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THERMAL AND MOISTURE

PROTECTION

ardon / capuli / rosales / villanueva


Thermal Protection
THERMAL PROTECTION
Critical for building to provide comfortable spaces for occupants

Owners and designers must also consider the overall impact of their
designs on the environment and how a building consumes energy

Insulate exterior walls, roof and floors located over outdoor space

Minimize potential heat gain or loss by building with materials that resist
heat transfer (high R-value)

Fibrous materials are generally good insulators


COMMERCIAL INSULATION MATERIALS
fiberglass

glass foam

mineral fibers

organic fibers

foamed plastic
Fiberglass
Made from melted glass cullet

Spun into fibers that resemble the texture of


wool

Noncorrosive

Types: batts, rolls, loose-fill forms

Common uses: sidewalls, attics, floors, crawl


spaces, cathedral ceilings, and basements
Glass Foam
Environmentally friendly

Cannot be destroyed by high temperatures

Does not absorb water/flammable liquids

Resistant to biological effect

Does not burn

2 Stages of Manufacture:

- Ordinary Glass is grounded into a powder


- Foaming and Annealing
Mineral Fibers
Porous material that traps air

Porous and elastic structure absorbs noise

Incombustible

Types: Roll, Loose


Organic Fibers
Low mass density and cell structure

Low value of thermal conductivity

Environment friendly

Disadvantage:

- High wettability and absorbability


- Prone to biological attacks
- Highly flammable
Foamed Plastic
Polyisocyanurate sheathing

Synthetic resin converted into a spongelike


mass with a closed-cell or open cell
structure

Almost any thermosetting or thermoplastic


resin can be converted into foam.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A
GOOD INSULATION MATERIAL
Fireproof

Insect proof

Moisture proof

Resistant to any physical change that would reduce its effectiveness


against heat flow
SELECTION OF INSULATION
Initial cost

Effectiveness

Durability

Adaptation of its form to that of the construction and installation methods


R-VALUE
Measure of a material's resistance to heat flow in units of Fahrenheit
degrees x hours x square feet per Btu.

The higher the R-value of a material, the greater its insulating


capability. The R-value of some insulating materials is 3.7 per inch for
fiberglass and cellulose, 2.5 per inch for vermiculite, and more than 4 per
inch for foam

All building materials have some R-value


R-VALUE
APPLICATION
Blanket Insulation

Batt Insulation

Blown-in Loose Insulation

Foam Insulation

Reflective Insulation

Corrugated Insulation
Blanket Insulation
Most common and widely available type of
Insulation

Consists of flexible fibers

R-2.9-R-3.8 per inch - Standard

R-3.7-R4.3 per inch - High Performance

Usually cost low as compared to other types


of insulation
Batt Insulation
Comes in pre-cut panels

Generally made of fiberglass or wool

Easy to install

May require extra cutting to fit a


non-standard job area
Blown-in Loose Insulation
Small particles form fluffy materials that
conform to the spaces in which they are
installed

Cellulose loose-fill insulation, Fiberglass


loose-fill insulation, Rock wool loose fill
insulation

Can be installed without greatly disturbing


existing finishes
Foam Insulation
Sprayed into place and hardens in place

Types: Closed-cell and open-cell spray foam

Has the potential to tackle air leakages


better

Relative ease of installation

Does not attract rodents or insects


Reflective Insulation
At least one reflective surface installed so
that the surface faces an air gap

Reduce heat transfer through radiation by


placing a surface that reflects thermal
radiation in combination with an air gap

Dust accumulation reduce reflective


capability

Largest barrier: Performance predictability


Corrugated Insulation
Sandwich roof panel

Reduce echo tunnel noise during rain

Filled voids stop biological attacks

Layer of expanded polyurethane


Moisture Protection
MOISTURE PROTECTION

Most building materials are subject to some degradation by


exposure to moisture

Building systems must be designed to resist the transfer of


moisture to the inside of the structure
MOISTURE IN SEVERAL FORMS

liquid

vapor

ice
Liquid
most common way for moisture to enter a building

Leaks Condensation
allow rain or groundwater to occurs when the vapor in air
infiltrate the building envelope reaches a critical temperature
(dew point)
may lead to a variety of
maintenance and health this must be addressed to
concerns since it is not prevent damage to the structure
immediately apparent and discomfort the occupants
Vapor
Vapor may migrate/enter through

Building materials that are not adequately protected

Small openings in the building

Construction materials
entering into construction assemblies (walls and roofs)
move from the warm side towards the cool side of the assembly
- reach condensation point or dew point

Enclosed attic spaces


Ice

While it is not common for ice to enter a building, the build-up


of ice often leads to water infiltration, as evident in ice dam
conditions on sloped roofs
APPLICATION

dampproofing

waterproofing

may appear to be identical applications, often a spray-on asphaltic


compound designed to resist moisture

often applied directly to the foundation or sub-grade structure


Dampproofing

the application of a material to


reduce the likelihood of moisture
transfer to the inside of a structure

assumes no hydrostatic pressure is


pushing the moisture toward the
building
Waterproofing

the application of a material to


prevent the transfer of moisture in
liquid form to the inside of a
structure in the presence of
hydrostatic pressure
Roofing
ROOFING
LOW SLOPE ROOF COVERINGS
built-up roof (BUR) membranes

metal panel roof systems

polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes

single-ply membranes

spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF) roof systems


Built-up roof (BUR) membranes

Commonly referred to as "tar and gravel"


roofs

BUR systems generally are composed of


alternating layers of bitumen and reinforcing
fabrics that create a finished membrane
Metal panel roof systems

Most structural metal panel roof systems are


designed to resist the passage of water at
laps and other joints

Structural metal panel roof systems possess


strength characteristics that allow them to
span supporting members
Polymer-modified bitumen sheet membranes
Also called modified bitumen

Composed of reinforcing fabrics that serve


as carriers for the hot polymer-modified
bitumen as it is manufactured into a roll
material

2 types: SBS polymer-modified bitumen


membranes and APP polymer-modified
bitumen membranes
Single-ply membranes

Single-ply membranes are


factory-manufactured sheet membranes.

Thermoset membranes - can be


repeatedly softened when heated and
hardened when cooled
Thermoplastic membranes - materials
solidify, or "set," irreversibly after heating
Spray polyurethane foam-based (SPF)

SPF can be installed in various thicknesses to


provide slope to drain or meet a specified
thermal resistance (R-value)
STEEP SLOPE ROOF COVERINGS
Asphalt shingles

Clay tile and concrete tile

Metal roof systems for steep-slope applications

Slate

Wood shakes and wood shingles

Synthetic
Asphalt Shingles
Asphalt shingles are composed of a
base material, asphalt and fillers, and
surfacing material

The most common form of asphalt


shingles are strip shingles

Shingles may be produced in a


single layer or two or more layers
Clay Tile and Concrete Tile

Clay tile is produced by baking


molded clay into tile

Concrete tiles are made of portland


cement, sand and water in varying
proportions
Metal Roof Systems

There are three general categories


of metal roof systems used for
steep-slope roofing applications:
architectural metal panel, structural
metal panel and metal
shingle/shingle panels
Slate
Roofing slate is a dense, durable,
naturally occurring material that is
essentially nonabsorbent. Two
properties of slate are cleavage and
fracture

The color of slate is determined by


its chemical and mineral
composition

Exposure to weather causes slate to


change color
Wood Shakes and Wood Shingles

Wood shakes and wood shingles are


manufactured from western red
cedar, cypress, pine and redwood
trees.
Synthetic
Pertains to steep-slope roofing
materials refers to manufactured
products that replicate asphalt
shingles, concrete tile, clay tile,
metal panels, slate, wood shakes
and wood shingles

Synthetic roof coverings contain


recycled plastic and/or rubber as a
key ingredient
TYPES
gable jerkinhead

hip butterfly

mansard pyramid

gambrel dutch gable

flat curved

skillon/shed dome
Gable
Hip
Mansard
Gambrel
Flat
Skillion/Shed
Jerkinhead
Butterfly
Pyramid
Dutch Gable
Curved
Dome
Sealants
Silicone Sealants
Flexible and waterproof substance
normally used as a sealant for sealing
joints around baths, sinks, etc. It can
withstand high temperatures.

Epoxy
Contains an artificial substance which
sets hard when it is heated or when
pressure is applied to it
Polyurethanes Sealants
Providing high bond strength and flexibility, this
sealant technology is perfect for glazing and
construction joint

Elastic Sealants
Made of a flexible material in a plastic state during
forming or application.
Acrylic Latex Sealants
Best suited to indoor use because
of its low tolerance for direct
sunlight and temperature
extremes.

Bituminous Sealants
Ideal for sealing leaks and making
repairs even on wet surfaces
Synthetic Rubber Sealants
Highly flexible, natural or synthetic
materials that are used to join
components or fill gaps between
seams or on surfaces.

Butyl Sealants
Achieve durable, long-lasting seals
between all types of masonry, steel, glass,
etc.
Thermoplastic Sealants
Sealants that are soft when they are
heated and hard when cooled
REFERENCES
http://architizer.com/blog/how-to-specify-thermal-insulation/
https://www.slideshare.net/mobile/fdjaipur/heat-sound-insulation
http://www.frontdesk.co.in/heatsound.html#.WKx1cDzXeEc
https://drc.ohiolink.edu/bitstream/handle/2374.OX/181286/Thermal%2
0and%20Moisture%20Protection.pdf?sequence=29
https://www.wbdg.org/systems-specifications/building-envelope-desi
gn-guide/roofing-systems
http://www.everybodyneedsaroof.com/roof-system-types
http://www.roofcalc.org/16-most-popular-roof-types/