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.

, 2010.

1. ....................................................................... 1

2. ............................................................. 35

3. .......................... 58

4. ....................................................................................... 92
1.

1.1) R = 350 k = 2.1,


y = 73 GPa.
do = 50 mm, di = 47.5 mm.
1000 kg.

,
,
( ).
( 1.1).

l r :
l
R= , (1.1.1)
r 2
.
F l , :
r l
= , (1.1.2)
r l
,
0.24 0.40. (1.1.1) (1.1.2)
:

R l l l /
= + 2 + = 1 + 2 + . (1.1.3)
R l l l l / l
/

l / l
.

, (1.1.3) :
R l
=k . (1.1.4)
R l
,
F, ( ):
F l
= = E y = E y , (1.1.5)
A l
y .
(1.1.4) (1.1.5) :
l F
R = Rk = Rk , (1.1.6)
l AE y

A=
( )
d o2 d i2
= 191 mm 2 ,
4
F = mg = 9800 N ,
9800 N
R = (350 ) 2.1 = 0.52 .
(193 10 -6 2
)( 9
m 73 10 Pa )
1.2) 1.2 R1 = 120
k = 2, R2
( ), R3 R4 120 .
30 mA.

) U.
)
y = 210 GPa, U = 5 V,
70 kg/cm2.
) Re
R2 ,
700 kg/cm2 .

) 1.2
:
R1 I1 = R3 I 3 , (1.2.1)

R 2 I 2 = R4 I 4 , (1.2.2)
I1 = I 2 , (1.2.3)
I3 = I4 . (1.2.4)

:
R1 I1 + R2 I 2 = 2 R1 I1 = U . (1.2.5)
(1.2.5) :
U max = 2 (120 ) (0.03 A ) = 7.2 V . (1.2.6)
) :
F
R = Rk = 0.007848 . (1.2.7)
AE y


(RG)
.
:
R1 I1 R3 I 3 = U G , (1.2.8)

R1 I1 + R2 I 2 = U , (1.2.9)
R3 I 3 + R4 I 4 = U , (1.2.10)

I1 = I 2 , (1.2.11)
I3 = I4 . (1.2.12)
:
R1 R4 R2 R3
UG = U . (1.2.13)
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )

: R1 = R +R R2 = R3 = R4 = R, (1.2.13) :
R
UG = U = 81.75 V . (1.2.14)
2(2 R + R )
) 700 kg/cm2
0.0785 . (1.2.14) UG = 8.174104 V.
Re R2
(1.2.13) :

UG = U
(R + R )R R2 R = U (R + R ) R2 , (1.2.15)
( R + R + R2 )2 R 2( R + R + R2 )

R2 = R Re .

(1.2.15) :
U
(R + R ) 2
R2 = UG = 119.929 , (1.2.16)
U
+ 2
UG
:
RR2
Re = = 202.7 k . (1.2.17)
R R2

1.3) 1.3
. 1.3,
RG = 1000
10 .

:
) ;
) .
RS
Fmax = 98.1 N.
R = 200 k = 2.1. :
l = 0.5 m, b = 5 cm, h = 5 mm y = 51 GPa.
U = 8 V.

,
, .
:
6 Fl
= , (1.3.1)
E y bh 2

: y , l F, b
h . + ,
.
.
, .

.
) N, N.
A B
. :
Rmax 6F l
= k = k max 2 = 9.695 10 3 . (1.3.2)
R E y bh

,
1.3.1.

1.3.1
1.3.2.

RTh
1.3.1 N , U
( 1.3.3a). :
R1 R2 ( R3 + R4 ) + R3 R4 ( R1 + R2 )
RTh = (R1 R2 ) + (R3 R4 ) = . (1.3.3)
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )

UTh N (
1.3.3):
R1 R3 ( R1 R4 R2 R3 )
U Th = U = U . (1.3.4)
R1 + R2 R3 + R4 ( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )

:
U Th
IG = =
RTh + ( RG + RS )
(1.3.5)
( R1 R4 R2 R3 ) U
=
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )( RG + RS ) + R1 R2 ( R3 + R4 ) + R3 R4 ( R1 + R2 )

: R1 = R +Rmax, R2 = RRmax R3 = R4 = R,
(1.3.5) :
Rmax
U
I G max = R . (1.3.6)
2
R
2( RG + RS + R) R max
R
RS :

Rmax
U 2
1 R Rmax
RS = + R ( RG + R) = 2678 . (1.3.7)
2 I G max R

) N, N.
: R1 = R +Rmax, R2 = R3 = R4 = R (1.3.5) :

Rmax
U
I G max = R . (1.3.8)
Rmax
4( RG + RS + R) + (2 RG + 2 RS + 3R )
R
RS :

Rmax U Rmax
4( RG + R) (2 RG + 3R)
R I G max R
RS = = 729.1 . (1.3.9)
Rmax
22 +
R

1.4) F = 20000 N,
R
= /6
( 1.4). ( 1.4)

R1 = 200 . U = 6 V.
(RG).
O
. R = 200 k = 2.
= 1 cm2, y = 190 Ga
= 0.3.

F y l l1
( 1.4.1). 1.4.1 l x = l sin l y = l cos

l1x = l x + l x l1 y = l y + l y .

10

l y F
= , (1.4.1)
ly AE y

l x F l y
= = , (1.4.2)
lx AE y ly

:
F F
l1 y = l y + l y = l y 1 + = 1+ l cos , (1.4.3)
AE y AE y

F F
l1x = l x + l x = l x 1 = 1 l sin . (1.4.4)
AE y AE y

l1 :

2 2
F F
l1 = l12x + l12y = l 1 + cos 2 + 1 sin 2 . (1.4.5)

AE y
AE y

F
<< 1, :
AE y

2

1 + F 1 + 2 F , (1.4.6)
AE y AE y

2

1 F 1 2 F , (1.4.7)
AE y AE y

F
l1 l 1 + 2
AE y
(
cos 2 sin 2 . ) (1.4.8)

(1+)1/2 =1+/2, (<<1), (1.4.8) :


l1 = l 1 +
F
AE
(
cos 2 sin 2 ) . (1.4.9)
y
:

11

l1 l F
l
=
AE y
( )
cos 2 sin 2 = 7.105 10 4 . (1.4.10)

:
R l
k
UG =U R =U l = 2.13 mV . (1.4.11)
2(2 +
R
) l
2 2 + k
R l

1.5) 1.5
Fx Fy. X Y
( 1.5 ).

12

Ux = 1.1 mV Uy = 2.1 mV,


Fx Fy. k = 1.9. : a = 10 cm,
b = 8 cm, h = 1.5 mm, y = 200 Ga = 0.3.
U = 6 V.

Fx Fy
. Fx, x y :
Fx
1 x = , (1.5.1)
E y bh

Fx
1 y = . (1.5.2)
E y bh

Fy, x y :
Fy
2 x = , (1.5.3)
E y ah

Fy
2y = . (1.5.4)
E y ah

1 Fx Fy
x = 1x + 2 x = , (1.5.5)

Eyh b a

1 F F
y = 1y + 2 y = x + y . (1.5.6)

Eyh b a

(1.5.5) (1.5.6) Fx Fy:


bhE y
Fx = ( x + y ) , (1.5.7)
1 2

13

ahE y
Fy = ( x + y ). (1.5.8)
1 2
U1 :
R
R U R k
U1 = U =U x , (1.5.9)
R 4 R 4
2 2 +
R
:
4U 1
x = = 3.86 10 4 . (1.5.10)
kU
U2 :
R
R U R k y
U2 = U =U , (1.5.11)
R 4 R 4
2 2 +
R
:
4U 2
y = = 7.638 10 4 . (1.5.12)
kU
Fx = 16 kN Fy = 28.1 kN.

1.6) F
r = 5 cm ( 1.6).
1.6.

(RG) 199.99 mV. y F ,
UG = 30 mV. R = 200
k = 2. y = 200 Ga
= 0.3. U = 5 V. Ko
.

14

:
F1 F2,
F = F1 + F2. :
R1 R1 kF
= = 1 , (1.6.1)
R1 R AE y

R2 R2 kF
= = 1 , (1.6.2)
R2 R AE y

R3 R3 kF
= = 2 , (1.6.3)
R3 R AE y

R4 R4 kF
= = 2 . (1.6.4)
R4 R AE y

:
R1 = R2 , (1.6.5)
R4 = R3 . (1.6.6)
:

15

R1 R4 R2 R3
UG = U . (1.6.7)
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )

: R1 = R +R1, R2 = R +R2, R3 = R +R3 R4 = R +R4,


(1.6.7) :
R(R1 + R4 R2 R3 ) + R1R4 R2 R3
UG = U
(2 R + R1 + R2 )(2 R + R3 + R4 )

R(R1 + R4 R2 R3 ) ( + 1)(R2 + R3 )
U 2
=U = (1.6.8)
4R 4R

U ( + 1)k U ( + 1)k
= ( F1 + F2 ) = F.
4 AE y 4 AE y

(1.6.8)
. F :
U G 4 AE y
F= = 6.29 10 7 N . (1.6.9)
U k ( + 1)
:
U G max 4 AE y
Fmax = = 4.186 10 8 N . (1.6.10)
U k ( + 1)

1.7) ,
, l = 2 m,

( 1.7). R1 ,
R2 .
( 1.7),
R3 = R4 = 1 k.
U = 2 V.
(RG).

16

R = 120 k = 2.
= 0.25.
) 0.5 mV.
)
l1 = 20 cm l2 = 180 cm 1 / A2 = 0.1,
.
l1.

) l, e
:
R1 R1 l
= =k , (1.7.1)
R1 R l

R2 R2 l
= = k . (1.7.2)
R2 R l
:

17

R1 R4 R2 R3
UG = U =
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 )
(1.7.3)
R1 R2 Uk (1 + ) l
=U .
2(2 R + R1 + R2 ) 4 l
:
4U G l
l = = 0.8 mm . (1.7.4)
Uk (1 + )
) F .
:
l1 l
F = E y A1 = E y A2 2 , (1.7.5)
l1 l2
:
l = l1 + l 2 , (1.7.6)
l = l1 + l 2 . (1.7.7)
(1.7.5), (1.7.6) (1.7.7) :
l l
l1 1
l l1
1
l1 A2 l 2 A2 l l1 A2
= = = , (1.7.8)
l1 A1 l 2 A1 l l1 A1 l l1
:
l
l1 l l1 l
= = 5.26 . (1.7.9)
l1 l A l l1 l
1+ 1
A2 l1

(1.7.9) 5.6
. (1.7.3)
0.8 mm 5.6 ,
2.63 mV.

18

1.8) 1.8
. m = 0.3 kg

k = 400 N/m.
2l = 2 cm 2R = 200 .
.
RG = 1000 a = 2 m/s2.
: U = 4 V, R1 = 1000 .

m a
:
ma = k e x , (1.8.1)
ke .
1.8
ke = 2k.
, .
:

19

ma max = 2kl , (1.8.2)


:
2kl m
a max = = 26.7 2 . (1.8.3)
m s
+ a :
ma
x= , (1.8.4)
2k
NM :
R maR
R = x= = 7 .5 , (1.8.5)
l 2kl
NO R.
1.8.1.

:
R
IG = U = 24.2 A . (1.8.6)
R(2 RG + R + R1 ) (R )2

20

1.9) 1.9 y
. ,
m = 0.05 kg.
l = 2 cm, d = 0.05 mm Ey = 75 GPa.
k = 1.9.
1.9.
(RG). U = 4 V.
y a = 50 m/s2.

) :

F AE y d 2E y
k1 = = = . (1.9.1)
l l 4l
:

21

2d 2E y
k t = 8k1 = . (1.9.2)
l
ke
:

8d 2E y N
k e = 4k t = = 2.2 10 6 . (1.9.3)
l m
m a
:
ma mal
l = = 2 , (1.9.4)
k e 8d E y

:
R l ma
=k =k 2 . (1.9.5)
R l 8d E y

: R1 = R4 = R +R, R2 = R3 = R R.
:
R1 R4 R2 R3 R kma
UG = U =U =U 2 = 4.67 mV . (1.9.6)
( R1 + R2 )( R3 + R4 ) R 8d E y

1.10) 1.10 ,
45 .
.
ro = 4 m, ri = 2.5 m.
1.10. k = 2.
(RG).
U = 2 V. G = 40 GPa.
0.2 mV.

22

1.10.1 r (ri < r < ro)


, dF.

, l,
. 1,
l + l. 1.10.1 :

(l + l )2 = L2 + [r + l sin( )]2 , (1.10.1)


:

23

2
l l L2 r 2 2 r
1 + 2 + = 2 + 2 + 2 sin( ) + sin 2 ( ) . (1.10.2)
l l l l l
(1.10.2) :

l L2 r
1+ 2 = 2 + 2 sin( ) + sin 2 ( ) . (1.10.3)
l l l
:
L
= cos( ) , (1.10.4)
l
:
l r r
= sin( ) cos( ) = sin(2 ) . (1.10.5)
l L 2L
:

G= , (1.10.6)

.
r dr :
dF dF
= = . (1.10.7)
dA 2rdr
(1.10.6) (1.10.7) :
dF = G 2rdr . (1.10.8)
:
r
tg ( ) = . (1.10.9)
L
:
G
dF = 2r 2 dr . (1.10.10)
L
:
G
dM = rdF = 2r 3dr . (1.10.11)
L

24

:
ro o r
G G 4
M = dM =
L
2 r 3dr =
2 L
ro ri4 . ( ) (1.10.12)
r i r i

(1.10.5) (1.10.12)
:
l M r
= 4 o 4 sin(2 ) , (1.10.13)
l G ro ri

, :
R kM r
= 4 o 4 sin(2 ) . (1.10.14)
R G ro ri


45
. 45
, , 1 4
, 2 3 .
:
R ro M
UG = U = Uk . (1.10.15)
R (
G r 4 r 4
o i )
(1.10.15) :

M =
(
U G G ro4 ri4 )
= 340.6 Nm . (1.10.16)
U kro

1.11) 1.11 .
L
= 10 cm2.
h1 = 20 cm . l1 = 50 cm
.

25

R k = 2.
( 1.11) U = 4 V.
(RG).
, .
UG = 5 mV.
: l = 0.6 m, b = 5 cm, = 5 mm y = 51 GPa.

:
F = gA(h h1 ) , (1.11.1)
. :
R 6 Fl1
= k , (1.11.2)
R E y bc 2

1 , 2 .
:

26

R 6 gA(h h1 )l1
UG = U = Uk . (1.11.3)
2R 2 E y bc 2

(1.11.3) :
2
U G E y bc
h = h1 + = 2.9 m . (1.11.4)
U 3gAkl1

1.12) 1.12

k = 0.25 N/cm. l = 20 cm
A = 20 cm2. .

. L = 30 cm R = 2 k
U = 5 V.
RG = 1 M.
h = 20 cm.
.

27

h,
x. :
A(h x) g = kx , (1.12.1)
. (1.12.1) :
x 1
a= = = 0.44 . (1.12.2)
h 1+ k
Ag
1.12.1 .

:
R2 RG
UG = U . (1.12.3)
R1 + R2 RG

:
x R2
b= = , (1.12.4)
L R
(1.12.3) :
b
UG = U . (1.12.5)
R
1 + b(1 b)
RG
:

28

h
a
UG = U L = 1.464 V . (1.12.6)
h h R
1 + a (1 a )
L L RG

, :
hmax x max = l . (1.12.7)
:
x max = ahmax . (1.12.8)
:
l
hmax = = 37 cm . (1.12.9)
1 a

1.13) 1.13
R = 350 k = 2.1.
y = 210 GPa.
20 mW.

29


. Ui = 2.5 V,
100 kg/cm2
10 mV. : Ro = 350 .

:
U i max U 1
I max = . (1.13.1)
2 Ro
:

2 U i2max
P= I max Ro = . (1.13.2)
Ro
(1.13.2) 2.65 V.
1.13 :
Ui U
= 1, (1.13.3)
Ro R

U i U 2 U 2 U 2 U1
= + , (1.13.4)
Ro R1 Ro

R2
Uo = U2 . (1.13.5)
R1
:
R2 R Ro R R
Uo = Ui = Ui 2 =
Ro 2 R1 + Ro Ro 2 R1 + Ro
(1.13.6)
R2 Ro kF 1
= Ui
Ro AE y 2 R1 + Ro

R1 2R1 >> R, (1.13.6) :

30

R2 kF
Uo = Ui , (1.13.7)
R1 2 AE y

:
R2 U o 2 AE y
= = 85.6 . (1.13.8)
R1 U i kF

1.14) 1.14 a a a
, , l/2
F. 1.15.
20 mA.
Fmax = 1000 N 1 V,
. a a je
R = 200 k = 2.1. : l = 1 m, b = 5 cm, h = 5
mm y = 51 GPa.

31

:
Rmax 3F l
= k max 2 = 9.882 103 . (1.14.1)
R E ybh


. 1.14. :
Ui U i U1
I max = = , (1.14.2)
Ro R Rmax + Ro

U i U 2 U 2 U1
= , (1.14.3)
Ro Ro

R
U o = 1 + 1 U 2 . (1.14.4)
R2
(1.14.4) U2 = 0 V,
(1.14.2) (1.14.3) Ro = R = 200 .
:
U i max = I max Ro = 4 V . (1.14.5)

(1.14.2) :
R
U1 = U i 1 max , (1.14.6)
Ro

(1.14.3) :
1 Rmax
U2 = (U i + U1 ) = Ui . (1.14.7)
2 2 Ro
:
R R
U o max = 1 + 1 max U i , (1.14.8)
R2 2 Ro
:

32

R1 U o max 2 Ro
= 1. (1.14.9)
R2 Ui Rmax

Ui = 4V, R1 = 49.6R2.
R2 = 10 k, R1 = 496 k.

1.15) 1.15 R = 350


250 mW.
xmax = 0.02.
0 V 10 V 0
0.02.

1.15 :
R o (1 x) 1 x
U1 = Ui = Ui , (1.15.1)
R o (1 + x) 1+ x

33

R o (1 + x) 1+ x
U2 = Ui = Ui , (1.15.2)
R o (1 x) 1 x

R2 R 1 x
U3 = U1 = 2 Ui . (1.15.3)
R1 R1 1 + x
:
R R R 1 x R 1+ x R 4x
Uo = U3 U2 = Ui + Ui = Ui . (1.15.4)
R2 R1 R1 1 + x R1 1 x R1 1 x 2

. :

U i2
Pmax = I 2 Ro = , (1.15.5)
Ro
:
U i max = Pmax Ro = 9.3 V . (1.15.6)

U = 9 V. T :

R U o 1 x 2 10 V 1 (0.02) 2
= = = 13.88 . (1.15.7)
R1 U i 4x 9V 4 0.02

34
2.

2.1) R = 100
= 6 mW/K , = 100 mW/K .

0.1 .


.
:

I 2R
T = . (2.1.1)

, :

0.006 W/K
I = T = 0.1 K = 2.4 mA . (2.1.2)
R 100
, :

0.1 W/K
I = T = 0.1 K = 10 mA . (2.1.3)
R 100

2.2) 100
0.00389 1/ 0
.
25 50 .

[ ]
RT = R0 1 + (T T0 ) + (T T0 ) 2 + (T T0 ) 3 ... , (2.2.1)

35

R0 T0, , ,
. ,
, :
RT = R0 [1 + (T T0 )]. (2.2.2)
S :
RT R0
S= = 0 R0 = 25 R25 = 50 R50 = 0.389 . (2.2.3)
(T T0 ) K
T 25 :
0 R0 0 R0 1
25 = = = 0.003545 (2.2.4)
R25 R0 [1 + 0 (T25 T0 )] K
T 50 :
0 R0 0 R0 1
50 = = = 0.003257 . (2.2.5)
R50 R0 [1 + 0 (T50 T0 )] K

2.3) O 500
0.00618 1/ 0 .
o 100
,
RT = R100 [1 + 100 (T T100 )] . ,
100 100
101 .

:

S = 0 R0 = 100 R100 = 3.09 . (2.3.1)
K
T 100 :

36

0 R0 0 R0 1
100 = = = 0.00382 . (2.3.2)
R100 R0 [1 + 0 (T100 T0 )] K
100 :
0 R0
R100 = = 808.9 . (2.3.3)
100
101 :
R101 = R100 [1 + 100 (T101 T100 )] = 812 . (2.3.4)

2.4) NTC 5000 25 1244 60 .


0 100 .

NTC
:
1 1
RT = R0 exp B , (2.4.1)
T T0
R0 T0,
. (2.4.1) :
1 1
R60 = R25 exp B , (2.4.2)
T60 T25
:
R 1244
ln 60 ln
R25 5000
B= = = 3948 K . (2.4.3)
1 1 1 1

T60 T25 (273.15 + 60) K (273.15 + 25) K
:

37

1 dRT B
= = 2 . (2.4.4)
RT dt T
0 :
3948 K 1
0 = 2
= 0.053 . (2.4.5)
(273.15 K ) K

100 :
3948 K 1
100 = 2
= 0.028 . (2.4.6)
(373.15 K ) K

2.5) NTC 25 R = 10 k,
= 0.14 mW/K R25/R125 = 19.8.
35 .

NTC
.
, , ,
:
P
T = . (2.5.1)

NTC ,
0, :

U 1 1
R(T0 + T ) = = R0 exp B , (2.5.2)
I T0 + T T0
:
UI
T = (T T0 ) = . (2.5.3)

38

(2.5.2)
:

1 1
U = IR0 exp B . (2.5.4)
T + UI T0
0

:
1 1
U 2 = (T T0 ) R0 exp B . (2.5.5)
T T0
, ,
(2.5.5) :
B
0 = 1 (T T0 ) . (2.5.6)
T2
.
:

B B 2 4 BT0
Tmax = . (2.5.7)
2
K B :
1
ln
B= 19.8 = 3544K . (2.5.8)
1 1

(273.15 + 125)K (273.15 + 25)K
:

3544K (3544K )2 4 (3544K ) (273.15K + 35K )


Tmax = = 341K , (2.5.9)
2

1 1
RT = (10K ) exp (3544K ) = 3302 , (2.5.10)
341 K 273.15K + 25K

39

IT =
(Tmax T )
=
(0.14 mW/K ) (341 K - 308.15 K ) = 1.18 mA . (2.5.11)
RT 3302

35 :
U T = I T RT = (1.18 mA ) (3302 ) = 3.9 V . (2.5.12)

B
2.6) RT = A exp ,
T
5000.00 25 1801.44 50 .
37.5 .

:
1 1
RT = R0 exp B , (2.6.1)
T T0
:
B
A = R0 exp . (2.6.2)
T0
:
1801.44
ln
B= 5000.00 = 3934 K , (2.6.3)
1 1

(273.15 + 50)K (273.15 + 25)K
3934 K
A = (5000.00 ) exp = 0.0093 . (2.6.4)
(273.15 + 25 )K
37.5 :
3934 K 1
37.5 = = 0.041 . (2.6.5)
(273.15 K + 37.5 K )2 K

40

2.7) 20 100
0.1 2.7.
0 100 , 0.00385 1/
= 40 mW/K. Ur = 5 V,
1 mV/oC, Rr.

:
2
I r2 RT U RT
= r = T < 0.1 . (2.7.1)
Rr
,
, 100 . (2.7.1)
:
R100
Rr > U r . (2.7.2)
( 0 .1 o C )
:
R100 = R0 [1 + 0 (T100 T0 )] = 138.5 . (2.7.3)

41

(2.7.2) (2.7.3) :

138.5
Rr > (5 V) = 930 . (2.7.4)
mW
40 (0.1 K )
K

:
Ur U
Uo = RT = r R0 [1 + 0 (T T0 )] , (2.7.5)
Rr Rr
:
dU o U r
S= = R0 0 , (2.7.6)
dT Rr
:
Ur
Rr = R0 0 = 1925 . (2.7.7)
S

2.8) 0 50
2.8. 1000
0.00375 1/ 25 . R1, R2, RP
Ur 0 V 2 V,
50 .
U = 5 V.

42

, U+ U . :
RT
U+ = U = U , (2.8.1)
R P + RT

Ur U+ U+ Uo
= . (2.8.2)
R1 R2
:
R R RT R2 R
U o = U + 1 + 2 U r 2 = U 1 + U r 2 . (2.8.3)
R1 R1 RP + RT R1 R1

:
U
IT = . (2.8.4)
R P + RT
,
0 . (2.8.4) :
U
RP R0 = 99.09 k , (2.8.5)
I T max

:
R0 = R25 [1 + 25 (T0 T25 )] = 906.25 . (2.8.6)

RP = 100 k. (2.8.3)
0 50 :
R0 R2 R
U o1 = U 1 + U r 2 , (2.8.7)
RP + R0 R1 R1

R50 R2 R
U o2 = U 1 + U r 2 , (2.8.8)
R P + R50 R1 R1

: U1 = 0 V, U2 = 2 V :
R50 = R25 [1 + 25 (T50 T25 )] = 1094 . (2.8.9)

43

:
R R
0 V = (0.045 V )1 + 2 U r 2 , (2.8.10)
R1 R1

R R
2 V = (0.054 V )1 + 2 U r 2 . (2.8.11)
R1 R1

(2.8.10) (2.8.11) R2 = 221 R1. R1 = 100 ,


R2 = 22.1 k. (2.8.10) Ur = 0.045 V.

2.9) 20 50
2.9. NTC R.

. R
, . NTC
10 k 20 = 3950 . Ur = 5 V.

:
RT
U = Ur . (2.9.1)
RT + R

44

,
:
U 50 U 35 = U 35 U 20 . (2.9.2)
(2.9.1) (2.9.2) :
R50 R35 R35 R20
= , (2.9.3)
R50 + R R35 + R R35 + R R20 + R

: R50 = 2.86 k, R35 = 5.19 k i R20 = 10 k. (2.9.3)


:
R35 R50 + R20 R35 2 R20 R50
R= = 3.828 k . (2.9.4)
R50 + R20 2 R35

2.10) 2.10 NTC


0 50 . NTC
1000 20 C = 3500 .

. 0 ,
50 2 V.
. .

45

:
RT R3
U G = U . (2.10.1)
RT + R2 R3 + R4
R2
, i = (273.15 + 25) K.
(2.10.1)
:

d 2U G
T =Ti = 0. (2.10.2)
dT 2
(2.10.1) :
dRT dRT dR
( RT + R2 ) RT R2 T
dU G
= U dT 2
dT = U dT , (2.10.3)
dT (RT + R2 ) (RT + R2 )2
d 2 RT dRT dR
2 2
(RT + R 2 )2 2(RT + R2 ) T
d UG dT dT
= UR2 dT , (2.10.4)
dT 2 (RT + R 2 )4
:
B B B B
dRT d Ae T = Ae T = 2 RT , (2.10.5)
T 2
=
dT dT T

d 2 RT d B B dRT 2 B B
2
= 2 RT = 2 + 3 RT = 4 RT (B + 2T ) , (2.10.6)
dT dT T T dT T T
:

d 2U G UR2 B RT [(B + 2T )(RT + R2 ) 2 BRT ]


2
= . (2.10.7)
dT T4 (RT + R2 )3
(2.10.2) :

46

(B + 2Ti )(RT i
)
+ R2 2 BRTi = 0 , (2.10.8)

:
RTi (B 2Ti )
R2 = = 580.2 . (2.10.9)
B + 2Ti
:
R0 R3 2937
= = = 5.062 . (2.10.10)
R2 R4 580.2

R3 = 20000 , R4 = 3591 . :
2V
U= = 4.12 V . (2.10.11)
R50 R3

R50 + R2 R3 + R4

2.11) 2.11 . NTC


30 k 20 B = 4000 K
. R1, R2 R3
15 , 25 35 0.9, 1 1.1 .

2.11 :
R3
U o = U i . (2.11.1)
(R1 + RT ) R2

47

:
Uo R3 R3 ( R1 + R2 + RT )
= = . (2.11.2)
Ui (R1 + RT ) R2 R2 ( R1 + RT )

15 , 25 35 :
1 1
R15 = R20 exp B = 38.01 k , (2.11.3)
T15 T20

1 1
R25 = R20 exp B = 23.86 k , (2.11.4)
T25 T20

1 1
R35 = R20 exp B = 15.44 k . (2.11.5)
T35 T20
:
R3 ( R1 + R2 + R15 )
0.9 = , (2.11.6)
R2 ( R1 + R15 )

R3 ( R1 + R2 + R25 )
1= , (2.11.7)
R2 ( R1 + R25 )

R3 ( R1 + R2 + R35 )
1.1 = . (2.11.8)
R2 ( R1 + R35 )

: R1 = 17.8 k, R2 = 27.13 k
R3 = 16.43 k.

2.12) 0 50
2.12. 2000
0.0075 1/ 25 .

R1, R2 R3 0 V
10 V, 1 m.
UCC = 15 V.

48

, U+ U . :
RT
U + = U = U CC , (2.12.1)
R1 + RT

U CC U + U + U + U o
= + . (2.12.2)
R1 R3 R2
:

RT R2 R2 R2
U o = U CC 1 + + U CC . (2.12.3)
RT + R1 R1 R3 R1

:
U CC
IT = . (2.12.4)
RT + R1
,
0 . (2.12.4) :
U CC
R1 R0 = 13.375 k , (2.12.5)
I T max
:
R0 = R25 [1 + 25 (T0 T25 )] = 1.625 k . (2.12.6)

49

R1 = 15 k. (2.12.3)
0 50 :
R0 R2 R2 R2
U o1 = U CC 1 + + U CC , (2.12.7)
R0 + R1 R1 R3 R1

R50 R2 R2 R2
U o 2 = U CC 1 + + U CC , (2.12.8)
R50 + R1 R1 R3 R1

U1 = 0 V, U2 = 10 V :
R50 = R25 [1 + 25 (T50 T25 )] = 2.375 k . (2.12.9)
:
R R R
0 V = (1.466 V )1 + 2 + 2 (15 V) 2 , (2.12.10)
R1 R3 R1

R R R
10 V = (2.050 V )1 + 2 + 2 (15 V) 2 . (2.12.11)
R1 R3 R1

R2 = 25 k R3 = 1.74 k.

2.13) 0 50
2.13. NTC 10 k
20 B = 3500 K. R1, R2 R3
.

50

, U+ U . :
R3
U+ = U = Ui , (2.13.1)
R3 + RT

Ui U+ U+ Uo
= . (2.13.2)
R1 R2
:
R3 R2 R2 R1 R3 R2 RT
Uo = Ui 1 + = Ui . (2.13.3)
RT + R3 R1 R1 R 1 ( RT + R3 )
R3
, i = (273.15 + 25) K.
(2.13.3)
:

d 2U o
T =Ti = 0. (2.13.4)
dT 2
(2.13.3) :
dRT
dU o R
= U i R3 1 + 2 dT , (2.13.5)
dT R1 ( RT + R3 ) 2

d 2 RT dRT dR
2 ( RT + R3 ) 2 2( RT + R3 ) T
d Uo R 2 dT dT
= U i R3 1 + 2 dT , (2.13.6)
dT 2 R1 ( RT + R3 ) 4

:
B B B B
dRT d Ae T = Ae T = 2 RT , (2.13.7)
T 2
=
dT dT T

51

d 2 RT d B B dRT 2 B B
= 2 RT = 2 + 3 RT = 4 RT (B + 2T ) . (2.13.8)
dT 2 dT T T dT T T

d 2U o R B R [(B + 2T )(RT + R3 ) 2 BRT ]


2
= U i R3 1 + 2 4 T . (2.13.9)
dT R1 T (RT + R3 )3
(2.13.4) :
(B + 2Ti )(RT i
)
+ R3 2 BRTi = 0 , (2.13.10)

:
RTi (B 2Ti )
R3 = = 5 .8 k . (2.13.11)
B + 2Ti
,
, (2.13.3) :
R1 R B + 2Ti
= 3 = = 1.41 . (2.13.12)
R2 RTi B 2Ti

R2 = 10 k, R1 = 14.1 k.

2.14) 2.14
0 750 , 50
800 .
100 , 0.004 1/ 0
= 1 mW/K.

.
5 ,
0.05 .

52

:
kRo Ro (1 + T2 ) kRo Ro (1 + T1 )
UG = U =
Ro (k + 1 + T2 ) Ro (k + 1 + T1 )
. (2.14.1)
k (T2 T1 )
=U .
(k + 1 + T2 )(k + 1 + T1 )

:
UG k
S= =U . (2.14.2)
T2 T1 (k + 1) 2
:

e=
UG
(T2 T1 ) = (T2 T1 )
(k + 1)2
1
S (k + 1 + T2 )(k + 1 + T1 )
(2.14.3)
(T1 + T2 )(k + 1) + 2T1T2
= (T2 T1 ) .
(k + 1 + T2 )(k + 1 + T1 )

53

, 1
2. 1 = 50 oC 2 = 800 oC.
, 5
:
2
(
5 o C = 750 o C )(0k.+0041 + 0850(k + 1) + (0.004 ) 50 800
.004 800 )(k + 1 + 0.004 50 )
, (2.14.4)

k 2 510.4k 601 = 0 . (2.14.5)


(2.14.5) : k1 = 509.2 k2 = 1.
. kRo = 59.2 k.

. :
2 2
U Ro (1 + T2 ) U Ro (1 + T1 )
es = =
Ro (k + 1 + T2 ) Ro (k + 1 + T1 )
(2.14.6)
U 2 1 + T2 1 + T1
= .
Ro (k + 1 + T2 )2 (k + 1 + T1 )2

k , (2.14.6) :

U 2 (T2 T1 )
es . (2.14.7)
Ro (k + 1) 2
(2.14.7) :
e s Ro
U = (k + 1) , (2.14.8)
(T2 T1 )
20.8 V.

2.15) 0 50
2.5. 813.5 0 , 1000

54

25 1211 50 . R
0 50 . R1, R2, R3
R4 400 ,
0.1 V 3.1 V. : UZ = 2.5 V, RZ = 5.6 k,
Ur = 3.3 V.


R R. :
RT RP
RS = . (2.15.1)
RT + R P
:

RS (25 o C) RS (0 o C) = RS (50 o C) RS (25 o C) , (2.15.2)

55

:
R25 R0 R50 R25
= . (2.15.3)
R25 + RP R0 + RP R50 + RP R25 + RP
(2.15.3) :
R25 R50 + R0 R25 2 R0 R50
RP = = 2212.4 . (2.15.4)
R50 + R0 2 R25
, :
UZ
IC = , (2.15.5)
R4
R RP.
:
I C = IT + I P , (2.15.6)

RT I T = R P I P . (2.15.7)
,
0 . :
RP UZ
R4 = 4569 . (2.15.8)
RP + R0 I T max

, U+ U . :
U Z RT RP
U + = U = I C RS = . (2.15.9)
I T RT + RP
:

Ur U U U Uo
= + , (2.15.10)
R1 R2 R3
:
R R R
U o = U 1 + 3 + 3 3 U r . (2.15.11)
R1 R2 R1

0 50 :

56

U Z R0 RP R3 R3 R3
U o1 = 1 + + Ur , (2.15.12)
R4 R0 + RP R1 R2 R1

U Z R50 RP R3 R3 R3
U o2 = 1 + + Ur , (2.15.13)
R4 R50 + RP R1 R2 R1

: U1 = 0.1 V U2 = 3.1 V. R4 = 4600 .


:
R R R
0.1 = 0.2661 + 3 + 3 3 3.3 , (2.15.14)
R1 R2 R1

R R R
3.1 = 0.3491 + 3 + 3 3 3.3 . (2.15.15)
R1 R2 R1

(2.15.14) (2.15.15) R3 = 2.88R1 R1 = 11.2R2.


R2 = 1 k, R1 = 11.2 k R3 = 32.26 k.

57
3.

3.1)
3.1. d1 = 8 mm
d2 = 40 mm. d = 50 m H = 1.2 m.
r = 2.1.

.

3.1
:
2 o r h
C1 = , (3.1.1)
d
ln 2
d1
2 o ( H h)
C2 = . (3.1.2)
d2
ln
d1
:

58

2 2 o
C ( h) = [ o ( H h) + o r h ] = [H + ( r 1)h] (3.1.3)
d2 d2
ln ln
d1 d1
:
2 o H
C min = = 41.46 pF . (3.1.4)
d2
ln
d1
:
2 o r H
C max = = 87.07 pF . (3.1.5)
d2
ln
d1
:

d 2
V = H = 0.2356 m 3 = 235.6 L . (3.1.6)
4
:
C max C min pF
S= = 0.19 . (3.1.7)
V L

3.2) 3.2
.
d1
r. d2.
b.
a)
.
b) t,
o
.

59

) 3.2
:
o r bh
C1 = , (3.2.1)
d1

o b( H h ) o r b( H h )
C2 = = . (3.2.2)
d1 d1 + d 2 r
+ d2
r
:
o r bh o r b( H h) o r b d
C ( h) = + = H + r 2 h . (3.2.3)
d1 d1 + d 2 r d1 + d 2 r d1
)
3.2
:
o bh o r t bh
C1 = = , (3.2.4)
d1 d2 t d1 + r d 2
+
r t

60

o b( H h ) o r b( H h )
C2 = = . (3.2.5)
d1 d1 + d 2 r
+ d2
r
:
o r t bh b( H h)
C (h) = + o r =
t d1 + r d 2 d1 + d 2 r
(3.2.6)
bH o r t b o r b
= o r + h.
d1 + d 2 r t d1 + r d 2 d1 + d 2 r

3.3) 3.3
.
h
h
C (h) = C o 1 + ( r 1) , r
H
, , o .
r,
0.15U, U
.

61

:
Z1Z 4 Z 2 Z 3
UG =U . (3.3.1)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )
:
1 1
Z1 = = , (3.3.2)
j C ( h ) h
jC o 1 + ( r 1)
H
1
Z2 = , (3.3.3)
j C o

1
Z3 = Z4 = . (3.3.4)
jC1
(3.3.1) :
h
( r 1)
U G (h) = U H . (3.3.5)
h
4 + 2 ( r 1)
H
:
h
( r 1)
U G ( h) = U H . (3.3.6)
h
4 + 2 ( r 1)
H
(3.3.6) :
U G ( h)
4H U
r = + 1 = 2.714 . (3.3.7)
h U G ( h)
1 2
U

3.4) 3.4 d
.

62

d ,
.
.
d
.
do


d :
o A
Co = . (3.4.1)
do

d, (3.4.1) :
o A Co
C1 = = . (3.4.2)
d o + d d
1+
do
, 3.4.1.

63

3.4.1
3.4.2.

Z Th
3.4.1 N , U
( 3.4.3a). :
Z 1 Z 2 (Z 3 + Z 4 ) + Z 3 Z 4 (Z 1 + Z 2 )
(
Z Th = Z 1 ) (
Z2 + Z3 )
Z4 = . (3.4.3)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )

U Th N (
3.4.3):

64

Z1 Z3 (Z 1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3 )
U Th = U =U
. (3.4.4)
Z1 + Z 2 Z 3 + Z 4 ( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )

:
U Th
IG = =
Z Th + RG
(3.4.5)
(Z 1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3 ) U
= .
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 ) RG + Z 1 Z 2 ( Z 3 + Z 4 ) + Z 3 Z 4 ( Z 1 + Z 2 )
:
d
1+
1 do
Z1 = = , (3.4.6)
jC1 jC o

1
Z2 = Z3 = Z4 , (3.4.7)
j C o
(3.4.5) :
d
do
IG =U . (3.4.8)
d 1 d
2 RG 2 + + 4 + 3
d o j C o d o

65

d
do
IG = U . (3.4.9)
2 2
d 1 d
2 RG 2 + + 4 + 3
d o C o d o

3.5) 3.5 d
.
d ,
.
.
d
.
do

66


d,
, .
:
(Z 1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3 ) U
IG = . (3.5.1)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 ) RG + Z 1 Z 2 ( Z 3 + Z 4 ) + Z 3 Z 4 ( Z 1 + Z 2 )
:
d
1+
do
Z1 = , (3.5.2)
j C o

d
1
do
Z2 = , (3.5.3)
j C o

1
Z3 = Z4 = , (3.5.4)
jC o
(3.5.1) :
d
do
IG =U . (3.5.5)
2
1 d
2 RG + 2
jC o d o


:
d
do
IG = U . (3.5.6)
2
d 2
1
4 RG2 + 2
C o d o

67

3.6) 3.6
.
= 25 cm2, do = 5 mm.
f = 20 kHz
U = 1 V.
)
(RG),
UG = 30 mV.
)
RG = 1 d = 0.1 mm.

) :
Co
C1 = C 4 = , (3.6.1)
d
1+
do

68

Co
C 2 = C3 = , (3.6.2)
d
1
do
:
o A
Co = . (3.6.3)
do
:
Z1Z 4 Z 2 Z 3
UG =U , (3.6.4)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )
:
d
1+
do
Z1 = Z 4 = , (3.6.5)
jC o

d
1
do
Z2 = Z3 = . (3.6.6)
j C o
:
d
UG =U , (3.6.7)
do
, :
d
UG = U . (3.6.8)
do
(3.6.8) :

UG
d = d o = 0.15 mm (3.6.9)
U

) :

69

U G = I G RG =
(3.6.10)
(Z 1 Z 4 Z 2 Z 3 ) U
= ,
Z 1 Z 2 (Z 3 + Z 4 ) + Z 3 Z 4 (Z 1 + Z 2 )
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 ) +
RG
:
d d
do do
UG =U =U . (3.6.11)
2 2
1 d do d
1+ 1 1+ 1
jC o RG d o j o ARG d o

d
do
UG = U 0.02 V . (3.6.12)
2
d d 2

1+ o
1
o ARG d o

3.7) 3.7
.
k = 1. d
1
UG = 0.1 V. f >> ,
2 2 LC o

f U = 2 V.
do = 2 mm.

(RG).

70

d,
:
Co
C1 = , (3.7.1)
d
1+
do

Co
C2 = . (3.7.2)
d
1
do
:
L12 = kL = L . (3.7.3)
:
1 1
U = + jL I 1 jL12 I 2 = + jL I 1 jL I 2 , (3.7.4)
jC1 jC1

71

1 1
U = jL12 I 1 + + jL I 2 = jL I 1 + + jL I 2 . (3.7.5)
j C 2 jC 2
:
1
+ jL j L
jC1
1 1 1 L 2 (C1 + C 2 ) 1
= = + L + =
1 2 C1C 2 C1 C 2 2 C1C 2
j L + j L
j C 2

U jL
1 1 2 2 LC 2
1 = = U + j 2L = U
1 j C 2 j C 2
U + j L
jC 2

1
+ j L U
jC1 1 1 2 2 LC1
2 = = U + j 2L = U
j L U jC1 jC1

I1 =
1
= jU 2 1
(
C 1 2 2 LC 2
,
) (3.7.6)
L(C1 + C 2 ) 1

I2 =
2
= jU 2 2
(
C 1 2 2 LC1
.
) (3.7.7)
L(C1 + C 2 ) 1
:

1 1 2 2 L(C 2 C1 )
UG = I1 I2 =U 2 . (3.7.8)
jC1 j C 2 L(C1 + C 2 ) 1
(3.7.1), (3.7.2) (3.7.8) :

72

d 4 2 LC o d 4 2 LC o
UG =U 2
U . (3.7.9)
do d d o 2 2 LC o 1
2 2 LC o 1 +
do
1
= 2f >> , (3.7.9) :
2 LC o

2d
UG =U . (3.7.10)
do
(3.7.10) :
UG U
d = d o = G d o = 0.05 mm . (3.7.11)
2U 2U

3.8) 3.8
l = 20 cm CS
.
o
.
. 25
do = 0.5 mm, 1 V.
70 0.6 V.
.

73

:
Z2
Uo = Ui, (3.8.1)
Z1
:
1
Z1 = , (3.8.2)
j C
1
Z2 = , (3.8.3)
j C S
(3.8.1) :
C
Uo = Ui. (3.8.4)
CS
25 :
o A
C S1 = . (3.8.5)
do

t , :
d = d 0 lt , (3.8.6)
70 :
o A
CS 2 = . (3.8.7)
d o l (t 70 t 25 )
25 70
:
C d
U o1 = U i = UiC o , (3.8.8)
C S1 o A
C d l (t 70 t 25 )
U o2 = U i = UiC o . (3.8.9)
CS 2 o A
:

74

do U o2 1
= 1 = 2.2 10 -5 . (3.8.10)
o
l (t 70 t 25 ) U o1 C

3.9) 3.9 C
min = 40 pF ,
max = 80 pF .
0 V , 1 V .
10 V.

, U+ U . :
Ui
U + =U = , (3.9.1)
2
( ) (
jC1 U i U + = jC 2 U + U o + jCU + .) (3.9.2)
:
U i C 2 + C C1
Uo = . (3.9.3)
2 C2

75

(3.9.3) :
C min = C1 C 2 , (3.9.4)
, :
U i C 2 + C max C1 U i C max C min
U o max = = . (3.9.5)
2 C2 2 C2
(3.9.5) :
U i (C max C min )
C2 = = 200 pF , (3.9.6)
2U o max
, (3.9.4) :
C1 = C min + C 2 = 240 pF . (3.9.7)

3.10) 3.10 l

.
. 2l = 10 cm,
b = 8 mm do = 1 cm .
Ui max = 10 V,
1 = 10 pF. 2 |Uo max| = 1 V
lmax = 25 mm.

76

:
Z2 C
Uo = U = 1U, (3.10.1)
Z1 C2
:
1
Z1 = , (3.10.2)
jC1

1
Z2 = . (3.10.3)
j C 2
:

( ) (
jC x U i U = jC1U + jC y U + U i , ) (3.10.4)

:
Cx C y
U= Ui, (3.10.5)
C x + C y + C1

:
l
C x = C o 1 , (3.10.6)
l

l
C y = C o 1 m , (3.10.7)
l
o bl
Co = = 353 pF . (3.10.8)
do
:
C1 C y Cx
Uo = U i max . (3.10.9)
C 2 C x + C y + C1

(3.10.9) :

77

l max
2C o
C
U o max = 1 l U
i max . (3.10.10)
C 2 2C o + C1
2 :
l max
2C o C1
l U i max
C2 = = 49 pF . (3.10.11)
2C o + C1 U o max

3.11) 3.11 d
.
,
do.
d .

78


d, :
Co
Cx = , (3.11.1)
d
1+
do

Co
Cy = , (3.11.2)
d
1
do
:
d
1+
do
Zx = , (3.11.3)
j C o

d
1
do
Zy = , (3.11.4)
j C o
:
o A
Co = . (3.11.5)
do
:
U a U x U x
= , (3.11.6)
R2 R1

U b U y U y
= , (3.11.7)
R2 R1
:
R
U a = U x 1 + 2 , (3.11.8)
R1

79

R
U b = U y 1 + 2 . (3.11.9)
R1

:
U i U x U x U a
= j C x U x + , (3.11.10)
R1 R2

U i U y U y U b
= j C y U y + , (3.11.11)
R1 R2
:
d
1+
1 do
Ux = Ui = Ui, (3.11.12)
jR1C x jR1C o

d
1
1 do
Uy = Ui = Ui. (3.11.13)
jR1C y jR1C o

(U a U c ) jC = U c R U o , (3.11.12)

:
R jRC
Uc = Ub = Ub. (3.11.13)
1 1 + jRC
R+
jC
:
R
( ) (
U o = jRC U b U a = jRC 1 + 2 U y U x ,
R1
) (3.11.14)

d
2
R do R R2 C
U o = jRC 1 + 2 U i = U i 1 + 2d . (3.11.15)
R1 jR1C o R1 R1 o A

80

3.12) 3.12 1 cm
+1 cm,
, .
Co = 10 pF
0.1 pF/mm.
) l
.
) 5 V,
. :
C = 20 pF, R1 = 10 k, R2 = 30 k.

) l,
:

81

l
C x = C o 1 + , (3.12.1)
lo

l
C y = C o 1 . (3.12.2)
lo
3.12 :
jC x U i = jCU a , (3.12.3)

jC y U i = jCU b , (3.12.4)

:
Cx
Ua = Ui, (3.12.5)
C
Cy
Ub = Ui. (3.12.6)
C
:

R2 R C Cy R C l
Uo =
R1
( )
U b U a = 2 x
R1 C C
U i = 2 o 2 U i ,
R1 C l o
(3.12.7)

l
.
) 1 cm
max = 1 pF. (3.12.1) (3.12.2) :
C o + C max C max l max
1 = = = 0.1 . (3.12.8)
Co Co lo
:
2 R2 C o l max 2 R2 C max
Uo = Ui = = 1.5 V . (3.12.9)
R1C lo R1C

3.13) 3.13 d
.

82

L1 L2, .
d
.
(RG).
d.

3.13.1
.
:
U U
I= = , (3.13.1)
Z 2 2
R + (L)

: U- , Z- , R-
- .

83

(3.13.1) :
U
I . (3.13.2)
L
L :

N2
L= , (3.13.3)
Rm
: N- , Rm-
.
Rmg Rmd:
lm 2d 1 lm
Rm = Rmg + Rmx = + = + 2d , (3.13.4)
o r A o A o A r
: lm- , -
, r- , 2d- .
(3.13.3) (3.13.4)
L d:

N 2 o A
L= . (3.13.5)
lm
+ 2d
r

84

d,
3.13 :

N 2 o A
L1 = , (3.13.6)
lm
+ 2(d o d )
r

N 2 o A
L2 = . (3.13.7)
lm
+ 2(d o + d )
r
:
Z1Z 4 Z 2 Z 3
UG =U , (3.13.8)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )
:

N 2 o A
Z 1 = jL1 = j , (3.13.9)
lm
+ 2(d o d )
r

N 2 o A
Z 2 = jL2 = j , (3.13.10)
lm
+ 2(d o + d )
r

Z3 = Z4 = R. (3.13.11)
:
L1 L2 d
UG =U =U . (3.13.12)
2( L1 + L2 ) lm
+ 2d o
r

3.14) 3.14 d
.
L1 L2 .
,

85

d
.
(RG).
d.

3.14.1
.
Rm Rmg
Rmd:
ld
d
l d d 1
Rm = Rmg + Rmd = + = + d . (3.14.1)
o r A o A A o

86


, (3.14.1) :
ld
Rm . (3.14.2)
o A
N :

N 2 o AN 2
L= = . (3.14.3)
Rm ld

d,
3.14 :

o AN 2
L1 = , (3.14.4)
l (d o + d )

o AN 2
L2 = . (3.14.5)
l (d o d )
:
Z1Z 4 Z 2 Z 3
UG =U , (3.14.6)
( Z 1 + Z 2 )( Z 3 + Z 4 )
:

87

o AN 2
Z 1 = jL1 = j , (3.14.7)
l (d o + d )

o AN 2
Z 2 = j L 2 = j , (3.14.8)
l (d o d )

Z3 = Z4 = R. (3.14.9)
:
L1 L2 d
UG =U =U . (3.14.10)
2( L1 + L2 ) 2(l d o )

3.15) 3.15

(P) (S1 S2)
.
.

. d.

88

:
u p (t ) = U pm sin(t ) , (3.15.1)


:
u s1 (t ) = K1 sin(t ) , (3.15.2)

u s 2 (t ) = K 2 sin(t ) . (3.15.3)
K1 K2 ,
.
,
, K1 = K2, :
u s1 (t ) = u s1 (t ) = K sin(t ) . (3.15.4)
:
u o (t ) = u1 (t ) u 2 (t ) . (3.15.5)
.
d S1
S1
us1, us2
S2. K1 = KA K2 = KB . :
u o (t ) = ( K A K B ) sin(t ) . (3.15.6)

d S2,
K1 = KB K2 = K. :
u o (t ) = ( K B K A ) sin(t ) = ( K A K B ) sin(t + ) . (3.15.7)

,

89

.
,
. :
u o (t ) = C d . (3.15.8)
.

3.16)
3.16. N = 200.
= 20 mm2.
d = 0.1 mm.
= 2 nF .
0 mm 0.5 mm.

. .

,
, :

90

N 2 o A
Lo = = 5 mH . (3.16.1)
2d o

d :

N 2 o A Lo
L= = . (3.16.2)
2( d o + d ) d
1+
do
:

1 d
f = = fo 1 + , (3.16.3)
2 LC do

:
1
fo = = 50.33 kHz . (3.16.4)
2 Lo C

:
d max
f max = f o 1 + = 123.3 kHz . (3.16.5)
do

50.33 kHz 123.3 kHz.

91

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John Wiley&Sons, Inc. 2001.
2. Jacob Fraden, Handbook of modern sensors physics, designs and
applications, Springer Verlag, Inc. 2004.
3. . , ,
, 1997.
4. ,
, , 1990.
5. , , ,
, 1994.
6. , , ,
, 1972.
7. Waldemar Nawrocki, Measurement Systems and Sensors, Artech House,
Inc. 2005.
8. Pavel Ripka, Alois Tipek, Modern Sensors Handbook, ISTE Ltd, 2007.
9. Slawomir Tumanski, Principles of electrical measurement, Taylor &
Francis Group, 2005.

91