1274 BC 1245
[4] J. M. Munn-Rankin (1975). XXV: Assyrian Military BC or 1265 BC 1235 BC) was a king of Assyria during
Power, 13001200 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; the Middle Assyrian Empire (1365 - 1050 BC).
N. G. L. Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient
Son of Adad-nirari I, he succeeded his father as king in
History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and
the Aegean Region, 13801000 BC. Cambridge University
1265 BC.
Press. pp. 274279. According to his annals, discovered at Assur, in his
rst year he conquered eight countries in the northwest
[5] Trevor Bryce (2003). Letters of the Great Kings of the
and destroyed the fortress of Arinnu, the dust of which
Ancient Near East: The Royal Correspondence of the Late
Bronze Age. Routledge. pp. 7677, 9697.
he brought to Assur. In his second year he defeated
Shattuara, king of Hanilgalbat (Mitanni), and his Hittite
[6] Harry A. Honer, Jr. (2009). Letters from the Hittite King- and Ahlamu allies. He incorporated the remains of the
dom. Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 322324. Mittani kingdom as part of one of the Assyrian provinces.
Shalmaneser I also claimed to have blinded 14,400 enemy
[7] Olof Pedersn (1998). Archives and Libraries in the An- prisoners in one eye. He was one of the rst Assyrian
cient Near East 1500 300 BC. CDL Press. p. 87.
kings who was known to deport his defeated enemies to
various lands rather than simply slaughtering them all.
2.41.5 External links He conquered the whole country from Taidu to Irridu,
from Mount Kashiar to Eluhat, and from the fortresses of
Assyrian origins: discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris: Sudu and Harranu to Carchemish on the Euphrates. He
antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, built palaces at Assur and Nineveh, restored the world-
an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Mu- temple at Assur (Ehursagkurkurra), and founded the city
seum of Art Libraries (fully available online as of Kalhu (the biblical Calah/Nimrud). He was succeeded
PDF), which contains material on Adad-nirai I by his son Tukulti-Ninurta I.
2.43. TUKULTI-NINURTA I 31

2.42.1 Limmu ocials by year 2.42.2 Notes


Annual limmu ocials beginning with the year of acces- [1] The name means: "[the god] Shulmanu is preeminent";
sion of ulmanu-aared. The list is partly derived from Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq (Penguin, 3rd ed., 1992), p.
Freydank[2] and McIntyre.[3] The exact order of the ear- 295.
liest limmus is conjectural but the ordering from erriya [2] Helmut Freydank, AoF 3 (2005), 45-56.
onwards is essentially xed.
[3] Eponyms of Shalmaneser 1 - Summary

1265: Adad-umu-leir son of Sin-aared


1264: ulmanu-aared (king)
2.42.3 References

1263: Muabiu-ibitti Dnbaz, Veysel, and Grant, Frame. (1983) The


building activities of Shalmaneser I in Northern
1262: Ber-umu-iddina Mesopotamia Anuual Review of the Royal Inscrip-
tions of Mesopotamia Project 1 (1983): 1-5
1261: Abi-ili son Aur-umu-leir
This article incorporates text from a publication now
1260: Aur-alik-pana
in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
1259: Adad-ami son of Adad-umu-leir "article name needed ". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th
ed.). Cambridge University Press.
1258: Kidin-Sin son Adad-teya
1257: erriya
2.43 Tukulti-Ninurta I
1256: Aur-kaid
1255: Aur-muabi son of Iddin-Mer
1254: Aur-muabi son of Anu-muallim
1253: Qibi-Aur son of ama-aa-iddina
1252: Aur-nadin-ume
1251: Muallim-Aur
1250: Qibi-Aur son of illi-Marduk
1249: Ina-pi-Aur-lilim son of Bbu-aa-iddina
1248: Ber-umu-leir son of Ete-pi-Tamete
1247: Aur-dammiq son of Abi-ili
1246: Ber-bel-lite
1245: Itar-eri son of ulmanu-qarrad
1244: Lullayu son of Adad-umu-iddina
1243: Aur-ketti-ide son of Abi-ili
Mace with the name of Tukulti-Ninurta I, Louvre Museum
1242: Ekaltayu
Tukulti-Ninurta I (meaning: my trust is in [the war-
1241: Aur-daissunu son of Ululayu
rior god] Ninurta"; reigned 12431207 BC) was a king
1240: Ri-Adad of Assyria during the Middle Assyrian Empire (1366 -
1050 BC).
1239: Nabu-bela-uur
He succeeded Shalmaneser I, his father, as king and won
1238: Usat-Marduk a major victory against the Hittite Empire at the Battle of
Nihriya in the rst half of his reign, appropriating Hittite
1237: Ellil-aared territory in Asia Minor and The Levant. Tukulti-Ninurta
1236: Ittabi-den-Aur I retained Assyrian control of Urartu, and later defeated
Kashtiliash IV, the Kassite king of Babylonia, and cap-
1235: Ubru tured the rival city of Babylon to ensure full Assyrian
32 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

supremacy over Mesopotamia. He set himself up as king an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Mu-
of Babylon, thus becoming the rst native Mesopotamian seum of Art Libraries (fully available online as
to rule there, its previous kings having all been non native PDF), which contains material on Tukulti-Ninurta
Amorites or Kassites. He took on the ancient title King I
of Sumer and Akkad" rst used by Sargon of Akkad.
Tukulti-Ninurta had petitioned the god Shamash before
beginning his counter oensive. Kashtiliash IV was cap- 2.44 Ashur-nadin-apli
tured, single-handed by Tukulti-Ninurta according to his
account, who trod with my feet upon his lordly neck as
though it were a footstool and deported him ignomin-
iously in chains to Assyria. The victorious Assyrian de-
molished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the
inhabitants, pillaged and plundered his way across the
city to the Esagila temple, where he made o with the
statue of Marduk. After capturing Babylonia, he invaded
the Arabian Peninsula, conquering the Pre-Arab states of
Dilmun and Meluhha.[1]
Middle Assyrian texts recovered at ancient Dr-
Katlimmu include a letter from Tukulti-Ninurta to his
sukkal rabi'u, or grand vizier, Ashur-iddin advising Schroeders line art for Ar-ndin-aplis brick inscription.[i 1]
him of the approach of his general Shulman-mushabshu
Ar-ndin-apli, inscribed m a-ur-SUM-DUMU.U,[1]
escorting the captive Kashtiliash, his wife, and his retinue
was king of Assyria (1207 BC 1204 BC or 1196 BC
which incorporated a large number of women, on his
1194 BC short chronology). The alternate dating is
way to exile after his defeat. In the process he defeated
due to uncertainty over the length of reign of a later
the Elamites, who had themselves coveted Babylon.
monarch, Ninurta-apal-Ekur, where conicting king lists
He also wrote an epic poem documenting his wars
dier by ten years. His name meant "Aur is the giver
against Babylon and Elam. After a Babylonian revolt, he
of an heir[2] in the Akkadian language. He was a son of
raided and plundered the temples in Babylon, regarded
Tukulti-Ninurta I.[i 2]
as an act of sacrilege to all Mesopotamians, including
Assyrians. As relations with the priesthood in Ashur
began deteriorating, Tukulti-Ninurta built a new capital 2.44.1 Biography
city; Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta. However, his sons rebelled
against him and besieged him in his new city. During the The events surrounding the overthrow of Tukulti-Ninurta
siege, he was murdered. One of them, Ashur-nadin-apli, remain somewhat shrouded in mystery. His military con-
would succeed him on the throne. quests seem to have taken place during the rst half of his
After his death, the Assyrian Empire fell into a brief pe- reign with modern scholarship suggesting that his climac-
riod of stagnation. The Tukulti-Ninurta Epic describes tic victory against Katiliau IV and the city of Babylon
the war between Tukulti-Ninurta I and Kashtiliash IV.[2] occurred during two campaigns during his thirteenth and
fteenth years,[3] if the placing of the eponyms, the As-
syrian dating system, of Etel-pi-Aur and Aur-bel-ilani
2.43.1 Sources are correct.[4] The latter part of his reign was character-
ized by reversal as the over-extended Assyrian military
[1] J. M. Munn-Rankin (1975). Assyrian Military Power, struggled to hold on to the earlier prizes and this may well
13001200 B.C.. In I. E. S. Edwards. Cambridge An- have been the reason for his toppling.
cient History, Volume 2, Part 2, History of the Middle
East and the Aegean Region, c. 13801000 BC. Cam- Copies of the Assyrian King List record that Ar-ndin
bridge University Press. pp. 287288, 298. or nir-apli,[i 3] his son, seized the throne (for himself
and) ruled for three or four[i 4] years. Brinkman relates
[2] The Cambridge Ancient History, I. E. S. Edwards, C. J.
that it is uncertain whether one or two princes lie behind
Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond, (ed) I. E. S. Edwards, C. J.
the conicting scribal traditions,[5] but Grayson is more
Gadd, N. G. L. Hammond, Edition 3, revised, Cambridge [6]
University Press, 1975, ISBN 0-521-08691-4, ISBN 978- emphatic, there seem to have been at least two sons.
0-521-08691-2, pg. 284-295 Yamada, however, argues that it was scribal confusion
with the later succession of Tukulti-Ninurta II by Ar-
nir-apli II.[7] The names dier by just one cuneiform
2.43.2 External links character, PAB for nir and SUM for ndin. The Baby-
lonian Chronicle P recalls Aur-nir-apli, his son (mar-
Assyrian origins: discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris: u) and the ocers of Assyria rebelled, removed him
antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin, from his throne, shut him up in a room and killed him.[i 5]
2.45. ASHUR-NIRARI III 33

It was Ar-ndin-apli who succeeded to the throne, as [4] H. Freydank (2005). Zu den Eponymenfolgen des
testied by the scanty inscriptions left behind, which in- 13.Jahrhunderts v. Chr. in Dr-Katlimmu. Altoriental-
clude bricks[i 1] from Assur (line art pictured), "(Property ische Forschungen. 32 (1): 4556.
of) the palace of Ar-ndin-apli " and a lengthy text
[5] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nassouhi
on a stone tablet commemorating rerouting the Tigris to Kingslist and the Assyrian Kingslist Tradition. Orien-
the north of the city by divine means to recover agricul- talia. 42: 312313.
tural elds and the erection of a shrine.[6] This breaks with
Assyrian tradition, extending the list of royal epithets to [6] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
include faithful shepherd, to whom by the command of ume I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 134136.
the gods Aur, Enlil and ama the just sceptre was given
[7] Shigeo Yamada (1998). The Assyrian King List and the
and whose important name was called for the return (or Murderer of Tukulti-Ninurta I. NABU (1): 2627.
care) of the land, the king under the protective hand of
the god An and select of the god Enlil"[6] by which we [8] Daisuke Shibata (2006). Middle Assyrian Administra-
may infer he was seeking divine support for his tenuous tive and Legal Texts from the 2005 Excavation at Tell Ta-
throne. ban: A Preliminary Report. 49th Regular Meeting of the
Sumerian Studies. Kyoto University: 169180.
Just one eponym has been positively identied for his
rule, that of Erb-Sn, which dates the stone tablet. A
tablet also dated to this year was found at Tell Taban,
site of the vassal state of Tbatu near modern Al-Hasakah 2.45 Ashur-nirari III
during salvage excavation under the direction of Hiroto-
shi Numoto in advance of the building of a dam in north- Aur-nerari III, inscribed m a-ur-ERIM.GABA,
eastern Syria. The king of Tbatu was an Assyrian ocial Aur is my help,[1] was king of Assyria (12031198
named Adad-bl-gabbe whose rule spanned that of four BC or 11931187 BC). He was the grandson of Tukulti-
Assyrian monarchs seemingly unaected by the turmoil Ninurta I and may have succeeded his uncle or more
at the heart of the empire.[8] probably his father Ashur-nadin-apli to the throne, who
had participated in a conspiracy against Tukulti-Ninurta
He was succeeded by Aur-nerari III, who was either his
I which led to his murder.
son or his nephew, again depending on the existence of
Ar-nair-apli.
2.45.1 Biography
2.44.2 Inscriptions According to the Nassouhi Assyrian King List,[i 1] he was
the son of Aur-nadin-apli, his predecessor in this copy
[1] Brick inscription Ass. 22346, KAH 2 62. and that from Khorsabad,[i 2] although the Khorsabad and
SDAS[i 3] variants both give his father as Aur-nair-
[2] All three copies of the Assyrian King List agree on his
paternal relation. apli, his predecessor only on the SDAS copy.[2] All three
copies agree on his length of reign, an otherwise poorly
[3] The Nassouhi King List (NaKL) and the Khorsabad King attested 6 years, following the brief 3 or 4-year reign of
List (KhKL) say Ar-ndin-apli but the Seventh Day Ad- his immediate predecessor, suggesting he may have been
ventist Seminary King List (SDAS) says Ar-nir-apli. quite young when he assumed the throne and perhaps
explaining the prominence of his grand vizier, Il-pad.
[4] The NaKL says three years, while the KhKL and the Traces of his name also appear on a fourth, small frag-
SDAS say four years. ment of the kinglist.[i 4] His eponym year, likely to have
[5] Chronicle P, column 4, lines 10 to 11.
been his rst full year in oce, dates a corn loan tablet[i 5]
from the archive of Urad-era and his family[3] and a
tablet[i 6] excavated in Tell Taban, Syria, and dated to the
eponym year of Adad-bn-kala, may be of his reign or
2.44.3 References
that of his successor.[4]
[1] M. Capraro (1998). Ar-ndin-apli. In K. Radner. A fragment of an extraordinarily insulting letter[i 7] is
The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume preserved in the Kouyunjik Collections in the British
1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. Museum and is addressed by Adad-uma-uur, king of
202. Babylon, to two rulers, Aur-nerari III and Il-pad, who
are addressed as the kings of Assyria. The letter was
[2] Where nadnu is to give and aplu is an heir.
copied and preserved in the Assyrian archives, possibly
[3] For example, Stephan Jakob (Univ. Heidelberg), Sag because of the enhanced status given to Il-pad, the fa-
mir quando, sag mir wann (Workshop: Middle Assyr- ther of Ninurta-apal-Ekur, king of Assyria, ca. 1182 to
ian Texts and Studies) Time and History in the Ancient 1180 BC, whose descendants reigned on at least until the
Near East; Barcelona; 26 - 30 July 2010. 8th century, and whose genealogical claim to the throne
34 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

was tenuous and otherwise only based upon descent by a 2.46 Enlil-kudurri-usur
collateral line from Eriba-Adad I, ca. 1392 BC to 1366
BC.
Enlil-kudurr-uur, md Enlil(be)-ku-dr-uur, (Enlil
He was quite possibly violently swept aside by the as- protect the eldest son), was the 81st king of Assyria.[i 1]
cendancy of IIlil-kudurr-uur, another son of Tukulti- Depending on the length of reign one gives to his
Ninurta I and probably his uncle. The life and career of successor, Ninurta-apal-Ekur, this would have been
his grand vizier, mentor and fellow king of Assyria, Il- either from 1187 to 1183 BC or from 1197 to 1193 BC.
pad, seems to have ended at this point or shortly after- The former dates are more common in recent studies.
ward. The evidence from an archive which might shed
light on the events of this period remains unavailable,
leading the historian Itamar Singer to observe regret-
tably, two important archives of the thirteenth century 2.46.1 Biography
B.C.E., each with some 400 tablets, still remain unpub-
lished, ...(including) the Middle Assyrian texts from Tell Enlil-kudurri-usur was the son of Tukulti-Ninurta I. He
Sabi Abyad (found in 1997-1998).[5] succeeded his nephew, Ashur-nirari IIIs brief reign and
ruled for ve years. Apart from king lists and chronicles,
there are no other extant inscriptions of this king.[1]
2.45.2 Inscriptions The Synchronistic King List [i 2] identies his Babylonian
contemporary with Adad-uma-uur, his eventual neme-
[1] Nassouhi list, iii 32: m A-ur-nrr mr A-ur-ndin- sis. In the Synchronistic History,[i 3] the battle between
ap[li2 ] 6 MUme ; rst published by E. Nassouhi AfO 4
him and Adad-uma-uur is given as a pretext for his As-
(1927) p. 111 and pl. 1f; provenance: Assur.
syrian rival, Ninurta-apal-Ekur, a son of Il-pad and de-
[2] Khorsabad list, iii 23: A-ur-nrr mr A-ur- scendant of Eriba-Adad I, to come up from Kardunia,
m m

nir2 -apli 6 MUme ; rst published by I. J. Gelb JNES 13 i.e. Babylonia, and make a play for the Assyrian throne.
(1954) 209230 and pl. XIVf; provenance: Khorsabad. Grayson[2] and others[3] have speculated that this was
with the tacit assistance of Adad-uma-uur, but there
[3] SDAS list, iii 13: m A-ur-nrr mr2 m A-ur-nir2 - is currently no published evidence to support this the-
apli 6 MUme published by Gelb with the Khorsabad copy ory. Ninurta-apal-Ekurs purpose for being in Babylonia
and pl. XVIf; provenance unknown.
is also unknown, whether a political refugee or an admin-
[4] Small fragment, rst published by O. Schroeder KAV 15; istrator of the Assyrian held portion. The Walker Chroni-
provenance: Assur. cle[i 4] describes how following his abject defeat at Adad-
uma-uurs hands, Enlil-kudurr-uur was seized by his
[5] KAJ 101 (Urad-serua #55). own ocers and handed over to his opponent.[4] Only af-
ter these events did Adad-uma-uur go on to extend his
[6] TabT05A-191.
territory to include the city of Babylon itself.
[7] Tablet K. 3045 / ABL 924: LUGAL.ME KUR Meanwhile, the Synchronistic History[i 3] continues,
a+urKI . Ninurta-apal-Ekur had mustered his numerous troops
and marched to conquer Libbi-ali (the city of Aur). But
[...] arrived unexpectedly, so he turned and went home.
2.45.3 References As Grayson points out, this passage is open to various
interpretations,[2] only one of which is that the missing
[1] A. Fuchs, K. Radner (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Proso-
name could have been that of Enlil-kudurr-uur, released
pography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I:
by his captor to sow confusion amongst his northern foes.
A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 208.

[2] J. A. Brinkman (1973). Comments on the Nassouhi


Kingslist and the Assyrian Kingslist Tradition. Orien-
talia. 42: 312313.
2.46.2 Inscriptions

[3] J. N. Postgate (1988). The archive of Urad-era and his [1] Assyrian King List, iii 14.
family: a Middle Assyrian household in government ser-
vice. R. Denicola. No. 55.
[2] Synchronistic King List, tablet excavation number Ass.
[4] Daisuke Shibata (2006). Middle Assyrian Administra- 14616c (KAV 216), ii 6.
tive and Legal Texts from the 2005 Excavation at Tell Ta-
ban: A Preliminary Report. 49th Regular Meeting of the [3] Synchronistic History, ii 38.
Sumerian Studies. Kyoto University: 172.

[5] Itamar Singer (2011). The Calm Before the Storm. SBL. [4] Walker Chronicle, ABC 25, BM 27796, obverse lines 3 to
p. xi. 7.
2.47. NINURTA-APAL-EKUR 35

2.46.3 References Atamar-den-Aur

[1] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni-


cles. J. J. Augustin. p. 215. Aur-bel-lite

[2] A. K. Grayson (2001). Ninurta-apal-Ekur. In Erich


Adad-muabi
Ebeling; Bruno Meissner; Dietz Otto Edzard. Reallexikon
der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archologie: Nab
Nuzi. Walter De Gruyter Inc. pp. 524525.
As the seventh in the sequence is Ninurta-apal-Ekurs
[3] J. A. Brinkman (1999). Il-pad". In Erich Ebel- son and successor, Aur-dan I, and the king was thought
ing; Bruno Meissner. Reallexikon der Assyriologie und to occupy the limmu position in the rst year of his as-
Vorderasiatischen Archologie. Walter De Gruyter Inc. cendancy, it is suggested that the succession took place
pp. 5051. here.[5]
[4] C.B.F. Walker (May 1982). Babylonian Chronicle 25:
A Chronicle of the Kassite and Isin II Dynasties. In G.
van Driel. Assyriological Studies presented to F. R. Kraus His provenance
on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Netherlands Institute
for the Near East. pp. 398406.
His father was Il-pad,[6] who had followed his father,
Aur-iddin, and grandfather, Qibi-Aur, as grand vizier,
or sukkallu rabiu, of Assyria and king of the dependant
2.47 Ninurta-apal-Ekur state of anigalbat.[7] Qibi-Aur may be one of three
ocials who are attested as limmus, the sons of ama-
Ninurta-apal-Ekur, inscribed md MA-A--kur,[1] aa-iddina, illi-Marduk, Ibai-ili, respectively and it is
meaning Ninurta is the heir of the Ekur,[2] was a king this latter one, whose limmu year directly follows that
of Assyria in the early 12th century BC who usurped the of Tukulti-Ninurta I, that has led some to speculate that
throne and styled himself king of the universe and priest Ninurta-apal-Ekur was a descendant of Adad-nirari I, a
of the gods Enlil and Ninurta.[3] His reign is immensely genealogy that is unlikely as he claims descent only from
signicant to the Chronology of the ancient Near East as Eriba-Adad I in his inscriptions. The earlier two have
it overlaps the reigns of his Babylonian contemporaries their limmu years during the reign of Shalmaneser I which
Adad-uma-uur and Meli-ipak. better ts the chronology.

2.47.1 Biography
His ascendancy
There is some dispute as to how long he reigned, based on
discrepancies among various copies of the Assyrian King The preceding Assyrian king, Enlil-kudurri-usur, a son
List. The Nassouhi King List,[4] sometimes considered to of the earlier powerful king Tukulti-Ninurta I, was van-
be older than the other versions of the King List we have, quished in battle against the Kassite monarch, Adad-
gives him 13 years of reign, but the other king lists give uma-uur, a defeat so ignoble that the Assyrian ocers
him only three. More recent scholarship has tended to seized [Enlil-kudu]r-usur their lord and gave (him) to
support the shorter reign, in which case he reigned from Adad-uma-uur.[8] Perhaps to secure their passage, the
1182 to 1180 BC (alternately, he reigned from 1192 to Assyrians also handed over renegade Babylonians who
1180 BC). had ed to the Assyrian side.[8]
There are up to eleven possible limmu ocials named While these events were unfolding, Ninurta-apal-Ekur
for his regnal years and a recent publication proposes the went home. He mustered his numerous troops and
following sequence: marched to conquer Libbi-ali (the city of Aur).[9] The
Kings List tells us that he came up from Kardunia,
seized the throne,[6] although it can only be speculated
Salmanu-zera-iqia
what he was doing in Kardunia (Babylonia). The Syn-
Liptanu chronistic Chronicle continues But [...] arrived unex-
pectedly, so he turned and went home[9] which suggests
Salmanu-umu-leir that the succession was not smooth.
Erib-Aur Ninurta-apil-Ekur is said to have guarded all the peo-
ple of Assyria, with wings like an eagle spread out over
Marduk-aa-eri his country.[10] He was the recipient of gifts from Meli-
Piqiya ipak, who sent teams of horses and rugs, as a recently
discovered text records, unearthed during excavations at
Aur-dan I Assur.[11]
36 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

Palace decrees 2.48 Ashur-dan I


He issued nine palace decrees relating to conduct of the
court and the oppressive discipline of the royal harem, Aur-dn I, m A-ur-dn(kal)an , was the 83rd king of
suggestive of insecurity in the succession, although he Assyria, reigning for 46[i 1] (variant: 36[i 2] ) years, c.
need not have worried as his descendants would continue 1179 to 1134 BC (variant: c. 1169 to 1134 BC[1] ), and
to rule Assyria until at least the eighth century BC. The the son of Ninurta-apal-Ekur,[i 3] where one of the three
rst relates to the conduct of a eunuch approaching the variant copies of the Assyrian King List shows a dier-
harem and that of the concubines. The second threatens ence. The Synchronistic King List [i 4] and a fragmentary
the harem women with having their throats cut, if when copy[i 5] give his Babylonian contemporaries as Zababa-
quarreling they should blaspheme against a god. The third um-iddina, c. 1158 BC, and Enlil-ndin-ae, c. 1157
punished men guilty of lse majest and the remaining are 1155 BC, the last of the kings of the Kassite dynasty, but
too fragmentary to be certain of their contents, but reg- it is probable he was contemporary with two more pre-
ulate curses against, for example, the royal furniture, i.e. ceding and two following these monarchs, if the length
bed and stool. Minor infractions were dealt with severely, of his reign is correct.
with the guilty woman having her nose pierced and being
beaten with rods.[3]
A text records his gift of jewelry to his daughter
Muballita[-], the great high priestess.[3]

2.48.1 Biography
2.47.2 References
[1] Kyle R. Greenwood (2010). A Historical and Contextual During the twilight years of the Kassite dynasty, the Syn-
Reconstruction of KAH 2.76. Nouvelles Assyriologiques chronistic History[i 6] records that he seized the cities of
Brves et Utilitaires (NABU) (2): 45. Zaban, Irriya, Ugar-sallu and a fourth town name not pre-
served, plundering them and taking their vast booty to
[2] A. K. Grayson (2001). Erich Ebeling; Bruno Meissner;
Assyria. A fragmentary clay tablet[i 7] usually assigned
Dietz Otto Edzard, eds. .Reallexikon der Assyriologie und
to this king lists his military conquests over []yash
Vorderasiatischen Archologie: Nab Nuzi. Walter De
Gruyter Inc. p. 524. and the land of Irriya, the land of the Suhu, the kings of
the land Shadani, [y]aeni, king of the land Shelini.[2]
[3] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- Fresh from their conquest of the Babylonians, it seems
ume I. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 139141. the Elamite hordes overwhelmed the Assyrian city of Ar-
[4] Nassouhi King List = Assyrian King List A raphe, which was not recovered until late in Aur-dns
reign.[1]
[5] Jaume Llop (June 2008). MARV 6, 2 und die Epony-
menfolgen des 12. Jahrhunderts. Zeitschrift fr Assyri-
Few inscriptions have been recovered for this king al-
ologie und vorderasiatische Archologie. 98 (1): 2025. though he is mentioned in two of those of his descendant
Tukult-apil-Earra.[3] One of these inscriptions mentions
[6] Assyrian King List, Ninurta-apil-Ekur, son of Ila-Hadda, his demolition of the dilapidated temple of An and Adad,
a descendant of Eriba-Adad, went to Kardunia. He originally built by Ime-Dgan II 641 years earlier. It was
came up from Kardunia, seized the throne and ruled for not to be reconstructed until 60 years later by Tukult-
A
13/B+C 3 years.
apil-Earra, who also names him in his genealogy.[4] A
[7] Itamar Singer (2006). KBo 28.61-64, and the struggle dedication for the king appears on a bronze statue vo-
over the throne of Babylon. attua-Boazky. Gernot tive oering[i 8] to the Egaankalamma, temple of Itar in
Wilhelm. pp. 224, 237. Arbail, oered by ami-Bl, a scribe.[2]
[8] C.B.F. Walker (May 1982). Babylonian Chronicle 25: A partial reconstruction of the sequence of limmus, the
A Chronicle of the Kassite and Isin II Dynasties. In G.Assyrian Eponym dating system, has been proposed in-
uenced by a letter[i 9] which provides the initial sequence
van Driel. Assyriological Studies presented to F. R. Kraus
on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Netherlands Institute
of Piqiya, the ocial during whose reign his predecessor
for the Near East. pp. 398406. died, Aur-dn (the king), Atamar-den-Aur, Aur-
[5]
[9] Synchronistic Chronicle (ABC 21), tablet B, column 2, bel-lite, and Adad-muabi. A harem edict or palace
lines 5 to 8. decree was issued giving the penalties for misdemeanors
of maidservants, where the rst oence is punishable
[10] Donald John Wiseman (1965). Assyria and Babylonia, c with a beating thirty times with rods by her mistress.[2]
1200-1000 BC, Volume 2, Part 31. Cambridge University Two sons of Aur-dn were to contest the throne af-
Press. p. 11.
ter his death, Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur ruling for less than
[11] Eckart Frahm. Inscribed objects. Retrieved October 2, a year before being overthrown and forced to ee by his
2011. brother Mutakkil-Nusku.
2.49. NINURTA-TUKULTI-ASHUR 37

2.48.2 Inscriptions 2.49.1 Biography

[1] Khorsabad King List and the SDAS King List both read, There is some conjecture that he may have ruled jointly
iii 19, 46 MU.ME KI.MIN. with Aur-dan I during Aur-dans declining years or
perhaps shared some regnal duties as there is a signicant
[2] Nassouhi King List reads, 26+x MU.[ME LUGAL-ta archive of administrative texts[i 1] concerning agricultural
DU.u. products, (from cities such as Arrapha), food distribu-
tion, and ritual oerings in the royal palace referencing
[3] Brick Ass. 4777 palatial inscription conrming King List
him and his wife Rimeni on seals, one of which provides
liation.
an early Assyrian chariot scene, but only three of these
[4] Synchronistic King List, tablet excavation number Ass. texts call him king.[1] Among these there is a reference
14616c (KAV 216), ii 10. to the partial demolition of a number of buildings in Kar-
Tukulti-Ninurta, during his reign,[2] and also a harem list.
[5] Synchronistic King List fragment, tablet VAT 11261 (KAV The Chronicle P[i 2] which names him m Tukul-ti-Aur,
10), i 2. relates that during his reign, the statue of Marduk was re-
turned to Babylon having languished in Assyria for sixty
[6] Synchronistic History, ii 912. (?)-six years, something of an underestimate if the read-
ing of this number is correct and a reconciliatory move
[7] Tablet K. 2667. likely to test his subjects loyalty.[3]

[8] 2 kg bronze statue found at Lake Urmia and now in the The Assyrian King List[i 3] relates that Mutakkil-Nusku,
Louvre. his brother, fought with him (and) carried him o to Kar-
dunia. Mutakkil-Nusku held the throne for 'his tablet'
[9] VAT 20937, MARV 6,2. (and then) passed away.[i 4][4] A fairly recently recovered
source[i 5] provides additional insight into these events.
From it we learn Ninurta-tukult-Aur seems to have
2.48.3 References kept the loyalty of provincial regions, while the heart-
land of Assyria sided with Mutakkil-Nusku, fueling a
[5] [i 6]
[1] David Kertai (20082009). The history of the middle civil war. Into this milieu comes fragments of one,
Assyrian empire. TALANTA. XL-XLI: 39. or perhaps two letters, from a Babylonian king, tentatively
identied as Ninurta-ndin-umi, although his predeces-
[2] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol- sor Itti-Marduk-balu or his successor Nab-kudurr-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 141143. uur I could also conceivably be the author, addressed to
and lambasting Mutakkil-Nusku and threatening to re-
[3] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni- instate Ninurta-tukult-Aur. His Babylonian contem-
cles. J. J. Augustin. pp. 209210. porary is not certain and the Synchronistic Kinglist[i 7]
gives a counterpart whose name begins with, or contains,
[4] Bill T. Arnold, Bryan Beyer (2002). Readings from the the theophoric element Marduk-, with other fragmentary
ancient Near East: primary sources for Old Testament
copies[i 8][i 9] providing no further insight. The text of
study. Baker Academic. p. 143.
the letter(s) is poorly preserved, and dicult to inter-
[5] Jaume Llop (June 2008). MARV 6, 2 und die Epony-
pret, but the Babylonian quotes the Assyrian in his de-
menfolgen des 12. Jahrhunderts. Zeitschrift fr Assyri- scription of his brother as ku-lu-'- la zi-ka-ru u-, a
ologie und vorderasiatische Archologie. 98 (1): 2025. kulu'u, not a man, where the term may mean a 'femi-
doi:10.1515/za-2008-0003. nized castrato cultic performer'.[6] The deadlock was ap-
parently broken by the attack by Mutakkil-Nuskus forces
on Ninurta-tukult-Aurs border stronghold of Siil, af-
ter which both brothers disappeared from history, per-
2.49 Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur haps falling in their fratricidal battle and Mutakkil-
Nuskus son Aur-re-ii I assumed the throne.
Ninurta-tukult-Aur, inscribed md Ninurta2 -tukul-ti-
A-ur, was briey king of Assyria during 1133 BC,
the 84th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist, marked as 2.49.2 Inscriptions
holding the throne for his uppiu, his tablet, a pe-
riod thought to correspond just to the inauguration year. [1] Such as tablet KAJ 188.
He succeeded his father, the long-reigning Aur-dn I,
but the throne was very quickly usurped by his brother, [2] Chronicle P (ABC 22), iv 1213
Mutakkil-Nusku, and he was driven from Assur and
sought refuge in the city of Siil, on the Babylonian bor- [3] Assyrian Kinglist copies: Nassouhi, iii 43f, Khorsabad, iii
der, the scene of the nal dnouement. 32f and SDAS iii 19f.
38 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[4] Khorsabad kinglist iii 3436: m Mu-tak-kil-d Nusku au- 2.50.1 Biography
itti- i-duk a-na kur Kar-du-ni-, e-bu-uk- up-pi-
m
Mu-tak-kil-d Nusku gi kuss, uk-ta-il ad e-mid. He was a younger son of the long-reigning king, Aur-
dn I (ca. 1179 to 1134 BC) and succeeded his
[5] Ms. A2 .
brother Ninurta-tukult-Aur, whom he ousted in a coup
[6] Tablets BM 104727 (1913-5-12, 2) + Sm. 2116 and K. and subsequently went on to ght in a civil war that
212 + K. 4448. seems to have pitched the Assyrian heartland against
its provinces. He appears on the Khorsabad Kinglist [i 1]
[7] Synchronistic King List ii 12 KAV 216 (tablet Ass which relates that Mutakkil-Nusku, his (Ninurta-tukult-
14616c). Aurs) brother, fought against him. He drove him
to Kardunia (Babylonia). Contemporary evidence sug-
[8] Synchronistic King List fragment KAV 10, 3 (tablet VAT
gests that Ninurta-tukult-Aur sought sanctuary in the
11261).
border town of Siil, where Mutakkil-Nuskus forces en-
[9] Synchronistic King List fragment KAV 12, 1 (tablet VAT gaged him in battle, the outcome of which is lost.[1]
11338). The fragments of one or perhaps two Middle Assyrian let-
ters exist,[i 2] from an unnamed Babylonian king, possibly
Ninurta-ndin-umi, to Mutakkil-Nusku, where he is told
2.49.3 References that You should act according to your heart (ki libbika).
The text lambastes him for failing to keep an appoint-
[1] David Kertai (20089). The History of the Middle As-
ment, or a challenge, in Zaqqa and seems to conrm that
syrian Empire. Talanta: proceedings of the Dutch Ar- [2]
chaeological and Historical Society. 6061: 39. Check Ninurta-tukult-Aur had reached exile in Babylonia.
date values in: |date= (help) His victory was short-lived as uppiu Mutakkil-Nusku
kuss ukta'il KUR-a e-mid, (he) held the throne for up-
[2] Trevor Bryce (2009). The Routledge Handbook of The
piu (his tablet), then died, perhaps his inaugural year
People and Places of Ancient Western Asia. Routledge.
pp. 67, 373.
and part way into his rst year only.[3] One interpretation
suggests this was while his father still nominally ruled.[4]
[3] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni- Apart from a brief economic text concerning 100 sheep
cles. J. J. Augustin. p. 176. of Mutakkil-Nusku, without a royal title, and his appear-
ance in the genealogies of his descendants such as one
[4] A. K. Grayson (1999). Knigslisten und Chroniken. In of his son, Aur-ra-ii I,[2] there are no other extant
Erich Ebeling; Bruno Meissner. Reallexikon der Assyri- inscriptions.[4]
ologie und Vorderasiatischen Archologie: Klagegesang -
Libanon, Volume 6. Walter De Gruyter. pp. 111112.

[5] Jaume Llop; A. R. George (20001). Die babylonisch- 2.50.2 Inscriptions


assyrischen Beziehungen und die innere Lage As-
syriens in der Zeit der Auseinandersetzung zwischen [1] Khorsabad Kinglist, iii 3536.
Ninurta-tukulti-Aur und Mutakkil-Nusku nach neuen
keilschriftlichen Quellen. Archiv fr Orientforschung. [2] Tablet fragments BM 55498 and 55499, K 212+4448 (+)
4849: 120. Check date values in: |date= (help) Sm 2116+BM 104727.

[6] A. R. George (2007). Babylonian Texts from the Folios


of Sidney Smith, part three: a commentary on a ritual of 2.50.3 References
the month Nisan. In Guinan, Ann K.; Ellis, Maria deJ.;
Ferrara, A. J.; Freedman, Sally M.; Rutz, Matthew T.; [1] Jaume Llop, A. R. George (2001). Die babylonisch-
Sassmannshausen, Leonhard; Tinney, Steve; Waters, M. assyrischen Beziehungen und die innere Lage As-
W. If a Man Builds a Joyful House: Assyriological Studies syriens in der Zeit der Auseinandersetzung zwischen
in Honor of Erle Verdun Leichty. Brill. p. 175. Ninurta-tukulti-Aur und Mutakkil-Nusku nach neuen
keilschriftlichen Quellen. Archiv fr Orientforschung.
4849: 120.
2.50 Mutakkil-Nusku [2] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 144146, 149152.
Mutakkil-Nusku, inscribed m mu-ta/tak-kil-d PA.KU, he
[3] Heather D. Baker (2010). The meaning of uppi. 104
whom Nusku endows with condence, was king of
(1). Revue d'Assyriologie: 131162.
Assyria briey ca. 1133 BC, during a period of political
decline. He reigned suciently long to be the recipient [4] J. A. Brinkman (1999). Mutakkil-Nusku. In D. O.
of a letter or letters from the Babylonian king, presumed Edzard. Reallexikon Reallexikon der Assyriologie und
to be Ninurta-ndin-umi, in which he was lambasted and Vorderasiatischen Archologie: Meek Mythologie. Wal-
derided. ter De Gruyter. p. 500.
2.51. ASHUR-RESH-ISHI I 39

2.51 Ashur-resh-ishi I Bumariyah, ancient Apqu a Adad, as witnessed by a


baked brick inscription.[3] His most signicant construc-
Aur-ra-ii I, inscribed m a-ur-SAG-i-i and mean- tion eorts were witnessed at his capital, Nineveh, the
ing Aur has lifted my head, c. 11331116 BC, son location of his palace, the Egalaulla (The Palace of
of Mutakkil-Nusku, was a king of Assyria, the 86th to Joyfulness),[4] where he rebuilt the tower-gates of the
appear on the Assyrian King List[i 1] and ruled for 18 temple of Ishtar which had been damaged by earthquakes
years.[i 2] The Synchronistic King List [i 3] and its fragmen- during the earlier reigns of ulmnu-aardu I (c. 1274
tary copies[i 4][i 5] give him as a contemporary of the BC 1245 BC) and Aur-dn I (c. 1179 to 1134 BC),
Babylonian kings Ninurta-ndin-umi, c. 1132-1126 BC, the latter being his grandfather. These were anked by
Nebuchadnezzar I, c. 11261103 BC, and Enlil-ndin- monumental statues of lions.
apli, c. 11031100 BC, although the last of these is un- His palace edict concerning men fraternizing with palace
likely if the current chronology favored is followed. women gives the penalty of execution, with silent wit-
nesses considered a party to the event and punished by
being thrown into an oven.[5] The sequence of limmu o-
2.51.1 Biography cials in the eponym dating system is not known as column
2 of the only extant list is damaged at this point.[6]
His royal titles included merciless hero in battle, crusher
He was succeeded by his son, Tukult-apil-Earra I.
of the enemies of Aur, strong shackle binding the insub-
missive, one who puts the insubordinate to ight, mur-
derer of the extensive army of the Ahlam (and) scatterer 2.51.2 Inscriptions
of their forces, the one who defeats the lands of [],
the Lullub, all the Qutu and their entire mountainous [1] Assyrian King Lists: Nassouhi, iv 4, 6; Khorsabad, iii 37,
region and subdues them at his feet He styled him- 39; SDAS, iii 23, 25.
self mutr gimilli mt Aur, avenger of Assyria, and
[2] On king list: 18 MUme arru-ta pu u .
seems to have directed his earlier campaigns to the east,
as a broken chronicle[i 6] records his campaign staged [3] Synchronistic King List, tablet excavation number Ass.
from Erbil into the disputed Zagros mountains where his 14616c (KAV 216), ii 1416.
shock troops (urdu) encountered the Babylonian king
[4] Synchronistic King List fragment, tablet VAT 11261 (KAV
Ninurta-ndin-umi, here called Ninurta-ndin-umti,
10), i 5.
whose forces characteristically ed, a recurring motif in
Assyrian accounts of their relationship with their south- [5] Synchronistic King List fragment, tablet VAT 11338 (KAV
ern neighbour. 12), 3f.
Pressures from the west, however, were to draw Aur- [6] Assyrian Chronicle Fragment 3, known as the Chronicle
ra-iis attention, and that of his successors, as the of Aur-re-ii.
widespread (rapti) hordes of Ahlam nomadic tribes-
[7] Kudurru BM 90858, BBSt 6 grant to LAK-ti Marduk.
men were driven by the deprivations of climate change
into the Assyrian hinterland.[1] Here he may also have en- [8] Synchronistic History, ii 113.
countered Nab-kudurr-uur, who like him claimed vic-
tories against the Amorite lands and the Lullub.[i 7]
2.51.3 References
The Synchronistic History[i 8] has a lengthy passage con-
cerning his conicts with Nebuchadnezzar I. Initially they [1] J. Neumann, S. Parpola (Jul 1987). Climatic Change
established an amicable relationship. However the Baby- and the Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and
lonian king subsequently besieged the Assyrian fortress Babylonia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 46 (3): 178.
of Zanqi and when Aur-ra-ii approached with his doi:10.1086/373244. JSTOR 544526.
relief force, Nebuchadnezzar I torched his siege engines
[2] A. K. Grayson (1975). Assyrian and Babylonian chroni-
(npe) to prevent their capture and withdrew. On a sec- cles. J. J. Augustin. p. 176.
ond campaign, he laid siege to the fortress of Idi and the
arrival of the Assyrian army resulted in a pitched battle in [3] H. Curtis Wright (1990). Ancient Burials of Metal Doc-
which he brought about his total defeat, slaughtered his uments in Stone Boxes. In John M. Lundquist, Stephen
troops and carried o his camp. Forty of his chariots with D. Ricks. By Study and Also by Faith: Essays in Honor of
harness were taken away and Karatu, NNebuchadnezzar Hugh W. Nibley. : Deseret Book and FARMS. p. 321. n.
120
Is eld-marshal, was captured. [2]
The later king ulmnu-aardu III credited him with [4] Leonard W. King, A. Kirk Grayson (2001). The Palace
rebuilding the city wall of Assur in his own rededica- of Ashur-Resha-Ishi I at Nineveh. Iraq. 63: 169170.
JSTOR 4200508.
tion. His own brick inscriptions from the same city iden-
tify him as builder of the temple of the gods Adad and [5] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
An, Itar of Assyria and Aur. He built a palace in ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. pp. 143146.
40 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[6] B. Newgrosh (1999). The Chronology of Ancient As- his realm. He died in 1076 BC and was succeeded by his
syria Re-assessed. JACF. 8: 84. son Asharid-apal-Ekur. The later kings Ashur-bel-kala
and Shamshi-Adad IV were also his sons.

2.52 Tiglath-Pileser I 2.52.2 See also

Tiglath-Pileser I (/tl palizr/;[1] from the Hebraic Tiglath-Pileser II


form[2] of Akkadian: Tukult-apil-Earra, my trust is in Tiglath-Pileser III
the son of Esharra) was a king of Assyria during the
Middle Assyrian period (11141076 BC). According to
Georges Roux, Tiglath-Pileser was one of the two or 2.52.3 References
three great Assyrian monarchs since the days of Shamshi-
Adad I".[3] Under him, Assyria became the leading power [1] In English, any of the following four pronunciations are
of the Middle East, a position the kingdom largely main- used: /tl palizr/ TIG-lth py-LEE-zr, /tl
tained for the next ve hundred years. He expanded As- plizr/ TIG-lth p-LEE-zr, /tl palizr/ TIG-
lath py-LEE-zr, or /tl plizr/ TIG-lath p-LEE-
syrian control into Anatolia and Syria, and to the shores
zr.
of the Mediterranean.[4] From his surviving inscriptions,
he seems to have carefully cultivated a fear of himself in [2] Spelled as ""
Tiglath-Pileser in the Book
his subjects and in his enemies alike. of Kings (2Kings 15:29) or as ""
Tilgath-
Pilneser in the Book of Chronicles (2Chronicles 28:20).
[3] Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Third edition. Penguin
2.52.1 Campaigns Books, 1992 (paperback, ISBN 0-14-012523-X).
[4] 'The Collins Encyclopedia of Military History', Dupuy &
The son of Ashur-resh-ishi I, he ascended to the throne Dupuy, 1993, p. 9
in 1115 BC, and became one of the greatest of Assyrian
conquerors.[5] [5] The encyclopdia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences,
literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by
His rst campaign was against the Mushku in 1112 B.C. Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
who had occupied certain Assyrian districts in the Up-
per Euphrates; then he overran Commagene and east- [6] The encyclopdia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences,
literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by
ern Cappadocia, and drove the Hittites from the Assyrian
Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
province of Subartu, northeast of Malatia.
[7] Bryce, Trevor. The Routledge Handbook of The People
In a subsequent campaign, the Assyrian forces penetrated
and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from
into the mountains south of Lake Van and then turned the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persians Empire,
westward to receive the submission of Malatia. In his fth p.563
year, Tiglath-Pileser attacked Comana in Cappadocia,
and placed a record of his victories engraved on copper [8] The encyclopdia britannica:a dictionary of arts, sciences,
plates in a fortress he built to secure his Cilician con- literature and general information, Volume 26, Edited by
Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968
quests.
The Aramaeans of northern Syria were the next targets [9] The encyclopdia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sci-
ences, literature and general information, volume 26,
of the Assyrian king, who made his way as far as the
edited by Hugh Chrisholm, 1911, p. 968.
sources of the Tigris.[6] It is said from an Assyrian re-
lief that he campaigned against the Arameans 28 times
during his reign from 1115 to 1077 BC. The control of 2.52.4 External links
the high road to the Mediterranean was secured by the
possession of the Hittite town of Pitru[7] at the junction Inscription of Tiglath-Pileser I. Babylonian and As-
between the Euphrates and Sajur; thence he proceeded to syrian Literature. Project Gutemberg.
Gubal (Byblos), Sidon, and nally to Arvad where he em-
Assyrian origins: discoveries at Ashur on the Tigris:
barked onto a ship to sail the Mediterranean, on which he
antiquities in the Vorderasiatisches Museum, Berlin,
killed a nahiru or sea-horse (which A. Leo Oppenheim
an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Mu-
translates as a narwhal) in the sea.[8] He was passionately
seum of Art Libraries (fully available online as
fond of the chase and was also a great builder. The gen-
PDF), which contains material on Tiglath-Pileser I
eral view is that the restoration of the temple of the gods
Ashur and Hadad at Assyrian capital of Assur was one of This article incorporates text from a publication now
his initiatives.[9] in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
The latter part of his reign seems to have been a period "article name needed ". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.).
of retrenchment, as Aramaean tribesmen put pressure on Cambridge University Press.
2.54. ASHUR-BEL-KALA 41

2.53 Asharid-apal-Ekur the Aegean Region, c. 1380-1000 BC. Cambridge Univer-


sity Press. pp. 448, 467.
Aard-apil-Ekur, inscribed m a--rid-A-.KUR[i 1] or [4] W. C. Hayes; M. B. Rowton; F. H. Stubbings (1962).
m
SAG.KAL-DUMU.U-.KUR[i 2] and variants,[i 3] mean- Chronology: Egypt; Wester Asia; Aegean Bronze Age.
ing the heir of the Ekur is foremost, was the son and Cambridge University Press. p. 34.
successor of Tukult-apil-Earra I as king of Assyria,
reigning for just two years, 1076/51074 BC, during the [5] J. A. Brinkman (1998). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopogra-
turmoil that engulfed the end of that lengthy reign, and phy of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part I: A. The
he was the 88th king to appear on the Assyrian King List. Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. pp. 139140.
His reign marked the elevation of the oce of ummnu,
royal scribe, and he was the rst to have this recorded
next to the kings name on the Synchronistic King List,[i 4] 2.54 Ashur-bel-kala
possibly identifying the contemporary redactor of this
list.[1]
Ar-bl-kala, inscribed m a-ur-EN-ka-la and mean-
ing Aur is lord of all,[1] was the king of Assyria
2.53.1 Biography 1074/31056 BC, the 89th to appear on the Assyrian
Kinglist. He was the son of Tukult-apil-Earra I, suc-
According to an early reading of the Synchronistic ceeded his brother Aard-apil-Ekur who had briey pre-
King List,[i 4] he was a contemporary of the Babylonian ceded him, and he ruled for 18 years[i 1] He was the last
king Itti-Marduk-balu, c. 11401132 BC, where king of the Middle Assyrian Empire, and his later reign
this monarch had perhaps been relocated to follow was preoccupied with a revolution against his rule led by
Marduk-ndin-a, c. 1099-1082 BC.[2] This part of one Tukulti-Mer, which, by the end of his reign, allowed
the cuneiform text is now lost[3]:448 or disproven.[3]:267 hordes of Arameans to press in on Assyrias western bor-
Current theories of chronological succession suggest ders. He is perhaps best known for his zoological collec-
Marduk-pik-zri, c. 10821069 BC, may have been tion.
his Babylonian counterpart, with Rowton suggesting syn-
chronizing the two-year reign of Aard-apil-Ekur with
this kings 5th and 6th years.[4] 2.54.1 Biography
There are no royal inscriptions known from his reign His reign marks the point at which the tide turned against
and he appears only in later king lists and in an eponym the middle Assyrian empire and substantial Levantine ter-
list.[i 5][5] He was succeeded by his brother Aur-bel- ritory to the west was captured by the invading Arameans.
kala, then his nephew Eriba-Adad II, then his other Ar-bl-kala was the last of the monarchs of the second
brother ami-Adad IV. millennium for whom there are any signicant surviving
inscriptions. His annals are recorded on numerous frag-
ments from Aur and Nineveh.[2]
2.53.2 Inscriptions
[1] Khorsabad Kinglist: iii 41.
The Broken Obelisk
[2] SDAS Kinglist iii 27.
The Broken Obelisk,[i 2] an unnished part of a monumen-
[3] Nassouhi Kinglist iv 8: [m S]AG-A-.KUR. tal inscription, is usually attributed to him following the
[4] Synchronistic King List, KAV 216 (ass. 14616c), ii 18. arguments made by Weidner, Jaritz and Borger, despite
its apparent imitation of the campaigns of Tukult-apil-
[5] KAV 21 iii 13, as [... ]-A-.KUR. Earra I and his hunting of a niru (a sea-horse) in the
Mediterranean (the upper sea of the land of Amurru).
These arguments include the introduction of Babylonian
2.53.3 References month names, its discovery with a limestone statue of a
[1] A. K. Grayson (198083). Knigslisten und Chroniken. naked Itar inscribed with his name, the designation of
B. Akkadisch. In D.O. Edzard. Reallexikon Der Assyri- the Arameans as living in KUR a-re-me, and their evident
ologie Und Vorderasiatischen Archologie. 6. Walter De progress into traditionally Assyrian ruled lands. It was
Gruyter. pp. 117119. discovered by the ethnic Assyrian archaeologist Hormuzd
Rassam in mid-August 1853 at a locality about half-way
[2] I. J. Gelb (1954). Two Assyrian King Lists. Journal of between Sennacherib's palace and that of Assurbanipal"
Near East Studies. VIII (4): 273.
and depicts the (enlarged) king towering over bound, sup-
[3] D. J. Wiseman (1975). XXXI: Assyria and Babylonia, c. plicant prisoners under ve symbols of the gods. Any
1200-1000 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards. Cambridge Ancient reconstruction of the events of his reign consequently de-
History, Volume 2, Part 2, History of the Middle East and pends heavily on whether this object is correctly assigned.
42 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

In his rst year, he campaigned in the north against Relations with Babylonia
Uraru, delaying his adoption of the eponym oce un-
til the following year. In his second, he turned his atten- After his inauguration, he was apparently visited by the
tion to the countries Himme, abu, and Mari, the latter reigning Babylonian king, Marduk-pik-zri, who es-
of which was under the authority of Tukulti-Mer, a pre- tablished friendly relations with Ar-bl-kala, and then
tender to the Assyrian throne. Thereafter his attention returned to Sippar.[i 4] This treaty followed the earlier
was largely absorbed with endless counterattacks against poor relations of their predecessors, Tukult-apil-Earra
the hordes of Arameans pressing on his borders, whom and Marduk-ndin-a, who had sparred and was proba-
he even pursued: [...in] rafts (of inated) goatskins bly motivated by their need to unite to ght their common
I crossed the Euphrates.[i 3] He fought them as far as enemy the Arameans. Marduk-pik-zri died around
Carchemish, which he plundered, and in the rbr val- ve years later and this seems to have galvanized Ar-
ley, the Broken Obelisk referencing at least 15 campaigns. bl-kala into intervening militarily to install a successor
Texts recovered from Giricano, ancient Dunnu-a-Uzibi, of his choice:
mostly dated to the eponym year of Ili-iddina (1069/68)
his 5th or 6th year, include one that recalls the ghting
In that year (the eponym of Aur-raim-
the preceding year, the eponymy of Aur-rem-nieu,
nieu), in the month of ebat, the chariots
in Dunnu-a-Liur-ala-Aur in the district of inamu,
and [] went from the Inner City (of Assur)
when territory was lost. Sometime later the entire region
(and) conquered the cities of [x-x]indiulu
fell to the invaders.[3]
and []sand, cities which are in the district
of the city of Dr-Kurigalzu. They captured
Kadaman-Buria, the son of Itti-Marduk-
Building works and zoo
balu, governor of their land.
Broken Obelisk
Among his civic construction activities were the re-
excavation of a city moat and the irrigation of a public
garden:
The Synchronistic History[i 5] relates that the next king,
Adad-apla-iddina, son of Esagil-aduni, son of a no-
I built the palace of cedar, box-wood, body, was appointed by Ar-bl-kala, who married
terebinth, (and) tamarisk in my city Aur. his daughter and took her with a vast dowry to As-
The canal which Ashur-dan I, king of Assyria syria, while the Eclectic Chronicle gives his father as Itti-
excavated the source of that canal had fallen Marduk-balu. The Synchronistic History concludes with
in and for thirty years water had not owed noting that the people of Assyria and Babylonia mingled
therein. I again excavated the source of that (peacefully) with one another.[8]
canal, directed water therein (and) planted
gardens.[4] His tomb was one of the ve found on the lower reaches
Broken Obelisk of the palace at Assur. He was briey succeeded by his
son, Erba-Adad II, whose short reign was followed by
that of his brother ami-Adad IV.

The continued prestige of Assyria was acknowledged by


the gift of exotic animals by the Egyptians which ni 2.54.2 Inscriptions
mtu uebri, he displayed (the animals) to the people
of his land.[5] These he added to his collection of rare [1] Assyrian Kinglist, iii 29-30, 31, 35.
animals which he bred and dispatched merchants to ac-
quire more, such as a large female ape and a crocodile [2] Broken Obelisk, BM 118898 .
(and) a river man, beasts of the Great Sea and the
dromedaries he displayed in herds.[6] Ar-bl-kalas in- [3] Annals, VAT 9539, BM 134497 .
terests were not solely zoological as he enjoyed hunting
and boasts killing wild bulls and cows at the city of Araz- [4] Eclectic Chronicle (ABC 24), tablet BM 27859 , obv. 47.
iqu which is before the land of atti and at the foot of
[5] Synchronistic History (ABC 21), ii 25-37.
Mount Lebanon.
He rebuilt from top to bottom the storehouses of
my lordly palace, which are at the fore part of the 2.54.3 References
enclosure,[7] Aur-ndin-a's terrace of the New
Palace at Nineveh, placing gate guardians inspired by the [1] K. kerman (1998). Ar-bl-kala. In K. Radner.
niru he had supposedly hunted. He also repaired a quay The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume
wall originally built by Adad-nrr I (ca. 13071275 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p.
BC).[2] 171.
2.55. ERIBA-ADAD II 43

[2] D. J. Wiseman (1975). XXXI: Assyria & Babylonia the Babylonian counterpart is illegible, possibly having
12001000 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. been Simbar-ipak based on the sequence of kings be-
G. L. Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient fore and after. This chronicle seems quite fanciful in its
History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and chronology during the Assyrian dark-age. In any case, the
the Aegean Region, 13801000 BC. Cambridge University king Adad-apla-iddina would have been his contempo-
Press. pp. 467469.
rary, sheltering his uncle, ami-Adad IV in political ex-
[3] Younger, K Lawson (2007), Ugarit at Seventy-Five : pro- ile while he regrouped and planned his putsch. Although
ceedings of the Symposium Ugarit at Seventy-Five held at Aur-bl-kala had married Adad-apla-iddinas daughter,
Trinity International University, Deereld, Illinois, Febru- it seems unlikely that Adad-apla-iddina would have then
ary 18-20, 2005 under the auspices of the Middle West- participated in an eort to depose his own grandson, so
ern Branch of the American Oriental Society and the Mid- it seems likely that Erba-Adad was the issue of another
West Region of the Society of the Biblical Literature, Eisen- queen and the Babylonian kings change of attitude due to
brauns, pp. 149151, ISBN 1575065886 earlier political events in Assyria.[4] His rule came to an
[4] Koh, Yee-Von (2006). Royal autobiography in the book end when ami-Adad went up [from [[KarduniaKar-
of Qoheleth. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fr die alttesta- dun]ia]]. He drove Erba-Adad, [son of Aur-bl-ka]la,
[5]
mentliche Wissenschaft, 369. Walter de Gruyter. p. 94. from the throne.
ISBN 3110192284.
An Aur monumental stele (number 27) from the Stelen-
[5] Shigeo Yamada (2000). The Construction of the Assyr- reihe, row of stelae, has been attributed to him and is in-
ian Empire: A Historical Study of the Inscriptions of Shal- scribed laconically: Erba-adad, king of the universe.[6]
manesar III Relating to His Campaigns in the West. Brill.
p. 253.
2.55.2 Inscriptions
[6] Tomoo Ishida (1982). Studies in the period of David and
Solomon and other essays. Eisenbrauns. p. 219. [1] SDAS Kinglist, iii 31.

[7] Edward Lipiski (2006). On the Skirts of Canaan in [2] Nassouhi Kinglist, iv 12.
the Iron Age: Historical and Topographical Researches. [3] Khorsabad Kinglist, iii 45,
Peeters Publishers. p. 368.
[4] Clay cone fragment from Nineveh BM 123467, 6 lines.
[8] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite
Babylonia, 1158722 BC. Ponticium Institutum Bib- [5] Part of a clay tablet Rm-II.261 (RIMA 2 A.0.90.1), 7.
licum. pp. 141142. [6] Eponym List VAT 11254, (KAV 21).
[7] K.2693 Part of a clay tablet, with holes, 13 + 5 lines
(RIMA 2 A.0.90.1).
2.55 Eriba-Adad II
[8] Literary text, BM 98941.
Erba-Adad II, inscribed m SU-d IM, Adad has re-
placed, was the king of Assyria 1056/55-1054 BC, the 2.55.3 References
94th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist.[i 1][i 2] He was the
son of Aur-bl-kala whom he briey succeeded and was [1] P. Talon (1999). K. Radner, ed. The Prosopography of
deposed by his uncle ami-Adad IV.[1] the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1, Part II: A. The Neo-
Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 400.
[2] D. J. Wiseman (1975). XXXI: Assyria & Babylonia
2.55.1 Biography 12001000 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N.
G. L. Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient
The Khorsabad kinglist [i 3] mistakenly gives him as a son History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and
of Ilu-kabkabi, i.e. the father of the 18th century BC king the Aegean Region, 13801000 BC. Cambridge University
ami-Adad I. Despite his short two-year reign, there are Press. p. 469.
fragmentary inscriptions[i 4][i 5] where he claims his rule
[3] A. R. George (2003). House Most High: The Temples of
extended to the Aramaeans and lists conquests far and
Ancient Mesopotamia. Eisenbrauns. pp. 101102.
wide in intense military campaigns, imitating those of
Tukult-apil-Earra I, for which he styled himself king [4] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite
of the four quarters.[2] He would have appeared on a de- Babylonia, 1158722 B.C. Ponticium Institutum Bib-
stroyed section of the eponym list designated as Cc.[i 6] licum. p. 144.

He was one of the restorers of the .ur.sa.kur.kur.ra, [5] Jean-Jacques Glassner (2004). Mesopotamian Chronicles.
House, Mountain of the Lands, or the cella of the tem- SBL. pp. 142143.
ple of the god Aur,[3] as commemorated in one of his [6] P. A. Miglus (1984). Another Look at the Stelenreihen
inscriptions.[i 7] A fragmentary literary text is dated to his in Assur. Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie und Vorderasiatis-
reign.[i 8] The Synchronistic Kinglist gives his name, but che Archologie. 74: 136.
44 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.56 Shamshi-Adad IV the Aegean Region, 13801000 BC. Cambridge University


Press. p. 469.
ami-Adad IV, inscribed md am-i-d IM, was the king
of Assyria, 1054/31050 BC, the 91st to be listed on
the Assyrian Kinglist.[i 1][i 2] He was a son of Tukult-apil- 2.57 Ashurnasirpal I
Earra I (11141076 BC), the third to have taken the
throne, after his brothers Aard-apil-Ekur and Ashur- Aur-nir-apli I, inscribed m a-ur-PAB-A, the god
bel-kala, and he usurped the kingship from the latters Aur is the protector of the heir, was the king of
son, the short-reigning Erba-Adad II (10551054 BC). It Assyria, 10491031 BC, and the 92nd to appear on the
is quite probable that he was fairly elderly when he seized Assyrian Kinglist. He was the son and successor of ami-
the throne. Adad IV, and he ruled for 19 years[i 1] during a troubled
period of Assyrian history, marked by famine and war
with nomads from the deserts to the west. He is best
2.56.1 Biography known for his penitential prayer to Itar of Nineveh.

The Assyrian kinglist recalls that he came up from


Kardunia (i.e. Babylonia). He ousted Erba-Adad, 2.57.1 Biography
son of Aur-bl-kala, seized the throne and ruled for 4
years. The king of Babylon was Adad-apla-iddina, who According to a royal hymn composed in his honor, he
had been installed more than a decade earlier by ami- was born in the mountains that nobody knows, suggest-
Adads brother, Ashur-bel-kala. The extent to which ing he may have been born in exile, or perhaps a literary
he was instrumental in the succession is uncertain but it device, as it continues: I was without understanding and
seems that ami-Adad may have earlier sought refuge in I prayed not of your majesty. It relates that, when Itar
exile in the south.[1] appointed him to the kingship, he had restored her over-
thrown cult. Known from a single copy from the library
The Synchronistic Kinglist [i 3] gives Ea-, presumed to
of Ashurbanipal, it includes a plea to the goddess to re-
be Ea-mukin-zri (c. 1008 BC), as his Babylonian
store him to health from the sickness that aicted him,
contemporary,[2] an unlikely pairing as he was likely to
citing his temple-restoration, and devotions, to persuade
have been concurrent with the latter kings of the 2nd dy-
her. It addresses Itar of Nineveh, and Itar of Arbil, as
nasty of Isin during its dying throws. The political events
though they were separate deities.[1] A second, fragmen-
of his reign are obscure and his fragmentary inscriptions
tary literary prayer thanks her for her favor.[2]
are limited to commemorating renovation work carried
out on the Itar temple at Nineveh and the bt nmeru, A single short brick-inscription comes from his palace
gate-tower, at Aur.[3] in Assur,[i 2] which was located between the south-west
front of the ziggurat and the Anu-Adad temple. The
He would be succeeded by his son, Aur-nair-apli I.
White Obelisk[i 3] is sometimes attributed to him by his-
torians, but more usually to his later namesake, Aur-
2.56.2 Inscriptions nir-apli II, because its internal content (hunting, mil-
itary campaigns, etc.) better matches what is known
[3] [i 4]
[1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS about his reign. The Synchronistic Kinglist gives his
828, DS 32-54), iv 14. Babylonian counterpart as Kau-ndin-ai (c. 1006
1004 BC), but probably only for stylistic purposes as there
[2] SDAS Kinglist, tablet IM 60484, iii 3336. seems to have been no recorded contact between the king-
doms during this period.[4]
[3] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 3.
He was succeeded by his son, almanu-aaredu II, who
mentions him in one of his own inscriptions[i 5] and later
2.56.3 References by another son, the long-reigning Aur-rabi II.

[1] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite


Babylonia, 1158722 BC. Ponticium Institutum Bib- 2.57.2 See also
licum. pp. 143144.
White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I
[2] Heather D. Baker (2008). "ami-Adad IV. Reallexikon
der Assyriologie: Prinz, Prinzessin - Samug, Bd. 11. Wal-
ter De Gruyter. p. 636. 2.57.3 Inscriptions
[3] D. J. Wiseman (1975). XXXI: Assyria & Babylonia [1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS
12001000 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. 828, DS 32-54), iv 5.
G. L. Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient
History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and [2] RIMA 2 A.0.92.1:1.
2.58. SHALMANESER II 45

[3] White Obelisk, BM 118807. 2.58.1 Biography


[4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 4.
In recent years, there has been a trend towards reading the
[5] RIMA 2 A.0.93.1:4. SILIM in his name as sal rather than ul on philological
grounds.[1] He succeeded his father, Aur-nir-apli I
and ruled for 12 years according to the Assyrian Kinglist
2.57.4 References and conrmed by a heavily damaged fragment of an
eponym list (pictured).[i 1] Of the twelve limmu ocials
[1] W.G. Lambert. Itar of Nineveh. Iraq. 66: 3539.
doi:10.2307/4200555.
listed, only the names of the rst two have been sub-
stantially preserved, that of Salmnu-aard himself, who
[2] S. Fischer (1998). Aur-nair-apli I. In K. Radner. took the eponymy in his rst year, and MU.ID-mu-ab-
The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume [i]. The twelfth entry a ar[ki si] indicates that the
1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. pp. limmu which is after (the previous name) either sug-
204205. gesting that the original from which this list was copied
[3] D. J. Wiseman (1975). XXXI: Assyria & Babylonia was defective in this place or the gap in the oce coin-
12001000 BC. In I. E. S. Edwards; C. J. Gadd; N. cides with a period of turbulence.[2]
G. L. Hammond; S. Solberger. The Cambridge Ancient
In the Synchronistic Kinglist [i 4] he is listed beside his
History, Volume II, Part 2, History of the Middle East and
the Aegean Region, 13801000 BC. Cambridge University
Babylonian counterpart, Eulma-akin-umi (1004988
Press. pp. 469470. BC) of the Bt-Bazi dynasty, an unlikely pairing reecting
perhaps the isolation of the two kingdoms at the time. In
[4] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post Kassite all likelihood, he reigned concurrently with Nab-uma-
Babylonia, 1158722 BC. Ponticium Institutum Bib- libr (10331026 BC) and Simbar-ipak (10251008
licum. p. 29.
BC), whose reigns were characterized by droughts, crop
failures and incursions by Arameans, migrating under the
pressure from climate change. The later king, Aur-dn
2.58 Shalmaneser II II (935912 BC), recalled Salmnu-aards own losses
to this tribal group:

[ who] from the time of Salmnu-aard,


king of [Assyria, my forefather], had destroyed
[people of Assyria by ] and murder, had sold
[all] their [sons (and) daughters].[3]

Another retrospective reference can probably be found


in an inscription of Aur-nir-apli II, unless it refers
to the earlier king by this name. It relates I repos-
sessed the cities of Sinabu (and) Tidufortresses which
Salmnu-aard, king of Assyria, a prince who preceded
me, had garrisoned against the land of Nairi (and) which
the Arameans had captured by force.[3]
There are few inscriptions which may be attributed for
certainty to him as several may belong to the Salmnu-
aard who preceded him, or to one of the three who
followed.[4] Of those that can be reliably attributed, a
monumental stele (number 14) from Aur, from the Ste-
lenreihe, row of stelae, provides his genealogy thus
permitting identication but nothing else. It reads:
Schroeders line art for the KAV 21 list of Eponyms show- Salmnu-aard, great king, king of the universe, king
ing the twelve years of Salmnu-aard II and his immediate of Assyria, son of Aur-nir-apli (I), king of Assyria,
successors.[i 1] son of ami-adad (IV), who was also king of Assyria.
A temple endowment[i 5] lists quantities of cedar balsam
Salmnu-aard II, inscribed md SILIM-ma-nu- (dam erni) donated by the king to the Aur temple and
MA/SAG, meaning "(the god) Salmnu is foremost, its temples and includes the provision of a quantity of
was the king of Assyria 10301019 BC, the 93rd to aromatics to Idiglat, the deied river Tigris.[5] There is a
appear on the Khorsabad copy[i 2] of the Assyrian long dedication inscription of Salmnu-aard, II or III
Kinglist, although he has been apparently carelessly undetermined, to Itar composed for the consecration of
omitted altogether on the Nassouhi copy.[i 3] a temple.[i 6] A gold and a silver disk are inscribed with
46 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

the name Salmnu-aard and could possibly represent


this king or his predecessor.[6]
He was succeeded by his son, the briey reigning Aur-
Nrr IV, and then his brother Aur-rabi II.

2.58.2 Inscriptions
[1] Eponym List KAV 21, tablet VAT 11254, iv.

[2] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS


828, DS 32-54), iv 6-7.

[3] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836).

[4] Synchronistic Kinglist, tablet excavation no. Ass 14616c,


rst publication KAV 216.

[5] Temple endowment, KAV 78.

[6] KAR 98.

2.58.3 References Schroeders line art for the KAV 21 list of Eponyms showing
the six years of Aur-nrr IV and both his predecessor and
[1] Karen Radner (1998). Der Gott Salmnu ("ulmnu)
successor.[i 1]
und seine Beziehung zur Stadt Dr-Katlimmu. Die Welt
des Orients. 29: 3351. JSTOR 25683683.

[2] M. T. Larsen (1974). Unusual Eponymy-datings from during his rst year but the following year is marked a
Mari and Assyria. Revue DAssyriologie: 21. EGIR m a-ur-, (year) after Aur- and thereafter all
the remaining years were recorded with a sequential num-
[3] K. Lawson Younger (2007). The LB/Iron Age Transition ber and a Winkelhaken to designate ditto. It is probable
and the Origins of the Arameans. Ugarit at Seventy-Five. that events were so turbulent during this period that an
Eisenbrauns. pp. 159, 161. eponym was not appointed.[2]
[4] Heather D. Baker (2008). Salmnu-aard II. Re- The Babylonian king, Ninurta-kudurr-uur I (987 985
allexikon der Assyriologie: Prinz, Prinzessin Samug, Bd.
BC) is given as his counterpart on the Synchronistic
11. Walter De Gruyter. p. 581. Kinglist [i 4] but the conventional chronology would sug-
[5] W.G. Lambert (1999). Idiglat. In Edzard. Reallexikon gest it was the earlier monarch, Simbar-ipak (1025-
der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archologie: Ia 1008 BC). The later king, Aur-nir-apli II mentions
Kizzuwatna. Walter De Gruyter. p. 31. Sibir, king of Kardunia" in the context of the capture
of the city of Atlila, in his annals, and historians have
[6] A. K. Grayson (1972). Assyrian Royal Inscriptions, Vol-
tentatively identied this individual with Simbar-ipak,
ume 1. Otto Harrassowitz. p. 99. 33.
suggesting he engaged in warfare against Assyria around
this time.[3]

2.59 Ashur-nirari IV His successor was his uncle, Aur-rabi II, a younger son
of the earlier king Aur-nir-apli I. The circumstances
of the succession are unknown and the Assyrian Kinglist
Aur-nrr IV, inscribed m a-ur-ERIM.GABA, "(the gives no indication that he was overthrown, the usual
god) Aur is my help,[1] was the king of Assyria, the cause of an uncle to succeed his nephew in the Assyrian
94th to appear on the Assyrian Kinglist,[i 2][i 3] ruling monarchy.
1019/18-1013 BC. His short six-year reign was marked
by confusion and a dearth of contemporary inscriptions.
2.59.2 Inscriptions
2.59.1 Biography [1] Eponym List KAV 21, tablet VAT 11254, iv.

He succeeded his father, Salmnu-aard II, whose [2] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS
twelve-year reign seems to have ended in confusion, as 828, DS 32-54), iv 8.
the last limmu ocial on his eponym list[i 1] is missing [3] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iv 21.
and recorded as a ar[ki si...], the eponym which is af-
ter (the previous name). Aur-nrr took the eponymy [4] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216).
2.60. ASHUR-RABI II 47

2.59.3 References BC) to Nab-mukin-apli (978943 BC), although there


is no extant contemporary proof of contact which might
[1] A. Fuchs, K. Radner (1998). Aur-nrr II. In K. Rad- help x this chronology more precisely. The Synchronistic
ner. The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Vol- Kinglist [i 7] gives his contemporary as irikti-uqamuna, a
ume 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. king of Babylonia who reigned just 3 months ca. 985 BC.
p. 208.
Severe distress and famine was recorded under Kau-
[2] M. T. Larsen (1974). Unusual Eponymy-datings from ndin-ai (ca 10061004 BC), the midpoint in Aur-
Mari and Assyria. Revue DAssyriologie: 21. rabis reign, and this possibly points to the underlying
cause of the Aramean migration.[6]
[3] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite
Babylonia, 1158722 B.C. Ponticium Institutum Bib- He was followed on the throne by his son, the equally
licum. p. 154. obscure Aur-rei-ii II, who ruled for ve years.

2.60 Ashur-rabi II 2.60.2 Inscriptions

Aur-rabi II, inscribed m a-ur-GAL-bi, "(the god) [1] Khorsabad Kinglist, IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS 828,
Aur is great,[1] was king of Assyria 1012972 BC. De- DS 32-54), iv 9.
spite his lengthy reign (41 years), one of the longest of the
Assyrian monarchs, his tenure seems to have been an un- [2] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iv 23.
happy one judging by the scanty and laconic references
to his setbacks from later sources. [3] SDAS Kinglist, IM 60484, iv 9.

[4] RIMA 2 A.0.101.58:3' and copy RIMA 2 A.0.I01.65:3'.


2.60.1 Biography
[5] RIMA 3 A.0.102.2 ii 37.
He was a younger son of the earlier Assyrian monarch,
Aurnairpal I. He succeeded his nephew Aur-nerari [6] RIMA 2 A.0.96.2001 clay cylinder.
IV's brief six year rule, and if this succession was like
earlier usurpations by uncles of their nephews, it would [7] Synchronistic Kinglist, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 7.
have been a violent aair. The Assyrian Kinglist [i 1][i 2][i 3]
records his accession and genealogy but provides no fur-
ther information. His construction of the Bit-nathi, part
of the temple of Itar in Nineveh, was recalled in a ded- 2.60.3 References
icatory clone of Aur-nir-apli II (883859 BC) com-
memorating his own repair work.[i 4] [1] A. Fuchs (1998). Aur-rabi II. In K. Radner. The
Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume 1,
Some Assyrian settlements on the Middle Euphrates were Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p. 209.
lost to the Arameans as they were able to cross the
river and establish a network of autonomous but inter- [2] Martin Sicker (2000). The Pre-Islamic Middle East.
related settlements that began to encroach on the As- Praeger. p. 48.
syrian heartland.[2] ulmnu-aardu III recalled the loss
of Ana-Aur-utr-abat (Pitru, possibly Tell Aushariye) [3] Wayne T. Pitard (1987). Ancient Damascus: A Historical
and Mutkinu, two towns close to Til Barsip, which Study of the Syrian City-State from Earliest Times until Its
had originally been taken and colonized by Tukult-apil- Fall to the Assyrians in 732 B.C.E. Eisenbrauns. p. 91.
Earra I around a hundred years earlier, in one of his
inscriptions: At the time of Aur-rabi (II), king of [4] Stephen W. Holloway (1997). Assyria and Babylonia in
Assyria, the king of Aram (Syria) took [two cities] by the Tenth Century. In Lowell K. Handy. The Age of
forceI restored these cities. I installed the Assyrians in Solomon: Scholarship at the Turn of the Millennium. Brill.
their midst.[i 5] The king of Aram (ar4 KUR-a-ru-mu) p. 2009.
is unlikely to have been Hadadezer of Zobah, in south-
ern Syria, but a northern Aram in or near anigalbat.[3] [5] Hartmut Khne, ed. (2010). Production and Consump-
His authority continued to stretch as far west as the r- tion at Dr-Katlimmu, A Survey of the Evidence. Dr-
br river as recorded on the cylinder[i 6] of Bel-ere, a Katlimmu 2008 and Beyond. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.
ang or governor of adikanni,[4] somewhat contradict- p. 69.
ing the picture of Assyrian retreat and decline painted
elsewhere.[5] [6] J. Neumann, S. Parpola (Jul 1987). Climatic Change
and the Eleventh-Tenth-Century Eclipse of Assyria and
His era must have stretched from the reigns of his Babylonia. Journal of Near Eastern Studies. 46 (3): 180.
Babylonian contemporaries, Simbar-ipak (10251008 doi:10.1086/373244.
48 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.61 Ashur-resh-ishi II 2.61.3 References


[1] J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite
Ar-re-ii II, inscribed m a-ur-SAG-i-i, meaning
Babylonia, 1158722 B.C. Ponticium Institutum Bib-
"(the god) Aur has lifted my head, was the king licum. pp. 2829.
of Assyria, 971967 BC, the 96th to be listed on
the Assyrian Kinglist.[i 1][i 2] His short ve-year reign is [2] K. Fabritius (1998). Ar-r-ii. In K. Radner.
rather poorly attested and somewhat overshadowed by the The Prosopography of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, Volume
lengthy reigns of his predecessor, Aur-rabi II, and suc- 1, Part I: A. The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. p.
cessor, Tukult-apil-Earra II. 213.

[3] Allison Karmel Thomason (2006). Luxury And Legitima-


tion: Royal Collecting In Ancient Mesopotamia. Ashgate
2.61.1 Biography Pub Co. p. 110.

He succeeded his father, Aur-rabi II, who had a long


41-year reign. He was probably fairly elderly when the 2.62 Tiglath-Pileser II
accession took place. He is given in the Synchronis-
tic Kinglist [i 3] as the counterpart of the Babylonian king
Tiglath-Pileser II (from the Hebraic form [Note 1] of
Mr-bti-apla-uur (983-978 BC), the sole member of
Akkadian Tukult-apil-Earra) was King of Assyria from
the 7th or Elamite dynasty of Babylon, although con-
967 BCE, when he succeeded his father Ashur-resh-ishi
ventional chronology would suggest the subsequent king,
II, until his death in 935 BCE, when he was succeeded by
Nab-mukin-apli (978943 BC), might be a more likely
his son Ashur-dan II. Little is known about his reign.
candidate.[1] The part of the eponym list Cc[i 4] which
would have displayed his limmu ocials, was at the top
of column V, and is obliterated.
2.62.1 See also
Apart from the references to him in later copies of the As-
syrian Kinglists and in the liation of his grandson, Aur- Tiglath-Pileser I
dn II, the only contemporary inscriptions referring to
him are from his stele[i 5] at the Stelenreihe, row of ste- Tiglath-Pileser III
[i 6]
lae, in Aur and in the cylinder inscription of Bl-
ere.[2] His stele (number 12) is simply inscribed "alam
of Aur-re-ii, king of Assyria (MAN.KUR a-ur), son 2.62.2 Footnotes
of [A]ur-[r]abi, king of Assyria, where the term alam
is taken to mean statue.[3] Bl-eri, the ang-priest of [1] Spelled as ""
Tiglath-Pileser in the Book
the temple of the god Samnuha, in the city of adikanni, of Kings (2Kings 15:29) or as ""
Tilgath-
Pilneser in the Book of Chronicles (2Chronicles 28:20).
in the rbr river valley region, commemorated his con-
struction of a quay-wall for a canal during Aur-rabi IIs
reign, and the reconstruction of the temple during Ar-
re-iis, in his clay cylinder inscription recovered from
2.62.3 References
Aur.
This article incorporates text from a publication now
in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"article name needed ". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th
2.61.2 Inscriptions ed.). Cambridge University Press.

[1] Khorsabad Kinglist, tablet IM 60017 (excavation nos.: DS


828, DS 32-54), iv 10, 12. 2.63 Ashur-dan II
[2] Nassouhi Kinglist, Istanbul A. 116 (Assur 8836), iv 25, 27.
Ashur-Dan II (Aur-dn) (934-912 B.C), son of Tiglath
Pileser II, was the earliest king of the Neo-Assyrian Em-
[3] Synchronistic Kinglist, tablet Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 8. pire. He was best known for recapturing previously held
Assyrian territory and restoring Assyria to its natural bor-
[4] Eponym List KAV 21, tablet VAT 11254, v. ders, from Tur Abdin (southeast Turkey) to the foothills
beyond Arbel (Iraq). The reclaimed territory through
[5] Stele RIMA 2 A.0.96.1 :2. his conquest was fortied with horses, ploughs, and grain
stores. His military and economic expansions beneted
[6] Cylinder inscription of Bl-ere, RIMA 2 four subsequent generations of kings that replicated his
A.0.96.2001:16. model.[1]
2.63. ASHUR-DAN II 49

2.63.1 Background After reestablishing the Assyrian boundaries, Ashur-Dan


went through an extensive period of resettlement and land
Until the decipherment of cuneiform in the mid- reclamation. Ashur-Dan also left his mark on the Crafts-
Nineteenth Century A.D., the only information on Neo- mans Gate and the New Palace by performing construc-
Assyrian history came from the Bible and classic au- tion on both sites. His basic ideology and strategy laid
thors. The direction of the campaigns conducted by As- the foundation for the Neo-Assyrian period, which was
syrian kings and the means of reconstructing chronology elaborated by his successors.[1] He was able to establish
of events from the period of 841-745 and beyond are a uniformly structured political entity with well-dened
found in one type of eponym list, commonly known as and well-structured borders. His conquest is presented as
'Eponym Chronicle'.[2] The Assyrian royal annals add to a return of stability and prosperity after a perceived un-
this skeleton outline signicantly. Annals are still in ex- lawful period of intrusion. The displaced Assyrians were
istence for all but the last few kings. There are no letters rehoused in towns and the resettled lands were fortied
available from this period, however administrative and le- with agricultural growth. The decline of Early Assyria
gal documents exist. For Ashur-Dan II, whose annals are was largely due to a lack of systematic administration and
only preserved in fragments, certain characteristics of As- an inux of Armenians. Ashur-Dan established govern-
syrian military can be observed. He followed the descrip- ment oces in all provinces, creating a strong administra-
tion of his military exploits by the count of wild animals tive presence in the areas under his rule. At the end of the
(wild bulls, elephants, and lions) that he had hunted and millennium, Assyria was surrounded by enemies to the
killed, which traditionally characterized Assyrian kings south, in and around Babylonia, to the west by the Arme-
as protective and heroic. The accounts conclude with nians in Syria, and to the north and east by the Nairi peo-
Ashur-Dan building activities, stressing that he did not ple. Ashur-Dan successfully expanded Assyrian territory
exploit the spoils of his campaign to enrich himself, but surrounded by formidable foes and established provin-
rather to honor and exalt the gods.[1] cial administration that once again transformed Assyria
from a territorial power to an imperial power known as
the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[2] The Neo-Assyrian Empire
2.63.2 Accomplishments was a diverse and multi-ethnic state from people from
many tribes of dierent origins. It was a uniformly struc-
Annals preserved in fragments suggest Ashur-Dan was tured political entity with well-dened and well-guarded
the rst king known to have conducted regular military borders, and the Assyrian kings certainly regarded it as a
campaigns in over a century. His military campaign pri- unied whole, the land of Aur, whose territory they
marily focused on northern territories along mountainous constantly strove to expand. To the outside world, it like-
terrain that made controlling it problematic.[2] These ar- wise was a unied, monolithic whole, whose inhabitants
eas were vital because they lay close to the Assyrian heart- were unhesitatingly identied as Assyrians regardless of
land and thus were vulnerable to enemy attacks. Further- their ethnic backgrounds.[3]
more, several important routes leading to Anatolia ran
through these areas and were a source of crucial met-
als. In one of his more signicant victories, Ashur-Dan 2.63.3 Succession
captured the king of the northeastern state of Kadmuhu,
ayed and displayed his skin publicly on the walls of Ar- Ashur-Dan was succeeded by his son, Adad-nirari II
bela,replaced him with a loyal subordinate, and took valu- (911-891 B.C.). He continued to campaign repeatedly
able bronze, tin and precious stone from Kadmuhu.[1][2] in areas that his father had attacked, expanding on his
Another chief concern of Ashur-Dans known military fathers achievements. He ruled two years less than his
campaigns was the Armenians to the west. Evident in his father, but the number and range of his military cam-
own statements found from fragmentary annals, Ashur- paigns were greater.To the west he marched as far as
Dan believed he was rightfully retaking Assyrian terri- the Balikh river, to the south as far as the middle Eu-
tory occupied by the Armenians in the recent past. He phrates, to the north as far as the southern regions of Lake
also claimed that he had brought back Assyrians who had Van, and to the east he penetrated the Zagros mountains.
ed due to starvation to resettle the lands. The impres- Three versions of his annals are known.Altogether the
sion conveyed through these annals was that the Armeni- annals cover campaigns from the accession to the eigh-
ans enslaved and slaughtered Assyrians and seized their teenth regnal year.[1] Other kings that followed his strate-
land.[1] gies and ideology were Tukulti-Ninurta II, son of Adad-
nirari II; Ashurnasripal II, son of Tukulti-Ninurta II; and
Eastwards, the Zagroos foothills down to the lower Zab, Shalmaneser III, son of Ashurnasripal II.
were strategic crucial points where Assyrian kings fre-
quently campaigned, both for Assyrian security and
to safeguard the limited routes through the mountains. 2.63.4 References
This was a key commercial point for Assyrians, trad-
ing horses and valuable lapis lazuli mined in northeast [1] Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press.
Afghanistan.[2] 1924-01-01. ISBN 9780521224963.
50 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[2] Kuhrt, Amlie (1995-01-01). The Ancient Near He reigned from 911[2] to 891 BC.
East, C. 3000-330 BC. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN
9780415167642.
Because of the existence of full eponym lists from his
reign down to the middle of the reign of Ashurbanipal
[3] Parpola,, Simo (1990). ASSYRIAN IDENTITY IN AN- in the 7th century BC, year one of his reign in 911 BC
CIENT TIMES AND TODAY (PDF). Unity and Diver- is perhaps the rst event in ancient Near Eastern history
sity. which can be dated to an exact year, although the Assyrian
King List is generally considered to be quite accurate for
several centuries before Adad-niraris reign, and scholars
2.64 Adad-nirari II generally agree on a single set of dates back to Ashur-
resh-ishi I in the late 12th century BC.

2.64.2 References
[1] Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. New York:
Osprey. p. 6.
[2] Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in Ancient
Mesopotamia. New York: Oxford UP. p. 74.

2.65 Tukulti-Ninurta II

Economic recovery in the reign of Adad-nirari II

Adad-nirari II is generally considered to be the rst King


of Assyria in the Neo-Assyrian period.
Adad-nirari IIs father was Ashur-dan II, whom he suc-
ceeded after a minor dynastic struggle. It is probable that
the accession encouraged revolts amongst Assyrias nom-
inal vassals.
He rmly subjugated the areas previously under only
nominal Assyrian vassalage, conquering and deporting
troublesome Aramean following a battle at the junction
of the Khabur and Euphrates in 910 BCE. After sub-
duing Neo-Hittite and Hurrian populations in the north
to far-o places. Adad-nirari II then twice attacked and
defeated Shamash-mudammiq of Babylonia, annexing a
large area of land north of the Diyala River and the
towns of Ht and Zanqu in mid Mesopotamia in the same
year. He made further gains over Babylonia under Nabu-
shuma-ukin I later in his reign. He also campaigned to
the west, subjugating the Aramean cities of Kadmuh and
Nisibin. Along with vast amounts of treasure collected,
he also secured the Kabur river region.[1] His reign was a
period of returning prosperity to the Middle East region Annals of Tukulti-Ninurta II
following expansion of Phoenician and Aramaean trade
routes, linking Anatolia, Egypt under the Libyan 22nd Tukulti-Ninurta II was King of Assyria from 891 BC
Dynasty, Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean. to 884 BC. He was the second king of the Neo Assyrian
Empire.

2.64.1 Biography
2.65.1 Family
Adad-nirari IIs son was named Tukulti-Ninurta II
and Tukulti continued to wage war against Assyrian His father was Adad-nirari II, the rst king of the Neo-
enemies.[1] Assyrian period. His son succeeded him and was named
2.66. ASHURNASIRPAL II 51

Ashurnasirpal II. He consolidated the gains made by his 2.66.1 Family


father over the neo Hittites, Babylonians and Arameans,
and successfully campaigned in the Zagros Mountains of Ashurnasirpal IIs father was Tukulti-Ninurta II. His son
Iran, subjugating the newly arrived Iranian peoples of the and successor was Shalmaneser III.
area, the Persians and Medes, during his brief reign.

2.66.2 Reign
The palaces, temples and other buildings raised by him
2.66 Ashurnasirpal II bear witness to a considerable development of wealth
and art. He was renowned for his brutality, using en-
slaved captives to build a new Assyrian capital at Kalhu
(Nimrud) in Mesopotamia where he built many impres-
sive monuments. He was also a shrewd administrator,
who realized that he could gain greater control over his
empire by installing Assyrian governors, rather than de-
pending on local client rulers paying tribute.

2.66.3 Campaigns
See also: Ashurnasirpal IIs campaigns in Lebanon
Like previous Assyrian monarchs Ashurnasirpal cam-

Ashur-nasir-pal II (centre) meets a high ocial after a successful


battle.

Ashur-nasir-pal II (transliteration: Aur-nir-apli,


meaning "Ashur is guardian of the heir[1] ) was king of
Assyria from 883 to 859 BC. Campaigns and contemporaries of Ashurnasirpal II
Ashurnasirpal II succeeded his father, Tukulti-Ninurta II,
in 883 BC. During his reign he embarked on a vast pro- paigned along the Euphrates against Aramaeans and in
gram of expansion, rst conquering the peoples to the the Diyala against Babylon. Ashurnasirpal IIs brutal
north in Asia Minor as far as Nairi and exacting trib- treatment of rebels ensured that even when his army was
ute from Phrygia, then invading Aram (modern Syria) not present, there would not be further revolts. Fur-
conquering the Aramaeans and neo Hittites between ther revolts would see the local monarch replaced with
the Khabur and the Euphrates Rivers. His harshness a governor loyal only to the Assyrian monarchy. Lead-
prompted a revolt that he crushed decisively in a pitched, ing his army, which was typically composed of infantry
two-day battle. According to his monument inscription, (including auxiliaries and foreigners), heavy & light cav-
while recalling this massacre he says their men young alry and chariots, Ashurnasirpal conquered [2]
the Hittites
and old I took prisoners. Of some I cut o their feet and and Aramaean states of northern Syria.
hands; of others I cut o the ears noses and lips; of the Ashurnasirpal II did not destroy the
young mens ears I made a heap; of the old mens heads I Phoenician/Canaanite cities he conquered. He was
made a minaret. I exposed their heads as a trophy in front unsuccessful in his siege of Tyre, which under Ittobaal
of their city. The male children and the female children settled Kition in Cyprus and opened up trade routes
I burned in ames; the city I destroyed, and consumed throughout the Aegean, at Rhodes and Miletus. Through
with re. Following this victory, he advanced without tribute they became sources for the raw materials of his
opposition as far as the Mediterranean and exacted trib- armies and his building programs. Iron was needed for
ute from Phoenicia. On his return home, he moved his weapons, Lebanese cedar for construction and gold and
capital to the city of Kalhu (Nimrud). silver for the payment of troops.
52 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

Pair of Lamassus, Nimrud, (Metropolitan Museum)

2.66.4 Palace of Kalhu


Ashurnasirpal IIs palace was built and completed in 879
BC in Kalhu, which is in modern-day Iraq slightly north
of Baghdad. The palace walls were lined with reliefs
carved in alabaster. These reliefs bore elaborate carvings,
many portraying the king surrounded by winged protec-
tive spirits, or engaged in hunting or on campaign. Each
also had text inscribed in it. This text was the same or very
similar on each relief and is therefore called the Standard
Inscription. The Standard Inscription begins by tracing
Ashur-nasir-pal IIs lineage back three generations and
recounts his military victories, denes the boundaries of
his empire, tells how he founded Kalhu, and built the
palace. Ashurnasirpal II also built a massive gateway at
Nimrud. On this relief from Nimrud, a winged benevolent spirit blesses
either the king or palace with a pine-cone. Walters Art Museum,
The British archaeologist A.H. Layard excavated Kalhu Baltimore.
in the 1840s, uncovering the North-West Palace of
Ashurnasirpal II. Today, many of the reliefs and sculp-
tures from the excavations in Nimrud are displayed in
the galleries of the British Museum, London, including
the Statue of Ashurnasirpal II and the Black Obelisk,
with other reliefs on display in museums in Europe (e.g.
Munich), Japan and the USA.

Nimrud reliefs

After Assyria fell in 612 BCE, the palace became over-


grown and eventually completely buried, in which state
it remained for nearly 2,500 years until rediscovered by
the British born Austen Henry Layard in 1845.[3] Layard
oversaw the excavation of the palace during which time
the reliefs that dominated the walls of the structure were
removed from the site and sent to collections throughout
Europe and North America, with the British Museum re-
ceiving the majority of these Nimrud reliefs. Despite ex-
cavating and removing many of these reliefs, a great num-
ber remained within the palace and were eventually re-
buried with time. In 1949 M.E.L. Mallowan re-excavated Ashurnasirpal on the throne
the site, which lasted until 1957, at which time the project
was taken over by the Iraq Department of Antiques who
2.66. ASHURNASIRPAL II 53

still remains in control over the site. The known area of of the most well known of the Nimrud reliefs particu-
the palace measures 200m from north to south and 120 larly those showing Assurnasirpal II hunting lions. There
meters from east to west. This is most likely only a por- is also a distinct interest in the relationship between man
tion of the original design, including the possibility of an and animal in many of the scenes. In several depictions
upper level while no concrete evidence of this remains. the king is shown with supernatural creatures of animal
All of the walls of the palace were lined with stone slabs and human combination. All of the apotropaic portrayals,
of which a majority were decorated with relief images.[3] which would have decorated the doorways of the palace,
were of these human and animal hybrids. Within the con-
text of these apotropaic gures were three main types,
a winged gure wearing the horned crown which sym-
bolized divinity, a winged gure wearing a headband of
rosettes and a winged human gure with the head of a
bird.[3]

Nimrud Relief:Ashurnasirpal II Hunting Lions, (883-859 BCE)


Nimrud relief

Recurring subject matter Other popular themes in


the Nimrud reliefs included military campaigns and vic-
tories garnered by the Assyrians. More specically these
were displays of the relationships between Assyrians and
non-Assyrians.[5] The Assyrians were always shown in
moments of glory while the non-Assyrians are in sprawled
or contorted positions and most often naked. These illus-
trations represented violent death as punishment for vi-
olating Assyrian values, as well as merciless punishment
for transgressions. Not only would this have served as
a clear message for visiting dignitaries from other cul-
Ashurnasirpal II Hunting Lions, Pergamon Museum, Berlin
tures but also the same message was innately obvious as
a warning to the Assyrian elites as to what could happen
if they decided to defy the king.[5] Non-elites were likely
Symbolism and purpose Among these relief images not viewing these reliefs in that they would not have often,
occurred a certain amount of standardization. Carved if ever, been permitted into the palace. The elites would
into each of the stone slabs, including the ones lacking have typically only been present at the palace for rituals
relief, was what is referred to as the Standard Inscrip- and other business with the king. Assyrian women tend to
tion. This text gave the various names and titles of the be absent from all of these relief sculptures. This is most
king, spoke of his relationship with the gods and sum- likely due to the context of the reliefs, which were male
marized his military conquests. The text also goes on to dominated activities.[5] The only exception to women be-
describe the founding of Kalhu and speaks of the palace ing absent from these scenes would be in the case of non-
itself.[3] The slabs, which contain relief, consist of depic- Assyrian women who were captured as slaves during war.
tions of Assurnasirpals royal ideology. This ideology can These were typically the elite women of other cultures
be categorized into four main ideas, the military success rather than the lower class. In contrast to the way in which
of the king, his service to the gods, which provided divine male captives were portrayed, women were neither bound
protection and Assyrian prosperity.[3] There is a particu- nor naked in their depictions. Women captives were most
lar interest in the anatomy of both humans and animals often shown in oor length outts with possibly one part
within the depictions.[4] Royal hunting scenes are some of their body exposed in detail.[5]
54 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

Site post excavations Not all of the relief sculptures


have been removed from the palace at Nimrud, with many
of them still able to be viewed in their original context
although this is greatly limited. Many of the museums,
which currently display the Nimrud reliefs, attempt to
recreate the palace atmosphere by exhibiting them in a
similar fashion to their original loci.
In November 2014, it was reported that ISIL (Islamic
State of Iraq and the Levant) militants had looted many of
Iraqs archaeological sites, including the palace of Ashur-
nasirpal II, and are selling artifacts on the black market.
According to Aymen Jawad, executive director of Iraq
Heritage (based in London), Tablets, manuscripts and
cuneiforms are the most common artifacts being traded,
and, unfortunately, this is being seen in Europe and Amer- Reliefs from palace Brooklyn Museum
ica, he says. Hundreds of millions of dollars worth of
irreplaceable pieces are being sold to fund terrorists. [6]
Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas
On 5 March 2015 ISIL reportedly started the demoli-
tion of Nimrud. The local palace was bulldozed, while Mead Art Museum, Amherst, MA, USA
lamassu statues at the gates of the palace of Ashurnasir-
Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown,
pal II were smashed.[7]
USA

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA


2.66.5 Current location of Nimrud reliefs
Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Palace of the
Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN Winged Legion of Honor, San Francisco, USA
Genius
University of Chicago Oriental Institute, Chicago,
USA

Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, NY

Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, USA

Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, USA

Walters Art Museum, Baltimore, USA

Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Houston, USA

Nelson Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, USA


Wall reliefs from the north west palace at the British Museum
2.66.6 References
British Museum, London, United Kingdom [1] Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq (Third ed.). New
York: Penguin Books. p. 288. ISBN 0-14-012523-X.
Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, United Kingdom
[2] Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. New York:
National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, United Osprey. p. 10.
Kingdom
[3] Russell, John Malcolm (1998). The Program of the
Staatliche Sammlung fr gyptische Kunst, Mu- Palace of Assurnasirpal II at Nimrud: Issues in the Re-
nich, Germany search and Presentation of Assyrian Art. American Jour-
nal of Archeology. 102 (4). pp. 655715.
Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles,
USA [4] Ata, Mehmet-Ali (2010). The Mythology of Kingship in
Neo-Assyrian Art. New York, NY: Cambridge University
Hood Museum of Art, Hanover, USA Press.
2.67. SHALMANESER III 55

Grayson, A. K. (1972). From Tiglath-pileser I to


Ashur-nasir-apli II. Assyrian Royal Inscriptions. 2.
Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.
Mallowan, M.E. L. (1966). Nimrud and Its Re-
mains. London: Collins.
Olmstead, A. T. (1918). The Calculated Fright-
fulness of Ashur Nasir Apal. Journal of
the American Oriental Society. 38: 209263.
doi:10.2307/592609.
Reade, J.E. (1980) [1979]. Assyrian Architectural
Decoration. Baghdader Mitteilungen. 10/11: 71
87.
Stearns, J. B. (1961). Reliefs from the Palace of
Ashurnasirpal II. Graz: Ernst F. Weidner.

2.66.8 External links


Ashurnasirpal II - Ancient History Encyclopedia
Ashurnasirpal II - Archaeowiki.org
Human-headed winged lion (lamassu)
Entry at Questia Online Library

2.67 Shalmaneser III


Shalmaneser III (ulmnu-aardu, the god Shulmanu
is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859824 BC), and
Stela of Ashurnasirpal II in the British Museum son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II.[1]
His long reign was a constant series of campaigns
[5] Cirfarelli, Megan (1998). Gesture and Alterity in the Art against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations
of Ashurnasirpal II of Assyria. The Art Bulletin. 80 (2). of Mesopotamia and Syria, as well as Kizzuwadna and
pp. 210228. Urartu. His armies penetrated to Lake Van and the
Taurus Mountains; the Hittites of Carchemish were com-
[6] Janine Di Giovanni; Leah McGrath Goodman; Damien pelled to pay tribute, and the kingdoms of Hamath and
Sharkov (November 6, 2014). How Does ISIS Fund Its Aram Damascus were subdued. It is in the annals of
Reign of Terror?". News Week. Retrieved January 21, Shalmaneser III from the 850s BC that the Arabs and
2015.
Chaldeans rst appear in recorded history.
[7] ISIL ghters bulldoze ancient Assyrian palace in Iraq.
Al Jazeera. 5 March 2015. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 2.67.1 Reign
Campaigns
2.66.7 Further reading
In 853 BC, a coalition was formed by 11 states, mainly by
Brinkman, J.A. (1968). A Political History of Post- Hadadezer (Hadad-ezer) the Aramean king of Damascus,
Kassite Babylonia, 1158-722 BC. Rome: Pontili- Irluheni king of Hamath, Ahab king of Israel, Gindibu
cium Institutum Biblicum. king of the Arabs, and some other rulers who fought
the Assyrian king at the Battle of Qarqar. The result of
Crawford, Vaughn E.; et al. (1980). Assyrian re- the battle was not decisive, and Shalmaneser III had to
liefs and ivories in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: ght his enemies several times again in the coming years,
palace reliefs of Assurnasirpal II and ivory carvings which eventually resulted in the occupation of The Lev-
from Nimrud. New York: The Metropolitan Mu- ant (modern Syria and Lebanon), Arabia and Israel by the
seum of Art. ISBN 0870992600. Assyrian empire.
56 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

Rock relief of Shalmaneser near Tigristunnel

Jehu bows before Shalmaneser III.

Against Tibareni

In 836 BC, Shalmaneser sent an expedition against the


Tibareni (Tabal) which was followed by one against
Kurkh stela of morates the battle of Carcar. Cappadocia, and in 832 BC came another campaign
against Urartu. In the following year, age required the
king to hand over the command of his armies to the Tar-
tan (turtnu commander-in-chief) Dayyan-Assur, and six
years later, Nineveh and other cities revolted against him
Against Israel under his rebel son Assur-danin-pal. Civil war contin-
ued for two years; but the rebellion was at last crushed
by Shamshi-Adad V, another son of Shalmaneser. Shal-
In 842 BC, Shalmaneser campaigned against Hadadezers maneser died soon afterwards.
successor Hazael, forcing him to take refuge within the
walls of his capital. While Shalmaneser was unable to
capture Damascus, he devastated its territory, and Jehu of Later campaigns
Israel (whose ambassadors are represented on the Black
Obelisk now in the British Museum), together with the Despite the rebellion later in his reign, Shalmanesar had
Phoenician cities, prudently sent tribute to him in 841 proven capable of expanding the frontiers of the Neo-
BC. Babylonia had already been conquered, including Assyrian Empire, stabilising its hold over the Khabur
the areas occupied by migrant Chaldaean, Sutean and and Mountainous frontier region of the Zagros, contested
Aramean tribes, and the Babylonian king had been put with Urartu. His reign saw the rst appearance in history
to death.[2] of the camel-mounted Arabs.
2.67. SHALMANESER III 57

graved on the Black Obelisk from Calah.

The Campaigns of Shalmanesar III


The upper end of the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, from
Nimrud, Mesopotamia..
2.67.2 In Biblical studies
The Black Obelisk is a signicant artifact from his reign.
His reign is signicant to Biblical studies because two
It is a black limestone, bas-relief sculpture from Nimrud
of his monuments name rulers from Hebrew Bible. The
(ancient Kalhu), in northern Iraq. It is the most com-
Black Obelisk names Jehu son of Omri (although Jehu
plete Assyrian obelisk yet discovered, and is historically
was misidentied as a son of Omri), and the Kurkh
signicant because it displays the earliest ancient depic-
Monolith names king Ahab, in reference to the Battle of
tion of an Israelite. On the top and the bottom of the
Qarqar. reliefs there is a long cuneiform inscription recording the
annals of Shalmaneser III. It lists the military campaigns
which the king and his commander-in-chief headed every
2.67.3 Construction and the Black Obelisk year, until the thirty-rst year of reign. Some features
might suggest that the work had been commissioned by
the commander-in-chief, Dayyan-Ashur.
The second register from the top includes the earliest sur-
viving picture of an Israelite: the Biblical Jehu, king of
Israel. Jehu severed Israels alliances with Phoenicia and
Judah, and became subject to Assyria. It describes how
Jehu brought or sent his tribute in or around 841 BC. The
caption above the scene, written in Assyrian cuneiform,
can be translated:

The tribute of Jehu, son of Omri: I re-


ceived from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a
golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tum-
blers, golden buckets, tin, a sta for a king
[and] spears.

It was erected as a public monument in 825 BC at a time


of civil war. It was discovered by archaeologist Sir Austen
Henry Layard in 1846.

2.67.4 See also

Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III in the British Museum. List of artifacts signicant to the Bible

He had built a palace at Kalhu (Biblical Calah, mod- Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III
ern Nimrud), and left several editions of the royal annals
recording his military campaigns, the last of which is en- Short chronology timeline
58 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.67.5 References
[1] Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser II.
Mcadams.posc.mu.edu. Retrieved 26 October 2012.

[2] Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq

2.67.6 Sources
1911 Encyclopdia Britannica

2.67.7 External links


Media related to Shalmaneser III at Wikimedia Com-
mons

Gates of Shalmanser III and Assunasirpal. Bronze


Reliefs from the Gates of Shalmaneser King of As-
syria
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III Babylonian and
Assyrian Literature.
Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III

2.68 Shamshi-Adad V
Stela of the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad V from the temple of
Nabu at Nimrud, Mesopotamia.
Shamshi-Adad V was the King of Assyria from 824 to
811 BC. He was named after the god Adad, who is also
known as Hadad.[1][2]
In 814 BCE, he won the Battle of Dur-Papsukkal against
the Babylonian king Marduk-balassu-iqbi, and a few
2.68.1 Family Aramean tribes settled in Babylonia.

Shamshi-Adad was a son and successor of King


Shalmaneser III, the husband of Queen Shammuramat 2.68.3 See also
(by some identied with the mythical Semiramis), and the
father of Adad-nirari III, who succeeded him as king.[3]
Stela of Shamshi-Adad V
He was also a grandfather of Shalmaneser IV.[4][5]

2.68.2 Reign 2.68.4 Notes

The rst years of Shamshi-Adads reign saw a serious [1] Reilly, Jim (2000) Contestants for Syrian Domination
struggle for the succession of the aged Shalmaneser. in Chapter 3: Assyrian & Hittite Synchronisms The Ge-
The revolt was led by Shamshi-Adads brother Assur- nealogy of Ashakhet;
danin-pal, and had broken out already by 826 BC. The
rebellious brother, according to Shamshi-Adads own in- [2] Empires and Exploitation: The Neo-Assyrian Empire, P
scriptions, succeeded in bringing to his side 27 impor- Bedford, WA Perth, 2001
tant cities, including Nineveh. The rebellion lasted until
820 BC, weakening the Assyrian empire and its ruler; this [3] Encyclopdia Britannica Eleventh Edition
weakness continued to reverberate in the kingdom until
the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III. [4] Georges Roux: Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books, London
Later in his reign, Shamshi-Adad campaigned against 1992, ISBN 0-14-012523-X, p. 302.
Southern Mesopotamia, and stipulated a treaty with the
Babylonian king Marduk-zakir-shumi I. [5] Britannica.com
2.69. ADAD-NIRARI III 59

2.69 Adad-nirari III


Adad-nirari III (also Adad-narari) was a King of As-
syria from 811 to 783 BC.

2.69.1 Family

Adad-nirari was a son and successor of king Shamshi-


Adad V, and was apparently quite young at the time of
his accession, because for the rst ve years of his reign,
his mother Shammuramat[2] was highly inuential, which
may have given rise to the legend of Semiramis.[3]
It is widely rejected that his mother acted as regent, but
she was surprisingly inuential for the time period.[4]
He was the father of kings Ashur-nirari V, Shalmaneser
IV, and Ashur-dan III.
Tiglath-Pileser III described himself as a son of Adad-
nirari in his inscriptions, but it is uncertain if this is truth-
ful.

2.69.2 Biography

Basalt stele of the Assyrian king Adad-nirari III from Saba. An-
cient Orient Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museums, Turkey

recovery of Israel under Jehoash (who paid the Assyrian


king tribute at this time) and Jeroboam II.
Despite Adad-niraris vigor, Assyria entered a several
decades long period of weakness following his death.

2.69.3 See also


Agate beads with the name Adad-nrr III from Khojaly: Man-
neans period in the National Museum of History of Azerbaijan. Shamshi-ilu

Adad-niraris youth, and the struggles his father had faced


early in his reign, caused a serious weakening for the As- 2.69.4 References
syrian rulership over Mesopotamia, and gave way to the
ambitions of the most ocers, governors, and the local
[1] Tell Al Rimah Stele, IM 70543, in the Iraq Museum,
rulers.
Baghdad.
According to Adad-niraris inscriptions, he led several
military campaigns with the purpose of regaining the [2] Georges Roux: Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books, London
strength Assyria enjoyed in the times of his grandfather 1992, ISBN 0-14-012523-X, page 302.
Shalmaneser III.
According to the eponym canon, he campaigned in all [3] Reilly, Jim (2000) Contestants for Syrian Domination
directions until the last of his 18 years of reign (783 BC), in Chapter 3: Assyrian & Hittite Synchronisms The Ge-
and he was the builder of the temple of Nabu at Nineveh. nealogy of Ashakhet;
Among his actions was a siege of Damascus in the time
of Ben-Hadad III in 796 BCE, which led to the eclipse [4] Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture by William H.
of the Aramaean Kingdom of Damascus and allowed the Stiebing Jr.
60 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.70 Shalmaneser IV 2.72 Ashur-nirari V

Shalmaneser IV was king of Assyria (783773 BC). He Ashur-nirari V was King of Assyria from 755 to 745
succeeded his father Adad-nirari III, and was succeeded BC. He was succeeded by Tiglath-Pileser III.
by his brother Ashur-dan III. Very little information about Ashur-nirari V was a son of Adad-nirari III, and suc-
his reign has survived. ceeded his brother, Ashur-dan III. He inherited a di-
According to the eponym canon, he led several campaigns cult situation from his predecessor. The Assyrian ruler-
against Urartu. His rulership was severely limited by the ship was severely limited by the inuence of court dig-
growing inuence of high dignitaries, particularly that of nitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who was the
Shamshi-ilu, who was then commander-in-chief of the commander-in-chief (turtanu). According to the eponym
army. canon, for four years the king was compelled to stay in
the land. It was customary for the Assyrian king to cam-
paign every year, and such an indication usually meant
the kingship had been seriously weakened. In his fourth
2.70.1 References and fth regnal years, however, he campaigned to Namri
(Namar). In 746 BC, a revolt broke out again, and in the
Georges Roux: Ancient Iraq, Penguin Books, Lon- following year the throne was seized by Tiglath-Pileser
don 1992, ISBN 0-14-012523-X, p. 302 III, who may have been his brother or his son, or, alterna-
tively, a usurper with no relationship to the previous royal
house at all.

2.71 Ashur-dan III


2.73 Tiglath-Pileser III
Ashur-dan III was King of Assyria from 772 to 755
BC.[1]
Ashur-dan III was the son of Adad-nirari III, and suc-
ceeded his brother Shalmaneser IV in 773 BC. Ashur-
dans reign was a dicult age for the Assyrian monar-
chy. The rulership was severely limited by the inuence
of court dignitaries, particularly that of Shamshi-ilu, who
was the commander-in-chief of the army (turtanu) at that
time. According to the eponym canon, in 765 BC, As-
syria was hit by a plague, and in the following year, the
king could not campaign (it was customary for the Assyr-
ian king to lead a military expedition every year). In 763
BC, a revolt broke out, which lasted until 759 BC, when
another plague struck the land. His reign and the reigns of
preceding Assyrian kings have been astronomically dated
based on the only veriable reference to a solar eclipse in
Assyrian chronicles, the eclipse of Bur Sagale. Ashur-
dan was succeeded by another brother, Ashur-nirari V.

Tiglath-Pileser III: stela from the walls of his palace (British Mu-
2.71.1 See also seum, London).

Tiglath-Pileser III (Akkadian: Tukult-apil-Earra, my


Assyrian eclipse trust is in the son of Esharra") was a prominent king
of Assyria in the eighth century BCE (ruled 745727
BCE)[1][2] who introduced advanced civil, military, and
2.71.2 References political systems into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[3][4]
Tiglath-Pileser III seized the Assyrian throne during a
[1] Boardman, John (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History civil war and killed the royal family. He made sweep-
Vol. III Part I: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Mid- ing changes to the Assyrian government, considerably im-
dle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries proving its eciency and security. The Assyrian army,
BC. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 978- already the greatest ghting force in the world since the
0521224963. Retrieved 19 October 2013. time of Ashur-uballit I (13661330 BCE), now became
2.73. TIGLATH-PILESER III 61

Assyrias rst professional standing army.[5][6] Formerly the governor of Kalhu (Biblical
Tiglath-Pileser III subjugated much of the Near East re- Calah/Nimrud)[3] and a general, the usurper Pulu
gion; to the south, his fellow Mesopotamians in Babylonia assumed his Assyrian throne-name (Tiglath-Pileser)
and Chaldea, and further south still, the Arabs, Magan, from two more-legitimate predecessors. He described
Meluhha, and Dilmunites of the Arabian Peninsula. In himself as a son of Adad-nirari III in his inscriptions,
the south west, Israel, Judah, Philistia, Samarra, Moab, but the accuracy of this claim remains uncertain.
Edom, the Suteans and Nabatea fell. To the north, He seized the throne in the midst of civil war on 13
Urartu, Armenia and Scythia in the Caucasus Mountains, Ayaru, 745 BCE.[1][7] As a result of Pulu seizing the
throne in a bloody coup d'tat, the old royal family was
Cimmeria by the Black Sea, and Nairi were subjugated,
and in the north west much of eastern and south west- slaughtered,[3] and the new monarch set Assyria on the
path to expand the empire in order to ensure the survival
ern Asia Minor, including the Hittites, Phrygia, Cilicia,
Commagene, Tabal, Corduene and Caria. In the west, of the kingdom.[3]
the Greeks of Cyprus and Aram (modern Syria), and
the Mediterranean City States of Phoenicia/Caanan were
subjugated. To the east he subjugated Persia, Media,
Gutium, Mannea, Cissia and Elam, and later in his reign,
Tiglath-Pileser III was crowned king in Babylonia.
Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian
rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of
people all over the empire. He is one of the most suc-
cessful military commanders in world history, conquer-
ing most of the world known to the Assyrians before his
death.

2.73.1 Origins Tiglath-pileser III stands over an enemy, bas-relief from the Cen-
tral Palace at Nimrud.

A mutilated brick inscription states that


he is the son of Adad-nirari (III); however,
the Assyrian King List makes Tiglath-pileser
(III) the son of Ahur-nirari (V), son of Adad-
nirari (III). This is quite a discrepancy for the
King list places Adad-nirari III four monar-
chs before Tiglath-pilesers reign and depicts
Ashur-nirari (V) as both his father and imme-
diate predecessor upon the throne. The list
goes on to relate that Shalmaneser III (IV),
and Ashur-dan III (III) were brothers, be-
ing the sons of Adad-nirari (III). Ashur-nirari
(V) is also said to be a son of Adad-nirari
(III), implying brotherhood with Shalmaneser
III (IV), and Ashur-dan III (III). The Assyrian
records contain very little information concern-
ing Adad-nirari (III) and nothing about Shal-
maneser III (IV) or Ashur-dan III (III). Sig-
nicantly, an alabaster stele was discovered in
1894 at Tell Abta displaying the name Tiglath-
pileser imprinted over that of Shalmaneser
(IV), a successor of Adad-Nirari (III) and the
third sovereign prior to Tiglath-pileser (III).
This nd coupled with the aforementioned ab-
sence of information relative to Shalmaneser
III (IV) and Ashur-dan III (III) strongly im-
Tiglath-pileser III, an alabaster bas-relief from the kings central plies that Tiglath-pileser was a usurper to the
palace at Nimrud, Mesopotamia. throne and that he destroyed the records of his
62 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

three immediate predeccessorsAshur-nirari (Uzziah), king of Judah, whose achievements appear in 2


(V), Shalmaneser III (IV), and Ashur-dan III Chronicles 26. He also subjugated Damascus, the Arabs
(III).[8] under Queen Zabibe, Menahem of Israel and Sam'al's
king Azriyau, who all paid him tribute.[13] In 737 and
More so it was in Babylon that he was referred to as Pulu 736 BCE he turned his attention again to Iran, conquer-
and his son as Ululayu.[9] Pulu and both his sons taking ing the Medes and Persians and occupying a large part of
up Assyrian names is another suggestion that they were Iran.[13] According to the royal inscriptions of Tiglath-
foreigners who had usurped the crown of Assyria at the Pileser many of the inhabitants were enslaved and de-
revolt of Kalhu. The identication of Pul (2 Kings 15:19) ported to other parts of the Assyrian empire, as com-
with Tiglath-Pileser III has been bolstered by the discov- monly done by his predecessors. At sieges, captives were
ery and interpretation of the Phoenician inscription from slaughtered, and their bodies raised on stakes and dis-
Incirli, line 5 of which reads: ][ Pu'lu, played before the city (illustration, right).
the great king of Assyria.[10] In October 729 BCE, Tiglath-Pileser assumed total
control of Babylon, capturing the Babylonian king
Nabu-mukin-zeri (ABC 1 Col.1:21) and having himself
2.73.2 Reign crowned as King Pulu of Babylon.

2.73.3 Biblical account

MEDIA
Gozam
Ninevah

ASSYRIA
BETH-EDEN Asshur

Hamath

Eu
ph
rates
Byblos Riv
er Tig
ris
Damascus Riv
Babylon er

Assyrian Empire Deportation by


Samaria
9th century BCE Tiglath-pileser III
Jerusalem (734-732 BCE)
Area conquered by Deportation by
Tiglath-pileser III Shalmaneser V & Sargon II
(745-727 BCE) (724-729 BCE)
Deportation by
Sargon II
(716-715 BCE)

Map showing Tiglaths conquests (green) and deportation of Is-


raelites. Tiglath-Pileser III discouraged revolts against Assyrian
Tiglath-Pileser III besieging a town
rule with the use of forced deportations of thousands of people
all over the empire.[14]
Assyrian power in the Near East greatly increased
as the result of Tiglath-Pilesers military reforms (see
"Reforms" below) and of his campaigns of conquest. Biblical records describe how Tiglath-Pileser III exacted
Upon ascending the throne, he claimed (in Annal 9, 1,000 talents of silver as tribute from King Menahem of
which dates to 745 BCE, his rst regnal year) to have the Kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 15:19) and later defeated
annexed Babylonia, from Dur-(Kuri)galzu, Sippar of his successor Pekah (2 Kings 15:29).
Shamash, ... the cities [of Ba]bylonia up to the Uqnu river Pekah had allied with Rezin, king of the Arameans
[by the shore of the Lo]wer [Sea]"[11] (which referred to against Ahaz (known to the Assyrians as Yahu-khazi), of
the Persian Gulf), and subsequently placed his eunuch the Kingdom of Judah, who responded by appealing for
over them as governor. Also in his rst year of reign the Assyrian monarchs help with the Temple gold and sil-
he defeated the powerful kingdom of Urartu (Armenia), ver. Tiglath-Pileser answered swiftly. He rst marched
whose hegemony under the rulership of Sarduri II had his army down the eastern Mediterranean coast, taking
extended to Asia Minor, northern Mesopotamia, west- coastal cities all the way to Egypt. This cut o his en-
ern Iran and Syria; there he found unrivalled horses for emies access to the sea. Once this was achieved, he re-
his war-chariots.[12] He also defeated the Medes before turned to the Northern Kingdom of Israel, destroyed their
making war on and conquering the Neo-Hittites, Syria army, and deported the Reubenites, Gadites, and the peo-
and Phoenicia. He took Arpad in 740 BCE after three ple of Manasseh to Halah, Habor, Hara, and the Gozan
years of siege, annexed it as a province (over which he river (1 Chron 5:26). He then installed an Israelite pup-
placed one of his eunuchs as governors), and subjected pet king, Hoshea, (732723 BCE) in the place of Pekah.
Hamath to tribute. Assyrian inscriptions record in 740 He concluded this extensive campaign by marching north
BCE, the fth year of his reign, a victory over Azariah and west, ravaging Aramaea, seizing Damascus, execut-
2.73. TIGLATH-PILESER III 63

ing Rezin, and deporting the survivors to Kir (2 Kings on the sculptured slabs decorating his palace.
16:9). On his death he was succeeded by his son Ululayu, who
Beyond this, the Assyrian alliance was not benecial to took the name Shalmaneser V and further campaigned in
Ahaz (2 Chron 28:20). the Levant, defeated Egypt, and captured Samaria.

2.73.4 Reforms 2.73.6 See also

Upon ascending the throne, Tiglath-Pileser instituted sev- Kings of Assyria


eral reforms to dierent sectors of the Assyrian state, Syro-Ephraimite War
which arguably revived Assyrias hegemony over the Near
East.
The rst of such reforms entailed thwarting the powers
2.73.7 Footnotes
of the high Assyrian ocials, which during the reigns of
his predecessors had become excessive. Ocials such 2.73.8 References
as Shamshi-ilu, who was turtanu (General) and a promi-
[1] Lendering, Jona (2006). Assyrian Eponym List (2/3)".
nent ocial since the time of Adad-nirari III, often led Livius.org.
their own campaigns and erected their own commemo-
rative stelae, often without mentioning the king at all.[15] [2] Tadmor, Inscriptions, p. 29.
Since his earliest inscriptions (and thus from the begin- [3] Healy, Assyrians, p. 17
ning of his reign), he gave regular mention of appoint-
ing eunuchs as governors of (newly conquered) provinces; [4] History of Mesopotamia. Encyclopdia Britannica.
this removed the threat of provincial rule becoming a [5] Howard, Michael (2002). Transnationalism in Ancient
dynastic matter. He also sought to reduce the power and Medieval Societies: The Role of Cross-Border Trade
of his ocials by reducing the size of the provinces (in and Travel. McFarland. p. 36. ISBN 978-0786468034.
some cases the northern provinces were increased to in- Retrieved 21 March 2016.
clude newly conquered territories), thus decreasing their
[6] Schwartzwald, Jack (2014). The Ancient Near East,
resources, should they have desired to incite a revolt. Sub- Greece and Rome: A Brief History. McFarland. p. 24.
sequently, there were more provinces, more governors ISBN 978-0786478064.
(most of which were eunuchs), and less power per gov-
ernor. [7] Babylonia and Assyria. The 1911 Classic Encyclopedia.

The second reform targeted the army. Instead of a largely [8] Nolen Jones, Dr. Floyd. Chronology of the Old Testament.
native Assyrian army which normally campaigned only Master Books. p. 150.
in the summer time, Tiglath-Pileser incorporated large [9] Nemet-Nejat, Karen Rhea (1998). Daily Life in Ancient
numbers of conquered people into the army, thus adding Mesopotamia. p. 38.
a substantial foreign element. This force mainly com-
prised the light infantry, whereas the native Assyrians [10] Kaufman, The Phoenician Inscription of the Incirli
Trilingual, 7-26
comprised the cavalry, heavy infantry, and charioteers.
As a result of Tiglath-Pilesers military reforms, the As- [11] Tadmor, Inscriptions, p. 43.
syrian Empire was armed with a greatly expanded army
[12] Luckenbill, Ancient Records, vol II, p. 84.
which could campaign throughout the year. The addition
of the cavalry and the chariot contingents to the army was [13] Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq
mostly due to the steppe cultures lurking nearby to the
[14] Healy, p. 21
north, which sometimes invaded their northern colonies,
using mainly cavalry and primitive chariots. [15] Shafer, A.T. (1998). The Carving of an Empire: Neo-
Assyrian Monuments on the Periphery, p.3233

2.73.5 Legacy Healy, Mark (1991). The Ancient Assyrians. Lon-


don: Osprey. ISBN 1-85532-163-7. OCLC
See also: Neo-Assyrian Empire 26351868.
Kaplan, Yehuda. Recruitment of Foreign Soldiers
Tiglath-Pileser IIIs conquests and reforms led to the into the Neo-Assyrian Army during the Reign of
establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Kingdom as a true Tiglath-pileser III, in Mordechai Cogan and Dan`el
empire. He built a royal palace in Kalhu (the biblical Kahn (eds), Treasures on Camels Humps: Histori-
Calah/Nimrud, the so-called central palace), later dis- cal and Literary Studies from the Ancient Near East
mantled by Esarhaddon. He had his royal annals engraved Presented to Israel Eph'al (Jerusalem, Magnes Press,
across the bas-reliefs depicting his military achievements 2008),
64 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

Kaufman, Stephen A. The Phoenician Inscription king of Babylonia, this has not been found in any authen-
of the Incirli Trilingual: A Tentative Reconstruction tic ocial sources.[2]
and Translation, MAARAV 14,2 (2007): 7-26 The name Shalmaneser is used for him in the Bible,[3]
which attributes to him the nal conquest of the king-
Luckenbill, D. D. Ancient Records of Assyria and
dom of Samaria (Israel) and the deportation of Israelites.
Babylonia, vol II, (Chicago, 1927).
According to 2 Kings, chapters 17-18, Shalmaneser ac-
Saggs, H. The Might that was Assyria (London, cused Hoshea, King of Israel, of conspiring against him
1984). by sending messages to Pharaoh Osorkon IV of Egypt,
and captured him. Indeed, the Egyptians attempted to
Tadmor, Hayim, The Inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser gain a foothold in Israel, then held largely by Assyrias
III, King of Assyria: Critical Edition, with Introduc- vassal kings, by stirring them to revolt against Assyria and
[4]
tions, Translations, and Commentary (Jerusalem, Is- lending them some military support. After three years
rael Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 1994). of siege he took the city of Samaria. The populations he
deported to various lands of the empire, (together with
Tadmor, Hayim and Shigeo Yamada (2011). The ones deported about ten years earlier by Tiglath-Pileser
Royal Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III (744-727 III) are known as the "Ten Lost Tribes" of Israel. The
BC) and Shalmaneser V (726-722 BC), Kings of populations he settled in Samaria instead form the ori-
Assyria. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. ISBN gins of the Samaritans, according to a commentary in the
9781575062204. OCLC 748941760. Bible. Shalmaneser died in the same year, 722 BC, and
it is possible that the population exchanges were done by
his successor Sargon II.
2.74 Shalmaneser V In the book of Tobit, chapter 1, the exiled Tobit is shown
nding favor in Shalmanesers court, only to lose inu-
ence under Sennacherib.

2.74.1 Notes
[1] Sayce, Archibald Henry (1911). Shalmaneser. In
Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopdia Britannica. 24 (11th ed.).
Cambridge University Press. p. 798.

[2] G. Frame, Babylonia 689-627 B.C., p. 303-304.

[3] As seen in 2Kings 17:3 and 2Kings 18:9

[4] Roux, Georges (1992). Ancient Iraq (Third ed.). Penguin.


pp. 310312. ISBN 9780140125238.

2.75 Sargon II

Shalmaneser V from Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum This article is about the king. For the game, see Sargon
(Guillaume Rouill, 1553) (chess).

Shalmaneser V (Akkadian: ulmanu-aarid; Hebrew: Sargon II (Assyrian arru-ukn (LUGAL-GI.NA );


,
Modern Shalman'eser, Tiberian almanser; Aramaic [; 1] reigned 722 705 BC) was an Assyrian
Greek: Salamanassar; Latin: Salma- king. A son of Tiglath-Pileser III, he came to power rel-
nasar) was king of Assyria from 727 to 722 BC. He rst atively late in life, possibly by usurping the throne from
appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign his older brother, Shalmaneser V.
of his father, Tiglath-Pileser III. Evidence pertaining to
The Neo-Assyrian pronunciation of the name was pre-
his reign is scarce. sumably /sargi:n(u)/ or /sarga:n(u)/; the spelling Sargon
On the death of Tiglath-Pileser, he succeeded to the is based on the Biblical form of the name (), men-
throne of Assyria on the 25th day of Tebet 727 BC,[1] tioned in Isaiah 20:1.[2] The regnal number is modern,
and changed his original name of Ululayu to the Akka- applied for disambiguation from the Old Assyrian king
dian name he is known by. While it has been suggested Sargon I and the still-older Akkadian ruler Sargon the El-
that he continued to use Ululayu for his throne name as der.
2.75. SARGON II 65

2.75.1 Early reign bas-reliefs in the palace of Dur-Sharrukin. The reliefs


show the diculties of the terrain: the war-chariots had
Sargon II was a son of Tiglath-Pileser III and appears to be dismantled and carried by soldiers (with the king
to have seized the throne from his brother, Shalmaneser still in the chariot); the letter describes how paths had
V in a violent coup.[3] Sargon was already middle-aged to be cut into the intractable forests. The campaign was
when he came to the throne, and was assisted by his probably motivated by the fact that the Urartians had been
son, the crown prince, Sennacherib.[4] Sargons brother, weakened by incursions of the Cimmerians, a nomadic
Sinahusur, served as his grand vizier.[5] steppe tribe. One Urartian army had been completely an-
nihilated, and the general Qaqqadanu taken prisoner.[6]

2.75.2 Military campaigns

Palace of Khorsabad.

Sargon was beset with widespread rebellions by the be-


ginning of his rule. Marduk-apla-iddina II, a chieftain of
the Chaldean tribes in the marshes of the south, declared
himself king of Babylon and was crowned king in 721
BC. In 720 BC, Sargon and Marduk-apla-iddina met in
battle on the plains east of Babylon. Marduk-apla-iddina The Inscription of Sargon II at Tang-i Var pass near the village
of Tang-i Var, Hawraman, Iran
was supported by Elam. The Elamite troops were able to
push back the Assyrian army, and he retained control of
the south and the title of king of Babylon.[4] After reaching Lake Urmia, he turned east and entered
Zikirtu and Andia on the Caspian slopes of the Caucasus.
In 717 BC, the Syro-Hittite city of Carchemish on the When news reached him that king Rusas I of Urartu was
Upper Euphrates rebelled. Carchemish was a small king-
moving against him, he turned back to Lake Urmia in
dom situated at an important Euphrates crossing. Sargon forced marches and defeated a Urartian army in a steep
violated existing treaties in attacking the city, but with the
valley of the Uaush (probably the Sahend, east of Lake
wealth seized was able to continue to fund his army.[4] Urmia, or further to the south, in Mannaea country), a
In 716 BC he moved against the Mannaeans, where the steep mountain that reached the clouds and whose anks
ruler Aza, son of Iranzu, had been deposed by Ullusunu were covered by snow. The battle is described as the usual
with the help of the Urartuans. Sargon took the capi- carnage, but King Rusas managed to escape. The horses
tal Izirtu, and stationed troops in Parsuash (the original of his chariot had been killed by Assyrian spears, forcing
home of the Persian tribe, on lake Urmia) and Kar-Nergal him to ride a mare in order to get away, very unbecoming
(Kishesim). He built new bases in Media as well, the main for a king.
one being Harhar which he renamed Kar-Sharrukin. In Sargon plundered the fertile lands at the southern and
715 BC, others were to follow: Kar-Nabu, Kar-Sin and western shore of Lake Urmia, felling orchards and burn-
Kar-Ishtar all named after Babylonian gods and reset- ing the harvest. In the royal resort of Ulhu, the wine-
tled by Assyrian subjects. cellar of the Urartian kings was plundered; wine was
The eighth campaign of Sargon against Urartu in 714 BC scooped up like water. The Assyrian army then plun-
is well known from a letter from Sargon to the god Ashur dered Sangibuti and marched north to Van without meet-
(found in the town of Assur, now in the Louvre) and the ing resistance, the people having retreated to their cas-
66 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

tles or ed into the mountains, having been warned by Marduk-apla-iddina attempted to ee to Elam but the
re-signals. Sargon claims to have destroyed 430 empty king forbade him entry. Taking hostages from Ur, Uruk,
villages. and other towns, he went to his ancestral city of Dr-Jakin
After reaching Lake Van, Sargon left Urartu via Uaiaish. which he further fortied by adding to the walls and dig-
In Hubushkia he received the tribute of the "Nairi" lands. ging a canal from the Euphrates to ood the surrounding
While most of the army returned to Assyria, Sargon went area. In 709 BC Sargons troops gained a victory out-
on to sack the Urartian temple of the god Haldi and his side the city but could not take Dr-Jakin, where Marduk-
wife Bagbartu at Musasir (Ardini). The loot must have apla-iddina had ed. A negotiated settlement was reached
whereby Sargon would spare Marduk-apla-iddinas life
been impressive; its description takes up fty columns in
the letter to Ashur. More than one ton of gold and ve provided the city walls were demolished. It is not clear
whether they were, since two years later, Sargon returned
tons of silver fell into the hands of the Assyrians; 334,000 [8]
objects in total. A relief from Dur-Sharrukin depicted the to take them down himself.
sack of Musasir as well (which fell into the Tigris in 1846 Sargon had his son, crown-prince Sennacherib, married
when the archaeologist Paul-mile Botta was transport- to the Aramean noblewoman Naqi'a, and stayed in the
ing his artifacts to Paris). Musasir was annexed. Sargon south to pacify the Aramaic and Chaldean tribes of the
claims to have lost only one charioteer, two horsemen and lower Euphrates as well as the Suti nomads. Some areas
three couriers on this occasion. King Rusa was said to be in Elam were occupied as well.
despondent when he heard of the loss of Musasir, and fell
ill. According to the imperial annals, he took his own life
with his own iron sword. 2.75.3 Later reign
In 713 BC, Sargon stayed at home; his troops took, among
In 710 BC, the seven Greek kings of Ia' (Cyprus) had
others, Karalla, Tabal and Cilicia. Persian and Mede
accepted Assyrian sovereignty; in 709, Midas, king of
rulers oered tribute. In 711 BC, Gurgum was con-
Phrygia, beset by the nomadic Cimmerians, submitted to
quered. An uprising in the Philistine city of Ashdod,
Assyrian rule and in 708 BC, Kummuhu (Commagene)
supported by Judah, Moab, Edom and Egypt, was sup-
became an Assyrian province. Assyria was at the apogee
pressed, and Philistia became an Assyrian province.
of its power. Urartu had almost succumbed to the Cim-
merians, Elam was weakened, Marduk-apla-iddina II was
Conquest of Israel powerless, and the Egyptian inuence in the Levant had
been thwarted.
Under his rule, the Assyrians completed the defeat of
the Kingdom of Israel, capturing Samaria after a siege
Building projects
of three years and exiling the inhabitants. This became
the basis of the legends of the Lost Ten Tribes. Accord-
ing to the Bible, other people were brought to Samaria,
the Samaritans, under his predecessor Shalmaneser V (2
Kings 18). Sargons name actually appears in the Bible
only once, in the Book of Isaiah,[7] which records the As-
syrian capture of Ashdod in 711 BC.

Campaign against Babylonia

In 710 BC Sargon felt safe enough in his rule to move


against his Babylonian arch-enemy Marduk-apla-iddina
II. One army moved against Elam and its new king
Shutur-Nahhunte II to prevent them from supplying aid
to Marduk-apla-iddina; the other, under Sargon himself,
proceeded against Babylon. Sargon rst moved against
Dr-Athara which he renamed Dr-Nab and made the
capital of the new province of Gambalu. He then laid
siege to Babylon, and Marduk-apla-iddina II ed. Sar-
gon claimed that he entered Babylon at the request of the Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation.
priests and civil servants.[8] Babylon yielded to Sargon
and he was proclaimed king of Babylonia in 710, thus Dur-Sharrukin (Fort Sargon) was constructed as a new
restoring the dual monarchy of Babylonia and Assyria. capital city by Sargon II shortly after he came to the
He remained in Babylon for three years; in 709 BC, he throne in 721 B.C.[5] The city measured about a square
led the new-year procession as king of Babylon. mile in area. It was enclosed within a great wall of un-
2.75. SARGON II 67

arru-ukn over arru-kn(u) (based on a single spelling


in -ke-e-nu found in Khorsabad). The name of the Old
Assyrian king Sargon I is spelled as LUGAL-ke-en or
LUGAL-ki-in in king lists. In addition to the Biblical
form (), the Hebrew spelling has been found
in an inscription in Khorsabad, suggesting that the name
in the Neo-Assyrian period might have been pronounced
Sar(ru)gn, the voicing representing a regular develop-
ment in Neo-Assyrian. Eckart Frahm, Observations on
the Name and Age of Sargon II and on Some Patterns of
Assyrian Royal Onomastics, NABU 2005.2, 4650.

[2] 5623. Sargon, Strongs Concordance.

[3] Sargon II, King of Assyria (721-705 BC)", The British


Museum

[4] Radner, Karen Sargon II, king of Assyria (721-705


A lamassu from the palace of Sargon II at Dur-Sharrukin. BC)", Assyrian empire builders, University College Lon-
don, 2012

baked brick pierced by seven gates. Protective genies [5] Excavations At Khorsabad, The Oriental Institute, Uni-
were placed on either side of these entrances to act as versity of Chicago
guardians.[9] The palace was richly decorated with relief-
[6] The Cimmerians were mentioned a number of times in let-
carved stone slabs.
ters by the crown-prince Sennacherib, who ran his fathers
The land in the environs of the town was taken under cul- intelligence service. They cannot be dated exactly, but
tivation, and olive groves were planted to increase As- are believed to have been composed before 713 BC. The
syrias decient oil production. The town was of rectan- letters relate how Sargon crossed the Great Zab and the
gular layout and measured 1760 by 1635 m. The length of Little Zab and moved over the mountains of Kullar in the
the walls was 16,283 Assyrian units, corresponding to the direction of Lake Urmia, crossing the country of Zikirtu,
whose ruler Metatti had ed to Uishdish, the provinces of
numerical value of Sargons name. The town was partly
Surikash, Allabria and parts of Parsuash.
settled by prisoners of war and deportees under the con-
trol of Assyrian ocials, who had to ensure they were [7] Isaiah 20:1
paying sucient respect to the gods and the king. The
court moved to Dur-Sharrukin in 706 BC, although it was [8] Van Der Spek, R., The Struggle of King Sargon II of
not completely nished. Assyria Against the Chaldaean Meradoch-Baladan (710-
707 BC)", Jaarberecht, No.25, Leiden (1977-78)

2.75.4 Death [9] Winged human-headed bull, Department of Near East-


ern Antiquities: Mesopotamia, Louvre
In 705 BC, Sargon fell while driving the Cimmerians
from Ancient Iran, where they were attacking Sargons
Persian and Median vassals. They later ravaged the king- 2.75.7 Bibliography
doms of Urartu and Phrygia, before being nally sub-
dued by the Assyrians. Sargon was succeeded by his son Victor Avigdor Hurowitz, ""Shutting Up the En-
Sennacherib (Sin-ahhe-eriba).[3] emy: Literary Gleanings from Sargons Eighth Cam-
paign, in Mordechai Cogan and Dan'el Kahn (eds),
Treasures on Camels Humps: Historical and Liter-
2.75.5 See also ary Studies from the Ancient Near East Presented to
Israel Eph'al (Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008),
Kings of Assyria
Albert Ten Eyck Olmstead (1906). Western Asia in
Annals of Sargon the days of Sargon of Assyria.
Sargon Stele
2.75.8 External links
2.75.6 References
Great Inscription of Khorsaband. Babilonian and
[1] References to Sargon II are mostly spelled logographi- Assyrian Literature
cally, as LUGAL-GI.NA or LUGAL-GIN, but occasional
phonetic spelling in -kin appears to support the form Sargons VIII Campaign
68 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.76 Sennacherib beginning of the Iron Age, and under Tiglath-pileser III
and his sons Shalmaneser V and Sargon II (combined
Sennacherib (Akkadian: Sn-ahh-erba, "Sn has reigns 744705 BCE), Assyria extended its rule over
replaced the brothers"; Syriac: , translit. Mesopotamia, Anatolia and Syria-Palestine, making its
Snr; Hebrew: [1] pronounced in Modern He- capital Nineveh, one of the richest cities of the ancient
brew [/saneiv/] or in some Mizrahi dialects [/saneiv]) world.[13][14] The empires rise aroused the fear and ha-
was the king of Assyria from 705 BCE to 681 BCE. tred of its neighbours, notably Babylon, Elam and Egypt,
He is principally remembered for his military campaigns and the many smaller kingdoms of the region such as
against Babylon and Judah, and for his building programs Judah. Any perceived weakness on the part of Assyria led
- most notably at the Akkadian capital of Nineveh.[2] He inevitably to rebellion, particularly by the Babylonians.[15]
was assassinated in obscure circumstances in 681 BCE,[3] Solving the so-called Babylonian problem was Sen-
apparently by his eldest son (his designated successor, nacheribs primary preoccupation.[16]
Esarhaddon, was the youngest).[4]
The primary preoccupation of his reign was the so-called
Babylonian problem, the refusal of the Babylonians to
accept Assyrian rule, culminating in his destruction of the 2.76.2 The Babylonian problem
city in 689 BCE.[5] Further campaigns were carried out
in Syria (notable for being recorded in the Bibles Books Sennacheribs grandfather Tiglath-pileser III had made
of Kings,[6] ) in the mountains east of Assyria, against the himself king of Babylon, creating a dual monarchy
kingdoms of Anatolia and against the Arabs in the north- in which the Babylonians retained a nominal indepen-
ern Arabian deserts.[7] His death was welcomed in Baby- dence. This arrangement was never accepted by pow-
lon as divine punishment for the destruction of that city.[8] erful local leaders, particularly an important tribal chief
He was also a notable builder: it was under him that As- named Marduk-apla-iddina (the Merodach-baladan of
syrian art reached its peak.[9] His building projects in- the Bible). Marduk-apla-iddina paid tribute to Tiglath-
cluded the beautication of Nineveh, a canal 50 km long pileser, but when Tiglath-pilesers successor Shalmaneser
to bring water to the city,[10] and the Palace Without Ri- V was overthrown by Sargon II (Sennacheribs father) he
val, which included what may have been the prototype seized the opportunity to crown himself king of Babylon.
of the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, or even The next thirty years saw a repeating pattern of Assyrian
the actual Hanging Gardens.[11] reconquest and renewed rebellion.[17]
Sargon dealt with the Babylonian problem by cultivat-
ing the Babylonians; Sennacherib took a radically dif-
2.76.1 Background: the Neo-Assyrian em- ferent approach, and there is little sign that he cared
pire, 911-612 BCE about Babylonian popular opinion or took part in the cer-
emonial duties expected of a Babylonian king, notably
the New Year ritual. His relations, instead, were pre-
dominantly military, and culminated in his complete de-
struction of Babylon in 689 BCE.[18] He destroyed the
temples and the images of the gods, except for that of
Marduk, the creator-god and divine patron of Babylon,
which he took to Assyria.[19] This caused consternation
in Assyria itself, where Babylon and its gods were held
in high esteem.[20] Sennacherib attempted to justify his
actions to his own countrymen through a campaign of re-
ligious propaganda.[21] Among the elements of this cam-
paign he commissioned a myth in which Marduk was put
on trial before Ashur, the god of Assyriathe text is frag-
mentary but it seems Marduk is found guilty of some
grave oense;[22] he described his defeat of the Babylo-
Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions - dark green
nian rebels in language of the Babylonian creation myth,
shows the empire in 824 BCE, light green in 671 BCE.
identifying Babylon with the evil demon-goddess Tiamat
and himself with Marduk;[23] Ashur replaced Marduk in
Main articles: Neo-Assyrian Empire and Military history the New Year Festival; and in the temple of the festi-
of the Neo-Assyrian Empire val he placed a symbolic pile of rubble from Babylon.[24]
In Babylon itself, Sennachribs answer to the Babylonian
Assyria began as a Bronze Age city-state or small king- problem sparked an intense hatred that would eventually
dom on the middle-Tigris.[12] The kingdom collapsed at lead to a war for independence and the destruction of
the end of the Bronze Age, but was reconstituted at the Assyria.[25]
2.76. SENNACHERIB 69

2.76.3 Accession and military campaigns ibni was placed on the throne and for the next two years
Babylon was left in peace.[28]
In 701 BCE, Sennacherib turned from Babylonia to the
western part of the empire, where Hezekiah of Judah, in-
cited by Egypt and Marduk-apla-iddina, had renounced
Assyrian allegiance. The rebellion involved various small
states in the area: Sidon and Ashkelon were taken by
force and a string of other cities and states, including
Byblos, Ashdod, Ammon, Moab and Edom then paid
tribute without resistance. Ekron called on Egypt for
help but the Egyptians were defeated. Sennacherib then
turned on Jerusalem, Hezekiahs capital. He besieged the
city and gave its surrounding towns to Assyrian vassal
rulers in Ekron, Gaza and Ashdod. Sennacherib how-
ever never breached the city.[29] Hezekiah remained on
his throne as a vassal ruler.[30] (The campaign is recorded
with dierences in the Assyrian records and in the bibli-
cal Books of Kings).
In 699 BCE, Bel-ibni, who had proved untrustworthy or
incompetent as king of Babylon, was replaced by Sen-
nacheribs eldest son, Ashur-nadin-shumi.[31] Marduk-
apla-iddina continued his rebellion with the help of Elam,
and in 694 Sennacherib took a eet of Phoenician ships
down the Tigris River to destroy the Elamite base on
the shore of the Persian Gulf, but while he was doing
this the Elamites captured Ashur-nadin-shumi and put
Nergal-ushezib, the son of Marduk-apla-iddina, on the
throne of Babylon.[20] Nergal-ushezib was captured in
693 BCE and taken to Nineveh, and Sennacherib attacked
Assyrian warriors armed with slings from the palace of Sen-
nacherib, 7th century BCE
Elam again. The Elamite king ed to the mountains
and Sennacherib plundered his kingdom, but when he
withdrew the Elamites returned to Babylon and put an-
other rebel leader, Mushezib-Marduk, on the Babylonian
Accession throne. Babylon eventually fell to the Assyrians in 689
BCE after a lengthy siege, and Sennacherib put an end to
Sennacherib was probably not the rst-born son of Sargon the Babylonian problem by utterly destroying the city
II (his name implies a compensation for dead broth- and even the mound on which it stood by diverting the
ers), but he was groomed for royal succession and en- water of the surrounding canals over the site.[25] (In fact
trusted with administrative duties from an early age.[26] the problem had not been solved: in 612 BCE a coali-
Sargon died in battle, and ancient sources give three dif- tion of Babylonians and other enemies of Assyria sacked
ferent years for Sennacheribs rst reign-year705 BCE, Nineveh, marking the end of the Assyrian empire).[32]
704 BCE, and 703 BCEsuggesting that the succes-
sion was not smooth.[16] The transition sparked upris-
ings in Syria-Palestine, where the Egyptians incited re-
bellion, and more seriously in Babylon, where Marduk-
apla-iddina II assumed the throne and assembled a large Minor campaigns
army of Chaldeans, Aramaeans, Arabs and Elamites.[26]

Sennacherib conducted minor campaigns on his borders,


Military campaigns in Mesopotamia, Syria, Israel, but without signicantly adding to the empire. In 702
and Judah BCE and from 699 BCE until 697 BCE, he made several
campaigns in the mountains east of Assyria, on one of
Sennacheribs rst campaign began late in 703 BCE which he received tribute from the Medes. In 696 BCE
against Marduk-apla-iddina (now Marduk-apla-iddina and 695 BCE, he sent expeditions into Anatolia, where
II), who had once more taken the throne of Babylon.[28] several vassals had rebelled following the death of Sargon.
The rebellion was defeated, Marduk-apla-iddina ed, and Around 690 BCE, he campaigned in the northern Arabian
Babylon was taken and the palace plundered, although the deserts, conquering Dumat al-Jandal, where the queen of
citizens were not harmed.[28] A puppet king named Bel- the Arabs had taken refuge.[7]
70 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.76.4 Administration and building ft) once they arrived at the site, presumably by a ramp.
projects There are also 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) of stone panels
carved in bas-relief, that include pictorial records doc-
umenting every construction step including carving the
statues and transporting them on a barge. One picture
shows 44 men towing a colossal statue. The carving shows
three men directing the operation while standing on the
Colossus. Once the statues arrived at their destination,
the nal carving was done. Most of the statues weigh be-
tween 9,000 and 27,000 kilograms (20,000 and 60,000
lb).[9][10]
The stone carvings in the walls include many battle
scenes, impalings and scenes showing Sennacheribs men
parading the spoils of war before him. He also bragged
about his conquests: he wrote of Babylon: Its inhab-
itants, young and old, I did not spare, and with their
corpses I lled the streets of the city. He later wrote
about a battle in Lachish: And Hezekiah of Judah who
had not submitted to my yoke...him I shut up in Jerusalem
his royal city like a caged bird. Earthworks I threw up
against him, and anyone coming out of his city gate I
made pay for his crime. His cities which I had plundered
I had cut o from his land. [11]
At this time, the total area of Nineveh comprised about 7
square kilometres (1,700 acres), and fteen great gates
View of ancient Nineveh, Description de L'Univers (Alain penetrated its walls. An elaborate system of eighteen
Manesson Mallet, 1719). canals brought water from the hills to Nineveh, and sev-
eral sections of a magnicently constructed aqueduct
The Assyrian empire was divided into provinces, each erected by Sennacherib were discovered at Jerwan, about
provincial governor being responsible for matters such as 65 kilometres (40 mi) distant. [12] The enclosed area
the maintenance of roads and public buildings, and for had more than 100,000 inhabitants (maybe closer to
the implementation of administrative policy. One major 150,000), about twice as many as Babylon at the time,
element of that policy was the massive deportation and re- placing it among the largest settlements worldwide.
distribution of populations, which aimed to punish, pre- It is possible that the garden which Sennacherib built next
vent rebellion, and repopulate depopulated areas in order to his palace, with its associated irrigation works, was the
to maintain food production in the empire. As many as original Hanging Gardens of Babylon.[34]
4.5 million people may have been moved between 745
BCE and 612 BCE, and Sennacherib alone could have
been responsible for displacing 470,000 people.[33] 2.76.5 Death
Sennacherib made Nineveh a truly magnicent city. He
laid out new streets and squares and built within it the fa- Sennacherib was assassinated in obscure circumstances
mous palace without a rival, the plan of which has been in 681 BCE.[3] An inscription by his youngest son and
mostly recovered and has overall dimensions of about 503 successor, Esarhaddon, describes how Esarhaddon heard
by 242 metres (1,650 ft 794 ft). It comprised at least 80 that his brothers were ghting in the streets of Nineveh,
rooms, many of which were lined with sculpture. A large hurried back with an army, defeated them all, and took
number of cuneiform tablets were found in the palace. the throne.[35] The inscription does not mention that the
The solid foundation was made out of limestone blocks brothers were ghting because one of them had just mur-
and mud bricks; it was 22 metres (72 ft) tall. In total, dered Sennacherib, which is indicated in the Babylonian
the foundation is made of roughly 2,680,000 cubic me- chronicles, the Bible, and in later Assyrian records.[35]
tres (3,510,000 cu yd) of brick (approximately 160 mil- It seems that the murderer was a prince named Arda-
lion bricks). The walls on top, made out of mud brick, Mulii (called Adrammelech in the Bible), the eldest
were an additional 20 metres (66 ft) tall. Some of the son before Esarhaddons appointment as heir;[4] Esarhad-
principal doorways were anked by colossal stone door dons silence on the subject may have been to avoid a per-
gures weighing up to 30,000 kilograms (30 t); they in- ception of instability among the people.[36] To one Baby-
cluded many winged lions or bulls with a mans head. lonian historian, Sennacheribs death at the hands of his
These were transported 50 kilometres (30 mi) from quar- sons was divine punishment for what the king had done
ries at Balatai and they had to be lifted up 20 metres (66 to Babylon.[8]
2.76. SENNACHERIB 71

temple).[37]

2.76.6 See also


Ahikar, Sennacheribs chancellor
Rabshakeh, Sennacheribs cupbearer
Assyrian siege of Jerusalem

2.76.7 References
[1] As seen in 2Kings 18:13, Isaiah 36:1, Isaiah 37:17, and
2Chronicles 32:1

[2] McKenzie 1995, p. 786.

[3] Cline & Graham 2011, p. 252.

[4] Grayson 1991, p. 121.

[5] Grayson 1991, p. 105,109.

[6] Grabbe 2003, p. 308-309.

[7] Grayson 1991, p. 111-113.

[8] Foster & Foster 2009, p. 123.

[9] Von Solden 1994, p. 58.


Limestone stele of king Sennacherib from Nineveh. Ancient Ori- [10] Von Solden 1994, p. 58,100.
ent Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museums, Turkey
[11] Foster & Foster 2009, p. 121-123.

[12] Cline & Graham 2011, p. 37.


Professor Simo Parpola, basing his ndings on a frag-
mented letter surviving from that period (Assyrian and [13] Bertman 2005, p. 57.
Babylonian Letters XI no.1091; Chicago 1911, origi- [14] Cline & Graham 2011, p. 40.
nally translated by R. Harper), holds that Arda-Mulii
was indeed the brother who killed the King.[37] Parpola [15] Bertman 2005, p. 40.
holds that a series of events came following 694 BCE
[16] Grayson 1991, p. 105.
when Sennacheribs oldest son and heir-designate Assur-
ndin-sumi was captured by Babylonians and was re- [17] Brinkman 1991, p. 24-32.
moved to Elam (whereupon he disappears from the his-
torical record). Arda-Mulii as the next eldest son ex- [18] Brinkman 1991, p. 32-37.
pected to be the next heir-designate but Naqia, one of [19] Grayson 1991, p. 118.
the kings wives with no relation to Arda-Mulii, was
able to use her inuence to have the King proclaim her [20] Leick 2009, p. 156.
own sickly frail son Esarhaddon the heir-designate. Sen-
[21] Grayson 1991, p. 118-119.
nacherib made all of Assyria swear allegiance to the new
crown prince. Despite this, Arda-Mulii continued to be [22] Grayson 1991, p. 119.
a popular gure among the powerful at court. Over the
[23] McCormick 2002, p. 156,158.
following years the dislike of prince Esarhaddon grew, as
did the popularity of Arda-Mulii and his other broth- [24] Grayson 1991, p. 116.
ers. Worried over this turn of events, Sennacherib sent
crown prince Esarhaddon to the safety of the western [25] Grayson 1991, p. 109.
provinces. Arda-Mulii, feeling that a decisive act would [26] Leick 2009, p. 155.
grant him the kingship, made a treaty of rebellion with
co-conspirators and moved to kill his father. Sennacherib [27] Sennacheribs Annals
was then murdered (either stabbed directly by his son
[28] Grayson 1991, p. 106.
or killed while he was praying by being crushed under-
neath a statue of a winged bull colossus that guarded the [29] Grayson 1991, p. 110.
72 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[30] Grabbe 2003, p. 314. Porter, Barbara Nevling (1994). Images, Power, and
Politics. American Philosophical Society.
[31] Grayson 1991, p. 107-108.
Russell, John Malcolm (1991). Sennacheribs
[32] Oates 1991, p. 180.
Palace Without Rival at Nineveh. University of
[33] Cline & Graham 2011, p. 50. Chicago Press.

[34] Stephanie Dalley (2013)The Mystery of the Hanging Gar- Von Soden, Wolfram (1994). The Ancient Orient:
den of Babylon: an elusive world Wonder traced OUP An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East.
ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5 Eerdmans.
[35] Porter 1994, p. 108.

[36] Porter 1994, p. 108-109.


2.76.9 External links

[37] Simo Parpola (1980). The Murderer of Sennacherib. Daniel David Luckenbill, The Annals of Sen-
nacherib, Oriental Institute Publications 2, Univer-
sity of Chicago Press, 1924
2.76.8 Bibliography
Rare Stela of Sennacherib.
Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in An-
Prism of Sennacherib
cient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press.
The murderer of Sennacherib - by Simo Parpola
Brinkman, J.A. (1991). Babylonia in the Shadow
of Assyria (747-626 B.C.)". In Boardman, John; Sennacheribs Invasion of Judah - by Craig C.
Edwards, I. E. S. The Cambridge Ancient History, Broyles
Volume III Part II. Cambridge University Press.
Interactive Map of Sennacheribs Invasion of Judah,
Cline, Eric H.; Graham, Mark W. (2011). Ancient including the accounts of Sennacherib, Herodotus,
Empires: From Mesopotamia to the Rise of Islam. 2 Kings, Isaiah and Micah
Cambridge University Press.
States that the prism is preserved in the Oriental In-
Dalley, Stephanie (2013). The Mystery of the Hang- stitute, University of Chicago.
ing Garden of Babylon: An Elusive World Wonder
Traced. Oxford University Press. A site on the study of King Sennacherib by Jack Tay-
lor, II
Dalley, Stephanie (1998). The Legacy of
Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press. First Campaign of Sennacherib Translated Cylinder
113203. British Museum
Foster, Benjamin Read; Foster, Karen Polinger
(2009). Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Princeton Uni-
versity Press. 2.77 Esarhaddon
Grabbe, Lester (2003). Like a Bird in a Cage: The
Invasion of Sennacherib in 701 BCE. A&C Black. Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aur-aa-iddina "Ashur has
given a brother"; Hebrew: [; 1] Ancient Greek:
Grayson, A.K. (1991). Assyria: Sennacherib and ;[2] Latin: Asor Haddan[2] ) was a king of the
Essarhaddon. In Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 669 BC. He was
S. The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume III Part the youngest son of Sennacherib and the West Semitic
II. Cambridge University Press. queen Naqi'a (Zakitu), Sennacheribs second wife.

Leick, Gwendolyn (2009). Historical Dictionary of


Mesopotamia. Scarecrow Press. 2.77.1 Rise to power
McCormack, Cliord Mark (2002). Palace and When, despite being the youngest son, Esarhaddon was
Temple. Walter de Gruyter. named successor by his father, his elder brothers tried
McKenzie, John L. (1995). The Dictionary Of The to discredit him. Oracles had named him as the person
Bible. Simon and Schuster. to free the exiles and rebuild Babylon, the destruction of
which by Sennacherib was felt to have been sacrilegious.
Oates, Joan (1991). The Fall of Assyria (635-609 Esarhaddon remained crown prince, but was forced into
BCE)". In Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. S. The exile at an unknown place beyond Hanilgalbat (Mitanni),
Cambridge Ancient History, Volume III Part II. Cam- that is, beyond the Euphrates, most likely somewhere in
bridge University Press. what is now southeastern Turkey.
2.77. ESARHADDON 73

Easarhaddon cylinder from fort Shalmaneser at Nimrud. It was


found in the city of Nimrud and was housed in the Iraqi Museum,
Baghdad. Erbil Civilization Museum, Iraqi Kurdistan.

BC.

Victory stele.

Sennacherib was murdered in 681 BC. The biblical ac-


count is that Esarhaddons brothers killed their father
after the failed attempt to capture Jerusalem (2 Kings
19:37). Esarhaddon returned to the capital of Nineveh
in forced marches and defeated his rival brothers in six
weeks of civil war. He was formally declared king in the
spring of 681 BC. His brothers ed to the land of Ararat
and their followers and families were put to death. In
the same year Esarhaddon began the rebuilding of Baby-
lon, including the well-known Esagila and the Ekur at
Nippur (structures sometimes identied with the Tower
of Babel).[3] The statues of the Babylonian gods were re-
stored and returned to the city. He also ordered the recon-
struction of the Assyrian sanctuary of Esharra in Ashur
as well. Foreigners were forbidden to enter the temple.
Both buildings were dedicated almost on the same date,
the second year of his reign.

2.77.2 Military campaigns


Black basalt monument of king Esarhaddon. It narrates
The rst military campaigns of Esarhaddon were directed Esarhaddons restoration of Babylon. Circa 670 BCE. From
against nomadic tribes of southern Mesopotamia, the Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. The British Museum, London.
Dakkuri and Gambulu, who had been harassing the peas-
ants. In 679 BC, the Cimmerians, who had already killed The Sidonian king Abdi-Milkutti, who had risen up
his grandfather Sargon II, reappeared in Cilicia and Tabal against the Assyrian king, was defeated in 677 BC and
under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated beheaded. The town of Sidon was destroyed and rebuilt
them near Hubushna (Hupisna), and defeated the rebel- as Kar-Ashur-aha-iddina, the Harbor of Esarhaddon.
lious inhabitants of Hilakku as well. The Cimmerians The population was deported to Assyria. A share of the
withdrew to the west, where, with Scythian and Urartuan plunder went to the loyal king of rival Tyre, Baal I, him-
help, they were to destroy the kingdom of Phrygia in 676 self an Assyrian puppet. The partly conserved text of
74 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

a treaty with Tyre mentions the kings of Judah, Edom,


Moab, Gaza, Ashkelon, Ekron, Byblos, Arvad, Samsi-
muruna, Ammon, Ashdod, ten kings from the coast of
the sea, and ten kings from the middle of the sea (usually
identied with Cyprus), as Assyrian allies.
In 676 BC, Esarhaddon took the towns of Sissu and
Kundu in the Taurus Mountains. The Mannaeans, the
Scythians under their king Ishpakaia, and the "Gutians"
of the Zagros proved to be a nuisance as well, as is at-
tested by numerous oracle-texts. The Mannaeans, for-
mer vassals of the Assyrians, were no longer restricted to
the area around Lake Urmia, but had spread into Zamua,
where they interrupted the horse trade between Parsuash
and Assyria and refused to pay further tribute. After the
fall of Phrygia, a daughter of Esarhaddon was wedded
to the Scythian prince Partatua of Sakasene in order to
improve relations with the nomads. The Medes under
Khshathrita (Kashtariti) had been the target of a cam-
paign as well, the date of which is unclear (possibly be-
fore 676 BC). Later, Assyrian hosts reached the border
of the salt-desert near the mountain Bikni, that is, near
Teheran. A number of fortresses secured the Zagros: Bit-
Parnakki, Bit-kari and Harhar (Kar-Sharrukin).
A certain Mugallu had taken possession of parts of the
Syro-Hittite state of Melid, and associated himself with
the king of Tabal. The city of Melid was besieged in
675 BC, but without success. That same year, Humban-
Terracotta record of king Esarhaddons restoration of Babylon.
Haltash II of Elam began a campaign against Sippar, but Circa 670 BCE. From Babylon, Mesopotamia, Iraq. The British
was defeated by the Babylonians, and died soon after- Museum, London.
wards. His brother and successor Urtaki restored peace
with Assyria.
and Kush", and returned with rich booty from the cities
A preliminary campaign against Egypt begun by Esarhad-
of the delta; he erected a victory stele at this time, show-
don the next year seems to have failed. Meanwhile,
ing the son of Taharqa in bondage, Prince Ushankhuru.
Esarhaddon was waging war in the land of Bazu, situated
Almost as soon as the king left, Egypt rebelled against
opposite of the island of "Dilmun" (Bahrain), probably
Assyrian rule.
Qatar, where snakes and scorpions cover the ground like
ants - a dry land of salt deserts. In 673 BC, Esarhaddon
waged war against Urartu under king Rusas II, which had
2.77.3 Death
strengthened again after the ravages of Sargon II and the
Cimmerians.
Esarhaddon had to contend with court intrigues at Nin-
In 672 BC, crown prince Sin-iddina-apla died. He had eveh that led to the execution of several nobles, and sent
been the oldest son and designated as king of Assyria, his general, Sha-Nabu-shu, to restore order in the Nile
while the second son Shamash-shum-ukin was to become Valley. In 669 BC, he went to Egypt in person, but sud-
the ruler of Babylon. Now, the younger Ashurbanipal be- denly died during autumn of the same year, in Harran.
came crown prince, but he was very unpopular with the He was succeeded by Ashurbanipal as king of Assyria,
court and the priesthood. Contracts were made with lead- and Shamash-shum-ukin as king of Babylonia.
ing Assyrians, members of the royal family and foreign
rulers, to assure their loyalty to the crown prince.
2.77.4 Popular culture
In 671 BC, Esarhaddon went to war against Pharaoh
Taharqa of Egypt. Part of his army stayed behind to
Esarhaddon is a character in Nicholas Guilds The
deal with rebellions in Tyre, and perhaps Ashkelon. The
Assyrian, a historical novel about the adventures of a
remainder went south to Rapihu (Rafah, near Gazah),
ctional prince, Tiglath-Ashur, set during the reign
then crossed the Sinai, a desert inhabited by dreadful
of king Sennacherib in ancient Assyria. He is the
and dangerous animals, and entered Egypt. In the sum-
best friend and brother of the protagonist, Tiglath-
mer, he took Memphis, and Taharqa ed to Upper Egypt.
Ashur, and eventually ascends the throne of the As-
Esarhaddon now called himself king of Egypt, Patros,
syrian empire.
2.78. ASHURBANIPAL 75

S.R. Hadden, a character in Carl Sagan's novel


Contact, is named for Esarhaddon.

"Esarhaddon, King of Assyria", a short story by Leo


Tolstoy.

2.77.5 See also

Kings of Assyria

2.77.6 References

[1] Ezra 4 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre.


Mechon-mamre.org. Retrieved 2012-08-17.

[2] NEW ADVENT BIBLE: Ezra 4. Newadvent.org. Re-


trieved 2012-08-17.

[3] Barbara N. Porter (1993). Images, power, and poli-


tics: gurative aspects of Esarhaddons Babylonian policy.
American Philosophical Society. pp. 62. ISBN 978-0-
87169-208-5. Retrieved 8 June 2011.

2.77.7 Bibliography

Amitai Baruchi-Unna, Crossing the Boundaries:


Literary Allusions to the Epic of Gilgamesh in the
Account of Esarhaddons Egyptian Campaign, in
Mordechai Cogan and Dan'el Kahn (eds), Treasures
on Camels Humps: Historical and Literary Studies
Ashurbanipal as High Priest
from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph`al
(Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008),

Erle Leichty, Esarhaddons Eastern Campaign, in


Mordechai Cogan and Dan'el Kahn (eds), Treasures 2.78 Ashurbanipal
on Camels Humps: Historical and Literary Studies
from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph'al
(Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008),
Ashurbanipal (Akkadian: Aur-bni-apli; Syriac:
" " ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir';
David Damrosch, The buried book: The Loss and
668 BC c. 627 BC),[1] also spelled Assurbanipal
Rediscovery of the Great Epic of Gilgamesh (Henry
or Ashshurbanipal, was an Assyrian king, the son of
Holt and Co., 2007),
Esarhaddon and the last strong king of the Neo-Assyrian
Empire (934609 BC).[1] He is famed for amassing a
signicant collection of cuneiform documents for his
2.77.8 External links royal palace at Nineveh.[2] This collection, known as the
Library of Ashurbanipal, is now housed at the British
A summary of Assyrian kings Museum, which also holds the famous Lion Hunt of
Ashurbanipal set of Assyrian palace reliefs.
The murderer of Sennacherib - by Simo Parpola
In the Hebrew Bible he is called Asenappar (Ezra
[3]
Vassal treaties and Esharhaddons Letter to the 4:10). Roman historian Justinus identied him as
God Sardanapalus, although the ctional Sardanapalus is de-
picted as the last king of Assyria, and an ineectual, ef-
Esharhaddons Syrio-Palestinian Campaign fete and debauched character, whereas three further kings
succeeded Ashurbanipal, who was in fact an educated, ef-
Esarhaddon Chronicle cient, highly capable and ambitious warrior king.[4]
76 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

2.78.1 Early life 2.78.3 Military accomplishments

Ashurbanipal was born toward the end of a 1500-year pe-


riod of Assyrian ascendancy.[5] Despite being a popular king among his subjects, he was
also known for his cruelty to his enemies. Some pic-
His father, Esarhaddon, the youngest son of Sennacherib, tures depict him putting a dog chain through the jaw of
had become heir when the crown prince, Ashur-nadin- a defeated Arab king and then making him live in a dog
shumi, was deposed by rebels from his position as vas- kennel.[7] Many paintings of the period exhibit his bru-
sal for Babylon. Esarhaddon was the son not of Sen- tality, however Assyrian harshness was reserved solely
nacheribs queen, Tashmetum-sharrat, but of the "palace for those who took up arms against the Assyrian king,
woman" Zakutu, the pure (cf. Modern Standard Arabic and neither Ashurbanipal nor his predecessors conducted
[ zakt], that which puries), known by her native genocides, massacres or ethnic cleansings against civilian
name, Naqi'a. There are some suggestions Zakutu may populations.[8][9]
have been an Israelite or Aramean concubine, while oth-
ers point to her family origins being in the northern Assyr- Ashurbanipal inherited from Esarhaddon not only the
ian city of Harran.[6] The only queen known for Esarhad- throne of the empire but also the ongoing war in Egypt
don was Ashur-hamat, who died in 672 BC. with Kush/Nubia. His father had ended Egyptian inter-
ference in the Near East, destroyed the Kushite Empire,
Ashurbanipal grew up in the small palace called Bit Re- driven the Kushites/Nubians from Egypt, and conquered
duti (house of succession), built by his grandfather Sen- Egypt and Libya. However the Nubians still had ambi-
nacherib when he was crown prince in the northern quad- tions to regain control of Egypt and resurrect their em-
rant of Nineveh.[5] In 694 BC, Sennacherib had com- pire.
pleted the Palace Without Rival at the southwest cor-
ner of the acropolis, obliterating most of the older struc- Ashurbanipal sent an army against them in 667 BC that
tures. The House of Succession had become the palace defeated the Nubian king Taharqa, near Memphis, while
of Esarhaddon, the crown prince. In this house, Ashur- Ashurbanipal stayed at his capital in Nineveh. At the
banipals grandfather was assassinated by uncles iden- same time some Egyptian vassals rebelled and were also
tied only from the biblical account as Adrammelech, defeated. All of the vanquished leaders save one were
Abimlech and Sharezer. From this conspiracy, Esarhad- sent to Nineveh. Only Necho I, the native Egyptian
don emerged as king in 681 BC. He proceeded to re- Prince of Sais, convinced the Assyrians of his loyalty and
build as his residence the Bit Masharti (weapons house, was sent back to become the Assyrian puppet Pharaoh of
or arsenal). The House of Succession was left to his Egypt. After the death of Taharqa in 664 BC his nephew
mother and the younger children, including Ashurbani- and successor Tantamani invaded Upper Egypt and took
pal. control of Thebes. In Memphis he defeated the native
Egyptian princes and Necho may have died in the bat-
The names of ve brothers and one sister are known.[5] tle. Another army was sent by Ashurbanipal and again it
Sin-iddin-apli, the intended crown prince, died prior to succeeded in defeating the Kushites/Nubians. Tantamani
672 BC. Not having been expected to become heir to was routed and driven back to his homeland in Nubia and
the throne, Ashurbanipal was trained in scholarly pursuits was never again to threaten Assyria or Egypt. The Assyr-
as well as the usual horsemanship, hunting, chariotry, ians plundered Thebes and took much booty home with
soldiery, craftsmanship, and royal decorum. In a unique them. How Assyrian rule in Egypt ended is not certain,
autobiographical statement, Ashurbanipal specied his but at some point Nechos son Psammetichus I gained in-
youthful scholarly pursuits as having included oil divina- dependence while wisely keeping his relations with As-
tion, mathematics, and reading and writing; he was able syria friendly.
to read and write in Sumerian, Akkadian and Aramaic.
According to legend, Ashurbanipal was the only Assyr- An Assyrian royal inscription tells how the Lydian king
ian king who learned how to read and write. Gyges received dreams from the Assyrian god Ashur.
The dreams told him that when he submitted to Ashur-
banipal he would conquer his foes. After Gyges sent his
2.78.2 Royal succession ambassadors to accept Assyrian vassalage he defeated his
Cimmerian enemies. But later when he supported the re-
Ashurbanipal succeeded his father Esarhaddon 681-669 bellion of the[10] Egyptian rebels his country was overrun by
BC as king of Assyria and ruler of the Assyrian Empire in the Cilicians.
668 BC. Esarhaddon had prepared for the accession of his Assyria was by then master of the largest empire the
son by imposing a vassal treaty upon his Persian, Median world had yet seen, stretching from The Caucasus in the
and Parthian subjects, ensuring that they accepted Ashur- north to North Africa and the Arabian peninsula in the
banipals dominance in advance. He had also rebuilt south, and from Cyprus and the east Mediterranean in
Babylon and set up another of his sons Shamash-shum- the west, to central Iran in the east. Ashurbanipal en-
ukin to rule there, subject to his brother Ashurbanipal in joyed the subjugation of a myriad of nations and peo-
Nineveh. ples, including; Babylon, Chaldea, Media, Persia, Egypt,
2.78. ASHURBANIPAL 77

Libya, Elam, Gutium, Parthia, Cissia, Phrygia, Mannea, of "Gutium", Amurru, and Meluhha, the Persians, the
Corduene, Aramea, Urartu, Lydia, Cilicia, Commagene, Arabs and Nabateans dwelling in the Arabian Peninsula,
Caria, Cappadocia, Phoenicia, Canaan, the Suteans, and even Elam. According to a later Aramaic tale on Pa-
Sinai, Israel, Judah, Samarra, Moab, Edom, Ammon, pyrus 63, Shamash-shum-ukin formally declared war on
Nabatea, Arabia, the Neo-Hittites, Dilmun, Meluhha, Ashurbanipal in a letter where he claims that his brother
Nubia, Scythia, Cimmeria, Armenia and Cyprus, with is only the governor of Nineveh and his subject.[16] Again
few problems during Ashurbanipals reign. For the time the Assyrians delayed an answer, this time due to un-
being, the dual monarchy in Mesopotamia went well, with favourable omens. Its not certain how the rebellion af-
Shamash-shum-ukin accepting his position as the vassal fected the Assyrian heartlands but there was some un-
of his brother peacably.[11] rest in the cities.[17] When Babylon nally was attacked,
the Assyrians were victorious. Civil war prevented by
For his assignment of his brother, Ashurbanipal sent a
statue of the divinity Marduk with him as sign of good further military aid, and in 648 BC Borsippa and Baby-
lon were besieged. Without aid the situation was hope-
will.[12] Shamash-shuma-ukins power was limited. He
performed Babylonian rituals but the ocial building less. After two years Shamash-shum-ukin met his end in
his burning palace just before the city surrendered. This
projects were still executed by his younger brother. Dur-
ing his rst years Elam was still in peace as it was un- time Babylon was not destroyed, as under Sennacherib,
der his father. Ashurbanipal sent food supplies to the but a massacre of the rebels took place, according to
Elamites during a famine. Around 664 BC the situation the kings inscriptions, with the Assyrians exacting sav-
changed and Urtaku, the Elamite king, attacked Assyrias age revenge upon the Babylonians, Arameans, Chaldeans
colony of Babylonia by surprise. Assyria delayed in send- and Persians, together with an invasion of Arabia and
ing aid to Babylon. This could have been caused for two the brutal subjugation of the Arab tribes to the south of
reasons: either the soothing messages of Elamite am- Mesopotamia. Ashurbanipal allowed Babylon to keep its
bassadors or Ashurbanipal might simply not have been semi autonomous position, but it became more formal-
present at that time. However the Assyrians eventually ized than before. The next king Kandalanu (an Assyrian
attacked and the Elamites retreated before the Assyrian governor) left no ocial inscription, probably as his func-
troops, and in the same year Urtaku died. He was suc- tion was only ritual.[18]
ceeded by Teumman (Tempti-Khumma-In-Shushinak)
who was not his legitimate heir, so many Elamite princes 2.78.4 End of the Assyrian Empire
had to ee to Ashurbanipals court, including Urtakus
oldest son Humban-nikash. In 658/657 BC the two em- During the nal two decades of Ashurbanipals rule, As-
pires clashed again, when the province of Gambulu in 664 syria was peaceful and its dominance went unchallenged,
rebelled against the Assyrians and Ashurbanipal decided but the country apparently faced an underlying decline
to punish them. On the other hand, Teumman saw his due to over-expansion, the lack of funds from its devas-
authority threatened by the Elamite princes at the As- tated colonies, and insucient troops to govern its vast
syrian court and demanded their extradition. The Assyr- empire. Documentation from the last years of Ashurba-
ian forces invaded Elam and fought a battle at the Ulaya nipals reign is scarce. The last attestations of Ashurban-
river.[13] ipals reign are of his year 38 (631 BC), but according to
Elam was defeated in the battle in which, according to As- the Greek historian Castor, he reigned for 42 years until
[19]
syrian reliefs, Teumman committed suicide.[14] Ashurba- 627 BC.
nipal installed Humban-nikash as king of Madaktu and After Ashurbanipals death in 627 BC he was succeeded
another prince, Tammaritu, as king of the city Hidalu. by Ashur-etil-ilani (626 623 BC). However, Assyria
Elam was considered a vassal of Assyria and tribute was soon descended into a series of internal civil wars that
imposed on it. With the Elamite problem solved the would ultimately lead to its downfall. Ashur-etil-ilani
Assyrians could nally punish Gambulu and seized its was deposed as ruler in 623 BC by a general named
capital. Then the victorious army marched home taking Sin-shumu-lishir who was also declared king of Baby-
with them the head of Teumman. In Nineveh, when the lon. Ashur-etil-ilanis brother Sin-shar-ishkun deposed
Elamite ambassadors saw the head, one tore out his beard the usurper in 622 BC, but he too was beset by a series of
and the other committed suicide. As further humiliation crippling civil wars against his rule in Assyria itself. Dur-
the head of the Elamite king was put on display at the ing his rule, the Assyrian Empire began to unravel, with
port of Nineveh. The death and head of Teumman was subject peoples ceasing to pay tribute. Babylonia took
depicted multiple times in the reliefs of Ashurbanipals advantage of the anarchy in Assyria and rebelled under
palace.[15] Nabopolassar who claimed the throne in 620 BC, and the
Friction grew between the two brother kings and in next four years saw Sin-shar-iskun encamped in Babylo-
652 BC Babylon rebelled. This time Babylon was not nia trying to unseat Nabopolassar whilst trying to quell
alone it had allied itself with a host of peoples re- wholesale rebellion amongst his own people in the Assyr-
sentful of Assyrian rule, including Sutean, Chaldean and ian heartland.
Aramean tribes dwelling in its southern regions, the kings The anarchic state in Mesopotamia weakened Assyria to
78 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

such a degree that a number of its vassal peoples - the banipals palace in the Nineveh was re-excavated in De-
Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes, Persians, Scythians and cember 1853. The library was discovered in the Lion-
Cimmerians, attacked it in unison in 616 BC, and af- Hunt Room (Murray, 2009).[22] The Library of Ashur-
ter a brutal struggle, sacked Nineveh and slew Sin-shar- banipal at Nineveh is perhaps the most compelling dis-
ishkun in 612 BC. Assyrian resistance continued from covery in the Ancient Near East (despite how, unfortu-
612 BC, under Ashur-uballit II, an Assyrian general who nately, the British discoverers kept no record of their nd-
was crowned amid the house to house ghting in Nin- ings from dierent sites and soon after reaching Europe,
eveh and managed to ght his way out of the city and the tablets appeared to have been irreparably mixed with
form a new Assyrian capital at Harran. However, defeat each other and with tablets originating from other sites,
by the alliance at Carchemish in 605 BC ended any re- see: Library of Ashurbanipal 1, Discovery). There have
alistic hopes of a resurrection of an Assyrian empire, al- been over 30,000 clay tablets and fragments uncovered in
though traces of Assyrian imperial organisation, admin- Ashurbanipals library,[23] providing archaeologists with
istration and possible resistance endured in and around an amazing wealth of Mesopotamian literary, religious
Dur-Katlimmu until 599 BC. and administrative work.
Those clay tablets were written in cuneiform, which de-
rives from the Latin word cunea which means wedge
2.78.5 Art and culture in English, because it is created by making wedges on
clay tablets. The Assurbanipal Library in Nineveh was
a royal library, and the rst library to classify their col-
lection according to genres. Four-sided tablets were uti-
lized for nancial transactions and two-sided clay tablets
were reserved for agricultural records (Murray, 2009).[22]
Among the ndings was the Enuma Elish, also known
as the Epic of Creation,[24] which depicts a traditional
Babylonian view of creation where the god Marduk slays
Tiamat, the personication of salt water, and creates the
world from her body. In this particular version, man
is created from the blood of a revolting god, Qingu,
in order to toil on behalf of the gods. Also found in
Nineveh, The Epic of Gilgamesh[25] is a compelling ac-
count of the hero and his friend Enkidu seeking out to
destroy the demon Humbaba. The Gods punished the
pair for their arrogance, however, by having Enkidu die
from an illness. After Enkidus death, Gilgamesh seeks
Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Deluge, in order to nd
out the secret of immortality. Also the Annals of Ashur-
banipal were found here. The annals of Ashurbanipal
were detailed, almost novelistic accounts of his military
and civic achievements.[26]
The library also included hymns and prayers, medical,
mathematical, ritual, divinatory and astrological texts,
alongside all sorts of administrative documents, letters
The king, detail from the Lion Hunt of Ashurbanipal and contracts. The discovery of these tablets in 1853
by Hormuzd Rassam (himself an Assyrian) provided
Ashurbanipal was proud of his scribal education. He as- the modern world its rst detailed glimpse of the lan-
serts this in the statement: I Assurbanipal within [the guages and literature of ancient Mesopotamia (Murray,
palace], took care of the wisdom of Nebo, the whole of 2009).[22] Ashurbanipal had a fascination with the past,
the inscribed tablets, of all the clay tablets, the whole of and during his forty-two year reign he sponsored the
their mysteries and diculties, I solved..[20] He was one collection and copying of older texts for his library at
of the few kings who could read the cuneiform script in Nineveh.[27]
Akkadian and Sumerian, and claimed that he even read Aside from the many other myths found in Nineveh, a
texts from before the great ood. He was also able to large selection of omen texts has been excavated and
solve mathematical problems. During his reign, he col- deciphered. Marc Van de Mieroop points out the Enuma
lected cuneiform texts from all over Mesopotamia, espe- Anu Enlil was a popular text among them: It contained
cially Babylonia, in the library of Nineveh.[21] omens dealing with the moon, its visibility, eclipses, and
Nineveh was the capital city of Assyria from the 9th7th conjunction with planets and xed stars, the sun, its
centuries BC, but had been destroyed in 612 BC. Ashur- corona, spots, and eclipses, the weather, namely light-
2.78. ASHURBANIPAL 79

Grecians called Sardanapalus and the Semitic peoples


Asshurbanipal.[34]

2.78.6 See also


Kings of Assyria

2.78.7 References and footnotes


[1] These are the dates according to the Assyrian King list,
Assyrian kinglist

Assyria. Feast of Assurbanipal, King and Queen at table; British [2] Ashurbanipal from the Encyclopdia Britannica
Museum Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collec-
[3] See other versions at Ezra 4:10
tion
[4] Marcus Junianus Justinus. Epitome of the Philippic His-
tory of Pompeius Trogus. His successors too, following
ning, thunder, and clouds, and the planets and their visi- his example, gave answers to their people through their
bility, appearance, and stations.[28] ministers. The Assyrians, who were afterwards called
Other genres found during excavations included stan- Syrians, held their empire thirteen hundred years. The
dard lists used by scribes and scholars, word lists, bilin- last king that reigned over them was Sardanapalus, a man
more eeminate than a woman.
gual vocabularies, lists of signs and synonyms, lists of
medical diagnoses, astronomic/astrological texts. The [5] Northen Magill, Frank; Christina J. Moose; Alison Aves;
scribal texts proved to be very helpful in deciphering Taylor and Francis (1998). Dictionary of World Biogra-
cuneiform.[21] phy: The ancient world. pp. 141142.
The Nineveh library was Ashurbanipals passion. In or- [6] 1.^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Melville, Sarah C. (1999).
der to preserve the wisdom and knowledge of his time The role of Naqia/Zakutu in Sargonid politics. Helsinki:
the king accumulated several works. He commissioned Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project. ISBN 9514590406.
copies of literary works from libraries around the king-
[7] Luckenbill, D.D. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylo-
dom by scribes in order to obtain the hidden treasures
nia II. p. 314.
of the scribes knowledge. {{[29] }}
The British Museum in London has the Lion Hunt of [8] It must be noted, however, that these atrocities were
usually reserved for those local princes and their no-
Ashurbanipal, an exhilarating set of Assyrian palace re-
bles who had revolted and that in contrast with the Is-
liefs from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, also exca- raelites, for instance, who exterminated the Amalekites
vated at Nineveh, depicting the king hunting and killing for purely ethno-cultural reasons, the Assyrians never in-
lions. In Assyria, the lion hunt was seen as a royal sport; dulged in systematic genocides. (Georges Roux, Ancient
the depictions were seen as a symbol of the kings ability Iraq, Third Edition, p. 291)
to guard the nation.[30] The Garden Party relief shows
the king and his queen having a banquet celebrating the [9] They have been maligned. Certainly they could be rough
Assyrian triumph over Tuemman in the campaign against and tough to maintain order, but they were defenders
of civilization, not barbarian destroyers. (H.W.F. Saggs,
Elam. The ne carvings serve as testimony to Ashurbani-
The Might That Was Assyria, p. 2)
pals high regard for art, but also communicate an impor-
tant message meant to be passed down for posterity.[31] [10] Roaf, M. Cultural atlas of Mesopotamia and the ancient
near east 2004. pp. 190191.
The sculptor Fred Parhad (1934) created a larger-than-
life statue of Ashurbanipal, which was placed on a [11] Georges Roux Ancient Iraq
street near the San Francisco City Hall main square in
1988.[32][33] The sculpture shows Asurbanipal wearing a [12] Frame, G. Babylonia 689-627. p. 104.
short tunic and holds a lion cub in his proper right arm. [13] This is the name according to Assyrian sources; the river
The gure stands on a concrete base, with bronze plaque is today identied with either the Karkheh or Karun.
and rosettes. The statue stands across from City Hall next
to the Asian Art Museum and faces the San Francisco Li- [14] Banipal, Cem (1986). The War of Banipalian. ankaya:
brary. Bilkentftp Press. pp. 3152.

Robert E. Howard wrote a short story entitled The Fire [15] Frame, G. Babylonia 689627 BC. pp. 118124.
of Asshurbanipal (sic), rst published in the Decem-
[16] Steiner and Ninms, RB 92 1985
ber 1936 issue of Weird Tales magazine, about an ac-
cursed jewel belonging to a king of long ago, whom the [17] Frame, G. Babylonia 689627 BC. pp. 131141.
80 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

[18] Oates, J. (2003). Babylon. p. 123. Luckenbill, Daniel David (1926). Ancient Records
of Assyria and Babylonia: From Sargon to the End.
[19] Most important examples are the Harran inscription and
2. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
the Uruk king list.

[20] Cylinder A, Column I, Lines 3133, in Smith, George. Murray, S. (2009). The Library: An Illustrated His-
History of Assurbanipal, Translated from the Cuneiform tory. New York, NY:: Skyhorse Pub.
Inscriptions. London: Harrison and Sons, 1871: pg.6
Oates, J. (1965). Assyrian Chronology,
[21] Roaf, M. (2004). Cultural Atlas of Mesopotamia and the 631-612 B.C. Iraq. 27 (2): 135159.
Ancient Near East. p. 191. doi:10.2307/4199788.
[22] Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated His- Olmstead, A. T. (1923). History of Assyria. New
tory. New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 310. York: Scribner.
ISBN 9780838909911.
Russell, John Malcolm (1991). Sennacheribs
[23] https://www.britishmuseum.org/research/research_
projects/ashurbanipal_library_phase_1.aspx Assurban- Palace without Rival at Nineveh. Chicago: Univer-
ipal Library Phase 1, British Museum One sity of Chicago Press.

[24] Epic of Creation in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from


Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.233-81 2.78.9 Further reading
[25] Epic of Gilgamesh in Dalley, Stephanie. Myths from
Ito, Sanae (2015). Royal Image and Political Think-
Mesopotamia. Oxford, 1989: pg.50135
ing in the Letters of Assurbanipal. Ph.D. thesis.
[26] Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together Worlds Apart. Helsinki: University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-951-
W.W. Norton & Company. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-393- 51-0972-9.
92207-3.
[1]
[27] Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old
Testament. New York City: Oxford University Press. p.
292. 2.78.10 External links
[28] Van De Mieroop, Marc (2007). A History of the Ancient
Near East ca. 3000323 BC. Oxford: Blackwell Publish- Ashurbanipal
ing. p. 263.
The Library of King Ashurbanipal Web Page
[29] Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated His-
tory. Chicago: ALA Editions. Assurbanipal Coronation Hymn

[30] ""Assyria: Lion Hunt (Room 10a). British Museum.. History Of Assurbanipal, Translated from the
Retrieved 23 November 2014. Cuneiform Inscriptions by George Smith
[31] ""'Garden Party' relief from the North Palace of Ashur- Historical Prism Inscriptions of Ashurbanipal I:
banipal (Room S),. British Museum.. Retrieved 23 Editions E, B15, D, and K Oriental Institute
November 2014.
Geldings for the Gods and the origine in life are
[32] Smithsonian Art Inventories Catalog Ashurbanipal,
(sculpture)". Retrieved 23 November 2014. Greece and the myth of Greece and Greek people

[33] Ashurbanipal Statue at the Main San Francisco Library [1] Lyons, Martyn (2011). Books: A Living History. Los An-
in San Francisco. Retrieved 23 November 2014. geles: J. Paul Gerry Museum. pp. 1617.
[34] Price, R. M. (ed.): Nameless Cults: The Cthulhu Mythos
Fiction of Robert E. Howard, Chaosium (2001), pp. 99
118. 2.79 Ashur-etil-ilani

2.78.8 Sources Ashur-etil-ilani was a king of Assyria (c. 631 BC c.


627 BC). He succeeded his father Ashurbanipal.
Barnett, R. D. (1976). Sculptures from the North
Palace of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh (668627). Lon-
don: British Museum. 2.79.1 Problems with source material
Grayson, A. K. (1980). The Chronology of the The reconstruction of the events occurring during Ashur-
Reign of Ashurbanipal. Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie. etil-ilanis rule has proven to be very dicult. One note-
70 (2): 227245. doi:10.1515/zava.1980.70.2.227. worthy problem is the complete absence of sources from
2.80. SIN-SHUMU-LISHIR 81

central Assyria covering this time, and the lack of o- 2.80 Sin-shumu-lishir
cial recordings of events (e.g. royal inscriptions). The
most important source for this period is the Nabopolas- Sin-shumu-lishir (or Sin-shum-lishir, Sn-umu-
sar Chronicle, which, however, is quite fragmentary for lir), was a usurper king of a part of the Assyrian empire
this period. during 626 BC. Little is known about this king due to the
lack of sources covering this time.
2.79.2 Reign
2.80.1 Reign
The death of Ashurbanipal between 631 and 627 BC
opened the way for a serious struggle for the control Sin-shumu-lishir rst appears in Assyrian sources as a
of Assyria between several pretenders which led to the general of the Assyrian king Ashur-etil-ilani.[1] It seems
downfall of the Neo Assyrian Empire. The contest may that he later tried to seize the throne. He is credited with
have begun a few years earlier during Ashurbanipals life- a reign of one year by the Uruk king list, preceding Sin-
time. The development of the events, and even the num- shar-ishkun.
ber of parties involved is not known with certainty. It
His rst year was attested in texts from the Babylonian
seems fairly certain that upon Ashurbanipals death, allied
cities of Bab-ili, Nippur, and Ru'a.[2] Because there is
hordes of Scythians, Cimmerians, Medes and Persians,
only evidence about his rst year as ruler, it is not likely
taking advantage of Assyrias weakness due to internal
that his reign lasted much longer. Sin-shumu-lishir never
strife, crossed the borders of the Assyrian Empire, de-
controlled all of the Assyrian empire and most likely only
stroying Ashkelon and raiding as far as Egypt. Calah
a part of Babylonia.
(Nimrud) was burned, but the strong walls of Nineveh
protected the remnants of the Assyrian army that had His short reign must have taken place in 626 BC because
taken refuge there. When the raiders had passed on to before that year Kandalanu reigned over his attested cities
other regions, a new palace was erected among the ru- and after that Nabopolassar and Sinsharishkun did so.[3]
ins of the neighbouring city. But its architectural poverty
and small size show that the resources of Assyria were at
a low ebb. 2.80.2 Notes
[1] R. Borger J.C.S. 19 1965 p 75
2.79.3 Dating his reign [2] N. Na'aman, ZA 81 1991, p. 251

According to the Harran Inscription of Nabonidus, [3] N. Na'aman, ZA 81 1991, p. 247


Ashur-etil-ilani reigned for three years, but there is a con-
tract from Nippur dated to his fourth year. It thus seems
that he succeeded Ashurbanipal in 627 BC and ruled un- 2.81 Sinsharishkun
til 623 BC. This raises some problems over the dating of
events from the Assyrian-Babylonian war.[1] Sinsharishkun (Sin-shar-ishkun; Sn-arru-ikun, c.
Ashur-etil-ilani must therefore have succeeded to the As- 627 612 BC), who seems to have been the Sarkos
syrian throne before 627 BC. It has been suggested that (Saracus) of Berossus, was one of the last kings of the
his reign overlapped with Ashurbanipals. However, it is Assyrian empire, followed only by Ashur-uballit II.
more likely that Ashurbanipal died before 627 BC be-
cause there is no evidence of a co-regency. Therefore, 2.81.1 Early years
it has been suggested that Ashurbanipal died in 631 BC
and that Ashur-etil-ilani was the Assyrian king until 627 He was the son of Ashurbanipal, and possibly the brother
BC.[2] There are still issues over some dates which conict of the last Assyrian king, Ashur-uballit II (612605 BC).
with this conclusion, but these dates seem to best support He is the last king who has years attested in most Baby-
the available evidence.[3] lonian records. Little is known about this king due to the
He was succeeded by Sin-shumu-lishir who deposed him. lack of sources for his time. It seems that he ascended the
throne sometime around 627 BC. After the death of the
powerful Ashurbanipal, the vast Assyrian Empire began
2.79.4 Notes to unravel, due to a series of bitter internal wars over who
should rule. Sinsharishkuns rise to power was marred
[1] See for this discussion S. Zawadzki, The Fall of Assyria by severe violence, crippling internal civil war, and up-
p. 39-41. heaval within the Assyrian Empire. He had to unseat the
[2] N. Na'aman, ZA 81 1991. usurper Sin-shumu-lishir, who had deposed Ashur-etil-
ilani, Sinsharishkuns older brother. During this confu-
[3] S. Zawadzki, ZA 85 1995 p. 71-73. sion, a host of Assyrias many colonies and puppet states
82 CHAPTER 2. ASSYRIAN KINGS

took advantage of the anarchy to quietly free themselves The fate of Sinsharishkun is not certain, as the section
from Assyrian rule, and then Assyria faced threats from of the Babylonian chronicle in which he is mentioned
the Chaldeans, Babylonians, Medes, Persians, Scythians, at the siege of Nineveh is damaged. It is likely that he
and Cimmerians.[1] was killed defending his capital during Battle of Nineveh
(612 BC) by Babylonians, Chaldeans, Medes/Persians
and Scythians.
2.81.2 Last Strike against Babylon
Despite the loss of its major cities, an independent As-
syria endured, centered on its last capital city of Harran
After temporarily defeating his rivals, Sinsharishkun
under its last king Ashur-uballit II. However this too was
faced a much larger threat. Babylon, a vassal state of
overrun by the alliance in 608 BC, and a nal victory was
Assyria for three centuries, took advantage of the anar-
achieved at Carchemish in 605 BC.
chy within Assyria and rebelled under the previously un-
known Nabopolassar, the leader of the Chaldean peoples
of south eastern Mesopotamia, in 626 BC. 2.81.4 In literature
What followed was a long war fought in the
Mesopotamian heartland. Nabopolassar tried to The ctional discovery of the tomb of Sinsharishkun just
capture Nippur, the main Assyrian center of power in before the outbreak of the First World War is the central
Babylonia, but was defeated by Assyrian reinforcements. topic of the novel Land of Marvels by Barry Unsworth.
However Nabopolassar did manage to take the city of
Babylon itself with the help of the Babylonian citizens,
and was crowned king in the city circa 625 BC. 2.81.5 References
Sinsharishkun, crippled by civil war in Assyria proper, [1] Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq
then lost more ground before succeeded in recapturing
Uruk in the far south in about 624 BC, only to quickly lose Na'aman, N., Chronology and history in the late
it again. Sin-shar-ishkun led a large army to Babylonia Assyrian empire"', Zeitschrift fr Assyriologie, 81
in 623 BC to nally crush the Babylonian and Chaldean (1991), 243-267.
rebels, however yet another major rebellion broke out
in the Assyrian homeland. A relief army was sent back Zawadzki, S., The fall of Assyria and Median-
north, but promptly joined the rebels, so that the usurper Babylonian relation in light of the Nabopolassar
could reach the capital Nineveh without interference, and chronicle, Poznan 1988.
claim the throne. Chronicles for the next few years are
Unsworth, B., Land of Marvels: a Novel, Hutchin-
mostly absent due to the civil anarchy in Assyria, how-
son, London 2009.
ever eventually Sin-shar-ishkun was able to quell the lat-
est homeland rebellion. Crucially, precious time was
lost to solve the Babylonian problem, with Nabopolas-
sar taking advantage to entrench himself as ruler of most
of Babylonia. In 620 or 619 BC Nabopolassar suc-
cessfully captured Nippur and so became the master of 2.82 Ashur-uballit II
Babylonia. However, he was forced to contend with Sin-
Shar-Ishkuns Assyrian armies encamped in the Babylo- Ashur-uballit II (Aur-uballi II) was the last king of the
nian heartlands attempting to unseat him for the next four Neo Assyrian Empire, succeeding Sin-shar-ishkun (623
years. 612 BC). He took his name from Ashur-uballit I, the As-
syrian king who had overthrown Mitanni Empire and de-
feated the Hittite Empire, and started the Middle Assyr-
2.81.3 War in the Assyrian heartlands ian Empire (1365 BC 1020 BC). While it is clear that
he was a member of the Assyrian royal family, and that
This stalemate ended in 616 BC, when Nabopolassar he was a tartan (General) of the Assyrian army before
entered into an alliance with Cyaxares, king of the declaring himself king, there is some disagreement as to
Medes, who had also taken advantage of the unremit- whether or not he was the brother of Sin-shar-ishkun.
ting civil wars in Assyria to free his Iranian peoples: the
Medes, Persians and Parthians from the Assyrian yoke
and form them into a powerful force. In 616 BC, this al- 2.82.1 Reign
liance of peoples, now also including the Scythians and
Cimmerians felt strong enough to move the center of Ashur-uballit II refused to submit in vassalage to
operations northward and launch an attack on the war Cyaxares and Nabopolassar, and fought his way out
ravaged Assyrian heartland. In the years that followed of Nineveh during the siege and capture of that city
Ashur, Kalhu, and Nineveh were besieged and destroyed by the Babylonian-Chaldean-Mede-Persian-Scythian-
amid bitter ghting. Cimmerian alliance in mid 612 BC. Thereafter, he
2.82. ASHUR-UBALLIT II 83

reigned from the last capital city of Harran from 612 BC


to circa 609 BC.
In alliance with Egypt, whose 26th dynasty had been in-
stalled by the Assyrians, Ashur-uballits depleted army
was somehow able to defend Harran and the remainder of
the Assyrian kingdom from combined Babylonian-Mede-
Scythian-Cimmerian attacks for four years following the
destruction of Nineveh; however, after the Egyptian army
was defeated and had to return to its homeland in 610 BC,
the Babylonians, Medes and Scythians eventually took
Harran and sacked it in 609 BC.
Limmu new-year ocials were appointed down to the
very end of Ashur-uballits recorded reign; his nal
known year (= 609 BC), known eponymously for the
limmu as Gargamishayu (the Carchemishite"), was the
last year ever in history so to receive an ocial Assyrian
name.[1][2]

2.82.2 Fate
Ashur-uballit II again managed to ght his way out of the
city, and called once more upon Assyrias former Egyp-
tian colony. The forces of Egypt under Pharaoh Necho II
came to his assistance. King Josiah of Judah allied him-
self with Babylon and Media and tried to block Nechos
way, but was defeated and killed at Megiddo. Pharaoh
Necho II joined with Ashur-uballit II and marched on
with him to besiege Harran in 609 BC. They were de-
feated and the Egyptians retreated into northern Syria.
It is possible that Ashur-uballit II was killed in this second
siege of Harran, although this is not certain. He may have
survived and been involved in the nal Egyptian defeat
along with some remnants of the former assyrian empires
army in the region, at Carchemish in 605 BC, or survived
and lived on in obscurity.[3] In any event, he disappeared
from history, marking the nal end of the Assyrian em-
pire.

2.82.3 Notes
[1] Approche scientique d'une chronologie absolue
Archived February 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
(French)

[2] Geschichte Vorderasiens (German)

[3] Georges Roux -Ancient Iraq


Chapter 3

Babylonian kings

3.1 Nabopolassar ranean eet along the shore. He prepared to cross the
ridge of hills which shuts in on the south the great Jezreel
Nabopolassar (/nboplsr/; Akkadian: Nab- Valley, but he found his passage blocked by the Judean
apal-uur; c. 658 BC 605 BC) was a king of Babylonia army. Their king, Josiah, sided with the Babylonians and
and a central gure in the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Em- attempted to block his advance at Megiddo, where a erce
pire.[1] The death of Assyrian king Ashurbanipal around battle was fought and Josiah was killed. Necho continued
627 BC resulted in political instability. In 626 BC, a on and joining forces with Ashur-uballit, they crossed the
native dynasty arose under Nabopolassar, a former As- Euphrates and laid siege to Harran. Failing to capture
syrian ocial. Nabopolassar made Babylon his capital Harran, they retreated to northern Syria.
and ruled over Babylonia for a period of about twenty In 605 BC, Nabopolassars son, crown prince Nebuchad-
years (626605 BC). He is credited with founding the nezzar fought Necho and the remnants of the Assyrian
Neo-Babylonian Empire. By 616 BC, Nabopolassar had army at the Battle of Carchemish. Within months of
united the entire area under his rule.[2] his abdication in 605 BC, Nabopolassar died of natural
Nabopolassar formed an alliance with Cyaxares of the causes at about 53 years of age, and Nebuchadnezzar
[2]
II
Medes to confront the Assyrians and their Egyptian al- hurried to Babylon to secure the throne.
lies. By 615 BC he had seized Nippur.[3] He then led During Nabopolassars reign, there was a boom of Neo-
his forces to assist the Medes besieging the city of Ashur, Babylonian building projects that would continue through
but the Babylonian army did not reach the battleeld until the reign of his son, Nebuchadnezzar II. Temples and
after the city had fallen.[4] ziggurats were repaired or rebuilt in almost all the old
dynastic cities, while Babylon itself was enlarged and sur-
rounded by a double enceinte, or line of fortication, con-
3.1.1 Nineveh sisting of towered and moated fortress walls. The rst
mention of Nebuchadnezzar II comes from the records
Assyria, weakened by internal strife and ineectual rule, of Nabopolassar, saying he was a laborer in the restora-
was unable to resist the Babylonians and the Medes , tion of the temple of Marduk.[6]
who united to sack the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in
A cylinder found in 1921 in Baghdad, Iraq is attributed
612 BC.[5] Following a prolonged siege at the Battle of
to Nabopolassar. He is described therein as extremely pi-
Nineveh, Nabopolassar took control of the city. Ashur-
ous, and that he sought out the temples... and the com-
uballit II was a member of the Assyrian royal family and
plete performance of their rites. He attributes his success
a tartan (general) in the army. He became king after Sin-
to Shazu (one of the names associated with Marduk[7] ).
shar-ishkun, who may have been his brother, and who
Throughout the inscription, Nabopolassar describes some
probably died during the fall of Ninevah.
of his greatest military conquests and submits himself to
Marduk and other deities.[8]
3.1.2 Harran

Ashur-uballit II rallied his troops at the city of Harran in


northern Syria. The following year the Babylonians plun- 3.1.3 See also
dered the region of Harran,[4] and in 610 BC, Nabopo-
lassar captured the city.[5]
In the spring of 609 BC, Necho II of Egypt led a siz- Babylonia
able force to help the Assyrians. At the head of a large
army, consisting mainly of mercenaries, Necho took the
coastal Via Maris into Syria, supported by his Mediter- Kings of Babylonia

84
3.2. NEBUCHADNEZZAR II 85

3.1.4 References stone deed of property. However, when contained in a


rulers title, kudurru approximates to rstborn son or
[1] D. Brendan Nagle, The Ancient World: A Social and Cul- oldest son.[5] Variations of the Hebrew form include
tural History, 6th ed., Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson, and ( Nuarear). He is also
58. known as Bakhat Nasar, which means winner of the
[2] Van De Mieroop, Marc, 2007, A History of the Ancient fate, or literally, fate winner.
Near East ca. 3000-323 BC, Blackwell Publishing

[3] Sack, Ronald Herbert. Images of Nebuchadnez- 3.2.1 Life


zar, Susquehanna University Press, 2004 ISBN
9781575910796 Nebuchadnezzar was the oldest son and successor of
[4] The fall of Nineveh, capital of the Assyrian Empire, The Nabopolassar, who delivered Babylon from its three cen-
British Museum turies of vassalage to its fellow Mesopotamian state,
Assyria, and in alliance with the Medes, Persians,
[5] Lendering, Jona. Nabopolassar, Livius.org Scythians, and Cimmerians, laid Nineveh in ruins. Ac-
[6] Lloyd, Seton H.F., Mesopotamian art and architecture, cording to Berossus, some years before he became king
Encyclopedia Britannica, July 17, 2014 of Babylon, Babylonian dynasties were united. There are
conicting accounts of Nitocris of Babylon being either
[7] The Fifty Names of Marduk his wife or daughter.
[8] Hanson, K.C., Nabopolassar Cylinder Nabopolassar was intent on annexing the western
provinces of Syria (ancient Aram) from Necho II (whose
own dynasty had been installed as vassals of Assyria, and
3.1.5 External links who was still hoping to help restore Assyrian power),
and to this end dispatched his son westward with a large
ABC 2: Chronicle Concerning the Early Years of army. In the ensuing Battle of Carchemish in 605 BCE,
Nabopolassar the Egyptian and Assyrian army was defeated and driven
back, and the region of Syria and Phoenicia were brought
ABC 3: Chronicle Concerning the Fall of Nineveh
under the control of Babylon. Nabopolassar died in Au-
ABC 4: Chronicle Concerning the Late Years of gust that year, and Nebuchadnezzar returned to Babylon
Nabopolassar to ascend the throne.

Nabopolassar Cylinder

3.2 Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar redirects here. For other uses, see
Nebuchadnezzar (disambiguation).

Nebuchadnezzar II ( i /nbjkdnzr/; Aramaic:


; Hebrew: Nanear;
Ancient Greek: Naboukhodonsr;
Latin: Nabuchodonosor; Arabic:
nibaniar; c. 634 c. 562 BCE) was a Chaldean
king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, who reigned c.
605 BCE c. 562 BCE. Both the construction of the
Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the destruction of
Jerusalem's temple are ascribed to him. He is featured Nebuchadnezzar faces o against Zedekiah, the last king of
in the Book of Daniel and is mentioned in several other Judah, who holds a plan of Jerusalem, in a Baroque era de-
books of the Bible. piction in Zwiefalten Abbey, Germany.
The Akkadian name, Nab-kudurri-uur, means O
god Nabu, preserve/defend my rstborn son. Nabu, After the defeat of the Cimmerians and Scythians, previ-
son of the god Marduk, is the Babylonian deity of wis- ous allies in the defeat of Assyria, Nebuchadnezzars ex-
dom. In an inscription, Nebuchadnezzar styles himself as peditions were directed westward. The powerful Median
Nabus beloved and favorite.[2][3] His name has pre- empire lay to the north. Nebuchadnezzars political mar-
viously been mistakenly interpreted as O Nabu, defend riage to Amytis of Media, the daughter of the Median
my kudurru",[4] in which sense a kudurru is an inscribed king, had ensured peace between the two empires.
86 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

Nebuchadnezzar engaged in several military campaigns


designed to increase Babylonian inuence in Aramea
(modern Syria) and Judah. An attempted invasion of
Egypt in 601 BCE was met with setbacks, however, lead-
ing to numerous rebellions among the Phoenician and
Canaanite states of the Levant, including Judah. Neb-
uchadnezzar soon dealt with these rebellions, capturing
Jerusalem in 597 BCE and deposing King Jehoiakim,
then destroying the city in 587 BCE due to rebellion,
and deporting many of the prominent citizens along with
a sizable portion of the Jewish population of Judea to
Babylon.[6] These events are described in the Prophets
(Nevi'im) and Writings (Ketuvim), sections of the Hebrew
Bible (in the books 2 Kings and Jeremiah, and 2 Chron-
icles, respectively). After the destruction of Jerusalem,
Nebuchadnezzar engaged in a thirteen-year siege of Tyre
(c. 586573 BCE) which ended in a compromise, with
the Tyrians accepting Babylonian authority.[7][8]
Following the pacication of the Phoenician state of
Tyre, Nebuchadnezzar turned again to Egypt. A clay
tablet,[9] now in the British Museum, states: In the 37th
year of Nebuchadnezzar, king of the country of Babylon,
he went to Mitzraim (Egypt) to wage war. Amasis, king
of Egypt, collected [his army], and marched and spread
abroad. Having completed the subjugation of Phoenicia, Building Inscription of King Nebuchadnezar II at the Ishtar Gate.
and a campaign against Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar set him- An abridged excerpt says: I (Nebuchadnezzar) laid the founda-
self to rebuild and adorn the city of Babylon, and con- tion of the gates down to the ground water level and had them
structed canals, aqueducts, temples and reservoirs. built out of pure blue stone. Upon the walls in the inner room of
the gate are bulls and dragons and thus I magnicently adorned
According to Babylonian tradition, towards the end of them with luxurious splendour for all mankind to behold in
his life, Nebuchadnezzar prophesied the impending ruin awe.
of the Chaldean Dynasty (Berossus and Abydenus in
Eusebius, Praeparatio Evangelica, 9.41). He died in
otherwise undermine the foundations. Nebuchadnezzars
Babylon between the second and sixth months of the
construction activity was not conned to the capital; he
forty-third year of his reign, and was succeeded by Amel-
[10] is credited with the restoration of the Lake of Sippar, the
Marduk.
opening of a port on the Persian Gulf, and the building
of the Median Wall between the Tigris and the Euphrates
3.2.2 Construction activity to protect the country against incursions from the north.
These undertakings required a considerable number of la-
During the last century of Nineveh's existence, Baby- borers; an inscription at the great temple of Marduk sug-
lon had been greatly devastated, not only at the hands gests that the labouring force used for his public works
of Sennacherib and Assurbanipal, but also as a result of was most likely made up of captives brought from vari-
Babylons repeated rebellions. Nebuchadnezzar, contin- ous parts of western Asia.
uing his fathers work of reconstruction, aimed at mak- Nebuchadnezzar is credited by Berossus with the con-
ing his capital one of the worlds wonders. Old temples struction of the Hanging Gardens, for his homesick wife
were restored; new edices of incredible magnicence Amyitis (or Amytis) to remind her of her homeland,
were erected to the many gods of the Babylonian pan- Medis (Media) in Persia. He is also credited for the con-
theon (Diodorus of Sicily, 2.95; Herodotus, 1.183). To struction of the Ishtar Gate, one of the eight gates lead-
complete the royal palace begun by Nabopolassar, noth- ing into the city of Babylon.[12] However, some schol-
ing was spared, neither cedar-wood, nor bronze, gold, ars argue that the Gardens may have been constructed
silver, rare and precious stones";[11] an underground pas- by the Assyrian king Sennacherib in his capital city,
sage and a stone bridge connected the two parts of the Nineveh.[13][14]
city separated by the Euphrates; the city itself was ren-
dered impregnable by the construction of a triple line of
walls. The bridge across the Euphrates is of particular 3.2.3 Portrayal in the Bible
interest, in that it was supported on asphalt covered brick
piers that were streamlined to reduce the upstream resis- Nebuchadnezzar is widely known through his portrayal in
tance to ow, and the downstream turbulence that would the Bible, especially the Book of Daniel. The Bible dis-
3.2. NEBUCHADNEZZAR II 87

cusses events of his reign and his conquest of Jerusalem.

Nebuchadnezzars dream

Nebuchadnezzar, by William Blake, depicting the king during his


bout of insanity

Bout of insanity

Daniel Interpreting Nebuchadnezzars Dream Daniel 4 concluded with Nebuchadnezzar losing his san-
ity and living in the wild like an animal for seven times
Daniel 2 is attributed to the second year of Nebuchad- (usually thought to be seven years) during his reign. Af-
nezzars reign, in which Nebuchadnezzar is said to dream ter this, his sanity and position are restored. Theologians
of a huge image made of various materials (gold, silver, have interpreted this story in several ways. Origen at-
bronze, iron and clay). The prophet Daniel tells him that tributed the metamorphosis as a representation of the fall
Gods interpretation is that it stands for the rise and fall of Lucifer, Bodin and Cluvier maintained it was a meta-
of world powers, starting with Nebuchadnezzars own as morphosis of both soul and body, Tertullian conned the
the golden head. transformation to the body only, without the loss of rea-
son, cases of which Augustine stated were reported in
Italy, but gave them little credit. Gaspard Peucer asserted
that the transformation of men into wolves was common
Golden idol and ery furnace in Livonia. Some Jewish rabbis asserted there was an ex-
change of souls between the man and ox, while others
In Daniel 3, Nebuchadnezzar erected a large idol made argued for an apparent or docetic change which was not
of gold for worship during a public ceremony on the real. The most generally received opinion, which was also
plain of Dura. When three Hebrews, whose names were held by Jerome, was that the madman was under the in-
Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah (respectively renamed uence of hypochondriachal monomania by which God
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego by their captors, to fa- could humble the pride of kings.[19]
cilitate their assimilation into Babylonian culture), refuse
Modern writers have speculated that the biblical story
to take part, he has them cast into a ery furnace. They
might refer to an illness with a natural organic cause.
are protected by what Nebuchadnezzar describes as The
Some consider it to have been an attack of clinical lycan-
son of God (Daniel 3:25 KJV) and emerge unscathed
thropy or alternatively porphyria.[20] Psychologist Henry
without even the smell of smoke.[15] Daniel 3 goes on to
Gleitman wrote that Nebuchadnezzars insanity was a re-
say that Nebuchadnezzar realized that no man-made god
sult of general paresis or paralytic dementia seen in ad-
has the power to save and praised the God of Shadrach,
vanced cases of pre-Columbian syphilis.[21]
Meshach, and Abednego. He then made a decree that
anyone of any nation that would make any accusation Some scholars[22] think that Nebuchadnezzars portrayal
against God would be mutilated and their homes be by Daniel is a mixture of traditions about Nebuchadnez-
destroyed.[16] zar and about Nabonidus (Nabuna'id) who became con-
fused with him. For example, Nabonidus was the natural,
or paternal father of Belshazzar, and the seven years of in-
sanity could be related to Nabonidus sojourn in Tayma
Nebuchadnezzars dream of an immense tree
in the desert.

In Daniel 4, Nebuchadnezzar dreams about an immense


tree, which Daniel interprets to mean that Nebuchadnez- Destroyer of nations
zar will go insane for seven times (often interpreted as
years[17] ) because of his pride. The chapter is written The Book of Jeremiah contains a prophecy about the aris-
from the perspective of King Nebuchadnezzar.[18] ing of a destroyer of nations, commonly regarded as a
88 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

reference to Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 4:7),[23] as well as an of Saddam Hussein inscribed on bricks inserted
account of Nebuchadnezzars siege of Jerusalem and loot- into the walls of the ancient city of Babylon dur-
ing and destruction of the temple (Jer. 52). ing a reconstruction project he initiated;[34] he
named one of his Republican Guards divisions af-
ter Nebuchadnezzar.[35]
Helel, Son of the Morning
A bottle of wine with a volume equivalent to 20 stan-
Chapter 14 of the Book of Isaiah refers to what Jewish dard bottles (15 litres) is called a Nebuchadnezzar.
exegesis of the prophetic vision of Isaiah 14:1215 iden-
ties as King Nebuchadnezzar II; the Hebrew text says Nebuchadnezzars Furnace is a type of daylily.
the of son day-star, ,Shaar ben Helel
) - The name of Morpheus vessel in the lms The Ma-
morning(".[24] It is a taunting prophecy against an oppres- trix and The Matrix Reloaded.
sive king.[25] In Isaiah 14,[26] the king is being mocked,
as he is struck through with a sword, killed, and thrown
into a common grave. Mainstream Christianity reads into 3.2.6 See also
this passage to the fall of Lucifer because verse 20 says
that this king of Babylon will not be joined with them Babylonia
[all the kings of the nations] in burial, because thou hast
Kings of Babylonia
destroyed thy land, thou hast slain thy people; the seed of
evil-doers shall not be named for ever, but rather be cast
out of the grave, while All the kings of the nations, all 3.2.7 References
of them, sleep in glory, every one in his own house.[27]
Helel ben Shaar may refer to the Morning Star, but [1] Anton Nystrm, Allmn kulturhistoria eller det mnskliga
Isaiah gives no indication that Helel is a star.[28][29] lifvet i dess utveckling, bd 2 (1901)

[2] Harper, R. F. quoted in Peet, Stephen Denison (editor).


3.2.4 Portrayal in medieval Muslim 1900. Editorial Notes, The American Antiquarian and
Oriental Journal. New York: Doubleday, vol. XXII, May
sources and June, p. 207.

According to Tabari, Nebuchadnezzar, whose Persian [3] Lamb, Harold. 1960. Cyrus the Great. New York: Dou-
name was Bukhtrashah, was of Persian descent, from the bleday, p. 104.
progeny of Jdharz. Some believe he lived as long as 300 [4] Schrader, Eberhard. 1888. The Cuneiform Inscriptions
years.[30] While much of what is written about Nebuchad- and the Old Testament. London: Williams and Norgate,
nezzar depicts a ruthless warrior, some texts show a ruler p. 48 (footnote).
who was concerned with both spiritual and moral issues
in life and was seeking divine guidance.[31] [5] Chicago Assyrian Dictionary sub Kudurru Ca5'

Nebuchadnezzar was seen as a strong, conquering force in [6] Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book VIII, ch.
Islamic texts and historical compilations, like Tabari. The 68.
Babylonian leader used force and destruction to grow an [7] Ronald F. Youngblood; F. F. Bruce; R. K. Harrison, eds.
empire. He conquered kingdom after kingdom, including (2012). Unlock the Bible: Keys to Exploring the Culture
Phoenicia, Philistia, Judah, Ammon, Moab, Jerusalem, and Times. Thomas Nelson. p. 347. ISBN 1418547263.
and more.[32] The most notable events that Tabaris col-
[8] Allen, Leslie C. (2008). Jeremiah: A Commentary.
lection focuses on is the destruction of Jerusalem.[30]
Westminster John Knox Press. p. 472. ISBN 978-
0664222239.
3.2.5 In popular culture [9] Elgood, Percival George. 1951. Later Dynasties of Egypt.
Oxford: Basil Blackwell, p. 106.
Voltaire interprets the legacy of Nebuchadnezzar and his
[10] Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, The British Mu-
relationship with Amasis in a short story entitled The
seum
White Bull.
[11] Smith, William and Fuller, J.M. 1893. A Dictionary of the
The opera Nabucco (1842) by Giuseppe Verdi. Bible: Comprising Its Antiquities, Biography, Geography,
and Natural History. London: John Murray, vol. I, p.
The Nabucco pipeline, a planned natural gas 314.
pipeline that will transport natural gas from Turkey
to Austria, via Bulgaria, Romania, and Hungary. [12] Foster, Karen Polinger (1998). http://environment.yale.
edu/documents/downloads/0-9/103foster.pdf |url= miss-
Saddam Hussein considered himself to be the rein- ing title (help) (PDF). Transformations of Middle Eastern
carnation of Nebuchadnezzar[33] and had the in- Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons. New Haven:
scription To King Nebuchadnezzar in the reign Yale University. pp. 320329. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
3.2. NEBUCHADNEZZAR II 89

[13] Dalley, Stephanie, (2013) The Mystery of the Hanging [34] Archeology Under Dictatorship, Michael L. Galaty and
Garden of Babylon: an elusive world Wonder traced, Charles Watkinson, p. 203.
OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5
[35] Fontenot, Gregory; Degen, E. J.; Tohn, David. 2005.
[14] Rollinger, Robert (2013). Berossos and the Monu- On point: the United States Army in Operation Iraqi Free-
ments. In Haubold, Johannes; et al. The World of dom. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, p. 263.
Berossos. Harrassowitz. p. 155. ISBN 978-3-447-06728- ISBN 978-1-59114-279-9
7.

[15] Son of God or a Son of the Gods (Daniel 3:25)?".


3.2.8 Bibliography
kjvonly.org. Retrieved 17 January 2015.

[16] Daniel 3:2829. Bible Gateway. Retrieved 17 January Arnold, Bill T. (2005). Who Were the Babylonians?.
2015. BRILL.

[17] Blue Letter Bible Strongs H5732. Bertman, Stephen (2005). Handbook to Life in An-
cient Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press.
[18] Daniel 4. Bible Gateway. Retrieved 17 January 2015.
Cline, Eric H.; Graham, Mark W. (2011). Ancient
[19] Samuel Fallows, The Popular and Critical Bible En-
cyclopaedia and Scriptural Dictionary The Howard- Empires: From Mesopotamia to the Rise of Islam.
Severance Company (1920) Vol. 2 p. 302 Cambridge University Press.

[20] Kroeger, Catherine Clark; Evans, Mary J. (2009). The Dalley, Stephanie (1998). The Legacy of
Womens Study Bible: New Living Translation (Second Mesopotamia. Oxford University Press.
ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-529125-
4. Foster, Benjamin Read; Foster, Karen Polinger
(2009). Civilizations of Ancient Iraq. Princeton Uni-
[21] Henry Gleitman, Psychology (New York: W W Norton, versity Press.
2007), p. 219.
Freedman, David Noel (2000). Nebuchadnez-
[22] Wolfram von Soden: Eine babylonische Volksber-
zar. In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C.
lieferung von Nabonid in den Danielerzhlungen. In:
Zeitschrift fr die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 53
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
(1935), pp. 8189.
Lee, Wayne E. (2011). Warfare and Culture in
[23] Calvins Bible Commentaries: Jeremiah and Lamentations, World History. NYU Press.
Part I, John Calvin, translated by John King, Forgotten
Books, 2007, p. 168. McKenzie, John L. (1995). The Dictionary Of The
Bible. Simon and Schuster.
[24] Astronomy Helel, Son of the Morning.. The unedited
full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclo- Wiseman, D.J. (1991a). Babylonia 605539 BC.
pedia.com. Retrieved 1 July 2012. In Boardman, John; Edwards, I. E. S. The Cam-
bridge Ancient History, Volume III Part II. Cam-
[25] Wilken, Robert (2007). Isaiah: Interpreted by Early
bridge University Press.
Christian and Medieval Commentators. Grand Rapids MI:
Wm Eerdmans Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8028- Wiseman, D.J. (1991b). Nebuchadrezzar and Baby-
2581-0.
lon: The Schweich Lectures of The British Academy
[26] Bible. 1983. OUP/British Academy.

[27] Isaiah 14:18


3.2.9 Further reading
[28] Gunkel, Schpfung und Chaos, pp. 132 et seq.

[29] Isaiah Chapter 14. mechon-mamre.org. The Mamre In- Chapter 23, The Chaldaean Kings in Georges
stitute. Retrieved 29 December 2014. Roux, Ancient Iraq (3rd ed.). London: Penguin
Books, 1992. ISBN 0-14-012523-X
[30] abar, Muammad Ibn-arr A- (1987). The History of
Al-Tabar. State Univ. of New York Pr. pp. 4370. ABC 5: Chronicle Concerning the Early Years of
Nebuchadnezzar
[31] Wiseman, D.J. (1985). Nebuchadrezzar and Babylon.
Oxford. Nabuchodonosor on the Catholic Encyclopedia
[32] Tabouis, G.R. (1931). Nebuchadnezzar. Whittlesey
This article incorporates text from a publication
House. p. 3.
now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George
[33] Encyclopedia of the Developing World, edited by Thomas (1897). "Nebuchadnezzar". Eastons Bible Dictio-
M. Leonard, p. 793. nary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
90 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

This article incorporates text from a publication now the latters death.[1] Originally, Josephus assigned eigh-
in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. teen years to his reign,[7] but in a later work, Josephus
(1913). "Nabuchodonosor". Catholic Encyclopedia. states that Berossus assigned a reign of two years.[8] Seder
New York: Robert Appleton. Olam Rabbah assigned twenty-three years to his reign.[9]
Leviticus Rabbah 18:2 states that Evil-Merodach was
Stefan Zawadski, Nebuchadnezzars Campaign in made king while Nebuchadrezzar was still living, and was
the 30th Year (575 BC): A Conict with Tyre?" in punished for this act of rebellion by his father, who had
Mordechai Cogan and Dan`el Kahn (eds), Treasures him imprisoned.[1] In Esther Rabbah, Evil-Merodach,
on Camels Humps: Historical and Literary Studies owing to his fathers actions before his death, is heir to
from the Ancient Near East Presented to Israel Eph'al a bankrupt treasury.[1]
(Jerusalem, Magnes Press, 2008).

T. E. Gaston, Historical Issues in the Book of Daniel, 3.3.2 See also


Oxford: Taanathshiloh, 2005
Babylonia
3.2.10 External links Kings of Babylonia

Inscription of Nabuchadnezzar. Babylonian and As-


syrian Literature old translation 3.3.3 Notes
Nabuchadnezzar Ishtar gate Inscription [1] Sack, 1992.

Jewish Encyclopedia on Nebuchadnezzar [2] Me'moires de la mission archeologique de Susiane, by V.


Scheil, Paris 1913, vol XIV
Nebuchadnezzar II on Ancient History Encyclope-
dia [3] Josephus, Apion 1.20

[4] Hirsch 1901-1906

[5] Oded 2007


3.3 Amel-Marduk
[6] 2 Kings 25:27, Jeremiah 52:31
Amel-Marduk (Akkadian: spelled Aml-Marduk/Amil- [7] Antiquities of the Jews by Flavius Josephus, Book X,
Marduk but pronounced Awl-Marduk/Awl-Marduk; chapter 11 pg. 216
Biblical Hebrew: wl-mrodak; English:
Evil-Merodach), 'man of Marduk'[1][2] (died c. 560 BC) [8] Against Apion by Flavius Josephus, Book 1, paragraph 20
was the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of
[9] Transactions of the Chronological Institute of London, T.
Babylon. Richards 1861, volume II, part 2, page 120-121

3.3.1 Biography 3.3.4 References


His name, along with the length of his reign, are recorded Hirsch, E.G. et al. Evil-Merodach in Singer, Isidore;
in the 'Uruk King List' and the Canon of Ptolemy, how- Adler, Cyrus; (eds.) et al. (19011906) The Jew-
ever no surviving cuneiform document records anything ish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, New York.
concerning his life or deeds.[1] Berossus writes that he LCCN 16-014703
was murdered in a plot orchestrated by Nergal-sharezer,
his successor and brother-in-law.[3] Berossus also notes Oded, B. Evil-Merodach in Skolnik, F., & Beren-
that he governed public aairs after an illegal and im- baum, M. (2007). Encyclopaedia Judaica, vol. 6,
pure manner, possibly an allusion to actions that infuri- Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA in association
ated the priestly class,[4] including reforms made to the with the Keter Pub. House.
policies of Nebuchadnezzar.[5]
Sack, R.H. Evil-Merodach in Freedman, et al.
One such reform is recorded in the Hebrew Bible,[6] (1992). Anchor Bible Dictionary, vol. 2, New York:
where Evil-Merodach (Heb.: , wl merdak) Doubleday.
is remembered for releasing the Jewish king Jehoiachin
from prison after thirty seven years in captivity.
3.3.5 External links
Later Jewish and Christian texts expand the Biblical ac-
count. Josephus and the Avot of Rabbi Natan state that Evil-Merodach - The Jewish Encyclopedia
the king believed that Jehoiachin was held by his fa-
ther without cause, and thus decided to release him upon The Uruk King List - Livius.org
3.6. NABONIDUS 91

3.4 Nergal-shar-usur 3.5.2 See also

Nergal-sharezer or Neriglissar (in Akkadian Nergal- Kings of Babylon


ar-uur, Oh god Nergal, preserve/defend the king"; the
common form of his name is Neriglissar [1] ) was King of
Babylon from 560 to 556 BC. He was the son-in-law of 3.6 Nabonidus
Nebuchadrezzar II, whose son and heir, Amel-Marduk,
Nergal-sharezer murdered and succeeded. A Babylonian
Nabonidus (/nbnads/; Akkadian Nab-naid,
chronicle describes his western war in 557/556. He is tra-
"Nabu is praised, )was the last king of the
ditionally listed as a king of the Chaldean Dynasty; how-
Neo-Babylonian Empire, reigning from 556539 BC.
ever, it is not known if he was a Chaldean or native of
Babylon, as he was not related by blood to Nabopolassar
and his successors. His name is mentioned as one of high-
ranking ocers of king Nebuchadnezzar II in the Bible 3.6.1 Historiography
(Jeremiah 39:13).
Modern perceptions of Nabonidus reign have been heav-
ily colored by accounts written well after his reign as
king of Babylon, most notably by the Persians and the
3.4.1 See also
Greeks. As a result, Nabonidus has often been described
in very negative terms in both modern and contemporane-
Babylonian
ous scholarship. However, an accumulation of evidence
and a reassessment of existing material has caused opin-
Kings of Babylonia
ions on Nabonidus and the events that happened during
his reign to alter signicantly in recent decades.[1]
3.4.2 References
3.6.2 Biography
[1] Hyatt, The Interpreters Bible, 1951, volume V, p. 1,079

Ascent
3.4.3 External links

ABC 6: Babylonian Chronicle of the Third Year of


Neriglissar.

3.5 Labashi-Marduk
Labashi-Marduk, (Akkadian translation, wearing/clad
in Marduk) [1] was king of Babylon (556 BC), and son
of Neriglissar. Labashi-Marduk succeeded his father
when still only a boy, after the latters four-year reign. Terracotta cylinder by Nabonidus concerning repairs on the tem-
ple of Sn, British Museum
Most likely due to his very young age, he was deemed
unt to rule, and was murdered in a conspiracy only
nine months after his inauguration[2] He is traditionally Nabonidus background is not clear. He said in his in-
listed as a king of the Chaldean Dynasty, being, proba- scriptions that he was of unimportant origins.[2] Similarly,
bly, the son of Neriglissar and his wife, the daughter of his mother Addagoppe, who lived to an old age and may
Nebuchadnezzar. Nabonidus was chosen next as the new have been connected to the temple of the moon-god Sn in
king. Harran, does not mention her family background in her
inscriptions. There are two arguments for an Assyrian
background: repeated references in Nabonidus royal
3.5.1 References propaganda and imagery to Ashurbanipal, the last great
Neo-Assyrian king; and Nabonidus originating from, and
[1] Hyatt, The Interpreters Bible, 1951, volume V his special interest in Harran, an Assyrian city and the last
stronghold of the Neo-Assyrians after the fall of Nineveh,
[2] Albertz, R.; Israel in exile: The history and literature of their main capital.[3] However, it has been pointed out that
the sixth century BC; Society of Biblical Literature, At- Nabonidus royal propaganda was hardly dierent from
lanta 2003, ISBN 1-58983-055-5. his predecessors, while his Persian successor, Cyrus the
92 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

Great, also referred to Ashurbanipal in the Cyrus cylin-


der.[4] He certainly did not belong to the previous ruling
dynasty, the Chaldeans, of whom Nebuchadnezzar II was
the most famous member. He came to the throne in 556
BC by overthrowing the young king Labashi-Marduk.

Reign

Nabonidus took an interest in Babylons past, excavating


ancient buildings and displaying his archeological discov-
eries in a museum. In most ancient accounts, he is de-
picted as a royal anomaly. Nabonidus is supposed to have
worshiped the moon-god Sn beyond all the other gods,
to have paid special devotion to Sns temple in Harran,
where his mother was a priestess, and to have neglected
the Babylonian primary god, Marduk. He left the cap-
ital for the desert oasis of Tayma in Arabia early in his
reign, from which he only returned after many years. In
the meantime, his son Belshazzar ruled from Babylon.

Contributions Nabonidus is most revered and is


known as the rst archaeologist.[5] Not only did he lead
the rst excavations which were to nd the foundation de-
posits of the temples of ama the sun god, the warrior
goddess Anunitu, (both located in Sippar), and the sanc-
tuary of Naram-Sin, the moon god, located in Harran,
but he also had them restored to their former glory.[6] He Granite stele of the Babylonian king Nabonidus. Ancient Orient
was also the rst to date an archaeological artifact in his Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museums,Turkey.
attempt to date Naram-Sins temple during his search for
it.[7] Even though his estimate was inaccurate by about
1500 years, it was still a very good one considering the and the other gods of the town Marad, Zabada
lack of accurate dating technology at the time. ).[8] and the other gods of Kish, the goddess Ninlil
and the other gods of Hursagkalama visited
Babylon. Till the end of the month Ullu all
Religious policy Although Nabonidus personal pref- the gods of Akkad -those from above and
erence for Sn is clear, the strength of this preference di- those from below- entered Babylon. The gods
vides scholars. While some claim that it is obvious from of Borsippa, Cutha, and Sippar did not enter.
his inscriptions that he became almost henotheistic,[9] Babylonian Chronicles on the 17th year of
others consider Nabonidus to have been similar to other the reign of Nabonidus.
Babylonian rulers, in that he respected the other cults and
religions in his kingdom.[10] His negative image could
then be blamed on the Marduk priesthood, that resented However, modern scholarship has provided an explana-
Nabonidus long absence from Babylon during his stay tion for this action. In Mesopotamia, gods were supposed
in Tayma, during which the important, Marduk-related to be housed inside their statues, from where they took
New Year (Aktu-)Festival could not take place, and his care of their cities. But this only happened if they re-
emphasis on Sn. In any case, there is no sign of the civil ceived the right kind of attention. So Nabonidus took
unrest during his reign that would have been indicative of special care of these statues and made sure that their cul-
trouble. tic personnel had to come along with him.[11] This was a
Part of the propaganda issued by both the Marduk priest- long-standing tradition, too:
hood and Cyrus is the story of Nabonidus taking the most
important cultic statues from southern Mesopotamia One of the most powerful illustrations
hostage in Babylon. This seems to be correct: a great of the strength and conviction of image
number of contemporary inscriptions shows that these worship in ancient Mesopotamia is probably
statues and their cultic personnel were indeed brought to the treatment of cult statues in times of war.
Babylon just before the Persian attack: Assyrian and Babylonian sources of the rst
millennium frequently allude to the removal of
In the month of [bu?] Lugal-Marada divine statues from the temples as the result of
3.6. NABONIDUS 93

a city being conquered. Spoliated statues were From the month of Kislmu to the
usually carried o to the land of the victorious month of Addaru, the gods of Akkad which
power (Assyria in most known cases) where Nabonidus had made come down to Babylon,
they remained in captivity until a turn of were returned to their sacred cities.
events would allow them to be restored to their Babylonian Chronicles on the 17th year of
shrines. (...) Rather than incur the capture of the reign of Nabonidus.
their gods and the resulting implications of
such capture, namely, that the gods were aban-
doning the city and calling for its destruction,
cities often tried to prevent the transfer of the Nabonidus stay in Tayma It is not clear yet why
statues to enemy territory, since continued Nabonidus stayed in Tayma for so long. His reason for
possession of them in the face of adversity going there seems clear: Tayma was an important oasis,
proved that the gods were still protecting from where lucrative Arabian trade routes could be con-
and supporting their people and native land. trolled. The Assyrians before him had already attempted
(...) [D]uring the months which preceded the to do the same.[13] However, why Nabonidus stayed for
invasion and conquest of Babylonia by the so long (probably about ten years, perhaps from 553
Persians in 539 BC, King Nabonidus ordered 543 BC) and why he returned when he did remain un-
a massive gathering of the gods of Sumer resolved questions. It has been proposed that this was
and Akkad into the capital. Unlike previous because he did not feel at home in Babylon, which was
attempts, the gathering ordered by Nabonidus opposed to his emphasis on Sn. Regarding his return,
is documented by a number of historical and this may have had to do with the mounting threat of Cyrus
archival sources. [after this, Beaulieu goes on and growing disagreements with Belshazzar, who was re-
to discuss these sources in detail] lieved of his command directly after Nabonidus had come
P.-A. Beaulieu 1993:241-2 back, along with a number of administrators.[14] During
his stay, Nabonidus adorned Tayma with a complex of
royal buildings, most of which have come to light during
recent excavations.[15]
But this exposed him to criticism by his enemies, notably
Cyrus, who was trying to show why he was a better king
than Nabonidus had been, and took this as an example The Persian conquest of Babylonia
of Nabonidus lack of tness to rule.[12] In the words of,
again, Beaulieu: Dierent accounts of the fall of Babylon survive. Ac-
cording to the Cyrus Cylinder, the people opened their
The returning of the statues to their gates for Cyrus and greeted him as their liberator. Isaiah
sanctuaries provided Cyrus with one of his 4055 prophesied that the Persians would carry o Baby-
many propagandistic anti-Nabonidus themes. lonian women and cultic statues. Herodotus said that
Not content with re-establishing the gods in Cyrus defeated the Babylonians outside their city, after
their residence, he charged the deposed king which a siege began. When this took too long, Cyrus di-
with having brought them to the capital against verted the Euphrates, so that his troops could march into
their will. the city through the river bed.[16] Xenophon had a sim-
P.-A. Beaulieu 1993:243 ilar view, but he did not mention the battle.[17] Finally,
Berossus claimed that Cyrus beat the Babylonian army,
but this time, Nabonidus was supposed to have ed to
And in the words of Cyrus himself, as recorded on the nearby Borsippa. There he hid, while Cyrus took Baby-
Cyrus Cylinder, found in Babylon in 1879: lon and demolished its outer walls. When Cyrus turned
towards Borsippa, Nabonidus soon surrendered.[18]
As for the gods of Sumer and Akkad As these accounts contradict each other, (the Cyrus
which Nabonidus, to the wrath of the lord of Cylinder and Isaiah; for the latter, see Cyrus in the
the gods, brought to Babylon, at the command Judeo-Christian tradition), oral traditions (Herodotus and
of Marduk, the great lord, I (Cyrus) caused Xenophon) and conicting records (Berossus), they are
them to dwell in peace in their sanctuaries, (in) quite confusing. The Nabonidus Chronicle is more help-
pleasing dwellings. May all the gods I brought ful. This is a part of the Babylonian Chronicles, which
(back) to their sanctuaries plead daily before are concise, factual accounts of historical events, and
Bel and Nabu for the lengthening of my days, are therefore considered to be very reliable, although not
may they intercede favorably on my behalf. very informative.[19] Regarding the capture of Babylon by
Cyrus Cylinder, 3034 Cyrus, this text says:

In the month of Tartu, when Cyrus at-


This is conrmed by the Babylonian Chronicles: tacked the army of Akkad in Opis [i.e., Bagh-
94 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

dad] on the Tigris, the inhabitants of Akkad Death


revolted, but he [Cyrus or Nabonidus?] mas-
sacred the confused inhabitants. The fteenth The nal fate of Nabonidus is uncertain. Cyrus was
day [12 October], Sippar was seized without known to spare the lives of some kings he had defeated,
battle. Nabonidus ed. The sixteenth day, Go- for example King Croesus of Lydia, who, after his de-
bryas [litt: Ugbaru], the governor of Gutium, feat, was allowed to live at King Cyruss court as an ad-
and the army of Cyrus entered Babylon without visor. This is according to Herodotus, who also states
battle. Afterwards, Nabonidus was arrested in that Croesus was rst sentenced to death by burning and
Babylon when he returned there. Till the end was only allowed to live after showing his wisdom.[23]
of the month, the shield carrying Gutians were Bacchylides tells us that Apollo snatched up Croesus just
staying within Esagila but nobody carried arms before the ames were about to burn him, and took him
in Esagila and its buildings. The correct time to the Hyperboreans. In the reference in the Nabonidus
for a ceremony was not missed. Chronicle to a campaign by Cyrus in (possibly) 547 BC,
during which a country was taken and its king killed, the
In the month of Arahsamna, the third day text showing the name of the country is damaged, al-
[29 October], Cyrus entered Babylon, green though it may be Urartu.[24] Accounts by Berossus and the
twigs were spread in front of him the state of retrospective Hellenistic Babylonian dynastic prophecies
peace was imposed upon the city. Cyrus sent state that he was allowed to retire to live in Carmania.
greetings to all Babylon. Gobryas, his gover-
nor, installed subgovernors in Babylon.
3.6.3 In popular culture
Babylonian Chronicles on the 17th
year of the reign of Nabonidus. Nabonidus is portrayed by Carl Stockdale in D. W.
Grith's classic 1916 silent lm Intolerance.

3.6.4 See also


Additionally, a building inscription has been found which Babylonia
mentions the restoration of the Enlil Gate of Babylon
shortly after its capture. Based on this information, the Kings of Babylonia
following reconstruction has been proposed:[20] When
Cylinder of Nabonidus
Cyrus attempted to march into southern Mesopotamia,
he was met by the Babylonians near Opis. In the ensuing Ennigaldi (Ennigaldi-Nanna), daughter
battle, the Persians were victorious. This in turn led to
the nearby city of Sippar surrendering. Meanwhile, the Nabonidus Chronicle
Babylonians had withdrawn south to establish a line of Croesus
defence near the Euphrates that was intended to prevent
Cyrus from advancing too far. However, Cyrus forces
did not challenge the Babylonian army. Rather, he sent a 3.6.5 References
small force south along the Tigris to try to take the capital
by surprise. This plan worked: the Persian troops reached [1] See for example in W. von Soden, Kyros und Nabonid:
Babylon undetected and caught it unawares, meeting only Propaganda und Gegenpropaganda, in H. Koch and D.N.
minor resistance near one of its gates. Thus, they were not MacKenzie (eds.), Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte der Ach-
only able to capture Babylon, but also King Nabonidus. menidenzeit und ihr Fortleben (Berlin: Dietrich Reimer
1983), 618; P.-A. Beaulieu, The reign of Nabonidus king
This left the Babylonian army in an untenable position of Babylon 556-539 B.C. (New Haven CT: Yale Univer-
and it soon surrendered. In the meantime, Ugbaru, the sity Press 1989); A. Kuhrt, Nabonidus and the Babylo-
commander of the Persian forces that had captured Baby- nian priesthood, in M. Beard and J. North (eds.), Pa-
lon, had taken good care that his men would not plunder gan priests: Religion and power in the ancient world (Lon-
or otherwise harm the city. He had even made sure that don: Duckworth), 117-55; F. Grant, Nabonidus, Nab-
the temple rites continued to be observed. Nonetheless, arra-uur, and the Eanna temple, in Zeitschrift fr As-
it still took Cyrus almost a month before he proceeded syriologie 81 (1991:3786); T.G. Lee, The jasper cylin-
der seal of Aurbanipal and Nabonidus making of Sns
towards the city. As many Babylonian ocials as well
statue, in Revue dAssyriologie 87 (1993:131-6); P. Ma-
as the Babylonian administrative system stayed in place
chinist and H. Tadmor, Heavenly wisdom, in M.E. Co-
after the transition of power, it has been surmised that hen, D.C. Snell and D.B. Weisberg (eds.), The tablet and
this time was spent on negotiations with representatives the scroll: Near Eastern studies in honour of William
from the city;[21] this is similar to what happened when W. Hallo (Bethesda MD: CDL Press 1993), 14651; H.
the Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II and later Alexander the Schaudig, Die Inschriften Nabonids von Babylon und Ky-
Great took the city.[22] ros des Groen samt den in ihrem Umfeld entstandenen
3.6. NABONIDUS 95

Tendezschriften: Textausgabe und Grammatik (Mnster: Retrieved 2007-10-16. Also: H. Hayajneh, First evi-
Ugarit-Verlag 2001); P.-A. Beaulieu, Nabonidus the mad dence of Nabonidus in the Ancient North Arabian inscrip-
king: A reconsideration of his steles from Harran and tions from the region of Tayma, Proceedings of the Sem-
Babylon, in M. Heinz and M.H. Feldman (eds.), Rep- inar for Arabian Studies 31 (2001:8195).
resentations of political power: Case histories from times
of change and dissolving order in the ancient Near East [16] Herodotus, Histories 1.188191
(Winona Lake IN: Eisenbrauns 2007), 13766.
[17] Xenophon, Cyropaedia 7.5.136
[2] Collected in Beaulieu 1989.
[18] From the Babyloniaca: Fragmente der griechischen His-
[3] W. Mayer, Nabonidus Herkunft, in M. Dietrich and toriker 680F9a = Flavius Josephus, Against Apion 1.149
O. Loretz (eds.), Dubsar anta-men: Studien zur Altorien- 153.
talistik (Mnster: Ugarit-Verlag 1998), 24561; Parpola,
Simo (2004). National and Ethnic Identity in the Neo- [19] R.J. van der Spek, "Review of J.-J. Glassner,
Assyrian Empire and Assyrian Identity in Post-Empire Mesopotamian chronicles (ed. B. Foster) (Leiden:
Times (PDF). Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies. Brill 2004)" (PDF)., Review of Biblical Literature
JAAS. 18 (2): 19. Similarly: Parpola, Simo. Assyrians (2005/09).
after Assyria. University of Helsinki, The Neo-Assyrian
Text Corpus Project (State Archives of Assyria). [20] P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander: A history of the Per-
sian Empire (Winona Lake IN: Eisenbrauns 2002), 505,
[4] A. Kuhrt, "'Ex oriente lux': How we may widen our per- 807; G. Tolini, "Quelques lments concernant la prise
spectives on ancient history, in R. Rollinger, A. Luther de Babylon par Cyrus (octobre 539 av. J.-C.)" (PDF).,
and J. Wiesehfer (eds.), Getrennte Wege? Kommunika- Arta (2005/03); A. Kuhrt, "Ancient Near Eastern his-
tion, Raum und Wahrnehmung in der alten Welt (Frank- tory: The case of Cyrus the Great of Persia (PDF)., in
furt am Main: Verlag Antike 2007), 61732. H.G.M. Williamson (ed.), Understanding the history of
ancient Israel. (Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007),
[5] Watrall, Ethan. [http://anthropology.
10727.
msu.edu/anp203h-ss14/files/2013/08/
ANP203-History-of-Archaeology-Lecture-2-.pdf>. [21] J. Wiesehfer, Kontinuitt oder Zsur? Babylon under
ANP203-History-of-Archaeology-Lecture-2"] (PDF). den Achaimeniden, in J. Renger (ed.), Babylon: Focus
Anthropology.msu.edu. Retrieved 7 April 2014. Mesopotamischer Geschichte, Wiege frher Gelehrsamheit,
[6] Lendering, Jona. [http://www.livius.org/na-nd/ Mythos in der Moderne (Saarbrcken: SDV 1999), 167
nabonidus/cylinder.html> Nabonidus Cylinder from 88; M. Jursa, The transition of Babylonia from the Neo-
Sippar"]. Livius.org. Retrieved 7 April 2014. Babylonian empire to Achaemenid rule, in H. Crawford
(ed.), Regime change in the ancient Near East and Egypt:
[7] Hurst, K. Kris. The History of Archaeology Part 1. From Sargon of Agade to Saddam Hussein (New York:
About.com. Retrieved 4/5/14. Check date values in: Oxford University Press 2007), 7394.
|access-date= (help)
[22] Kuhrt 2007 ("'Ex oriente lux'...).
[8] Hurst, k. Kris. The History of Archaeology Part 1.
About.com. Retrieved 4/5/14. Check date values in: [23] 1.8688
|access-date= (help)
[24] J. Oelsner, Review of R. Rollinger, Herodots baby-
[9] Beaulieu 1989:4665; Machinist/Tadmor 1993. lonischer logos: Eine kritische Untersuchung der Glaub-
wrdigkeitsdiskussion (Innsbruck: Institut fr Sprach-
[10] Kuhrt 1990. wissenschaft 1993)", Archiv fr Orientforschung 46/47
(1999/2000:378-80); R. Rollinger, The Median em-
[11] P.-A. Beaulieu, An episode in the fall of Babylon to the
pire, the end of Urartu and Cyrus the Great campaign
Persians, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 52 (1993:241-
in 547 B.C. (Nabonidus Chronicle II 16)", Ancient West
61)
& East 7 (2008:4963).
[12] Beaulieu 1993; A. Kuhrt, The Cyrus cylinder and
Achaemenid imperial policy, Journal for the Study of the
Old Testament 25 (1983:8397). 3.6.6 External links
[13] Beaulieu 1989:149205. On Taymas importance for
Cylinder of Nabonidus at the British Museum.
trade: C. Edens and G. Bawden, History of Tayma'
and Hejazi trade during the rst millennium B.C., Jour-
Nabonidus Cylinder from Sippar Translation.
nal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 32
(1989:48103).
Nabonidus Cylinder from Ur Translation.
[14] Beaulieu 1989:149205.
Lihyanite inscription of Nabonidus, at Nat. Mu-
[15] An overview of the history of Tayma, current archaeo- seum of Natural History site
logical work, as well as bibliographical references, are
given in Deutsches Archologisches Institut: Tayma. Nabonidus archaeology
96 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

3.7 Belshazzar Nabonidus Chronicle

Main article: Nabonidus Chronicle


This article is about the Babylonian leader. For other
uses, see Belshazzar (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with Belteshazzar.

Belshazzar (/blzr/; Biblical Hebrew ;


Akkadian: Bl-arra-uur; Greek: Balthazar,[3] from
Akkadian, "Bel Protect the King";[4] ) was Co-regent of
Babylon, governing the country after his father, King
Nabonidus, went into exile in 550 BCE. Belshazzar died
after Babylon fell to the Persians in 539 BCE.[1]
According to the Book of Daniel, Belshazzar holds a last
great feast at which he sees a hand writing on a wall with
the Aramaic words mene, mene, tekel, upharsin, which
Daniel interprets as a judgment from God foretelling the
fall of Babylon.

3.7.1 Book of Daniel

Belshazzars feast The Nabonidus Chronicle

Main articles: Belshazzars feast and Fall of Babylon


3.7.3 Commentaries
Chapter 5 of the book of Daniel tells the story of Belshaz-
zar and the writing on the wall. In the story, Belshazzar King of Babylon
holds a feast, during which Belshazzar intends his guests
to drink from the temple treasures from Jerusalem while The inscriptions of the Edict of Balshazzar (YBT 6 103)
praising Babylonian gods. He then sees a hand writing on gives Belshazzar the title crown prince.[5] The Aramaic
the palace wall. Daniel is called to interpret the writing Qumran scroll 4Q243 fragment 2; Lines 12 names Bels-
after Belshazzars wise men are unable. hazzar as vice-regent in Babylon during the absence of
Nabonidus, while the book of Daniel gives Belshazzars
title as king (Dan. 5:130).[6]
3.7.2 Historicity Since the 19th century, some historians such as Robert
Dick Wilson and W. H. Stevenson have disputed Bels-
Nabonidus cylinder hazzars reign as a king. Both Wilson[7] and Stevenson
do, however, acknowledge Belshazzar as a legitimate his-
toric gure.[8] In the Babylonian chronicles, Belshazzar
is commanding the armies in the North while Nabonidus
remains in Babylon. Later, after a break in the inscrip-
tion, Nabonidus is with the army. John H. Raven sug-
gests that while Nabonidus was with the Army, Belshaz-
zar could have been placed in authority at the Capitol.
Thus, it would support Daniels position as being third
ruler of the kingdom (Daniel 5:29) since Belshazzar was
second only to his father. Despite the overwhelming ev-
idence that Robert D. Wilson had uncovered concerning
Belshazzars subordinate functions to Nabonidus, John H.
Raven argues that Belshazzar would have been addressed
as king and spoken of as such.[9]
The Nabonidus Cylinder In Cyropaedia (4.6.3), Xenophon refers to a son of the
Babylonian king whom he also calls a king, and this
Main article: Cylinders of Nabonidus son/king was reigning in Babylon when Cyrus was prepar-
ing his army to advance against the city. Xenophon, with-
3.7. BELSHAZZAR 97

out giving his name, also repeatedly refers to the king a shield and defending themselves as best they
that was slain when Babylon fell to the army of Cyrus. could.[11]

Achaemenid invasion Both Xenophon and Daniel 5 describe the demise of Bels-
hazzar as occurring on the night that the city was taken.[12]
Main article: Fall of Babylon Achaemenid invasion Xenophon, Herodotus, and Daniel agree that the city was
taken by surprise, suddenly, at the time of a festival,
and with some (but apparently not much) loss of life.
Cyropaedia is a historical romance written in the early Since Cyropaedia, the silence of other classical sources
4th century BCE by Xenophon and it is considered to be a regarding Belshazzar led to the denial of the historicity
partly ctional biography of Cyrus the Great. Cyropaedia of Daniels naming Belshazzar as the king who was slain,
(4.6.3), but not Herodotus, describes two kings reigning until cuneiform evidence was found corroborating the ex-
over the Babylonian kingdom when the city fell, father istence of Belshazzar as the king reigning in Babylon.
and son, and it was the younger king, who was reigning
when the city was taken and who was killed that night.
Cyropaedia does not name either king. 3.7.4 Jewish tradition
Cyropaedia (7.5.20-33), in agreement with Herodotus
(I.292), says that the combined Median and Persian army Belshazzar appears in many works of classical Jewish
entered the city via the channel of the Euphrates river, rabbinic literature. The chronology of the three Baby-
the river having been diverted into trenches that Cyrus lonian kings is given in the Talmud (Megillah 11a-b) as
had dug for the invasion, and that the city was unpre- follows: Nebuchadnezzar reigned forty-ve years, Evil-
pared because of a great festival that was being observed. merodach twenty-three, and Belshazzar was monarch of
Cyropaedia (7.5.26-35) describes the capture of Babylon Babylonia for two years, being killed at the beginning of
by Gobryas,[10] who led a detachment of men to the cap- the third year on the fatal night of the fall of Babylon
ital and slew the king of Babylon. In 7.5.25, Gobryas (Meg. 11b).
remarks that this night the whole city is given over to The references in the Talmud and the Midrash to Bels-
revelry, including to some extent the guards. Those who hazzar emphasize his tyrannous oppression of his Jewish
opposed the forces under Gobryas were struck down, in- subjects. Several passages in the Prophets are interpreted
cluding those outside the banquet hall. The capture of the as though referring to him and his predecessors. For in-
city, and the slaying of the son king of the king (4.6.3), stance, the passage, As if a man did ee from a lion, and
is described in Cyropaedia (7:5.26-30) as follows: a bear met him (Amos v. 19), the lion is said to rep-
resent Nebuchadnezzar, and the bear, equally ferocious
(26) Thereupon they entered; and of those if not equally courageous, is Belshazzar. (The book of
they met some were struck down and slain, and Amos., nevertheless, is pre-exilic.)
others ed into their houses, and some raised
The three Babylonian kings are often mentioned together
the hue and cry, but Gobryas and his friends
covered the cry with their shouts, as though as forming a succession of impious and tyrannical monar-
they were revellers themselves. And thus, mak- chs who oppressed Israel and were therefore foredoomed
ing their way by the quickest route, they soon to disgrace and destruction. The verse in Isaiah xiv. 22,
found themselves before the kings palace. (27) And I will rise up against them, saith the Lord of hosts,
Here the detachment under Gobryas and Ga- and cut o from Babylon name and remnant and son and
datas found the gates closed, but the men ap- grandchild, saith the Lord, is applied by these interpre-
pointed to attack the guards rushed on them tations to the trio: Name to Nebuchadnezzar, rem-
as they lay drinking round a blazing re, and nant to Evil-merodach, son to Belshazzar, and grand-
closed with them then and there. (28) As the child Vashti (ib.). The command given to Abraham to
din grew louder and louder, those within be- cut in pieces three heifers (Genesis 15:9) as a part of
came aware of the tumult, till, the king bid- the covenant established between him and his God, was
ding them see what it meant, some of them thus elucidated by readers of Daniel as symbolizing Baby-
opened the gates and ran out. (29) Gadatas and lonia, which gave rise to three kings, Nebuchadnezzar,
his men, seeing the gates swing wide, darted Evil-merodach, and Belshazzar, whose doom is preg-
in, hard on the heels of the others who ed ured by this act of cutting to pieces (Midrash Genesis
back again, and they chased them at the swords Rabbah xliv.).
point into the presence of the king. (30) They The Midrash literature enters into the details of Belshaz-
found him on his feet, with his drawn scimi- zars death. Thus the later tradition states that Cyrus and
tar in his hand. By sheer weight of numbers Darius were employed as doorkeepers of the royal palace.
they overwhelmed him: and not one of his ret- Belshazzar, being greatly alarmed at the mysterious hand-
inue escaped, they were all cut down, some y- writing on the wall, and apprehending that someone in
ing, others snatching up anything to serve as disguise might enter the palace with murderous intent, or-
98 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

dered his doorkeepers to behead anyone who attempted The artist Sting makes reference to Balthazars
to force an entrance that night, even though such person Feast in The Last Ship, comparing the fall of Baby-
should claim to be the king himself. Belshazzar, over- lon to the economic collapse of the shipbuilding in-
come by sickness, left the palace unobserved during the dustry.
night through a rear exit. On his return the doorkeepers
refused to admit him. In vain did he plead that he was Literature
the king. They said, Has not the king ordered us to put
to death any one who attempts to enter the palace, though
he claim to be the king himself?" Suiting the action to the The fourteenth-century poem Cleanness by the Pearl
word, Cyrus and Darius grasped a heavy ornament form- Poet recounts the feast and subsequent events as a
ing part of a candelabrum, and with it shattered the skull warning against spiritual impurity.
of their royal master (Cant. R. iii. 4).
Vision of Belshazzar by the poet Lord Byron
chronicles both the feast and Daniels pronunciation.
3.7.5 Art and popular culture Robert Frost's poem, The Bearer of Evil Tidings,
Music is about a messenger headed to Belshazzars court to
deliver the news of the kings imminent overthrow.
Remembering that evil tidings were a dangerous
Oratorio Il convito di Baldassarro by Pirro Alber-
thing to bear, the messenger ees to the Himalayas
gati, composed in 1691.
rather than facing the monarchs wrath.
Oratorio Belshazzar by George Frideric Handel,
composed in the late summer of 1744. Emily Dickinson's poem Belshazzar had a letter,
#1459 from the Poems of Emily Dickinson is about
Opera Ciro in Babilonia by Gioachino Rossini, rst Belshazzars immortal correspondence. Her poem
performed in 1812. was written in 1879.
Incidental music Belshazzars Feast by Jean Sibelius, Herman Melville's book Moby Dick at chapter 99
op. 51, composed in 1906. has the rst mate Starbuck murmer to himself The
Cantata Belshazzars Feast by Sir William Walton, old man seems to read Belshazzars awful writing
composed in 1930-1. as he spies Ahab speaking to the doubloon he had
nailed to the mast of the Pequod.
Singer/Songwriter Johnny Cash wrote a song titled
Belshazar, based on the Biblical story. It was In his novel Sister Carrie, Theodore Dreiser entitles
recorded at Sun Studio in Memphis, Tennessee in a chapter The Feast of Belshazar - A Seer to Trans-
1957. It was covered by Bob Dylan and The Band as late in which the gluttony of turn-of-the-century
Belchezaar, on sessions for The Basement Tapes New York City is highlighted.
recorded in Woodstock, NY.
Belshazzar was the title of a 1930 novel by H. Rider
The Jewish songwriter Harold Rome wrote, for the Haggard.
musical Pins and Needles in 1937, a gospel song,
Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin, which made the anal- Robert E. Howard, creator of Conan the Barbar-
ogy between Belshazzar and Hitler, saying the for- ian, liked to incorporate historical names into his
mer didn't pay no income taxes:/The big shot of the pseudo-historical stories. He wrote a (non-Conan)
Babylon-Jerusalem Axis. Interpreting the writing adventure story, Blood of Belshazzar which Roy
on the wall, Daniel sums it up tersely: King, stop Thomas adapted into a Conan story in Marvel
your ghtin' and your auntin'./You been weighed, Comics Conan the Barbarian #27 as The Blood
and you're found wantin'. of Bel-Hissar. Howard also used the name of
'Nabonidus (father of Belshazzar) in the Conan tale
The Austin, Texas band Sound Team references Rogues in the House which appeared in Marvels
Belshazzar with the lyric: But I don't have to sleep Conan the Barbarian #11.
at Belshazzars house anymore / Gave up the cen-
ter line on the track No More Birthdays o their In Shakespeares Merchant of Venice, Portia dis-
Movie Monster LP. guises herself as Balthazar in Act IV, scene i.
The Norwegian singer/songwriter Eth Eonel wrote a Heinrich Heine wrote a short poem entitled Bel-
song titled Belsassar, which was released in 2011 satzar in his collection Junge Leiden.[13]
on the album Drawing Lines (1989)". The song
lays out an aquatic version of Belshazzars feast, in In Wallace Stevens' poem Country Words the poet
which Belshazzar is a sh, and the writing on the sings a canto to Belshazzar and wants him reading
wall becomes the writing in the sand. right.
3.7. BELSHAZZAR 99

In Fazil Iskander's novel "Sandro of Chegem", one [4] Hitchcock, Roswell D. Entry for 'Belshazzar'". An In-
of the chapters depicting a dinner involving an Abk- terpreting Dictionary of Scripture Proper Names. . New
hazian dance ensemble and Stalin is titled Belshaz- York, N.Y., 1869.
zars Feast.
[5] Fried, Lisbeth S. (2004). The priest and the great king
: temple-palace relations in the Persian Empire. Winona
Paintings, drawings Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns. p. 38. ISBN 9781575060903.

[6] Flint, Peter W.; ed. by John J. Collins; Cameron VanEpps


Belshazzars Feast is a painting by Rembrandt van (2002). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception.
Rijn created around 1635. Leiden: Brill. p. 348. ISBN 9780391041288.

Belshazzars Feast is a painting by John Martin from [7] Raven 1922, p. 630-631.
c. 1821.
[8] Stevenson, W. H (2013). King Jamess Bible: A Selection.
In The Hand-Writing upon the Wall (1803), James Routledge. p. 269, Commentary on Daniel 5:1. ISBN
Gillray caricatured Napoleon in the role of Belshaz- 9781317862130.
zar. [9] Raven 1922, p. 631.
During the 1884 United States presidential cam- [10] In Cyropaedia 7, Xenophon says that Gobryas (Greek:
paign, Republican candidate James G. Blaine dined Ugbaru) was a governor of Gutium. This captor is not
at a New York City restaurant with some wealthy found in Herodotus, however the name was veried when
business executives including Commodore Van- the Cyrus Cylinder was translated, naming Gubaru as the
derbilt, Jay Gould, etc. This was featured in newspa- leader of the forces that captured Babylon.
pers, with a drawing illustrating The Feast of Bels-
[11] Translation by Henry Graham Dakyns, available online.
hazzar Blaine... On the wall in the background was
written Mene Mene Tekel Upharsin. [12] Gaston, Thomas (2009). Historical Issues in the Book of
Daniel. Oxford: Taanathshiloh. pp. 8184. ISBN 978-0-
9561540-0-2.
Film, television
[13] Kortlnder, Bernd (Hrsg.), Heine, Heinrich - Smtliche
Belshazzar is a main character in one of the four sto- Gedichte. Kommentierte Ausgabe, Stuttgart 1997.
ries presented in D. W. Grith's lm Intolerance Reclam.
(1916).

Belshazzar is played by Michael Ansara in the 1953 3.7.8 References


William Castle lm, Slaves of Babylon.
Britannica (2006). Britannica Conise Encyclopedia.
Belshazzar was featured in the Season one, Episode Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. p. 196.
two of the Nickelodeon game show Legends of the ISBN 9781593394929.
Hidden Temple, entitled The Golden Cup of Bels-
hazzar. Dougherty, Raymond Philip (1929). Nabonidus and
Belshazzar, a Study of the Closing Events of the Neo-
Babylonian Empire. Yale: Yale University Press. p.
3.7.6 See also 43. ISBN 9781556359569.

Fall of Babylon Pritchard, James B.; foreword by Daniel E. Flem-


ing; (1969). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relat-
Biblical archaeology (excavations and artifacts) ing to the Old Testament (annotator W. F. Albright
ed.). Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN
List of artifacts signicant to the Bible 9780691147260.
List of biblical gures identied in extra-biblical Raven, John H. (1922). The Biblical Review, Vol-
sources ume 7. The Review: Bible and Spade. New
York: Wilbert Webster White, New York Theolog-
ical Seminary. p. 628633.
3.7.7 Footnotes
[1] Britannica 2006, p. 196. 3.7.9 Further reading
[2] Dougherty 1929, p. 43.
Oppenheim, A. Leo (1977), Ancient Mesopotamia:
[3] Belshazzar (king of Babylonia)". Encyclopdia Britan- Portrait of a Dead Civilization (Rev. ed.), Chicago:
nica, Inc. 2015. Retrieved 2014-07-09. University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-63186-9.
100 CHAPTER 3. BABYLONIAN KINGS

Gaston, T. E. (2009), Historical Issues in the Book


of Daniel, Oxford: Taanathshiloh, ISBN 978-0-
9561540-0-2.

3.7.10 External links


Jewish Encyclopedia: Belshazzar
Catholic Encyclopedia: Baltasar
Chapter 4

Persian kings

4.1 Cyrus II of Persia religion, where, because of his policies in Babylonia, he


is referred to by the Jewish Bible as Messiah (lit. His
[5] anointed one) (Isaiah 45:1),[15] and is the only non-Jew
Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: Kru ; New
to be called so.[16]
Persian: Krosh; Hebrew: Koresh; c. 600
530 BC),[6] commonly known as Cyrus the Great [7] Cyrus the Great is also well recognized for his achieve-
and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the ments in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as
founder of the Achaemenid Empire.[8] Under his rule, well as his inuence on both Eastern and Western civi-
the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of lizations. Having originated from Persis, roughly corre-
the ancient Near East,[8] expanded vastly and eventually sponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus
conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central has played a crucial role in dening the national iden-
Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean Sea tity of modern Iran.[17][18][19] Cyrus and, indeed, the
and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Achaemenid inuence in the ancient world also extended
Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had as far as Athens, where many Athenians adopted aspects
yet seen.[9] Under his successors, the empire eventually of the Achaemenid Persian culture as their own, in a re-
stretched at its maximum extent from parts of the Balkans ciprocal cultural exchange.[20]
(Bulgaria-Paeonia and Thrace-Macedonia) and Eastern In the 1970s, the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east. identied his famous proclamation inscribed onto the
His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Per- Cyrus Cylinder as the oldest known declaration of human
sia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, rights,[21] and the Cylinder has since been popularized
King of Sumer and Akkad, and King of the Four Cor- as such.[22][23][24] This view has been criticized by some
ners of the World. historians[25] as a misunderstanding[26] of the Cylinders
The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and generic nature as a traditional statement that new monar-
31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering rst chs make at the beginning of their reign.[23][24][27]
the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire and even-
tually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Either before or
after Babylon, he led an expedition into central Asia, 4.1.1 Background
which resulted in major campaigns that were described
as having brought into subjection every nation without Etymology
exception.[10] Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he
himself died in battle, ghting the Massagetae along the For more details on this topic, see Cyrus.
Syr Darya in December 530 BC.[11][12] He was succeeded The name Cyrus is a Latinized form derived from
by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the em-
pire by conquering Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during
his short rule.
Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of
the lands he conquered.[13] This became a very success-
ful model for centralized administration and establish-
ing a government working to the advantage and prot of
its subjects.[8] In fact, the administration of the empire
through satraps and the vital principle of forming a gov-
ernment at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus.[14] What
is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration (ac-
tually two edicts) described in the Bible as being made I am Cyrus the king, an Achaemenid. in Old Persian, Elamite
by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish and Akkadian languages. It is carved in a column in Pasargadae.

101
102 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

the Greek , Kros, itself from the Old Per-


sian Kru.[28][29] The name and its meaning has been
recorded in ancient inscriptions in dierent languages.
The ancient Greek historians Ctesias and Plutarch noted
that Cyrus was named from Kuros, the Sun, a concept
which has been interpreted as meaning like the Sun
(Khurvash) by noting its relation to the Persian noun for
sun, khor, while using -vash as a sux of likeness.[30]
This may also point to a fascinating relationship to the
mythological rst king of Persia, Jamshid, whose name
also incorporates the element sun (shid).
Karl Homann has suggested a translation based on the
meaning of an Indo-European-root to humiliate and ac-
cordingly Cyrus means humiliator of the enemy in ver-
bal contest.[29] In the Persian language and especially in
Iran, Cyruss name is spelled as [ kuo]. In the
Bible, he is known as Koresh (Hebrew: ).[31]

Standard of Cyrus the Great


Dynastic history

See also: Achaemenes, Achaemenid family tree, and


Teispids Achaemenes as Darius the Great, the ninth king of the
The Persian domination and kingdom in the Iranian dynasty, traces his genealogy to him and declares for this
reason we are called Achaemenids. Achaemenes built
the state Parsumash in the southwest of Iran and was suc-
ceeded by Teispes, who took the title King of Anshan"
after seizing Anshan city and enlarging his kingdom fur-
ther to include Pars proper.[33] Ancient documents[34]
mention that Teispes had a son called Cyrus I, who also
succeeded his father as king of Anshan. Cyrus I had a
full brother whose name is recorded as Ariaramnes.[8]
In 600 BC, Cyrus I was succeeded by his son, Cambyses
I, who reigned until 559 BC. Cyrus the Great was a son
of Cambyses I, who named his son after his father, Cyrus
I.[35] There are several inscriptions of Cyrus the Great and
later kings that refer to Cambyses I as the great king
and king of Anshan. Among these are some passages
in the Cyrus cylinder where Cyrus calls himself son of
Cambyses, great king, king of Anshan. Another inscrip-
tion (from CMs) mentions Cambyses I as mighty king
and an Achaemenian, which according to the bulk of
scholarly opinion was engraved under Darius and consid-
ered as a later forgery by Darius.[36][37] However Cam-
byses IIs maternal grandfather Pharnaspes is named by
Herodotus as an Achaemenian too.[38] Xenophons ac-
count in Cyropdia further names Cambysess wife as
Mandane and mentions Cambyses as king of Iran (ancient
Persia). These agree with Cyruss own inscriptions, as
The four-winged guardian gure representing Cyrus the Great, Anshan and Parsa were dierent names of the same land.
a bas-relief found at Pasargadae on top of which was once in- These also agree with other non-Iranian accounts, except
scribed in three languages the sentence I am Cyrus the king, an at one point from Herodotus stating that Cambyses was
Achaemenian.[32] not a king but a Persian of good family.[39] However, in
plateau started by an extension of the Achaemenid dy- some other passages, Herodotuss account is wrong also
nasty, who expanded their earlier domination possibly on the name of the son of Chishpish, which he mentions
from the 9th century BC onward. The eponymous as Cambyses but, according to modern scholars, should
founder of this dynasty was Achaemenes (from Old Per- be Cyrus I.[40]
sian Haxmani ). Achaemenids are descendants of The traditional view based on archaeological research
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 103

and the genealogy given in the Behistun Inscription pelvis, and covered the entire kingdom. These were in-
and by Herodotus[8] holds that Cyrus the Great was an terpreted by his advisers as a foretelling that his grandson
Achaemenid. However it has been suggested by M. Wa- would one day rebel and supplant him as king. Astyages
ters that Cyrus is unrelated to the Achaemenids or Darius summoned Mandane, at the time pregnant with Cyrus,
the Great and that his family was of Teispid and Anshan- back to Ecbatana to have the child killed. Harpagus del-
ite origin instead of Achaemenid.[41] egated the task to Mithradates, one of the shepherds of
Astyages, who raised the child and passed o his stillborn
son to Harpagus as the dead infant Cyrus.[48] Cyrus lived
Early life in secrecy, but when he reached the age of 10, during a
childhood game, he had the son of a nobleman beaten
Cyrus was born to Cambyses I, King of Anshan and Man- when he refused to obey Cyruss commands. As it was
dane, daughter of Astyages, King of Media during the unheard of for the son of a shepherd to commit such an
period of 600-599 BC. act, Astyages had the boy brought to his court, and inter-
By his own account, generally believed now to be accu- viewed him and his adopted father. Upon the shepherds
rate, Cyrus was preceded as king by his father Cambyses confession, Astyages sent Cyrus back to Persia to live
I, grandfather Cyrus I, and great-grandfather.[42] Cyrus with his biological parents.[49] However, Astyages sum-
married Cassandane[43] who was an Achaemenian and moned the son of Harpagus, and in retribution, chopped
the daughter of Pharnaspes who bore him two sons, him to pieces, roasted some portions while boiling others,
Cambyses II and Bardiya along with three daughters, and tricked his adviser into eating his child during a large
Atossa, Artystone, and Roxane.[44] Cyrus and Cassan- banquet. Following the meal, Astyages servants brought
dane were known to love each other very much - Cas- Harpagus the head, hands and feet of his son on platters,
sandane said that she found it more bitter to leave Cyrus so he could realize his inadvertent cannibalism.[50] In an-
than to depart her life.[45] After her death, Cyrus insisted other version, Cyrus was presented as the son of a poor
on public mourning throughout the kingdom.[46] The family that worked in the Median court.
Nabonidus Chronicle states that Babylonia mourned Cas-
sandane for six days (identied from 2126 March 538
BC).[47] After his fathers death, Cyrus inherited the Per- 4.1.2 Rise and military campaigns
sian throne at Pasargadae which was a vassal of Astyages.
It is also noted that Strabo has said that Cyrus was orig-
inally named Agradates by his step-parents; therefore, it
is probable that, when reuniting with his original family,
following the naming customs, Cyruss father, Cambyses
I, named him Cyrus after his grandfather, who was Cyrus
I.

Painting of Cyrus the Great in battle at the Palace of Versailles


by Claude Audran the Younger

Median Empire

Though his father died in 551 BC, Cyrus the Great had al-
ready succeeded to the throne in 559 BC; however, Cyrus
was not yet an independent ruler. Like his predecessors,
Cyrus had to recognize Median overlordship. Astyages,
last king of the Median Empire and Cyrus grandfather,
may have ruled over the majority of the Ancient Near
Painting of king Astyages sending Harpagus to kill young Cyrus East, from the Lydian frontier in the west to the Parthians
and Persians in the east.
Mythology Herodotus gave a mythological account of According to the Nabonidus Chronicle, Astyages
Cyruss early life. In this account, Astyages had two launched an attack against Cyrus, king of Ansan.
prophetic dreams in which a ood, and then a series of According to the historian Herodotus, it is known that
fruit bearing vines, emerged from his daughter Mandanes Astyages placed Harpagus in command of the Median
104 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

army to conquer Cyrus. However, Harpagus contacted Babylon (539 BC). It was common in the past to give
Cyrus and encouraged his revolt against Media, before 547 BC as the year of the conquest due to some inter-
eventually defecting along with several of the nobility pretations of the Nabonidus Chronicle, but this position
and a portion of the army. This mutiny is conrmed by is currently not much held.[57] The Lydians rst attacked
the Nabonidus Chronicle. Babylonian texts suggest that the Achaemenid Empires city of Pteria in Cappadocia.
the hostilities lasted for at least three years (553-550), Croesus besieged and captured the city enslaving its in-
and the nal battle resulted in the capture of Ecbatana. habitants. Meanwhile, the Persians invited the citizens
According to the historians Herodotus and Ctesias, Cyrus of Ionia who were part of the Lydian kingdom to revolt
spared the life of Astyages and married his daughter, against their ruler. The oer was rebued, and thus Cyrus
Amytis. This marriage pacied several vassal including levied an army and marched against the Lydians, increas-
the Bactrians, Parthians, and Saka.[51] Herodotus notes ing his numbers while passing through nations in his way.
that Cyrus also subdued and incorporated Sogdia into The Battle of Pteria was eectively a stalemate, with both
the empire during his military campaigns of 546-539 sides suering heavy casualties by nightfall. Croesus re-
BC.[52][53] treated to Sardis the following morning.[58]
With Astyages out of power, all of his vassals (includ- While in Sardis, Croesus sent out requests for his allies
ing many of Cyruss relatives) were now under his com- to send aid to Lydia. However, near the end of the win-
mand. His uncle Arsames, who had been the king of ter, before the allies could unite, Cyrus the Great pushed
the city-state of Parsa under the Medes, therefore would the war into Lydian territory and besieged Croesus in his
have had to give up his throne. However, this transfer of capital, Sardis. Shortly before the nal Battle of Thym-
power within the family seems to have been smooth, and bra between the two rulers, Harpagus advised Cyrus the
it is likely that Arsames was still the nominal governor Great to place his dromedaries in front of his warriors;
of Parsa, under Cyruss authoritymore of a Prince or the Lydian horses, not used to the dromedaries smell,
a Grand Duke than a King.[54] His son, Hystaspes, who would be very afraid. The strategy worked; the Lydian
was also Cyruss second cousin, was then made satrap of cavalry was routed. Cyrus defeated and captured Croe-
Parthia and Phrygia. Cyrus the Great thus united the twin sus. Cyrus occupied the capital at Sardis, conquering the
Achamenid kingdoms of Parsa and Anshan into Persia Lydian kingdom in 546 BC.[58] According to Herodotus,
proper. Arsames would live to see his grandson become Cyrus the Great spared Croesuss life and kept him as an
Darius the Great, Shahanshah of Persia, after the deaths advisor, but this account conicts with some translations
of both of Cyruss sons.[55] Cyruss conquest of Media of the contemporary Nabonidus Chronicle (the King who
was merely the start of his wars.[56] was himself subdued by Cyrus the Great after conquest
of Babylonia), which interpret that the king of Lydia was
slain.[59]
Lydian Empire and Asia Minor
Before returning to the capital, a Lydian named Pactyas
Further information: Battle of Pteria, Battle of Thymbra, was entrusted by Cyrus the Great to send Croesuss trea-
and Siege of Sardis (547 BC) sury to Persia. However, soon after Cyruss depar-
The exact dates of the Lydian conquest are unknown, ture, Pactyas hired mercenaries and caused an uprising
in Sardis, revolting against the Persian satrap of Lydia,
Tabalus. With recommendations from Croesus that he
should turn the minds of the Lydian people to luxury,
Cyrus sent Mazares, one of his commanders, to sub-
due the insurrection but demanded that Pactyas be re-
turned alive. Upon Mazaress arrival, Pactyas ed to
Ionia, where he had hired more mercenaries. Mazares
marched his troops into the Greek country and subdued
the cities of Magnesia and Priene. The end of Pactyas
is unknown, but after capture, he was probably sent to
Cyrus and put to death after a succession of tortures.[60]
Mazares continued the conquest of Asia Minor but died
of unknown causes during his campaign in Ionia. Cyrus
sent Harpagus to complete Mazaress conquest of Asia
Minor. Harpagus captured Lycia, Cilicia and Phoenicia,
using the technique of building earthworks to breach the
Croesus on the pyre. Attic red-gure amphora, 500490 BC,
walls of besieged cities, a method unknown to the Greeks.
Louvre (G 197) He ended his conquest of the area in 542 BC and returned
to Persia.
but it must have taken place between Cyruss overthrow
of the Median kingdom (550 BC) and his conquest of
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 105

Neo-Babylonian Empire west to the northwestern areas of India in the east.[71]

Further information: Battle of Opis 4.1.3 Death

By the year 540 BC, Cyrus captured Elam (Susiana) and The details of Cyruss death vary by account. The account
its capital, Susa.[61] The Nabonidus Chronicle records of Herodotus from his Histories provides the second-
that, prior to the battle(s), Nabonidus had ordered cult longest detail, in which Cyrus met his fate in a erce bat-
statues from outlying Babylonian cities to be brought into tle with the Massagetae, a tribe from the southern deserts
the capital, suggesting that the conict had begun pos- of Khwarezm and Kyzyl Kum in the southernmost por-
sibly in the winter of 540 BC.[62] Near the beginning tion of the steppe regions of modern-day Kazakhstan and
of October, Cyrus fought the Battle of Opis in or near Uzbekistan, following the advice of Croesus to attack
the strategic riverside city of Opis on the Tigris, north of them in their own territory.[72] The Massagetae were re-
Babylon. The Babylonian army was routed, and on Oc- lated to the Scythians in their dress and mode of living;
tober 10, Sippar was seized without a battle, with little they fought on horseback and on foot. In order to acquire
to no resistance from the populace.[63] It is probable that her realm, Cyrus rst sent an oer of marriage to their
Cyrus engaged in negotiations with the Babylonian gen- ruler, the empress Tomyris, a proposal she rejected.
erals to obtain a compromise on their part and therefore He then commenced his attempt to take Massagetae terri-
avoid an armed confrontation.[64] Nabonidus was staying tory by force (ca. 529),[73] beginning by building bridges
in the city at the time and soon ed to the capital, Baby- and towered war boats along his side of the river Jaxartes,
lon, which he had not visited in years.[65] or Syr Darya, which separated them. Sending him a
Two days later, on October 7 (proleptic Gregorian cal- warning to cease his encroachment (a warning which she
endar), Gubaru's troops entered Babylon, again without stated she expected he would disregard anyway), Tomyris
any resistance from the Babylonian armies, and detained challenged him to meet her forces in honorable warfare,
Nabonidus.[66] Herodotus explains that to accomplish this inviting him to a location in her country a days march
feat, the Persians, using a basin dug earlier by the Baby- from the river, where their two armies would formally
lonian queen Nitokris to protect Babylon against Median engage each other. He accepted her oer, but, learn-
attacks, diverted the Euphrates river into a canal so that ing that the Massagetae were unfamiliar with wine and
the water level dropped to the height of the middle of a its intoxicating eects, he set up and then left camp with
mans thigh, which allowed the invading forces to march plenty of it behind, taking his best soldiers with him
directly through the river bed to enter at night.[67] On Oc- and leaving the least capable ones. The general of To-
tober 29, Cyrus himself entered the city of Babylon and myriss army, Spargapises, who was also her son, and a
detained Nabonidus.[68] third of the Massagetian troops, killed the group Cyrus
had left there and, nding the camp well stocked with
Prior to Cyruss invasion of Babylon, the Neo-Babylonian food and the wine, unwittingly drank themselves into
Empire had conquered many kingdoms. In addition to inebriation, diminishing their capability to defend them-
Babylonia itself, Cyrus probably incorporated its subna- selves when they were then overtaken by a surprise attack.
tional entities into his Empire, including Syria, Judea, and
They were successfully defeated, and, although he was
Arabia Petraea, although there is no direct evidence of taken prisoner, Spargapises committed suicide once he
this fact.[69]
regained sobriety. Upon learning of what had transpired,
After taking Babylon, Cyrus the Great proclaimed him- Tomyris denounced Cyruss tactics as underhanded and
self king of Babylon, king of Sumer and Akkad, king swore vengeance, leading a second wave of troops into
of the four corners of the world in the famous Cyrus battle herself. Cyrus the Great was ultimately killed, and
Cylinder, an inscription deposited in the foundations of his forces suered massive casualties in what Herodotus
the Esagila temple dedicated to the chief Babylonian god, referred to as the ercest battle of his career and the an-
Marduk. The text of the cylinder denounces Nabonidus cient world. When it was over, Tomyris ordered the body
as impious and portrays the victorious Cyrus pleasing the of Cyrus brought to her, then decapitated him and dipped
god Marduk. It describes how Cyrus had improved the his head in a vessel of blood in a symbolic gesture of re-
lives of the citizens of Babylonia, repatriated displaced venge for his bloodlust and the death of her son.[72][74]
peoples and restored temples and cult sanctuaries. Al- However, some scholars question this version, mostly be-
though some have asserted that the cylinder represents a cause Herodotus admits this event was one of many ver-
form of human rights charter, historians generally portray sions of Cyruss death that he heard from a supposedly
it in the context of a long-standing Mesopotamian tradi- reliable source who told him no one was there to see the
tion of new rulers beginning their reigns with declarations aftermath.[75]
of reforms.[70] Herodotus also recounts that Cyrus saw in his sleep the
Cyrus the Greats dominions comprised the largest em- oldest son of Hystaspes (Darius I) with wings upon his
pire the world had ever seen.[9] At the end of Cyruss rule, shoulders, shadowing with the one wing Asia, and with
the Achaemenid Empire stretched from Asia Minor in the the other wing Europe.[76] Archaeologist Sir Max Mal-
106 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

lowan explains this statement by Herodotus and its con-


nection with the four winged bas-relief gure of Cyrus
the Great in the following way:[76]

Herodotus therefore, as I surmise, may


have known of the close connection between
this type of winged gure and the image of Ira-
nian majesty, which he associated with a dream
prognosticating the kings death before his last,
fatal campaign across the Oxus.

Dandamayev says maybe Persians took back Cyrus body


from the Massagetae, unlike what Herodotus claimed.[77]
According to the Chronicle of Michael the Syrian (1166-
1199 AD) Cyrus was killed by his wife Tomyris, queen
of the Massagetae (Maksata), in the 60th year of Jewish
captivity.[78]
Ctesias, in his Persica, has the longest account, which says
Cyrus met his death while putting down resistance from
the Derbices infantry, aided by other Scythian archers
and cavalry, plus Indians and their elephants. Accord-
ing to him, this event took place northeast of the head-
waters of the Syr Darya.[79] An alternative account from
Xenophon's Cyropaedia contradicts the others, claiming
that Cyrus died peaceably at his capital.[80] The nal ver-
sion of Cyruss death comes from Berossus, who only
reports that Cyrus met his death while warring against Tomb of Cyrus under the starry sky of Pasargadae, Iran, a
the Dahae archers northwest of the headwaters of the Syr UNESCO World Heritage Site (2015)
Darya.[81]

Burial soon died after only seven years of rule. He was suc-
ceeded either by Cyruss other son Bardiya or an impos-
Main article: Tomb of Cyrus tor posing as Bardiya, who became the sole ruler of Persia
Cyrus the Greats remains were interred in his capi- for seven months, until he was killed by Darius the Great.
tal city of Pasargadae, where today a limestone tomb The translated ancient Roman and Greek accounts give a
(built around 540530 BC[82] ) still exists, which many vivid description of the tomb both geometrically and aes-
believe to be his. Strabo and Arrian give nearly iden- thetically; The tombs geometric shape has changed little
tical descriptions of the tomb, based on the eyewitness over the years, still maintaining a large stone of quadran-
report of Aristobulus of Cassandreia, who at the request gular form at the base, followed by a pyramidal succes-
of Alexander the Great visited the tomb two times.[83] sion of smaller rectangular stones, until after a few slabs,
Though the city itself is now in ruins, the burial place the structure is curtailed by an edice, with an arched
of Cyrus the Great has remained largely intact; and the roof composed of a pyramidal shaped stone, and a small
tomb has been partially restored to counter its natural de- opening or window on the side, where the slenderest man
terioration over the centuries. According to Plutarch, his could barely squeeze through.[86]
epitaph said,
Within this edice was a golden con, resting on a table
with golden supports, inside of which the body of Cyrus
O man, whoever you are and wherever you the Great was interred. Upon his resting place, was a cov-
come from, for I know you will come, I am ering of tapestry and drapes made from the best available
Cyrus who won the Persians their empire. Do Babylonian materials, utilizing ne Median worksman-
not therefore begrudge me this bit of earth that ship; below his bed was a ne red carpet, covering the
covers my bones.[84] narrow rectangular area of his tomb.[86] Translated Greek
accounts describe the tomb as having been placed in the
Cuneiform evidence from Babylon proves that Cyrus died fertile Pasargadae gardens, surrounded by trees and orna-
around December 530 BC,[85] and that his son Cambyses mental shrubs, with a group of Achaemenian protectors
II had become king. Cambyses continued his fathers pol- called the Magi, stationed nearby to protect the edice
icy of expansion, and captured Egypt for the Empire, but from theft or damage.[86][87]
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 107

Years later, in the chaos created by Alexander the Great's


invasion of Persia and after the defeat of Darius III, Cyrus
the Greats tomb was broken into and most of its luxuries
were looted. When Alexander reached the tomb, he was
horried by the manner in which the tomb was treated,
and questioned the Magi and put them to court.[86] On
some accounts, Alexanders decision to put the Magi on
trial was more about his attempt to undermine their in-
uence and his show of power in his newly conquered
empire, than a concern for Cyruss tomb.[88] However,
Alexander admired Cyrus, from an early age reading
Xenophons Cyropaedia, which described Cyruss hero-
ism in battle and governance as a king and legislator.[89]
Regardless, Alexander the Great ordered Aristobulus to
improve the tombs condition and restore its interior.[86]
Despite his admiration for Cyrus the Great, and his at-
tempts at renovation of his tomb, Alexander had, six years
previously (330 BC), sacked Persepolis, the opulent city
that Cyrus may have chosen the site for, and either or-
dered its burning as an act of pro-Greek propaganda or
set it on re during drunken revels.[90]
The edice has survived the test of time, through in- Cyrus the Great is said in the Bible to have liberated the Jews
vasions, internal divisions, successive empires, regime from the Babylonian captivity to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem,
changes and revolutions. The last prominent Persian g- earning him an honored place in Judaism.
ure to bring attention to the tomb was Mohammad Reza
Pahlavi (Shah of Iran) the last ocial monarch of Per-
sia, during his celebrations of 2,500 years of monarchy. name for one that bestows, rather than for one
Just as Alexander the Great before him, the Shah of Iran that takes away!
wanted to appeal to Cyruss legacy to legitimize his own
rule by extension.[91] United Nations recognizes the tomb The Babylonians regarded him as The Liberator.[95]
of Cyrus the Great and Pasargadae as a UNESCO World
The Book of Ezra narrates a story of the rst return of
Heritage site.[82]
exiles in the rst year of Cyrus, in which Cyrus boastfully
proclaims: "All the kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD,
4.1.4 Legacy the God of heaven, given me; and He hath charged me to
build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah."(Ezra
British historian Charles Freeman suggests that In scope 1:2)
and extent his achievements [Cyrus] ranked far above that Cyrus was distinguished equally as a statesman and as
of the Macedonian king, Alexander, who was to demolish a soldier. Due in part to the political infrastructure he
the [Achaemenid] empire in the 320s but fail to provide created, the Achaemenid Empire endured long after his
any stable alternative.[92] Cyrus has been a personal hero death.
to many people, including Thomas Jeerson, Mohammad
The rise of Persia under Cyruss rule had a profound im-
Reza Pahlavi and David Ben-Gurion.[93]
pact on the course of world history. Iranian philosophy,
The achievements of Cyrus the Great throughout antiq- literature and religion all played dominant roles in world
uity are reected in the way he is remembered today. His events for the next millennium. Despite the Islamic con-
own nation, the Iranians, have regarded him as The Fa- quest of Persia in the 7th century AD by the Islamic
ther, the very title that had been used during the time of Caliphate, Persia continued to exercise enormous inu-
Cyrus himself, by the many nations that he conquered, as ence in the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age,
according to Xenophon:[94] and was particularly instrumental in the growth and ex-
pansion of Islam.
And those who were subject to him, he
treated with esteem and regard, as if they were Many of the Iranian dynasties following the Achaemenid
his own children, while his subjects themselves Empire and their kings saw themselves as the heirs to
respected Cyrus as their Father ... What Cyrus the Great and have claimed to continue the line
other man but 'Cyrus, after having overturned begun by Cyrus.[96][97] However, there are dierent opin-
an empire, ever died with the title of The Fa- ions among scholars whether this is also the case for the
ther from the people whom he had brought un- Sassanid Dynasty.[98]
der his power? For it is plain fact that this is a Alexander the Great was himself infatuated with and
108 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

admired Cyrus the Great, from an early age reading


Xenophons Cyropaedia, which described Cyruss hero-
ism in battle and governance and his abilities as a king
and a legislator.[89] During his visit to Pasargadae he or-
dered Aristobulus to decorate the interior of the sepul-
chral chamber of Cyruss tomb.[89]
According to Professor Richard Nelson Frye, Cyrus
whose abilities as conqueror and administrator Frye says
are attested by the longevity and vigor of the Achaemenid
Empire held an almost mythic role among the Persian
people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome
or Moses for the Israelites, with a story that follows in
many details the stories of hero and conquerors from else-
where in the ancient world.[99] Frye writes, He became
the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in
antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror
who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and
daring. His personality as seen by the Greeks inuenced
them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was
transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to inu-
ence our thinking even now.[99]
On another account, Professor Patrick Hunt states, If
you are looking at the greatest personages in History who
have aected the World, 'Cyrus the Great' is one of the
few who deserves that epithet, the one who deserves to
be called 'the Great'. The empire over which Cyrus ruled
was the largest the Ancient World had ever seen and may
be to this day the largest empire ever.[100]

Religion and philosophy

Main articles: Cyrus the Great in the Bible and Cyrus the
Great in the Qur'an
Dhul-Qarnayn is thought to refer to Cyrus by some Qur'anic com-
Though it is generally believed that Zarathushtra's teach-
mentators.
ings maintained inuence on Cyruss acts and policies,
so far no clear evidence has been found to indicate that
Cyrus practiced a specic religion. Pierre Briant wrote well as Jewish sources and the historians accounts. Cyrus
that given the poor information we have, it seems quite had a general policy of religious tolerance throughout his
reckless to try to reconstruct what the religion of Cyrus vast empire. Whether this was a new policy or the con-
might have been.[101] His views are believed expressed tinuation of policies followed by the Babylonians and As-
in the content of the Cylinder: syrians (as Lester Grabbe maintains)[102] is disputed. He
brought peace to the Babylonians and is said to have kept
"-mi-a-am ma- h ar iluBel iluNabu a his army away from the temples and restored the statues
a-ra-ku ume-ia li-ta-mu- lit-ta-ka-ru a-ma- of the Babylonian gods to their sanctuaries.[13]
a-ta du-un-ki-ia a-na iluMarduk beli-ia li-iq-
His treatment of the Jews during their exile in Babylon
bu- ' a m Ku-ra-a arri pa-li- hi-ka u m Ka-
after Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem is reported
am-bu-zi-ia mari- u' " (Cylinder, Akkadian
in the Bible. The Jewish Bibles Ketuvim ends in Second
language line:35)
Chronicles with the decree of Cyrus, which returned the
exiles to the Promised Land from Babylon along with a
pray daily before Bl and Nab for long life
commission to rebuild the temple.
for me, and may they speak a gracious word for
me and say to Marduk, my lord, May Cyrus,
the king who worships you, and Cambyses, his Thus saith Cyrus, king of Persia: All the
son, (Cylinder, English Translation line:35) kingdoms of the earth hath the LORD, the God
of heaven given me; and He hath charged me to
The policies of Cyrus with respect to treatment of minor- build Him a house in Jerusalem, which is in Ju-
ity religions are well documented in Babylonian texts as dah. Whosoever there is among you of all His
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 109

people the LORD, his God, be with him let Babylon, God commiserated the captivity and
him go there. (2 Chronicles 36:23) calamity of these poor people, according as he
had foretold to them by Jeremiah the prophet,
This edict is also fully reproduced in the Book of Ezra. before the destruction of the city, that after
they had served Nebuchadnezzar and his pos-
In the rst year of King Cyrus, Cyrus the terity, and after they had undergone that servi-
king issued a decree: Concerning the house tude seventy years, he would restore them again
of God at Jerusalem, let the temple, the place to the land of their fathers, and they should
where sacrices are oered, be rebuilt and let build their temple, and enjoy their ancient
its foundations be retained, its height being 60 prosperity. And these things God did aord
cubits and its width 60 cubits; with three layers them; for he stirred up the mind of Cyrus, and
of huge stones and one layer of timbers. And let made him write this throughout all Asia: Thus
the cost be paid from the royal treasury. Also saith Cyrus the king: Since God Almighty hath
let the gold and silver utensils of the house of appointed me to be king of the habitable earth,
God, which Nebuchadnezzar took from the tem- I believe that he is that God which the nation
ple in Jerusalem and brought to Babylon, be re- of the Israelites worship; for indeed he fore-
turned and brought to their places in the tem- told my name by the prophets, and that I should
ple in Jerusalem; and you shall put them in the build him a house at Jerusalem, in the coun-
house of God. (Ezra 6:3-5) try of Judea. This was known to Cyrus by
his reading the book which Isaiah left behind
him of his prophecies; for this prophet said
that God had spoken thus to him in a secret
vision: My will is, that Cyrus, whom I have
appointed to be king over many and great na-
tions, send back my people to their own land,
and build my temple. This was foretold by Isa-
iah one hundred and forty years before the tem-
ple was demolished. Accordingly, when Cyrus
read this, and admired the Divine power, an
earnest desire and ambition seized upon him
to fulll what was so written; so he called for
the most eminent Jews that were in Babylon,
and said to them, that he gave them leave to
go back to their own country, and to rebuild
The Cyrus Street, Jerusalem, Israel their city Jerusalem, and the temple of God,
for that he would be their assistant, and that
The Jews honored him as a dignied and righteous king. he would write to the rulers and governors that
In one Biblical passage, Isaiah refers to him as Messiah were in the neighborhood of their country of
(lit. His anointed one) (Isaiah 45:1), making him the Judea, that they should contribute to them gold
only gentile to be so referred. Elsewhere in Isaiah, God and silver for the building of the temple, and
is described as saying, I will raise up Cyrus in my righ- besides that, beasts for their sacrices.
teousness: I will make all his ways straight. He will
rebuild my city and set my exiles free, but not for a
price or reward, says God Almighty. (Isaiah 45:13) As
the text suggests, Cyrus did ultimately release the nation
of Israel from its exile without compensation or tribute.
These particular passages (Isaiah 4055, often referred to
as Deutero-Isaiah) are believed by most modern critical
scholars to have been added by another author toward the
end of the Babylonian exile (ca. 536 BC).[103]
Josephus, the rst-century Jewish historian, relates the
traditional view of the Jews regarding the prediction of
Cyrus in Isaiah in his Antiquities of the Jews, book 11,
chapter 1:[104]

In the rst year of the reign of Cyrus, which


was the seventieth from the day that our peo-
ple were removed out of their own land into Painting of Daniel and Cyrus before the Idol Bel
110 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

Cyrus was praised in the Tanakh (Isaiah 45:16 and Ezra decree demonstrate the Persian tendency to co-opt local
1:111) for the freeing of slaves, humanitarian equality religious and political traditions in the interest of imperial
and costly reparations he made. However, there was Jew- control.[109]
ish criticism of him after he was lied to by the Cuthites, Some contemporary Muslim scholars have suggested
who wanted to halt the building of the Second Tem- that the Qur'anic gure of Dhul-Qarnayn is Cyrus the
ple. They accused the Jews of conspiring to rebel, so Great.[110] This theory was proposed by Sunni scholar
Cyrus in turn stopped the construction, which would not Abul Kalam Azad and endorsed by Shi'a scholars
be completed until 515 BC, during the reign of Darius Allameh Tabatabaei, in his Tafsir al-Mizan and Makarem
I.[105][106] According to the Bible it was King Artaxerxes
Shirazi.
who was convinced to stop the construction of the temple
in Jerusalem. (Ezra 4:724)
Politics and management

Cyrus founded the empire as a multi-state empire gov-


erned by four capital states; Pasargadae, Babylon, Susa
and Ecbatana. He allowed a certain amount of regional
autonomy in each state, in the form of a satrapy system.
A satrapy was an administrative unit, usually organized
on a geographical basis. A 'satrap' (governor) was the
vassal king, who administered the region, a 'general' su-
pervised military recruitment and ensured order, and a
'state secretary' kept the ocial records. The general and
the state secretary reported directly to the satrap as well
as the central government.
During his reign, Cyrus maintained control over a vast
region of conquered kingdoms, achieved through re-
taining and expanding the satrapies. Further organiza-
tion of newly conquered territories into provinces ruled
by satraps, was continued by Cyruss successor Darius
the Great. Cyruss empire was based on tribute and
conscripts from the many parts of his realm.[111]
Through his military savvy, Cyrus created an organized
army including the Immortals unit, consisting of 10,000
highly trained soldiers.[112] He also formed an innovative
postal system throughout the empire, based on several re-
lay stations called Chapar Khaneh.[113]
Statue of Cyrus the great at Olympic Park in Sydney
Cyruss conquests began a new era in the age of em-
The historical nature of this decree has been challenged. pire building, where a vast superstate, comprising many
Professor Lester L Grabbe argues that there was no de- dozens of countries, races, religions, and languages, were
cree but that there was a policy that allowed exiles to re- ruled under a single administration headed by a central
turn to their homelands and rebuild their temples. He government. This system lasted for centuries, and was re-
also argues that the archaeology suggests that the return tained both by the invading Seleucid dynasty during their
was a trickle, taking place over perhaps decades, re- control of Persia, and later Iranian dynasties including the
sulting in a maximum population of perhaps 30,000.[107] Parthians and Sasanians.[114]
Philip R. Davies called the authenticity of the decree du- On December 10, 2003, in her acceptance of the Nobel
bious, citing Grabbe and adding that J. Briend argued Peace Prize, Shirin Ebadi evoked Cyrus, saying:
against the authenticity of Ezra 1.14 is J. Briend, in a
paper given at the Institut Catholique de Paris on 15 De- I am an Iranian, a descendant of Cyrus the
cember 1993, who denies that it resembles the form of Great. This emperor proclaimed at the pinna-
an ocial document but reects rather biblical prophetic cle of power 2,500 years ago that he would not
idiom.[108] Mary Joan Winn Leith believes that the de- reign over the people if they did not wish it.
cree in Ezra might be authentic and along with the Cylin- He promised not to force any person to change
der that Cyrus, like earlier rules, was through these de- his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom
crees trying to gain support from those who might be for all. The Charter of Cyrus the Great should
strategically important, particularly those close to Egypt be studied in the history of human rights.[115]
which he wished to conquer. He also wrote that appeals
to Marduk in the cylinder and to Yahweh in the biblical Cyrus has been known for his innovations in building
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 111

projects; he further developed the technologies that he


found in the conquered cultures and applied them in
building the palaces of Pasargadae. He was also famous
for his love of gardens; the recent excavations in his capi-
tal city has revealed the existence of the Pasargad Persian
Garden and a network of irrigation canals. Pasargadae
was a place for two magnicent palaces surrounded by
a majestic royal park and vast formal gardens; among
them was the four-quartered wall gardens of "Paradisia"
with over 1000 meters of channels made out of carved
limestone, designed to ll small basins at every 16 me-
ters and water various types of wild and domestic ora.
The design and concept of Paradisia were exceptional and
have been used as a model for many ancient and modern The Cyrus cylinder, a contemporary cuneiform script proclaim-
parks, ever since.[116] ing Cyrus as legitimate king of Babylon.

Cyruss legacy has been felt even as far away as


Iceland[117] and colonial America. Many of the
thinkers and rulers of Classical Antiquity as well as the "Babylonian captivity" has been interpreted as part of this
Renaissance and Enlightenment era,[118] and the forefa- general policy.[124]
thers of the United States of America sought inspiration In the 1970s the Shah of Iran adopted the Cyrus cylin-
from Cyrus the Great through works such as Cyropaedia. der as a political symbol, using it as a central image in
Thomas Jeerson, for example, owned two copies of his celebration of 2500 years of Iranian monarchy.[125]
Cyropaedia, one with parallel Greek and Latin transla- and asserting that it was the rst human rights charter
tions on facing pages showing substantial Jeerson mark- in history.[21] This view has been disputed by some as
ings that signify the amount of inuence the book has rather anachronistic and tendentious,[126] as the mod-
had on drafting the United States Declaration of Inde- ern concept of human rights would have been quite alien
pendence.[119][120][121] to Cyruss contemporaries and is not mentioned by the
[127][128]
The English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas cylinder. The cylinder has, nonetheless, become
Browne penned a discourse entitled The Garden of Cyrus seen as part of Irans cultural identity.[125]
in 1658 in which Cyrus is depicted as an archetypal wise The United Nations has declared the relic to be an an-
ruler while the Protectorate of Cromwell ruled Britain. cient declaration of human rights since 1971, approved
Cyrus the elder brought up in Woods and Mountains, by then Secretary General Sithu U Thant, after [129] he was
when time and power enabled, pursued the dictate of his given a replica by the sister of the Shah of Iran. The
education, and brought the treasures of the eld into rule British Museum describes the cylinder as an instrument
and circumscription. So nobly beautifying the hanging of ancient Mesopotamian propaganda that reects a
Gardens of Babylon, that he was also thought to be the long tradition in Mesopotamia where, from as early as the
author thereof. third millennium BC, kings began their reigns with decla-
rations of reforms.[70] The cylinder emphasizes Cyruss
continuity with previous Babylonian rulers, asserting his
Cyrus Cylinder virtue as a traditional Babylonian king while denigrating
his predecessor.[130]
Main article: Cyrus Cylinder Neil MacGregor, Director of the British Museum, has
One of the few surviving sources of information that can stated that the cylinder was the rst attempt we know
be dated directly to Cyruss time is the Cyrus Cylinder about running a society, a state with dierent nationalities
(Persian: ) , a document in the form of a clay and faiths a new kind of statecraft.[131] He explained
cylinder inscribed in Akkadian cuneiform. It had been that It has even been described as the rst declaration
placed in the foundations of the Esagila (the temple of of human rights, and while this was never the intention
Marduk in Babylon) as a foundation deposit following the of the document -- the modern concept of human rights
Persian conquest in 539 BC. It was discovered in 1879 scarcely existed in the ancient world -- it has come to em-
and is kept today in the British Museum in London.[122] body the hopes and aspirations of many.[132]
The text of the cylinder denounces the deposed Babylo-
nian king Nabonidus as impious and portrays Cyrus as
pleasing to the chief god Marduk. It goes on to describe
how Cyrus had improved the lives of the citizens of Baby- 4.1.5 Family tree
lonia, repatriated displaced peoples and restored temples
and cult sanctuaries.[123] Although not mentioned specif- Further information: the full Achaemenid family tree
ically in the text, the repatriation of the Jews from their
112 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

4.1.6 See also [16] The Biblical Archaeology Society. Cyrus the Messiah -
The BAS Library. bib-arch.org.
List of kings of Persia
[17] Vesta Sarkhosh Curtis; Sarah Stewart (2005). Birth of the
Kay Bahman Persian Empire. I. B. Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-84511-
062-8.

[18] Amelie Kuhrt (2007-12-03). The Persian Empire: A Cor-


4.1.7 References pus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge.
p. 47. ISBN 9781134076345.
[1] Ghasemi, Shapour. The Cyrus the Great Cylinder. Iran
Chamber Society. Retrieved 2009-02-22. [19] Shabnam J. Holliday (2011). Dening Iran: Politics of
Resistance. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 3840. ISBN
[2] Ilya Gershevitch, ed. (1985). The Cambridge history of 9781409405245.
Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods, Volume 2.
Cambridge University Press. p. 404. ISBN 978-0-521- [20] Margaret Christina Miller (2004). Athens and Persia
20091-2. in the Fifth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Receptiv-
ity. Cambridge University Press. p. 243. ISBN
[3] CYRUS iii. Cyrus II The Great. iranicaonline.org. 9780521607582.

[4] Dandamayev,Muhammad A.,CYRUS iii. Cyrus II The [21] Neil MacGregor, The whole world in our hands, in Art
Great, Encyclopdia Iranica and Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy, and Practice, p. 383
4, ed. Barbara T. Homan. Cambridge University Press,
[5] Image: 2006. ISBN 0-521-85764-3
[6] (Dandamaev 1989, p. 71) [22] The Cyrus Cylinder travels to the US. British Museum.
2012. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
[7] Xenophon, Anabasis I. IX; see also M. A. Dandamaev
Cyrus II, in Encyclopaedia Iranica. [23] Cyrus cylinder, worlds oldest human rights charter, re-
turns to Iran on loan. The Guardian. Associated Press.
[8] Schmitt Achaemenid dynasty (i. The clan and dynasty) 10 September 2010. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
[9] Kuhrt, Amlie (1995). 13. The Ancient Near East: C. [24] Oldest Known Charter of Human Rights Comes to San
3000330 BC. Routledge. p. 647. ISBN 0-415-16763-9. Francisco. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 21 September
2013.
[10] Cambridge Ancient History IV Chapter 3c. p. 170. The
quote is from the Greek historian Herodotus. [25] Daniel, Elton L. (2000). The History of Iran. Westport,
CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-30731-
[11] Beckwith, Christopher. (2009). Empires of the Silk Road: 8.
A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the
Present. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University [26] Mitchell, T.C. (1988). Biblical Archaeology: Documents
Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2. Page 63. from the British Museum. London: Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-36867-7.
[12] Cyruss date of death can be deduced from the last two ref-
erences to his own reign (a tablet from Borsippa dated to [27] Arnold, Bill T.; Michalowski, Piotr (2006). Achaemenid
12 August and the nal from Babylon 12 September 530 Period Historical Texts Concerning Mesopotamia. In
BC) and the rst reference to the reign of his son Cam- Chavelas, Mark W. The Ancient Near East: Historical
byses (a tablet from Babylon dated to 31 August and or 4 Sources in Translation. London: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-
September), but a undocumented tablet from the city of 23581-7.
Kish dates the last ocial reign of Cyrus to 4 December [28] Schmitt, Rdiger. Cyrus (name)". Encyclopdia Iran-
530 BC; see R. A. Parker and W. H. Dubberstein, Baby- ica. Retrieved 8 February 2016.
lonian Chronology 626 B.C. A.D. 75, 1971.
[29] Schmitt 2010, p. 515.
[13] Dandamayev Cyrus (iii. Cyrus the Great) Cyruss reli-
gious policies. Plutarch, Artaxerxes 1. 3 classics.mit.edu; Photius, Epitome
[30]
of Ctesias' Persica 52 livius.org
[14] The Cambridge Ancient History Vol. IV p. 42. See also:
G. Buchaman Gray and D. Litt, The foundation and ex- [31] Tait 1846, p. 342-343.
tension of the Persian empire, Chapter I in The Cambridge
Ancient History Vol. IV, 2nd edition, published by The [32] Max Mallowan p. 392. and p. 417
University Press, 1927. P. 15. Excerpt: The administra-
[33] (Schmitt 1985b) under i. The clan and dynasty.
tion of the empire through satrap, and much more belong-
ing to the form or spirit of the government, was the work [34] e. g. Cyrus Cylinder Fragment A. 21.
of Cyrus ...
[35] Schmitt, R. Iranian Personal Names i.-Pre-Islamic
[15] Jona Lendering (2012). Messiah Roots of the concept: Names. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. 4. Naming the
From Josiah to Cyrus. livius.org. Retrieved January 26, grandson after the grandfather was a common practice
2012. among Iranians.
4.1. CYRUS II OF PERSIA 113

[36] Visual representation of the divine and the numinous [58] Herodotus, The Histories, Book I, 440 BC. Translated by
in early Achaemenid Iran: old problems, new direc- George Rawlinson.
tions; Mark A. Garrison, Trinity University, San Antonio,
Texas; last revision: 3 March 2009, see page: 11 [59] Croesus: Fifth and last king of the Mermnad dynasty.

[37] From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Em- [60] The life and travels of Herodotus, Volume 2, by James
pire By Briant, Pierre, Translated by Peter T. Daniels, Talboys Wheeler, 1855, pp.271274
ISBN 978-1-57506-120-7, see page 63
[61] Tavernier, Jan. Some Thoughts in Neo-Elamite Chronol-
[38] M. Waters, Cyrus and the Achaemenids, Iran 42, 2004 ogy (PDF). p. 27.
(Achemenet.com ressources sous presse). p. 92.
[62] Kuhrt, Amlie. Babylonia from Cyrus to Xerxes, in
Cassandanes identication as such stems primarily from
The Cambridge Ancient History: Vol IV Persia, Greece
heredotus, but it is supported, directly and indirectly, by
and the Western Mediterranean, pp. 112138. Ed. John
analysis of ancient Near Eastern evidence.
Boardman. Cambridge University Press, 1982. ISBN 0-
[39] Dandamev, M. A. (1990). Cambyses. Encyclopae- 521-22804-2
dia Iranica. Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. ISBN 0-
[63] Nabonidus Chronicle, 14.
7100-9132-X.
[64] Tolini, Gauthier, Quelques lments concernant la prise de
[40] (Dandamaev 1989, p. 9)
Babylone par Cyrus, Paris. Il est probable que des n-
[41] M. Waters, Cyrus and the Achaemenids, Iran 42, 2004 gociations sengagrent alors entre Cyrus et les chefs de
(Achemenet.com > ressources > sous presse), with previ- l'arme babylonienne pour obtenir une reddition sans re-
ous bibliography. courir l'arontement arm. p. 10 (PDF)

[42] Amlie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East: c.3000330 BC, [65] The Harran Stelae H2 A, and the Nabonidus Chroni-
Routledge Publishers, 1995, p.661, ISBN 0-415-16762-0 cle (Seventeenth year) show that Nabonidus had been in
Babylon before October 10, 539, because he had already
[43] Romm 2014. returned from Harran and had participated in the Akitu of
Nissanu 1 [April 4], 539 BC.
[44] Konig 1972, p. 7-12.
[66] Nabonidus Chronicle, 1516.
[45] Benjamin G. Kohl; Ronald G. Witt; Elizabeth B. Welles
(1978). The Earthly republic: Italian humanists on gov- [67] Potts, Daniel (1996). Mesopotamian civilization: the ma-
ernment and society. Manchester University Press ND. p. terial foundations. Cornell University Press. pp. 2223.
198. ISBN 978-0-7190-0734-7. ISBN 978-0-8014-3339-9.
[46] Kuhrt 2013, p. 106. [68] Nabonidus Chronicle, 18.
[47] Grayson 1975, p. 111. [69] M.A. Dandamaev, Cyrus II, in Encyclopaedia Iranica;
P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander, pp. 4449.
[48] Herodotus, p. 1.95.
[70] British Museum Website,The Cyrus Cylinder. British-
[49] Herodotus, p. 1.107-21.
museum.org. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
[50] Stories of the East From Herodotus, p. 7980
[71] M.A. Dandamaev, Cyrus II, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
[51] Briant, Pierre (2002). From Cyrus to Alexander. Eisen-
brauns. pp. 3133. [72] Ancient History Sourcebook: Herodotus: Queen To-
myris of the Massagetai and the Defeat of the Persians
[52] Antoine Simonin. (08 Jan 2012). "Sogdiana. Ancient under Cyrus. Fordham.edu. Retrieved 2012-12-30.
History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01 September 2016.
[73] Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rut-
[53] Kirill Nourzhanov, Christian Bleuer (2013), Tajikistan: gers University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
a Political and Social History, Canberra: Australian Na-
tional University Press, p. 12, ISBN 978-1-925021-15-8. [74] Tomyris, Queen of the Massagetae, Defeats Cyrus the
Great in Battle Herodotus, The Histories
[54] Jack Martin Balcer (1984). Sparda by the bitter sea: im-
perial interaction in western Anatolia. Scholars Press. p. [75] Nino Luraghi (2001). The historians craft in the age of
137. Herodotus. Oxford University Press US. p. 155. ISBN
978-0-19-924050-0.
[55] A. Sh. Sahbazi, Arsama, in Encyclopaedia Iranica.
[76] Ilya Gershevitch, ed. (1985). The Cambridge history of
[56] The encyclopdia britannica: a dictionary of arts, sci- Iran: The Median and Achaemenian periods, Volume 2.
ences, literature and general information, Volume 21 Cambridge University Press. pp. 392398. ISBN 978-0-
edited by Hugh Chrisholm,1911, pp. 206207 521-20091-2.

[57] Rollinger, Robert, "The Median Empire, the End of [77] Dandamayev,Muhammad A.,CYRUS iii. Cyrus II The
Urartu and Cyruss the Great Campaign in 547 B.C."; Great, Encyclopdia Iranica,Vol. VI, Fasc. 5, pp. 516-
Lendering, Jona, "The End of Lydia: 547?". 521
114 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

[78] https://archive.org/stream/ [97] Cyrus Kadivar (Jan 25, 2002). We are Awake. The
ChronicleOfMichaelTheGreatPatriarchOfTheSyrians/ Iranian.
Chronicle_Michael_Syrian#page/n251/mode/2up/
search/Ethiopia [98] E. Yarshater, for example, rejects that Sassanids remem-
bered Cyrus, whereas R. N. Frye do propose remem-
[79] A history of Greece, Volume 2, By Connop Thirlwall, brance and line of continuity: See A. Sh. Shahbazi, Early
Longmans, 1836, p. 174 Sassanians Claim to Achaemenid Heritage, Namey-e Iran-
e Bastan, Vol. 1, No. 1 pp. 6173; M. Boyce, The Re-
[80] Xenophon, Cyropaedia VII. 7; M.A. Dandamaev, Cyrus ligion of Cyrus the Great in A. Kuhrt and H. Sancisi-
II, in Encyclopaedia Iranica, p. 250. See also H. Sancisi- Weerdenburg, eds., Achaemenid History III. Method and
Weerdenburg "Cyropaedia", in Encyclopaedia Iranica, on Theory, Leiden, 1988, p. 30; and The History of Ancient
the reliability of Xenophons account. Iran, by Frye p. 371; and the debates in Vesta Sarkhosh
Curtis, et al. The Art and Archaeology of Ancient Persia:
[81] A political history of the Achaemenid empire, By M. A.
New Light on the Parthian and Sasanian Empires, Pub-
Dandamaev, BRILL, 1989, p. 67
lished by I. B. Tauris in association with the British Insti-
[82] UNESCO World Heritage Centre (2006). Pasargadae. tute of Persian Studies, 1998, ISBN 1-86064-045-1, pp.
Retrieved December 26, 2010. 18, 3851.

[83] Strabo, Geographica 15.3.7; Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri [99] Cyrus II Encyclopdia Britannica 2008. Encyclop-
6.29 dia Britannica Online. 28 July 2008. Origi-
nal.britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-12-30. (registration
[84] Life of Alexander, 69, in Plutarch: The Age of Alexander, required (help)).
translated by Ian Scott-Kilvert (Penguin Classics, 1973),
p.326.; similar inscriptions give Arrian and Strabo. [100] Cited quote as per media (documentary piece) titled
"Engineering an Empire The Persians. History Chan-
[85] Cyruss date of death can be deduced from the last ref- nel. Release date: December 4, 2006. Media available
erence to his own reign (a tablet from Borsippa dated to for viewing online via history.com or via Google Video.
12 Augustus 530) and the rst reference to the reign of Host: Peter Weller. Production: United States.
his son Cambyses (a tablet from Babylon dated to 31 Au-
[101] Briant, Pierre (2002). From Cyrus to Alexander: A History
gust); see R.A. Parker and W.H. Dubberstein, Babylonian
of the Persian Empire. Eisenbraunds. p. 84. ISBN 978-
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1575060316.
[86] ((grk.) Lucius Flavius Arrianus), (en.) Arrian (trans.),
[102] Oded Lipschitz; Manfred Oeming, eds. (2006). The
Charles Dexter Cleveland (1861). A compendium of clas-
Persian Documents in the Book of Ezra: Are They Au-
sical literature:comprising choice extracts translated from
thentic?". Judah and the Judeans in the Persian period.
Greek and Roman writers, with biographical sketches. Bid-
Eisenbrauns. p. 542. ISBN 978-1-57506-104-7.
dle. p. 313.
[103] Simon John De Vries: From old Revelation to new: a
[87] Abraham Valentine Williams Jackson (1906). Persia past
tradition-historical and redaction-critical study of tempo-
and present. The Macmillan Company. p. 278.
ral transitions in prophetic prediction. Wm. B. Eerdmans
[88] Ralph Griths; George Edward Griths (1816). The Publishing 1995, ISBN 978-0-8028-0683-3, p. 126
Monthly review. 1816. p. 509.
[104] Josephus, Flavius. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book 11,
[89] Ulrich Wilcken (1967). Alexander the Great. W. W. Nor- Chapter 1
ton & Company. p. 146. ISBN 978-0-393-00381-9.
[105] Goldwurm, Hersh (1982). History of the Jewish People:
[90] John Maxwell O'Brien (1994). Alexander the Great: the The Second Temple Era. ArtScroll. pp. 26, 29. ISBN
invisible enemy. Pyshcology Press. pp. 1001. ISBN 978- 0-89906-454-X.
0-415-10617-7. [106] Schiman, Lawrence (1991). From text to tradition: a his-
[91] James D. Cockcroft (1989). Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, tory of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Pub-
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55546-847-7. [107] Grabbe, Lester L. (2004). A History of the Jews and Ju-
[92] Freeman 1999: p. 188 daism in the Second Temple Period: Yehud: A History of
the Persian Province of Judah v. 1. T & T Clark. p. 355.
[93] The Cyrus cylinder: Diplomatic whirl. The Economist. ISBN 978-0-567-08998-4.
23 March 2013.
[108] Philip R. Davies (1995). John D Davies, ed. Words Re-
[94] The Cyropaedia. google.com. membered, Texts Renewed: Essays in Honour of John F.A.
Sawyer. Continuum International Publishing Group. p.
[95] Cardascia, G., Babylon under Achaemenids, in Encyclo- 219. ISBN 978-1-85075-542-5.
pedia Iranica.
[109] Winn Leith, Mary Joan (2001) [1998]. Israel among the
[96] Richard Nelson Frye (1963). The Heritage of Persia. Nations: The Persian Period. In Michael David Coogan
World Pub. Co. (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Google
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Books). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. [128] See also Amlie Kuhrt, Babylonia from Cyrus to
285. ISBN 0-19-513937-2. LCCN 98016042. OCLC Xerxes, in The Cambridge Ancient History: Vol IV
44650958. Retrieved 14 December 2012. Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, p. 124.
Ed. John Boardman. Cambridge University Press, 1982.
[110] Ma'arefat Al-Maad Ma'ad Shanasi, . ISBN 0-521-22804-2
[111] John Curtis; Julian Reade; Dominique Collon (1995). [129] The telegraph (16 July 2008). Cyrus Cylinder. The
Art and empire. The Trustees of the British Museum by Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0-7141-1140-7.
[130] Hekster, Olivier; Fowler, Richard (2005). Imaginary
[112] From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire
kings: royal images in the ancient Near East, Greece and
by Pierre Briant
Rome. Oriens et occidens 11. Franz Steiner Verlag. p.
[113] Herodotus, Herodotus, trans. A.D. Godley, vol. 4, book 33. ISBN 978-3-515-08765-0.
8, verse 98, pp. 9697 (1924).
[131] Barbara Slavin (6 March 2013). Cyrus Cylinder a Re-
[114] Wilcox, Peter; MacBride, Angus (1986). Romes Ene- minder of Persian Legacy of Tolerance. Al-Monitor. Re-
mies: Parthians And Sassanid Persians. Osprey Publish- trieved 21 September 2013.
ing. p. 14. ISBN 0-85045-688-6.
[132] MacGregor, Neil (24 February 2013). A 2,600-year-old
[115] Ebadi, Shirin (10 December 2003). In the name of the icon of freedom comes to the United States. CNN. Re-
God of Creation and Wisdom (Speech). Nobel Peace trieved 21 September 2013.
Prize 2003 presentation ceremony. Retrieved 24 August
2006.
4.1.8 Bibliography
[116] Persepolis Recreated, Publisher: NEJ International Pic-
tures; 1ST edition (2005) ISBN 978-964-06-4525-3 Kuhrt (2013), The Persian Empire: A Corpus of
ASIN: B000J5N46S
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[117] Jakob Jonson: Cyrus the Great in Icelandic epic: A liter-
ary study. Acta Iranica. 1974: 4950
Grayson (1975), Assyrian and Babylonian Chroni-
cles
[118] Nadon, Christopher (2001), Xenophons Prince: Republic
and Empire in the Cyropaedia, Berkeley: UC Press, ISBN Ancient sources
0-520-22404-3

[119] Cyrus and Jeerson: Did they speak the same language? The Nabonidus Chronicle of the Babylonian Chron-
http://www.payvand.com/news/13/apr/1111.html icles
[120] Cyrus Cylinder: How a Persian monarch in- The Verse account of Nabonidus
spired Jeerson, http://www.bbc.com/news/
world-us-canada-21747567 The Prayer of Nabonidus (one of the Dead Sea
[121] Boyd, Julian P. The Papers of Thomas Jeerson. Re-
scrolls)
trieved 18 August 2010. The Cyrus Cylinder
[122] H.F. Vos, Archaeology of Mesopotamia, p. 267 in The
Herodotus (The Histories)
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, ed. Georey
W. Bromiley. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995. ISBN Ctesias (Persica)
0-8028-3781-6
The biblical books of Isaiah, Daniel, Ezra and
[123] The Ancient Near East, Volume I: An Anthology of Texts
Nehemiah
and Pictures. Vol. 1. Ed. James B. Pritchard. Princeton
University Press, 1973. Flavius Josephus (Antiquities of the Jews)
[124] British Museum: Cyrus Cylinder. British Museum. Re-
Thucydides (History of the Peloponnesian War)
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[125] British Museum explanatory notes, Cyrus Cylinder": In


Plato (Laws (dialogue))
Iran, the cylinder has appeared on coins, banknotes and Xenophon (Cyropaedia)
stamps. Despite being a Babylonian document it has be-
come part of Irans cultural identity. Quintus Curtius Rufus (Library of World History)
[126] Elton L. Daniel, The History of Iran, p. 39. Greenwood Plutarchos (Plutarchs Lives)
Publishing Group, 2000. ISBN 0-313-30731-8 (restricted
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[127] John Curtis, Nigel Tallis, Beatrice Andre-Salvini. Forgot- Arrian (Anabasis Alexandri)
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(restricted online copy, p. 59, at Google Books) Polyaenus (Stratagems in War)
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Justin (Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Moorey, P.R.S. (1991). The Biblical Lands, VI.
Trogus) (English) New York: Peter Bedrick Books . ISBN 0-87226-
247-2
Polybius (The Histories (Polybius))
Olmstead, A. T. (1948). History of the Persian Em-
Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca historica) pire [Achaemenid Period]. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-62777-2
Athenaeus (Deipnosophistae)
Palou, Christine; Palou, Jean (1962). La Perse An-
Strabo (History) tique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Quran (Dhul-Qarnayn, Al-Kahf) Schmitt, Rdiger (1983). Achaemenid dynasty.


Encyclopaedia Iranica. vol. 3. London: Routledge.
Modern sources Schmitt, Rdiger; Shahbazi, A. Shapur; Dan-
damayev, Muhammad A.; Zournatzi, Antigoni
Ball, Charles James (1899). Light from the East: Or (1993). Cyrus. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. 6.
the witness of the monuments. London: Eyre and London: Routledge. ISBN 0-939214-78-4.
Spottiswoode. Schmitt, Rdiger (2010). CYRUS i. The Name.
Boardman, John, ed. (1994). The Cambridge An- Routledge & Kegan Paul
cient History IV: Persia, Greece, and the Western Tait, Wakeeld (1846). The Presbyterian review
Mediterranean, C. 525-479 B.C. Cambridge: Cam- and religious journal. Oxford University
bridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-22804-2.

Cannadine, David; Price, Simon (1987). Rituals of 4.1.9 Further reading


royalty : power and ceremonial in traditional soci-
eties (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge Uni- Amelie Kuhrt: Ancient Near Eastern History: The
versity Press. ISBN 0-521-33513-2. Case of Cyrus the Great of Persia. In: Hugh Godfrey
Maturin Williamson: Understanding the History of
Cardascia, G (1988). Babylon under Ancient Israel. Oxford University Press 2007, ISBN
Achaemenids. Encyclopaedia Iranica. Vol. 978-0-19-726401-0, pp. 107128
3. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-939214-78-4.
Bickermann, Elias J. (September 1946). The Edict
Chavalas, Mark W., ed. (2007). The ancient Near of Cyrus in Ezra 1. JournaI of Biblical Literature.
East : historical sources in translation. Malden, MA: 65 (3): 249275. doi:10.2307/3262665. JSTOR
Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-23580-9. 3262665.

Church, Alfred J. (1881). Stories of the East From Dougherty, Raymond Philip (1929). Nabonidus and
Herodotus. London: Seeley, Jackson & Halliday. Belshazzar: A Study of the Closing Events of the Neo-
Babylonian Empire. New Haven: Yale University
Dandamaev, M. A. (1989). A political history of the Press.
Achaemenid empire. Leiden: Brill. p. 373. ISBN
90-04-09172-6. Drews, Robert (October 1974). Sargon, Cyrus,
and Mesopotamian Folk History. Journal
Freeman, Charles (1999). The Greek Achievement: of Near Eastern Studies. 33 (4): 387393.
The Foundation of the Western World. New York: doi:10.1086/372377.
Viking. ISBN 0-7139-9224-7.
Harmatta, J. (1971). The Rise of the Old Persian
Fried, Lisbeth S. (2002). Cyrus the Mes- Empire: Cyrus the Great. Acta Antiquo. 19: 315.
siah? The Historical Background to Isaiah Lawrence, John M. (1985). Cyrus: Messiah,
45:1. Harvard Theological Review. 95 (4). Politician, and General. Near East Archaeological
doi:10.1017/S0017816002000251. Society Bulletin. n.s. 25: 528.
Frye, Richard N. (1962). The Heritage of Persia. Lawrence, John M. (1982). Neo-Assyrian and
London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 1-56859- Neo-Babylonian Attitudes Towards Foreigners and
008-3 Their Religion. Near East Archaeological Society
Bulletin. n.s. 19: 2740.
Gershevitch, Ilya (1985). The Cambridge History of
Iran: Vol. 2 ; The Median and Achaemenian periods. Mallowan, Max (1972). Cyrus the Great (558
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0- 529 BC)". Iran. 10: 117. doi:10.2307/4300460.
521-20091-1. JSTOR 4300460.
4.2. CAMBYSES II 117

Wiesehfer, Josef (1996). Ancient Persia : from 550 Spiegel also regards Kamboja/Kambujiya (Cambyses)
BC to 650 AD. Azizeh Azodi, trans. London: I. B. and Kuru/Kyros (Cyrus) as the names of two prehistoric
Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-999-0. legendary heroes of the Indo-Iranians who were later re-
vived naturally in the royal family of the Achaemenes and
Jovy, Alexander (2011). I am Cyrus: The story of further opines that the myths about Cyrus the Great were
the Real Prince of Persia. Reading: Garnet Publish- largely due to the confusion between the historical and
ing. ISBN 978-1-85964-281-8. the legendary heroes of prehistory.[22]
James Hope Moulton regards Spiegels suggestions as
4.1.10 External links the best of other etymological explanations of these two
names.[15] On the other hand, Arnold J. Toynbee dis-
Cyrus Cylinder Full Babylonian text of the Cyrus cusses the issue of two Persian names Kambujiya (Cam-
Cylinder as it was known in 2001; translation; brief byses) as well as Kurush (Cyrus) elaborately and regards
introduction them both as derived from two groups of Eurasian no-
mads, the Kambojas and the Kurus, mentioned in the
Xenophon, Cyropaedia: the education of Cyrus, Sanskrit texts and who, according to him, had entered
translated by Henry Graham Dakyns and revised by India and Iran in the Migration Period of the eighth and
F.M. Stawell, Project Gutenberg. seventh century BC.[23][24][25]
Cyrus the Great An article about Cyrus by Iran Toynbee concludes that the conquest of the world
Chamber Society by the elder branch of the House of Achaemenes
had been achieved by the valor of the Kuru and
360 Panoramic Image Tomb of Cyrus The Great Kamboja Nomad reinforcements; hence, as a com-
memoration, the elder branch of the House had
named all their great princes from Cyrus I onwards,
4.2 Cambyses II alternately, as Cyrus (Kurosh/Kuru) and Cambyses
(Kambujiya/Kamboja).[24][26][27]
Cambyses redirects here. For other uses, see Cambyses
(disambiguation).
4.2.2 Rise to power
Cambyses II (Old Persian: Kambjiya[4][5] When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon in 539
[6]
Aramaic: Kanbz ; Ancient Greek: BC, Cambyses was employed in leading religious
Kambss; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew , ceremonies.[28] In the cylinder which contains Cyrus
Kambisha[7] ) (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great (r. 559 proclamation to the Babylonians, Cambyses name is
530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire. joined to his fathers in the prayers to Marduk. On a
Cambyses grandfather was Cambyses I, king of Anshan. tablet dated from the rst year of Cyrus, Cambyses is
Following Cyrus the Great's conquest of the Near East called king of Babylon, although his authority seems to
and Central Asia, Cambyses II further expanded the em- have been ephemeral. Only in 530 BC, when Cyrus set
pire into Egypt during the Late Period by defeating the out on his last expedition into the East, did Cyrus asso-
Egyptian Pharaoh Psamtik III during the battle of Pelu- ciate Cambyses with the throne. Numerous Babylonian
sium in 525 BC. After the Egyptian campaign and the tablets of the time date from the accession and the rst
truce with Libya, Cambyses invaded the Kingdom of year of Cambyses, when Cyrus was king of the coun-
Kush (located in what is now the Sudan) but with little tries (i.e., of the world).
success.[8] After the death of his father in 530 BC, Cambyses be-
came sole king. The tablets dating from his reign in
Babylonia run to the end of his eighth year, in 522 BC.
4.2.1 Etymology Herodotus (3.66), who dates his reign from the death of
Cyrus, gives his reign a length of seven years ve months,
Though numerous scholars link Cambyses to the Sanskrit from 530 BC to the summer of 523 BC.[29]
tribal name Kamboja there are also few scholars who
suggest Elamite origin of the name.[9][10] Jean Przyluski
had sought to nd an Austric (Kol or Munda) anity for 4.2.3 The traditions of Cambyses
Kamboja.[11]
Friedrich von Spiegel,[12] Sten Konow,[13] Ernst The traditions about Cambyses, preserved by the Greek
Herzfeld,[14] James Hope Moulton,[15] Wojciech authors, come from two dierent sources. The rst,
Skalmowski [16][17] and some other scholars [18] think which forms the main part of the account of Herodotus
that Kambjiya is adjectival form of the Sanskrit tribal (3. 24; 1037), is of Egyptian origin. Here Cambyses
name Kamboja.[12][14][19][20][21] is made the legitimate son of Cyrus and a daughter of
118 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

Apries named Nitetis (Herod. 3.2, Dinon fr. II, Polyaen. a large supply of water to the stations. King Amasis had
viii. 29), whose death he avenges on the successor of the hoped that Egypt would be able to withstand the threat-
usurper Amasis. Nevertheless, (Herod. 3.1 and Ctesias ened Persian attack through his alliance with the Greeks.
a/i. Athen. Xiii. 560), the Persians corrected this tradi- However, this hope failed, as the Cypriot towns and the
tion: tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large eet,
Cambyses wants to marry a daughter of Amasis, who now preferred to join the Persians, and the commander
sends him a daughter of Apries instead of his own daugh- of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus, also went
ter, and by her Cambyses is induced to begin the war. His over to them. In the decisive battle at Pelusium the Egyp-
great crime is the killing of the Apis bull, for which he is tian army was defeated, and shortly afterwards Memphis
punished by madness, in which he commits many other was taken. The captive king Psammetichus was executed,
crimes, kills his brother and his sister, and at last loses his having attempted a rebellion. The Egyptian inscriptions
empire and dies from a wound in the thigh, at the same show that Cambyses ocially adopted the titles and the
place where he had wounded the sacred animal. Inter- dress of the Pharaohs.
mingled are some stories derived from the Greek mer-
cenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicar-
nassus, who betrayed Egypt to the Persians. In the Per- Attempts to conquer south and west of Egypt
sian tradition the crime of Cambyses is the murder of his
brother; he is further accused of drunkenness, in which From Egypt, Cambyses attempted the conquest of Kush,
he commits many crimes, and thus accelerates his ruin. located in the modern Sudan, but his army was not able
to cross the deserts and after heavy losses he was forced
These traditions are found in dierent passages of
to return. In an inscription from Napata (in the Berlin
Herodotus, and in a later form, but with some trustworthy
museum) the Nubian king Nastasen relates that he had
detail about his household, in the fragments of Ctesias.
defeated the troops of Kambasuten and taken all his
With the exception of Babylonian dated tablets and some
ships. This was once thought to refer to Cambyses II
Egyptian inscriptions, we possess no contemporary evi-
(H. Schafer, Die Aethiopische Knigsinschrift des Berliner
dence about the reign of Cambyses but the short account
Museums, 1901); however, Nastasen lived far later and
of Darius I in the Behistun Inscription. It is dicult
was likely referring to Khabash. Another expedition
to form a correct picture of Cambysess character from
against the Siwa Oasis also failed and the plan of attacking
these inscriptions.
Carthage was frustrated by the refusal of the Phoenicians
to operate against their kindred.
4.2.4 Darius account
The death of Cambyses
Conquest of Egypt
According to most ancient historians, in Persia the throne
Further information: Battle of Pelusium (525 BC)
was seized by a man posing as his brother Bardiya, most
It was quite natural that, after Cyrus had conquered the
likely a magus, or a Zoroastrian priest named Gaumata.
Some modern historians consider that this person really
was Bardiya, whereas the story that he was an impostor
was spread by Darius I after he became monarch.[30]
Whoever this new monarch was, Cambyses attempted to
march against him, but died shortly after under disputed
circumstances. According to Darius, who was Cambyses
lance-bearer at the time, he decided that success was im-
possible, and died by his own hand in 522 BC. Herodotus
and Ctesias ascribe his death to an accident. Ctesias
writes that Cambyses, despondent from the loss of fam-
ily members, stabbed himself in the thigh while working
with a piece of wood. He died eleven days later from
Cambyses II of Persia capturing pharaoh Psamtik III from Per- the wound. Herodotus story is that while mounting his
sian seal, VI century BCE horse, the tip of Cambyses scabbard broke and his sword
pierced his thigh - Herodotus mentions it is the same place
Middle East, Cambyses should undertake the conquest of where he stabbed a sacred cow in Egypt. He then died
Egypt, the only remaining independent state in that part of gangrene of the bone and mortication of the wound.
of the world. The war took place in 525 BC, when Amasis Some modern historians suspect that Cambyses was as-
II had just been succeeded by his son Psamtik III. Cam- sassinated, either by Darius as the rst step to usurping
byses had prepared for the march through the desert by the empire for himself, or by supporters of Bardiya.[31]
forming an alliance with Arabian chieftains, who brought According to Herodotus (3.64) he died in Ecbatana, i.e.
4.2. CAMBYSES II 119

Hamath; Josephus (Antiquites xi. 2. 2) names Damascus; Mining Authority, and the Ligabue Research Institute)
Ctesias, Babylon, which is highly unlikely.[32] that searched for the Lost Army of Cambyses. The six-
The location of Cambyses tomb is uncertain and has been month search was conducted along the Egyptian-Libyan
debated for a long time. Some archaeologists believe border in a remote 100-square-kilometer area of com-
that he was buried in Pasargadae, and identify the tower plex dunes south west of the uninhabited Bahrein Oasis,
known as Zendan-e Sulaiman as his tomb.[33] The pos- approximately 100 miles south east of Siwa (Amon) Oa-
sibly unnished stone platform known as Takht-e Rus- sis. The $250,000 expedition had at its disposal 20 Egyp-
tam near Naqsh-e Rustam has long been suggested by ar- tian geologists and labourers, a National Geographic pho-
tographer, two Harvard Film Studies documentary lm-
chaeologists as a location for Cambyses tomb, based on
the similarity of its design and dimensions with those of makers, three camels, an ultra-light aircraft, and ground-
penetrating radar. The expedition discovered approxi-
the tomb of Cyrus in Pasargadae. However, among the
Persepolis Fortication Tablets there is one in Elamite mately 500 tumuli (Zoroastrian-style graves) but no arte-
facts. Several tumuli contained bone fragments. Ther-
that refers to the "umar of Cambyses and Lady Upandu
in Narezza" (NN 2174). Henkelman has argued that u- moluminence later dated these fragments to 1,500 BC,
approximately 1000 years earlier than the Lost Army. A
mar should be translated as tomb.[34] Since Narezza
is typically identied with the modern area of Neyriz in recumbent winged sphinx carved in oolitic limestone was
Fars province, Henkelman argues that Cambyses tomb also discovered in a cave in the uninhabited Sitra Oasis
must have been located in that area. The Lady Upandu (between Bahariya and Siwa Oases), whose provenance
of the text is not known from any other source, but could appeared to be Persian. Chafetz was arrested when he
have been Cambyses queen. returned to Cairo in February 1984 for smuggling an
airplane into Egypt, even though he had the written per-
mission of the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining
Authority to bring the aircraft into the country. He was
4.2.5 The lost army of Cambyses interrogated for 24 hours. The charges were dropped af-
ter he promised to donate the ultra-light to the Egyptian
Government. The aircraft now sits in the Egyptian War
Museum in Cairo.[37][38]
In the summer of 2000, a Helwan University geologi-
cal team, prospecting for petroleum in Egypts Western
Desert, came across well-preserved fragments of textiles,
bits of metal resembling weapons, and human remains
that they believed to be traces of the Lost Army of Cam-
byses. The Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities an-
nounced that it would organize an expedition to investi-
gate the site, but released no further information.[39]
In November 2009, two Italian archaeologists, Angelo
and Alfredo Castiglioni, announced the discovery of hu-
man remains, tools and weapons which date to the era
The lost army of Cambyses II according to a 19th-century en- of the Persian army. These artefacts were located near
graving Siwa Oasis.[40] According to these two archaeologists this
is the rst archaeological evidence of the story reported
According to Herodotus 3.26, Cambyses sent an army to by Herodotus. While working in the area, the researchers
threaten the Oracle of Amun at the Siwa Oasis. The army noticed a half-buried pot and some human remains. Then
of 50,000 men was halfway across the desert when a mas- the brothers spotted something really intriguingwhat
sive sandstorm sprang up, burying them all.[35] Although could have been a natural shelter. It was a rock about
many Egyptologists regard the story as apocryphal, peo- 35 meters (115 feet) long, 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) high and
ple have searched for the remains of the soldiers for years. 3 meters (9.8 feet) deep. Such natural formations oc-
These have included Count Lszl Almsy (on whom the cur in the desert, but this large rock was the only one in
novel The English Patient was based), and modern ge- a large area.[41] However, these two Italian archaeolo-
ologist Tom Brown. In January 1933, Orde Wingate gists presented their discoveries in a documentary lm
searched unsuccessfully for the Lost Army of Camby- rather than a scientic journal. Doubts have been raised
ses in Egypts Western Desert, then known as the Libyan because the Castiglioni brothers also happen to be the
Desert.[36] two lm-makers who produced ve controversial African
shockumentaries in the 1970sincluding Addio ultimo
From September 1983 to February 1984, Gary S. uomo, Africa ama, and Africa dolce e selvaggialms in
Chafetz, an American journalist and author, led an ex- which audiences saw unedited footage of the severing of
pedition (sponsored by Harvard University, The National a penis, the skinning of a human corpse, the deowering
Geographic Society, the Egyptian Geological Survey and
120 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

of a girl with a stone phallus, and a group of hunters tear- [4] Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun
ing apart an elephants carcass.[42] The Secretary General Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-
of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 59. ISBN 964-
Hawass, has said in a press release that media reports of 8499-05-5.
this are unfounded and misleading and that The Cas- [5] Kent, Ronald Grubb (1950). Old Persian: Grammar, Text,
tiglioni brothers have not been granted permission by the Glossary. p. 178.
SCA to excavate in Egypt, so anything they claim to nd
is not to be believed.[43] [6] Aramaic Documents from Egypt: A Key-word-in-context
Concordance By Bezalel Porten, Jerome A. Lund, p. 365
In 2012, the same claims of the Castiglioni broth-
ers resurfaced, as an expedition of the University of [7] David Flusser, ed. The Josippon [Josephus Gorion-
Lecce.[44] ides], Edited with an Introduction Commentary and Notes,
Jerusalem: Mossad Bialik, 1981, p. 48, 10:34. Note that
In 2014, Olaf Kaper of the University of Leiden said he
in Rashi's commentary on Daniel 11:2, this name has been
found an inscription by Petubastis III, who later became corrupted to , Bambisha, due to the graphic simi-
Pharaoh, claiming that he ambushed and defeated the larity of the Hebrew letters kaph and bet.)
Persian army. He postulates that the sandstorm scenario
was a cover up by Cambyses successor Darius I.[45][46] [8] Herodotus (1737). The History of Herodotus. D. Midwin-
ter., pp. 246-250

4.2.6 In ction [9] Tavernier, Jan (2007). Iranica in the Achaemenid Period
(ca. 550-330 B.C.): Lexicon of Old Iranian Proper Names
and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts. Peeters
Cambyses II has appeared as a character in several
Publishers. pp. 1819. ISBN 978-90-429-1833-7.
works of ction. Thomas Preston's play King Camby-
ses, a lamentable Tragedy, mixed full of pleasant mirth [10] Curtis, Vesta Sarkhosh; Stewart, Sarah (2005). Birth of
was probably produced in the 1560s. A tragedy by the Persian Empire: The Idea of Iran. I.B.Tauris. p. 21.
Elkanah Settle, Cambyses, King of Persia, was produced ISBN 978-1-84511-062-8.
in 1667. Cambyses and his downfall are also central to
Egyptologist Georg Ebers' 1864 novel, Eine gyptische [11] Chatterji, Suniti Kumar (1972). Iranianism; Iranian cul-
ture and its impact on the world from Achaemenian times.
Knigstochter (An Egyptian Princess). Qambeez is a 1931
Asiatic Society. p. 7.
play about him by Ahmed Shawqi. In 1929, Robert E.
Howard (under the pseudonym Patrick Howard) pub- [12] (Eranische Alterthumskunde, voL ii. p. 294)
lished a poem, "Skulls and Dust", about Cambysess
death. He is a main character in Tamburas (1965; En- [13] Kharoshh inscriptions: with the exception of those of
glish translation 1967) by Karlheinz Grosser. Aoka, 1991, p 36, Sten Konow

Paul Sussman's novel The Lost Army of Cambyses (2002) [14] The Persian Empire, 1968, p 344-45, Ernst Herzfeld,
recounts the story of rival archaeological expeditions Gerold Walser.
searching for the remains of his army. An archaeologi-
[15] See: Early Zoroastrianism, 2005, p 45, James Hope
cal search for Cambyses army is an important plot device Moulton; See also: The Thinker: a review of world-wide
in Tess Gerritsen's novel The Keepsake (2008). The lost Christian thought: Volume 2. p 490
army also features in Christopher Golden's Hellboy novel
The Lost Army (2003), and Biggles Flies South (1938). [16] Studies in Iranian linguistics and philology, 2004, p 268,
Wojciech Skalmowski.
In Harry Turtledove's alternate history novel Ruled Bri-
tannia, Christopher Marlowe, who in our timeline died [17] Pakistan archaeology: Issue 26, 1991, p 121, Wojciech
in 1593, is still alive in 1597 and has written a play Skalmowski, Pakistan. Dept. of Archaeology & Muse-
about Cambyses. No details are given about the play, ex- ums.
cept that a Ghost, played by viewpoint character William
[18] See: tam: Volumes 7-10 , 1976, p 45, Akhila
Shakespeare, appears in it.
Bharatiya Sanskrit Parishad, Lucknow; India antiqua: a
volume of Oriental studies presented by his friends and
pupils to Jean Philippe Vogel, C.I.E., on the occasion of
4.2.7 References
the ftieth anniversary of his doctorate, 1947, p 184, In-
[1] http://www.persepolis.nu/ stituut Kern (Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden); Journal: Issue
44, 1973, p 119, K.R. Cama Oriental Institute
[2] See W. Henkelman, The umar of Cambyses and Hys-
taspes ", in Achaemenid history XIII: A Persian Perspec- [19] The Persian Empire: Studies in geography and ethnog-
tive, Essays in Memory of Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg raphy of the ancient Near East, 1968, p 344 sqq, Ernst
(Leiden 2003), pp. 101172. Herzfeld, Gerold Walser

[3] G. Posener, La premire domination perse en gypte, [20] Historia (Ammienus Marcellinus), 1977, p 90, Art
Cairo, 1936, pp. 30-36. 199/200, Edourard Galletier, Jacques Fountaine.
4.2. CAMBYSES II 121

[21] Orientalia Lovaniensia periodica: Issues 24-25, 1993, p [29] For the dates, see Parker & Dubberstein, Babylonian
74, W. Skalmowski, Institut orientaliste de Louvain Chronology.

[22] Die Altpersischen Keilinscheiften: Im Grundtexte Mit [30] Holland, Tom Persian Fire
Uebersetzukg, Grammatik Und Glossar, 1881, pp 85/ 86,
Friedrich von Spiegel; Cf: Kuhns Beitrge zur vergle- [31] Van De Mieroop, Marc (2003). A History of the Ancient
ichenden Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der Arischen, Near East: Ca. 3000323 BCE. Blackwell History of the
Celtischen, Und Slawischen Sprachen, Volume-1, 1858, p Ancient World series. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell.
36/37, Friedrich von Spiegel, (Ed) August Schleicher ISBN 978-0-631-22552-2.
[23] According to Toynbee: [32] See A. Lincke, Kambyses in der Sage, Litteratur und
Kunst des Mittelalters, in Aegyptiaca: Festschrift fr
[T]he occurrence of the two names (i.e
Georg Ebers (Leipzig 1897), pp. 4161; also History of
Kuru and Kamboja) in Transcaucasia as well
Persia.
as in and near Indiaand in Transcaucasia at
close quartersindicates that we have here
[33] Maryam Tabeshian (13 December 2006). Discovered
two more names of Eurasian Nomad peoples
Stone Slab Proved to be Gate of Cambysess Tomb.
who took part, and this in one anothers com-
Cultural Heritage News Agency. Retrieved 27 December
pany, in the Volkerwanderung of eighth and
2009.
seventh centuries BC; and, if, like so many
of their fellows, these Kurus and Kambojas
[34] See W. Henkelman, The umar of Cambyses and Hys-
split into two wings whose paths diverged so
taspes ", in Achaemenid history XIII: A Persian Perspec-
widely, it does not seem unwarrantable to
tive, Essays in Memory of Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg
guess that a central detachment of this pair of
(Leiden 2003), pp. 101172.
migrating peoples may have found its way to
Luristan and there have been taken into part-
[35] William Godwin (1876). Lives of the Necromancers.
nership by Kurus Is father Cispis.
p. 32.
A study of history: Volume 7, 1961, p 553 seq, Arnold
Joseph Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers, Royal Institute [36] Rooney, David (2000) [1994]. Wingate and the Chin-
of International Aairs). dits. London: Cassell Military Paperbacks. ISBN 0-304-
35452-X.
[24] Buddha Prakash (1964). Political and Social Movements
in Ancient Panjab. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 105106, [37] Chafetz, Gary (November 9, 2009). The Lost Army -
126. ISBN 9788120824584. Found at last?". THe World Post. New York, NY. Re-
trieved 2014-08-11.
[25] Modern Researches in Sanskrit: Dr. Veermani Pd. Upad-
hyaya Felicitation Volume. Patna: Indira Prakashan, [38] http://www.amazon.com/The-Lost-Army-ebook/dp/
1987, Misra, Satiya Deva (ed.). B0092PABYO/ref=sr_1_1_title_1_kin?s=books&ie=
UTF8&qid=1346782296&sr=1-1&keywords=the+lost+
[26] Observes A. J. Toynbee, army+%2B+chafetz
If the Lydian Monarchy had broken the
[39] http://www.archaeology.org/0009/newsbriefs/cambyses.
force of the Cimmerian horde in Anatolia and
html
had imposed its own rule as far eastwards as
the River Halys, the Lydians had owed their
[40] Lorenzi, Rossella (November 9, 2009). Vanished Per-
success to the valour of their mercenary Spar-
sian Army Said Found in Desert. MSNBC.com. New
diya Nomad cavalry; and as for the conquest
York, NY: NBC Universal. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
of the World by the elder branch of the House
of Achaemenes, as the alternating name of
[41] Lorenzi, Rossella (November 9, 2009). The Quest for
Kurus and Kambujiya born by their princes
Cambysess Last Army. discovery.com. Retrieved 2009-
from Cyrus-I onwards testify, their fortune
11-22.
had been made for them by the valour of the
Kuru and Kamboja Nomad reinforcements.
[42] http://www.pulpinternational.com/pulp/section/
See: Estudio de la historia: Volume 7, Part 2, 9161, pp Mondo%20Bizarro.html
577/78, Arnold Joseph Toynbee OR A study of history:
Volume 7, 1961, pp 553 seq, 580 seq, Arnold Joseph [43] Press Release Alleged Finds in Western Desert.
Toynbee, Edward DeLos Myers, Royal Institute of Inter- Archived from the original on 16 November 2009.
national Aairs).
[44] Vanquished Persian Army said found in Desert.
[27] Punjab history conference. Punjabi University, Patiala,
1996, Gursharan Singh (ed.) ISBN 81-7380-220-3 ISBN [45] Egyptologist Discovers What Really Happened to Miss-
81-7380-221-1. ing 50,000-Strong Persian Army.

[28] Nabonidus Chronicle [46] Leiden Egyptologist unravels ancient mystery.


122 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

4.2.8 External links Persia but before setting out for Egypt, killed Bardiya and
kept this secret. However, according to Herodotus who
Literature gives two detailed stories, Bardiya went to Egypt with
Cambyses and was there for some time but later Camby-
Ebers, Georg. An Egyptian Princess 1864. (En- ses sent him back to Susa out of envy, because Bardiya
glish translation of Eine gyptische Knigstochter) at alone could draw the bow brought from the Ethiopian
Project Gutenberg. king. Herodotus then states that Cambyses had a dream
in which he saw his brother sitting on the royal throne.
Meyer, Eduard (1911). "Cambyses". Encyclopdia
As a result of this dream Cambyses sent his trusted coun-
Britannica (11th ed.).
selor Prexaspes from Egypt to Susa with the order to kill
[13]
Preston, Thomas. Cambises 1667. Plaintext ed. Smerdis (i.e., Bardiya).
Gerard NeCastro (closer to original spelling) in his Bardiyas death was not known to the people, and so in
collection Medieval and Renaissance Drama. the spring of 522 BC, an usurper pretended to be him
and proclaimed himself king on a mountain near the Per-
sian town of Paishiyauvada. Darius claimed that the real
4.3 Bardiya name of the usurper was Gaumata, a Magian priest from
Media; this name has been preserved by Justin i. 9 (from
For other entities named Bardiya or Bardia, see Bardia Charon of Lampsacus?) but given to his brother Cam-
(disambiguation). byses (called Patizeithes by Herodotus) who is said to
have been the real promoter of the intrigue. Accord-
ing to Herodotus, the name of the Magian usurper was
[1]
Bardia or Bardiya (Old Persian: Bardiya;[2] Oropastes, but according to Ctesias it was Sphendadates.
Ancient Greek: Smerdis) (possibly died 522 BC)
was a son of Cyrus the Great and the younger brother of The despotic rule of Cambyses, coupled with his long ab-
Cambyses II, both Persian kings. There are sharply di- sence in Egypt, contributed to the fact that the whole
vided views on his life. He either ruled the Achaemenid people, Persians, Medes and all the other nations, ac-
Empire for a few months in 522 BC, or was imper- knowledged the usurper, [14]
especially as he granted a tax re-
[3]
sonated by a magus called Gaumta. (Old Persian: lief for three years. Cambyses began to march against
) [4][5] him, but died in the spring of 522 BC in disputed circum-
stances. Before his death he confessed to the murder of
his brother, and publicly explained the whole fraud, but
4.3.1 Name and sources this was not generally believed. Nobody had the courage
to oppose the new king, who ruled for seven months over
The princes name is listed variously in the historical the whole empire. The new king transferred the seat of
sources. His Persian name is Bardia or Bardiya. He government to Media. A number of Persian nobles dis-
is called Tonyoxarces (Sphendadates) by Ctesias,[6] he covered that their new ruler was an impostor, and a group
is called Tanooxares by Xenophon, who takes the name of seven nobles formed a plot to kill him. They surprised
from Ctesias,[7] and he is called Mardos by Justin[8] and him at a castle in Nisa, home of the Nisean horses, and
Aeschylus.[9] In the prevalent Greek form of his name, stabbed him to death in September 522 BC. One of the
Smerdis, the Persian name has been assimilated to the seven, Darius, was proclaimed as ruler shortly after.
Greek (Asiatic) name Smerdis or Smerdies, a name which
also occurs in the poems of Alcaeus and Anacreon.
In English-language histories he has traditionally been
called Smerdis, but recent histories tend to call him 4.3.3 Revisionist view
Bardiya.[10][11]
Some modern historians dispute the traditional story.
They believe that the person who ruled for a few months
4.3.2 Traditional view was the real son of Cyrus, and that the story of his imper-
sonation by a magus was an invention of Darius to justify
The traditional view is based on the majority of ancient his seizure of the throne.[15][16][17] According to M. Dan-
sources, e.g., Darius the Greats Behistun inscription, as damaev, this view must remain hypothetical.[13] There
well as Herodotus, Justin, and Ctesias, although there are are some implausibilities in the ocial story. For ex-
minor dierences between them. ample, the impostor resembled the real Bardiya so closely
Bardiya was the younger son of Cyrus the Great and a full that most of wives did not spot the dierence, except for
or half-brother of Cambyses II. According to Ctesias, on queen Phaidyme.[18][19] Darius often accused rebels and
his deathbed Cyrus appointed Bardiya as satrap (gover- opponents of being impostors (such as Nebuchadnezzar
nor) of some of the far-eastern provinces.[12] According III), and it could be straining credulity to say that they all
to Darius the Great, Cambyses II, after becoming king of were.[11][16][20]
4.3. BARDIYA 123

4.3.4 Aftermath [3] This article does not take sides on this dispute, but fur-
ther investigation of recent scholarship in both Iran and
In the next year, another person claiming to be Bardiya, the West would be useful.
[21]
named Vahyazdta (Old Persian: ) rose [4] Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun
against Darius in eastern Persia and met with great suc- Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-
cess, but he was nally defeated, taken prisoner and Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 60. ISBN 964-
executed[22] Perhaps he is identical with the King Mara- 8499-05-5.
phis the Maraphian, name of a Persian tribe, who oc-
curs as successor in the list of Persian kings given by [5] Kent, Roland G. Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon
(1950).
Aeschylus.[23]
The real Bardiya had only one daughter, called Parmys, [6] Ctesias Pers. 8
who eventually married Darius the Great. [7] Xenophon Cyrop. Vin. 7.ii
Some contracts dating from his reign have been found in
[8] Aeschylus Pers. 774
Babylonia, where his name is spelt Barziya or Bardiya.[24]
Darius says that Bardiya destroyed some temples, which [9] Justin i.9, Mergis
Darius later restored. Bardiya also took away the herds
and houses of the people, which Darius corrected once [10] Leick, Gewdolyn Whos Who in the Ancient Near East
he gained the throne.[25] [11] Van De Mieroop, Marc A History of the Ancient Near East
The death of the false Bardiya was annually celebrated
[12] Ctesias, Persica: Book 11, Fragment 9, taken from
in Persia by a feast called the killing of the magian, Photius excerpt http://www.livius.org/ct-cz/ctesias/
(Magiophani) at which no magian was allowed to show photius_persica.html#%A78 cf. Xenophon Cyrop. vin.
himself.[26][27] 7, if

[13] Dandamaev, M. (2001). Bardia. Encyclopaedia Iran-


ica. 3. New York.
4.3.5 Biblical references
[14] Herodotus iii.68
Bardiya is believed by some to be the
Artaxerxes[28][29][30][31] referred to in Ezra 4:7. [15] Olmstead, A.T. History of the Persian Empire
A letter was written to him concerning the rebuilding [16] Holland, Tom Persian Fire
of Jerusalem. Concerned about the possibility of a
rebellion, he halted work on the reconstruction of the [17] Axworthy, Michael Iran: Empire of the Mind
temple until work resumed at the decree of Darius I
[18] http://www.persepolis.nu/queens.htm#phaidyme
(Ezra 4:24, Ezra 6:8-12).
[19] Bourke, Dr. Stephen (chief consultant) The Middle East:
Cradle of Civilisation Revealed p. 225, ISBN 978-0-
4.3.6 Bardiya in ction 500-25147-8

[20] Behistun Inscription 4.1 (52)


This episode is dealt with by Gore Vidal in his novel
Creation. He takes the view that the person who ruled [21] Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun
for a few months was the real Bardiya. Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-
Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 115. ISBN 964-
The imposter magician Smerdis is mentioned in the 8499-05-5.
short story by Jorge Luis Borges, Tln, Uqbar, Orbis Ter-
tius. He is the only historical character that the protago- [22] Behistun Inscription ~ 40 if.
nist is able to recognize when discovering the article on [23] Aeschylus Pers. 778
the ctitious nation of Uqbar, and it is stated that his name
has been invoked mainly as a metaphor. [24] For the chronology, see Parker & Dubberstein, Babylo-
nian Chronology.

[25] Behistun Inscription i.14


4.3.7 References
[26] Herodotus ~ 79
[1] Akbarzadeh, D.; A. Yahyanezhad (2006). The Behistun
[27] Ctesias Pers. 15
Inscriptions (Old Persian Texts) (in Persian). Khaneye-
Farhikhtagan-e Honarhaye Sonati. p. 59. ISBN 964- [28] Barnes, Albert. (1834). Notes on the Bible. p. Commen-
8499-05-5. tary on Ezra 4:7.

[2] Kent, Roland G. Old Persian: Grammar, Texts, Lexicon [29] Clarke, Adam (18101826). Clarkes Commentary on the
(1950). Bible. p. Commentary on Ezra 4:7.
124 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

[30] Stackhouse, Thomas; George Gleig (1817). A History of the largest fraction of the worlds population of any em-
the Holy Bible Corrected and Improved. p. 529. pire in history. Based on historical demographic esti-
mates, Darius I ruled over approximately 50 million peo-
[31] Nichol, Francis D. Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commen-
ple, or at least 44% of the worlds population.[7]
tary. p. Notes on Daniel 6:2728.]

This article incorporates text from a publication now 4.4.1 Etymology


in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911).
"article name needed ". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th Main article: Darius (given name)
ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Drus and Drus are the Latin forms of the
Greek Dareos (), itself from Old Persian
4.4 Darius the Great Drayava(h)u ( ; in Aramaic dryhw ), which
is a shortened form of Drayava(h)u ( ). The
This article is about the third king of the Achmaemenid longer form is also seen to have been reected in the
Empire known as Darius I or Darius the Great. For the Elamite Da-ri-(y)a-ma-u-i, Babylonian Da-(a-)ri-ia-(a-
Darius mentioned in the Book of Daniel, see Darius the )mu, Aramaic drywhw, and possibly the longer Greek
Mede. form Dareiaos (). The name is a nominative
form meaning he who holds rm the good(ness)", which
can be seen by the rst part draya, meaning holder,
Darius I (Old Persian: Drayava(h)u, New Persian: and the adverb vau, meaning goodness.[8]
Driush ; c. 550486 BCE) was the third king
of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Also called Darius
the Great, he ruled the empire at its peak, when it in- 4.4.2 Primary sources
cluded much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of the
Balkans (Thrace-Macedonia and Paeonia), most of the See also: Behistun Inscription and Herodotus
Black Sea coastal regions, parts of the North Caucasus,
Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east, and
At some time between his coronation and his death,
portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount
(Mudrya),[3] eastern Libya and coastal Sudan.[4][5]
Behistun, which was written in Elamite, Old Persian
Darius ascended the throne by overthrowing Gaumata, and Babylonian. The inscription begins with a brief
the alleged magus usurper of Bardiya with the assistance autobiography including his ancestry and lineage. To aid
of six other Persian noble families; Darius was crowned the presentation of his ancestry, Darius wrote down the
the following morning. The new king met with rebellions sequence of events that occurred after the death of Cyrus
throughout his kingdom and quelled them each time. A the Great.[9][10] Darius mentions several times that he
major event in Dariuss life was his expedition to punish is the rightful king by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the
Athens and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt, and Zoroastrian god. In addition, further texts and monu-
subjugate Greece. Although ultimately ending in failure ments from Persepolis have been found, as well as a clay
at the Battle of Marathon, Darius succeeded in the re- tablet containing a Old Persian cuneiform of Darius from
subjugation of Thrace, expansion of the empire through Gherla, Romania (Harmatta) and a letter from Darius to
the conquest of Macedon, the Cyclades, and the island of Gadates, preserved in a Greek text of the Roman pe-
Naxos, and the sacking of the city of Eretria. riod.[11][12][13][14]
Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histo-
and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uni- ries, provided an account of many Persian kings and the
form monetary system, along with making Aramaic the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote extensively on Darius,
ocial language of the empire. He also put the empire spanning half of Book 3 along with Books 4, 5 and 6. It
in better standing by building roads and introducing stan- begins with the removal of the alleged usurper Gaumata
dard weights and measures. Through these changes the and continues to the end of Dariuss reign.[11]
empire was centralized and unied.[6] Darius also worked In the book of Daniel the kings name changes from
on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing 'king of the Chaldeans = Babylonians to 'king of the Per-
on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon and Egypt. He sians which also occurred between the kingships of Dar-
had the cli-face Behistun Inscription carved to record ius I and Xerxes.[15] Additionally the 120 satraps men-
his conquests, an important testimony of the Old Persian tioned in Daniel 6:1 can be translated as 20 tribute owing
language. satraps.[16]
Darius is mentioned in the Biblical books of Haggai, The Book of Ezra (chapter 6, verses 1 to 11) describes
Zechariah, and EzraNehemiah. the decree to continue reconstruction of the Temple in
The Achaemenid Empire during Darius reign controlled Jerusalem, specifying nancial support and supplies for
4.4. DARIUS THE GREAT 125

the temple services. This decree is dated approximately as king in case he should not return from battle.[22] How-
519 BCE.[17] Between Cyrus and Darius, an exchange of ever, once Cyrus had crossed the Aras River, he had a
letters with King Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes is described vision in which Darius had wings atop his shoulders and
(chapter 4, verse 7), the grandson of Darius I, during stood upon the connes of Europe and Asia (the known
whose reign Ezra and Nehemiah came to Jerusalem. The world). When Cyrus awoke from the dream, he inferred
generous funding of the temple gave Darius and his suc- it as a great danger to the future security of the empire, as
cessors the support of the Jewish priesthood.[18][19] The it meant that Darius would one day rule the whole world.
Elephantine papyri however mention the high priest Jo- However, his son Cambyses was the heir to the throne,
hanan of Ezra 10:6 as a contemporary of Darius II. not Darius, causing Cyrus to wonder if Darius was form-
Darius is mentioned in the near-contemporary biblical ing treasonable and ambitious designs. This led Cyrus to
order Hystaspes to go back to Persis and watch over his
books of Haggai and Zechariah (two of the Twelve Mi- [23]
nor Prophets), whose account is also reected in the later son strictly, until Cyrus himself returned. Darius did
not seem to have any treasonous thoughts as Cambyses II
books of EzraNehemiah.
ascended the throne peacefully; and, through promotion,
Darius was eventually elevated to be Cambysess personal
4.4.3 Early life lancer.

4.4.4 Accession

See also: Gaumata (False Smerdis)

There are dierent accounts of the rise of Darius to the


throne from both Darius himself and Greek historians.
The oldest records report a convoluted sequence of events
in which Cambyses II lost his mind, murdered his brother
Bardiya, and was killed by an infected leg wound. After
this, Darius and a group of six nobles traveled to Sikayau-
vati to kill an usurper, Gaumata, who had taken the throne
by pretending to be Bardiya during the true kings ab-
sence. Many modern historians believe that Gaumata, in
fact, was the true heir Bardiya, with the historical account
being altered by Darius to make the coup d'etat appear
more legitimate.[24]
Dariuss account, written at the Behistun Inscription,
states that Cambyses II killed his own brother Bardiya,
but that this murder was not known among the Iranian
people. A would-be usurper named Gaumata came and
lied to the people, stating he was Bardiya.[25] The Irani-
ans had grown rebellious against Cambysess rule and on
11 March 522 BCE a revolt against Cambyses broke out
Darius as Pharaoh of Egypt at the Temple of Hibis in his absence. On 1 July, the Iranian people chose to
be under the leadership of Gaumata, as Bardiya. No
Darius was the eldest of ve sons to Hystaspes and Rho- member of the Achaemenid family would rise against
dugune in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading gure of Gaumata for the safety of their own life. Darius, who
authority in Persia, which was the homeland of the Per- had served Cambyses as his lance-bearer until the de-
sians. Dariuss inscription states that his father was satrap posed rulers death, prayed for aid and in September
of Bactria in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus, Hys- 522 BCE, along with Otanes, Intraphrenes, Gobryas,
taspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians Hydarnes, Megabyzus and Aspathines, killed Gaumata in
state that this is an error. Also according to Herodotus the fortress of Sikayauvati.[25]
(III.139), Darius, prior to seizing power and of no con-Herodotus provides a dubious account of Dariuss ascen-
sequence at the time, had served as a spearman (do- sion: Several days after Gaumata had been assassinated,
ryphoros) in the Egyptian campaign (528525 BCE) of Darius and the other six nobles discussed the fate of the
Cambyses II, then the Persian Great King.[20] Hystaspes empire. At rst, the seven discussed the form of gov-
was an ocer in Cyrus's army and a noble of his court.[21]
ernment; a democratic republic was strongly pushed by
Before Cyrus and his army crossed the Aras River to bat- Otanes, an oligarchy was pushed by Megabyzus, while
tle with the Armenians, he installed his son Cambyses II Darius pushed for a monarchy. After stating that a repub-
126 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

lic would lead to corruption and internal ghting, while a


monarchy would be led with a single-mindedness not pos-
sible in other governments, Darius was able to convince
the other nobles.
To decide who would become the monarch, six of them
decided on a test, with Otanes abstaining, as he had no
interest in being king. They were to gather outside the
palace, mounted on their horses at sunrise, and the man
whose horse neighed rst in recognition of the rising sun
would become king. According to Herodotus, Darius
had a slave, Oebares, who rubbed his hand over the gen-
itals of a mare that Darius favored. When the six gath-
ered, Oebares placed his hands beside the nostrils of Dar-
iuss horse, who became excited at the scent and neighed.
This was followed by lightning and thunder, leading the
others to dismount and kneel before Darius in recogni-
tion of his apparent divine providence.[26] In this account,
Darius himself favored that he achieved the throne not
through fraud, but cunning, even erecting a statue of him-
self mounted on his neighing horse with the inscription:
Darius, son of Hystaspes, obtained the sovereignty of
Persia by the sagacity of his horse and the ingenious con-
trivance of Oebares, his groom.[27]
According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cam-
byses II had left Patizeithes in charge of the kingdom
when he headed for Egypt. He later sent Prexaspes to
murder Bardiya. After the killing, Patizeithes put his
Letter from Darius I to Gadatas, satrap in Ionia, about his man-
brother Gaumata, a Magian who resembled Bardiya, on
agement of a paradise (royal garden). Greek copy made during
the throne and declared him the Great King. Otanes dis-
the Roman Era, found near Magnesia ad Mandrum.
covered that Gaumata was an impostor, and along with six
other Iranian nobles including Darius, created a plan to
oust the pseudo-Bardiya. After killing the impostor along
with his brother Patizeithes and other Magians, Darius of eight lying kings through the quelling of revolutions.
was crowned king the following morning.[11] Darius left a detailed account of these revolutions in the
Behistun Inscription.
4.4.5 Early reign One of the signicant events of Dariuss early reign was
the slaying of Intaphernes, one of the seven noblemen
Following his coronation at Pasargadae, Darius moved to who had deposed the previous ruler and installed Dar-
Ecbatana. He soon learned that support for Bardiya was ius as the new monarch. The seven had made an agree-
strong, and revolts in Elam and Babylonia had broken out. ment that they could all visit the new king whenever they
Darius ended the Elamite revolt when the revolutionary pleased, except when he was with his wife. One evening,
leader Aschina was captured and executed in Susa. After Intaphernes went to the palace to meet Darius, but was
three months the revolt in Babylonia had ended. While in stopped by two ocers who stated that Darius had re-
Babylonia, Darius learned a revolution had broken out in tired for the night. Becoming enraged and insulted, In-
Bactria, a satrapy which had always been in favour of Dar- taphernes drew his sword and cut o the ears and noses
ius, and had initially volunteered an army of soldiers to of the two ocers. While leaving the palace, he took the
quell revolts. Following this, revolts broke out in Persis, bridle from his horse, and tied the two ocers together.
the homeland of the Persians and Darius and then in Elam The ocers went to the king and showed him what In-
and Babylonia, followed by in Media, Parthia, Assyria, taphernes had done to them. Darius began to fear for
and Egypt. By 522 BCE, there were revolts against Dar- his own safety; he thought that all seven noblemen had
ius in most parts of the Achaemenid Empire leaving the banded together to rebel against him and that the attack
empire in turmoil. Even though Darius did not seem to against his ocers was the rst sign of revolt. He sent a
have the support of the populace, Darius had a loyal army, messenger to each of the noblemen, asking them if they
led by close condants and nobles (including the six no- approved of Intapherness actions. They denied and dis-
bles who had helped him remove Gaumata). With their avowed any connection with Intapherness actions, stating
support, Darius was able to suppress and quell all revolts that they stood by their decision to appoint Darius as King
within a year. In Dariuss words, he had killed a total of Kings.
4.4. DARIUS THE GREAT 127

Taking precautions against further resistance, Darius sent the Indus Valley from Gandhara to modern Karachi and
soldiers to seize Intaphernes, along with his son, fam- appointed the Greek Scylax of Caryanda to explore the
ily members, relatives and any friends who were capable Indian Ocean from the mouth of the Indus to Suez. Dar-
of arming themselves. Darius believed that Intaphernes ius then marched through the Bolan Pass and returned
was planning a rebellion, but when he was brought to the through Arachosia and Drangiana back to Persia.
court, there was no proof of any such plan. Nonetheless,
Darius killed Intapherness entire family, excluding his
wifes brother and son. She was asked to choose between Babylonian revolt
her brother and son. She chose her brother to live. Her
reasoning for doing so was that she could have another
husband and another son, but she would always have but
one brother. Darius was impressed by her response and
spared both her brothers and her sons life.[28]

4.4.6 Military campaigns


After securing his authority over the entire empire, Dar-
ius embarked on a campaign to Egypt where he defeated
the armies of the Pharaoh and secured the lands that
Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large por-
tion of Egypt into the Achaemenid Empire.[29]
Through another series of campaigns, Darius I would
eventually reign over the territorial apex of the empire,
when it stretched from parts of the Balkans (Thrace-
Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia) in the west, to the Indus
Valley in the east.

Invasion of Indus Valley

Archers frieze from Darius palace at Susa. Detail of the begin-


ning of the frieze, left

After Bardiya was murdered, widespread revolts oc-


curred throughout the empire, especially on the eastern
side. Darius asserted his position as king by force, taking
his armies throughout the empire, suppressing each revolt
individually. The most notable of all these revolts was the
Babylonian revolt which was led by Nebuchadnezzar III.
This revolt occurred when Otanes withdrew much of the
Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire army from Babylon to aid Darius in suppressing other re-
volts. Darius felt that the Babylonian people had taken
Main article: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus Valley advantage of him and deceived him, which resulted in
Darius gathering a large army and marching to Babylon.
In 516 BCE, Darius embarked on a campaign to Central At Babylon, Darius was met with closed gates and a series
Asia, Aria and Bactria and then marched into Afghanistan of defences to keep him and his armies out.[31] Darius en-
to Taxila in modern-day Pakistan. Darius spent the win- countered mockery and taunting from the rebels, includ-
ter of 516515 BCE in Gandhara, preparing to conquer ing the famous saying Oh yes, you will capture our city,
the Indus Valley. Darius conquered the lands surround- when mules shall have foals. For a year and a half, Dar-
ing the Indus River in 515 BCE.[30] Darius I controlled ius and his armies were unable to retake the city, though
128 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

he attempted many tricks and strategieseven copying Darius eventually ordered a halt at the banks of Oarus,
that which Cyrus the Great had employed when he cap- where he built eight great forts, some eight miles distant
tured Babylon. However, the situation changed in Dar- from each other, no doubt as a frontier defence.[38] In
iuss favour when, according to the story, a mule owned his Histories, Herodotus states that the ruins of the forts
by Zopyrus, a high-ranking soldier, foaled. Following were still standing in his day.[40] After chasing the Scythi-
this, a plan was hatched for Zopyrus to pretend to be a ans for a month, Dariuss army was suering losses due
deserter, enter the Babylonian camp, and gain the trust to fatigue, privation and sickness. Concerned about los-
of the Babylonians. The plan was successful and Dar- ing more of his troops, Darius halted the march at the
iuss army eventually surrounded the city and overcame banks of the Volga River and headed towards Thrace.[41]
the rebels.[32] He had conquered enough Scythian territory to force the
Scythians to respect the Persian forces.[42][43]
During this revolt, Scythian nomads took advantage of
the disorder and chaos and invaded Persia. Darius rst
nished defeating the rebels in Elam, Assyria, and Baby-
Persian invasion of Greece
lon and then attacked the Scythian invaders. He pursued
the invaders, who led him to a marsh; there he found no
Main article: First Persian invasion of Greece
known enemies but an enigmatic Scythian tribe.[33]
See also: Ionian Revolt
Dariuss European expedition was a major event in his
European Scythian campaign Odryses
Byzantium Chalcedon
Perinthus Astakos

Main article: European Scythian campaign of Darius I Abdera


Maronea Doriskos
Aenus
Proconnesus
Cyzicus

Eion Thasos Lampsacus


Sestos
Samothrace
Epidamnus Pella Therma Stagira Abydos
Imbros
Xerxes Ilium
Methoni Olynthus Canal
Apollonia Torone Lemnos Antandrus PERSIAN
The Scythians were a group of north Iranian nomadic Aegae Pydna
Potidaea Assus

Lesbos
Adramyttium

Pergamon
EMPIRE

tribes, speaking an Iranian language (Scythian languages) Dodona


Larissa
Kasthanaia

Pherae Skiathos
Mytilene

Phocaea
Pitane

Smyrna Sardis
480 Skyros 498

who had invaded Media, killed Cyrus in battle, revolted Korkyra


Kassope Ambracia
Pharsalus
Thermopylae
480
Cape Artemision

Chalcis
Chios
Clazomenae

Colophon Tralles
Anactorium Ephesus

against Darius and threatened to disrupt trade between Leucas

Calydon
Delphi
Naupactus
Thebes

Plataea 479
490
Eretria
Marathon Karystos
Andros Ikaros
Samos

Lade
Mycale
479
Miletus
Mylasa
Athens

Central Asia and the shores of the Black Sea as they


ACHA Megara Tinos 494
Patras EA Mykonos
Cephallenia 480
Phlius Corinth Salamis Keos
Syros Halicarnassus Physcus
Kythnos Delos
Kos Cnidus

lived between the Danube River, River Don and the Black
Zakynthos Elis Argos Naxos
Serifos Paros
Amorgos
The Greek World during Olympia Sifnos
Tegea
the Persian Wars (500479 BC)
Sparta Lindos

Sea.[11][34]
Ios Astipalea
Messene
Ionian revolt Rhodes
Melos Anafe
Main battle Methoni Thera
Greek opponents of Persia
Greek neutral states Karpathos

Darius crossed the Black Sea at the Bosphorus Straits us-


Persian empire Cythera
Persian vassal states
Ionian rebels (498 BC)
Mardonius (492 BC)

ing a bridge of boats. Darius conquered large portions of Artaphernes/Datis (490 BC)
Xerxes/Mardonius (480 BC)
0 50 100 km

Eastern Europe, even crossing the Danube to wage war on


the Scythians. Darius invaded European Scythia in 513
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece
BC,[35] where the Scythians evaded Dariuss army, using
feints and retreating eastwards while laying waste to the
countryside, by blocking wells, intercepting convoys, de- reign, which began with the invasion of Thrace. Dar-
stroying pastures and continuous skirmishes against Dar- ius also conquered many cities of the northern Aegean,
iuss army.[36] Seeking to ght with the Scythians, Dar- Paeonia, while Macedonia submitted voluntarily, af-
iuss army chased the Scythian army deep into Scythian ter the demand of earth and water, becoming a vassal
lands, where there were no cities to conquer and no sup- kingdom.[44] He then left Megabyzus to conquer Thrace,
plies to forage. In frustration Darius sent a letter to the returning to Sardis to spend the winter. The Greeks liv-
Scythian ruler Idanthyrsus to ght or surrender. The ruler ing in Asia Minor and some of the Greek islands had
replied that he would not stand and ght with Darius un- submitted to Persian rule already by 510 BCE. Nonethe-
til they found the graves of their fathers and tried to de- less, there were certain Greeks who were pro-Persian,
stroy them. Until then, they would continue their strategy although these were largely based in Athens. To im-
as they had no cities or cultivated lands to lose.[37] De- prove Greek-Persian relations, Darius opened his court
spite the evading tactics of the Scythians, Darius cam- and treasuries to those Greeks who wanted to serve him.
paign was so far relatively successful.[38] As presented by These Greeks served as soldiers, artisans, statesmen and
Herodotus, the tactics used by the Scythians resulted in mariners for Darius. However, the increasing concerns
the loss of their best lands and of damage to their loyal amongst the Greeks over the strength of Dariuss king-
allies.[38] This gave Darius the initiative.[39] As he moved dom along with the constant interference by the Greeks
eastwards in the cultivated lands of the Scythians in East- in Ionia and Lydia were stepping stones towards the con-
ern Europe proper, he remained resupplied by his eet ict that was yet to come between Persia and certain of
and lived to an extent o the land.[38] While moving east- the leading Greek city states.
wards in the European Scythian lands, he captured the When Aristagoras organized the Ionian Revolt, Eretria
large fortied city of the Budini, one of the allies of the and Athens supported him by sending ships and troops to
Scythians, and burnt it.[38] Ionia and by burning Sardis. Persian military and naval
4.4. DARIUS THE GREAT 129

operations to quell the revolt ended in the Persian reoc-


cupation of Ionian and Greek islands, as well as the re-
subjugation of Thrace and the conquering of Macedonia
in 492 BC under Mardonius.[45] Macedon had been a vas-
sal kingdom of the Persians since the late 6th century BC,
but retained autonomy. Mardonius 492 campaign made
it a fully subordinate part of the Persian kingdom.[44]
These military actions, coming as a direct response to the
revolt in Ionia, were the beginning of the First Persian
invasion of (mainland) Greece. At the same time, anti-
Persian parties gained more power in Athens, and pro-
Persian aristocrats were exiled from Athens and Sparta.
Darius responded by sending troops led by his son-in-law
across the Hellespont. However, a violent storm and ha-
rassment by the Thracians forced the troops to return to
Persia. Seeking revenge on Athens and Eretria, Darius
assembled another army of 20,000 men under his Admi-
ral, Datis, and his nephew Artaphernes, who met success
when they captured Eretria and advanced to Marathon. In
490 BCE, at the Battle of Marathon, the Persian army was
defeated by a heavily armed Athenian army, with 9,000
men who were supported by 600 Plataeans and 10,000
lightly armed soldiers led by Miltiades.
The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the rst Persian
invasion of Greece. Darius began preparations for a sec-
ond force which he would command, instead of his gen-
erals; however, before the preparations were complete,
Darius died, thus leaving the task to his son Xerxes.[42]
Achamenid Family Tree

4.4.7 Family 4.4.8 Death

Darius was the son of Hystaspes and the grandson of


Arsames. Both men belonged to the Achaemenid tribe
and were still alive when Darius ascended the throne.
Darius justies his ascension to the throne with his lin-
eage. He claimed he could trace his ancestors back
to Achaemenes, even though he was only distantly re-
lated. With this in mind, Darius married Atossa, daugh-
ter of Cyrus, with whom he had four sons: Xerxes,
Achaemenes, Masistes and Hystaspes. He also mar-
ried Artystone, another daughter of Cyrus, with whom
he had two sons, Arsames and Gobryas. Darius mar-
ried Parmys, the daughter of Bardiya, with whom he
had a son, Ariomardus. Furthermore, Darius married
Phratagune, with whom he had two sons, Abrokomas
and Hyperantes. He also married another woman of the Tomb of Darius the Great, located next to other Achaemenian
nobility, Phaidyme, the daughter of Otanes. It is un- kings at Naqsh-e Rustam
known if he had any children with her. Before these royal
marriages, Darius had married an unknown daughter of After becoming aware of the Persian defeat at the Battle
his good friend and lance carrier Gobryas from an early of Marathon, Darius began planning another expedition
marriage, with whom he had three sons, Artobazanes, against the Greek-city states; this time, he, not Datis,
Ariabignes and Arsamenes. Any daughters he had with would command the imperial armies. Darius had spent
her are not known. Although Artobazanes was Dariuss three years preparing men and ships for war when a re-
rst-born, Xerxes became heir and the next king through volt broke out in Egypt. This revolt in Egypt worsened his
the inuence of Atossa; she had great authority in the failing health and prevented the possibility of his leading
kingdom as Darius loved her the most of all his wives. another army. Soon after, Darius died. In October 486
130 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

BCE, the body of Darius was embalmed and entombed xed tributes that the satrapies were required to pay. A
in the rock-cut sepulchre that had been prepared for him complete list is preserved in the catalogue of Herodotus,
several years earlier. beginning with Ionia and listing the other satrapies from
Xerxes, the eldest son of Darius and Atossa, succeeded west to east excluding Persis which was the land of the
to the throne as Xerxes I; however, prior to Xerxess Persians and the only province which was not a conquered
accession, he contested the succession with his elder land. Tributes were paid in both silver and gold talents.
half-brother Artobarzanes, Dariuss eldest son who was Tributes in silver from each satrap were measured with
born to his commoner rst wife before Darius rose to the Babylonian talent. Those paid in gold were measured
power.[46] with the Euboic talent. The total tribute from the satraps
[47]
In 1923 German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld made casts came to an amount less than 15,000 silver talents.
of the cuneiform inscriptions on Dariuss tomb. They are The majority of the satraps were of Persian origin and
currently housed in the archives of the Freer Gallery of were members of the royal house or the six great noble
Art and Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Smithsonian Insti- families. These satraps were personally picked by Dar-
tution, Washington, DC. ius to monitor these provinces. Each of these provinces
were divided into sub-provinces with their own gover-
nors which were chosen either by the royal court or by
4.4.9 Government the satrap. To assess tributes, a commission evaluated
the expenses and revenues of each satrap. To ensure that
Organization one person did not gain too much power, each satrap
had a secretary who observed the aairs of the state and
communicated with Darius, a treasurer who safeguarded
provincial revenues and a garrison commander who was
responsible for the troops. Additionally, royal inspectors
who were the eyes and ears of Darius completed further
checks on each satrap.[48]
The imperial administration was coordinated by the
chancery with headquarters at Persepolis, Susa, and
Babylon with Bactria, Ecbatana, Sardis, Dascylium and
Memphis having branches. Darius chose Aramaic as a
common language, which soon spread throughout the em-
pire. However, Darius gathered a group of scholars to
create a separate language system only used for Persis
and the Persians, which was called Aryan script which
was only used for ocial inscriptions.[48]

Economy

Darius introduced a new universal currency, the daric,


sometime before 500 BCE. Darius used the coinage sys-
tem as a transnational currency to regulate trade and com-
merce throughout his empire. The daric was also recog-
nized beyond the borders of the empire, in places such
as Celtic Central Europe and Eastern Europe. There
were two types of darics, a gold daric and a silver daric.
Only the king could mint gold darics. Important gener-
als and satraps minted silver darics, the latter usually to
recruit Greek mercenaries in Anatolia. The daric was a
major boost to international trade. Trade goods such as
textiles, carpets, tools and metal objects began to travel
Darius I, imagined by a Greek painter, 4th century BCE throughout Asia, Europe and Africa. To further improve
trade, Darius built the Royal Road, a postal system and
Early in his reign, Darius wanted to reorganize the struc- Phoenician-based commercial shipping.
ture of the empire and reform the system of taxation he The daric also improved government revenues as the in-
inherited from Cyrus and Cambyses. To do this, Darius troduction of the daric made it easier to collect new
created twenty provinces called satrapies (or archi) which taxes on land, livestock and marketplaces. This led to
were each assigned to a satrap (archon) and specied the registration of land which was measured and then
4.4. DARIUS THE GREAT 131

liever, perhaps even convinced that he had a divine right


to rule over the world.[54]
In the lands that were conquered by his empire, Darius
followed the same Achaemenid tolerance that Cyrus had
shown and later Achaemenid kings would show. He sup-
ported faiths and religions that were alien as long as the
adherents were submissive and peaceable, sometimes giv-
ing them grants from his treasury for their purposes.[55]
He had funded the restoration of the Israelite temple
which had originally been decreed by Cyrus, was support-
ive towards Greek cults which can be seen in his letter to
Gadatas, and supported Elamite priests. He had also ob-
served Egyptian religious rites related to kingship and had
built the temple for the Egyptian god, Amun.[56]

Construction

Gold darics such as this one (with a purity of 95.83%) were only
issued by the king himself. (c. 490 BCE).

taxed. The increased government revenues helped main-


tain and improve existing infrastructure and helped fund
irrigation projects in dry lands. This new tax system
also led to the formation of state banking and the cre-
ation of banking rms. One of the most famous banking
rms was Murashu Sons, based in the Babylonian city of
Nippur.[49] These banking rms provided loans and credit
to clients.[50]
The daric was called drayaka within the empire and was
most likely named after Darius. In an eort to further
improve trade, Darius built canals, underground water-
ways and a powerful navy. He further improved and ex- The ruins of Persepolis. In the foreground is the treasure house,
right behind the Palace of Darius.
panded the network of roads and way stations throughout
the empire, so that there was a system of travel authoriza-
tion for the King, satraps and other high ocials, which During Dariuss Greek expedition, he had begun con-
struction projects in Susa, Egypt and Persepolis. He had
entitled the traveller to draw provisions at daily stopping
places.[51][48] linked the Red Sea to the river Nile by building a canal
(Darius Canal) which ran from modern Zaqzq to mod-
ern Suez. To open this canal, he travelled to Egypt in 497
Religion BCE, where the inauguration was carried out with great
fanfare and celebration. Darius also built a canal to con-
By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has nect the Red Sea and Mediterranean.[46][57] On this visit
granted me the kingdom. Darius, on the Behistun In- to Egypt he erected monuments and executed Aryandes
scription on the charge of treason. When Darius returned to Persis,
While there is no absolute consensus about the adherence he found[42]
that the codication of Egyptian law had been
of the kings before Darius, such as Cyrus and Cambyses, nished.
it is well established that Darius was an adherent of Additionally, Darius sponsored large construction
Zoroastrianism[52] or at least a rm believer in Ahura projects in Susa, Babylon, Egypt, and Persepolis. In
Mazda. As can be seen at the Behistun Inscription, Dar- Susa, Darius built a new palace complex in the north
ius believed that Ahura Mazda had appointed him to rule of the city. An inscription states that the palace was
the Achaemenid Empire. Darius had dualistic convic- destroyed during the reign of Artaxerxes I, but was
tions and believed that each rebellion in his kingdom was rebuilt. Today only glazed bricks of the palace remain,
the work of druj, the enemy of Asha. Darius believed the majority of them in the Louvre. In Pasargadae
that because he lived righteously by Asha, Ahura Mazda Darius nished all incomplete construction projects from
supported him.[53] In many cuneiform inscriptions denot- the reign of Cyrus the Great. A palace was also built
ing his achievements, he presents himself as a devout be- during the reign of Darius, with an inscription in the
132 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

name of Cyrus the Great. It was previously believed that [11] Shahbazi 1996, p. 41.
Cyrus had constructed this building, however due to the
cuneiform script being used, the palace is believed to [12] Kuhrt 2013, p. 197.
have been constructed by Darius. [13] Frye 1984, p. 103.
In Egypt Darius built many temples and restored those [14] Schmitt 2000, p. 53.
that had previously been destroyed. Even though Dar-
ius was a Zoroastrian, he built temples dedicated to the [15] Roman Ghirshman, Iran (1954), Penguin Books, p 191.
Gods of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Several tem-
[16] Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebrisches und Aramisches Hand-
ples found were dedicated to Ptah and Nekhbet. Dar-
wrterbuch ber das Alte Testament, 17. Auage (1962),
ius also created several roads and routes in Egypt. The Springer-Verlag, p 392.
monuments that Darius built were often inscribed in
the ocial languages of the Persian Empire, Old Per- [17] Pfandl, Gerhard (2004). Daniel: The Seer of Babylon.
sian, Elamite and Babylonian and Egyptian hieroglyphs. Herald Publishing Association. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8280-
To construct these monuments Darius employed a large 1829-6.
number of workers and artisans of diverse nationalities.
[18] Tropea 2006, p. 5455.
Several of these workers were deportees who had been
employed specically for these projects. These depor- [19] Bedford 2001, p. 183184.
tees enhanced the empires economy and improved inter-
cultural relations.[48] At the time of Dariuss death con- [20] Cook 1985, p. 217.
struction projects were still under way. Xerxes com- [21] Abbott 2009, p. 14.
pleted these works and in some cases expanded his fa-
thers projects by erecting new buildings of his own.[58] [22] Abbott 2009, p. 1415.

[23] Abbott 2009, p. 1516.


4.4.10 See also [24] Boardman 1988, p. 53.

Darius the Mede [25] Boardman 1988, p. 54.

Tachara [26] Poolos 2008, p. 17.

[27] Abbott 2009, p. 98.


Tomb of Darius I
[28] Abbott 2009, p. 99101.

4.4.11 References [29] Del Testa 2001, p. 47.

[30] Darius the Great


[1] Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and
Practices, (Taylor & Francis, 1979), 5455. [31] Abott 2009, p. 129.
[2] Jrgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der gyptischen [32] Slincourt 2002, p. 234235.
Knigsnamen (= Mnchner gyptologische Studien, vol
46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. [33] Siliotti 2006, p. 286287.
ISBN 3-8053-2310-7, pp. 22021.
[34] Woolf 2004, p. 686.
[3] The Behistun Inscription
[35] Miroslav Ivanov Vasilev. The Policy of Darius and
[4] DESTN. Retrieved 29 December 2014. Xerxes towards Thrace and Macedonia ISBN 90-04-
28215-7 p 70
[5] The Making of the Georgian Nation. Retrieved 29 De-
cember 2014. [36] Ross 2004, p. 291.

[6] Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together, Worlds Apart [37] Beckwith 2009, p. 6869.
concise edition vol.1. New York: W.W. Norton & Com-
[38] Boardman 1982, pp. 239243.
pany, Inc. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-393-25093-0.
[39] Boardman 2012, pp. 239243.
[7] "Five Empires That Were Close to World Domination".
Joseph Kaminski. March 20, 2016. Retrieved August 16, [40] Herodotus 2015, pp. 352.
2016.
[41] Chaliand 2004, p. 16.
[8] Shahbazi 1996, p. 40.
[42] Shahbazi 1996, p. 45.
[9] Duncker 1882, p. 192.
[43] Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rut-
[10] Egerton 1994, p. 6. gers University Press. pp. 910. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.
4.4. DARIUS THE GREAT 133

[44] Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. A companion to An- Boardman, John, ed. (1982). The Cambridge An-
cient Macedonia John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 1- cient History. 10: Persia, Greece, and the Western
4443-5163-X pp 135138, p 343 Mediterranean. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Uni-
versity Press. pp. 239243. ISBN 978-0-521-
[45] Joseph Roisman,Ian Worthington. A companion to An-
22804-6.
cient Macedonia John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 1-
4443-5163-X pp 135138 Boyce, Mary (1979), Zoroastrians: Their Religious
Beliefs and Practices, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-
[46] Shahbazi.
7100-0121-5
[47] Shahbazi 1996, p. 47. Cook, J. M. (1985), The Rise of the Achaemenids
and Establishment of their Empire, The Median
[48] Shahbazi 1996, p. 48.
and Achaemenian Periods, Cambridge History of
[49] Farrokh 2007, p. 65. Iran, 2, London: Cambridge University Press

[50] Farrokh 2007, p. 6566. Herodotus, ed. (2015). The Histories. Knopf Dou-
bleday Publishing Group. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-375-
[51] Verlag 2009, p. 86. 71271-5.

[52] Moulton 2005, p. 48. Safra, Jacob (2002), The New Encyclopdia Britan-
nica, Encyclopdia Britannica Inc, ISBN 0-85229-
[53] Boyce 1979, p. 55. 787-4

[54] Boyce 1979, p. 5455. Slincourt, Aubrey (2002), The Histories, London:
Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-14-044908-6
[55] Boyce 1979, p. 56.
Shahbazi, Shapur (1996), Darius I the Great,
[56] Shahbazi 1996, p. 49. Encyclopedia Iranica, 7, New York: Columbia Uni-
versity
[57] Spielvogel 2009, p. 49.
Siliotti, Alberto (2006), Hidden Treasures of Antiq-
[58] Boardman 1988, p. 76. uity, Vercelli, Italy: VMB Publishers, ISBN 88-540-
0497-9

4.4.12 External links Spielvogel, Jackson (2009), Western Civiliza-


tion: Seventh edition, Belmont, CA: Thomson
Media related to Darius I at Wikimedia Commons Wadsworth, ISBN 0-495-50285-5
Tropea, Judith (2006), Classic Biblical Baby Names:
Relief showing the enthroned Persian king Darius Timeless Names for Modern Parents, New York:
Bantam Books, ISBN 0-553-38393-0
Van De Mieroop, Marc (2003), A History of the
4.4.13 Bibliography Ancient Near East: Ca. 3000-323 BC, Blackwell
History of the Ancient World series, Hoboken, NJ:
Abott, Jacob (1850), History of Darius the Great,
Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-22552-2
New York: Harper & Bros
Verlag, Chronik (2008), The Chronicle of World
Balentine, Samuel (1999), The Torahs vision of History, Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky,
worship, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, ISBN 978-0- ISBN 1-56852-680-6
8006-3155-0
Duncker, Max (1882), Evelyn Abbott, ed., The his-
Bedford, Peter (2001), Temple restoration in tory of antiquity (Volume 6 ed.), R. Bentley & son
early Achaemenid Judah (illustrated ed.), Leiden:
Egerton, George (1994), Political memoir: essays
BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-11509-5
on the politics of memory, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-
Bennett, Deb (1998), Conquerors: The Roots of New 7146-3471-5
World horsemanship, Solvang, CA: Amigo Publica- Moulton, James (2005), Early Zoroastrianism,
tions, Inc., ISBN 0-9658533-0-6 Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4179-7400-9
Boardman, John (1988), The Cambridge ancient his- Del Testa, David (2001), Government leaders, mil-
tory, Volume 4, The Cambridge ancient history, IV itary rulers, and political activists (illustrated ed.),
(II ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-57356-
ISBN 0-521-22804-2 153-2
134 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

Poolos, J (2008), Darius the Great (illustrated ed.), Wilber, Donald N. (1989). Persepolis : the archae-
Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7910-9633-8 ology of Parsa, seat of the Persian kings (Rev. ed.).
Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-062-
Kuhrt, A. (2013). The Persian Empire: A Corpus 6.
of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge.
ISBN 978-1-136-01694-3.

Farrokh, Kaveh (2007), Shadows in the desert: an- 4.5 Xerxes the Great
cient Persia at war, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-
1-84603-108-3

Beckwith, Christopher (2009), Empires of the Silk


Road: a history of Central Eurasia from the Bronze
Age to the present (illustrated ed.), Princeton Uni-
versity Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2

Chaliand, Grard (2004), Nomadic empires: from


Mongolia to the Danube (illustrated, annotated ed.),
Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7658-0204-0

Woolf, Alex; Steven Maddocks; Richard Balkwill;


Thomas McCarthy (2004), Exploring Ancient Civi-
lizations (illustrated ed.), Marshall Cavendish, ISBN [1]
978-0-7614-7456-2

Ross, William; H. G. Wells (2004), The Outline of Xerxes I (/zrksiz/; Old Persian: x--y-a-r-
History: Volume 1 (Barnes & Noble Library of Es- -a ( Khashayarsha ) ruling over heroes,[2] Greek -
sential Reading): Prehistory to the Roman Republic [ksrkss]; 518465 BC), called Xerxes the Great,
(illustrated ed.), Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty
978-0-7607-5866-3, retrieved 28 July 2011 of Persia. He ruled from 486 BC until his assassination
in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of
Abbott, Jacob (2009), History of Darius the Great: the royal bodyguard.
Makers of History, Cosimo, Inc., ISBN 978-1-
Xerxes I is most likely the Persian king identied
60520-835-0
as Ahasuerus (Hebrew Hebrew pronunciation:
[axavero]) in the biblical Book of Esther.[3][4][5] He is
4.4.14 Further reading also notable in Western history for his failed invasion of
Greece in 480 BC. Like his predecessor Darius I, he ruled
Burn, A.R. (1984). Persia and the Greeks : the de- the empire at its territorial apex. His forces temporarily
fence of the West, c. 546-478 B.C. (2nd ed.). Stan- overran
[6][7]
mainland Greece north of the Isthmus of Corinth
ford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0- until the losses at Salamis and Plataea a year later
8047-1235-2. reversed these gains and ended the second invasion deci-
sively.
Ghirshman, Roman (1964). The Arts of Ancient
Iran from Its Origins to the Time of Alexander the
Great. New York: Golden Press. 4.5.1 Early life
Olmstead, Albert T. (1948). History of the Persian Rise to power
Empire, Achaemenid Period. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press. Xerxes was born to Darius I and Atossa (daugh-
ter of Cyrus the Great). Darius and Atossa were
Vogelsang, W.J. (1992). The rise and organisation
both Achaemenids as they were both descendants of
of the Achaemenid Empire : the eastern Iranian evi-
Achaemenes. While Darius was preparing for another
dence. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-09682-5.
war against Greece, a revolt spurred in Egypt in 486 BC
Warner, Arthur G. (1905). The Shahnama of Fir- due to heavy taxes and the deportation of craftsmen to
dausi. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trbner and build the royal palaces at Susa and Perseopolis. Under
Co. Persian law, the king was required to choose a successor
before setting out on dangerous expeditions. When Dar-
Wiesehfer, Josef (1996). Ancient Persia : from 550 ius decided to leave (487-486 BC), Darius prepared his
BC to 650 AD. Azizeh Azodi, trans. London: I.B. tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam (ve kilometers from his royal
Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-999-0. palace at Perseopolis) and appointed Xerxes, his eldest
4.5. XERXES THE GREAT 135

son by Atossa, as his successor. However, Darius could


not lead the campaign due to his failing health and died
in October 486 BC at the age of 64.[8]
Artobazan claimed the crown as the eldest of all the
children, because it was an established custom all over
the world for the eldest to have the pre-eminence; while
Xerxes, on the other hand, urged that he was sprung from
Atossa, the daughter of Cyrus, and that it was Cyrus who
had won the Persians their freedom. Xerxes was also
helped by a Spartan king in exile who was present in
Persia at the time, Eurypontid king Demaratus, who ar-
gued that the eldest son does not universally mean they
have claim to the crown, as Spartan law states that the
rst son born while the father is king is the heir to the
kingship.[9] Some modern scholars also view the unusual
decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a re-
sult of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus
the Great and his daughter Atossa enjoyed.[10] Artobazan
was born to Darius the subject, while Xerxes was the
eldest son born in the purple after Dariuss rise to the
throne, and Artobazans mother was a commoner while
Xerxess mother was the daughter of the founder of the
empire.[11]
Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in
OctoberDecember 486 BC[12] when he was about 36
years old.[13] The transition of power to Xerxes was
smooth due again in part to the great authority of
Atossa[14] and his accession of royal power was not chal- Xerxes attending the lashing and chaining of the Hellespont (Il-
lenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian fam- lustration from 1909)
ily, or any subject nation.[15]
Almost immediately, Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and
Babylon that had broken out the year before, and ap- Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the
pointed his brother Achaemenes as satrap over Egypt. In burning of Sardis, and their victory over the Persians at
484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently con- Marathon. From 483 BC, Xerxes prepared his expedi-
scating and melting down[16] the golden statue of Bel tion: The Xerxes Canal was dug through the isthmus of
(Marduk, Merodach), the hands of which the rightful the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored
king of Babylon had to clasp each New Years Day. This in the stations on the road through Thrace, and two
sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and pontoon bridges later known as Xerxes Pontoon Bridges
482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many na-
tionalities served in the armies of Xerxes from all over
Xerxes refused his fathers title of King of Babylon, being
named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, his multi-ethnic massive Eurasian-sized empire and be-
King of Kings (Shahanshah) and King of Nations (i.e., yond, including the Assyrians, Phoenicians, Babylonians,
of the world). This comes from the Daiva Inscriptions of Egyptians, Jews,[19] Macedonians, European Thracians,
Xerxes, lines 6-13.[17] Paeonians, Achaean Greeks, Ionians, Aegean islanders,
Aeolians, Greeks from Pontus, Colchians, and many
Although Herodotus report in the Histories has cre-
more.
ated debate concerning Xerxess religious beliefs, modern
scholars consider him a Zoroastrian.[18] According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxess
rst attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure
when a storm destroyed the ax and papyrus cables of
4.5.2 Campaigns the bridges. In retaliation, Xerxes ordered the Helle-
spont (the strait itself) whipped three hundred times,
Invasion of the Greek mainland and had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxess sec-
ond attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful.[20]
Main article: Second Persian invasion of Greece The Carthaginian invasion of Sicily deprived Greece of
Darius died while in the process of preparing a sec- the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and
ond army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his Agrigentum - ancient sources assume Xerxes was respon-
son the task of punishing the Athenians, Naxians, and sible, modern scholarship is skeptical.[21] Many smaller
136 CHAPTER 4. PERSIAN KINGS

Greek states, moreover, took the side of the Persians, es-


pecially Thessaly, Thebes and Argos. Xerxes was victo-
rious during the initial battles.
Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with
a eet and army which Herodotus estimated was roughly
one million strong along with 10,000 elite warriors named
the Persian Immortals. More recent estimates place the
Persian force at around 60,000 combatants.[22]

Thermopylae and Athens

At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek war-


riors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much
larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. Ac-
cording to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan
phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his
country by telling the Persians of another pass around the
mountains. At Artemisium, large storms had destroyed
ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped pre-
maturely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at
Thermopylae and retreated. After Thermopylae, Athens
was captured. Most of the Athenians had abandoned the
city and ed to the island of Salamis before Xerxes ar-
rived. A small group attempted to defend the Athenian The rock-cut tomb at Na