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PULSED ULTRASONIC ASSISTED EDM FOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

1. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays industrial products with high performance and precise micro components
are required in many fields. For example, ultraprecise moulds are necessary to
produce lenses for digital cameras and motor cores for various kinds of motors. Micro
machining technology has therefore become an important issue in fabricating micro
components. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a promising machining method
for micro Machining. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is a well-established
machining option for manufacturing geometrically complex or hard material parts
that are extremely difficult-to-machine by conventional machining processes. EDM
process is carried out by a series of electric discharges between the tool electrode and
the workpiece electrode, which are separated by a dielectric fluid with a gap-width of
several submicron to several hundred microns. The workpiece material is removed
through melting and evaporation due to the heat generated by electric discharges.
Even very hard materials which are difficult to machine with traditional techniques
could be machined by EDM, as long as they are electrically conductive. EDM is a
thermal process where material is removed by a succession of electrical discharges
occurring between an electrode and a work piece plunged in a dielectric fluid. Every
discharge ionizes a localized plasma canal. where temperature can become very high
(up to 10000 0C), leading to fusion and ebullition of metal of both facing materials.
Due to a very rapid heat exchange with the surrounding dielectric fluid, a part of the
melted metal is ejected out of the work piece creating small solid particles.

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PULSED ULTRASONIC ASSISTED EDM FOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

Fig.1 EDM process

2. ULTRASONIC VIBRATION

Introduction of ultrasonic vibration to the electrode is one of the methods used to


expand the application of EDM and to improve the machining performance on
difficult to machine materials. The study of the effects on ultrasonic vibration of the
electrode on EDM has been undertaken since mid-1980s. The higher efficiency
gained by the employment of ultrasonic vibration is mainly attributed to the
improvement in dielectric circulation which facilitates the debris removal and the
creation of a large pressure change between the electrode and the work piece, as an
enhancement of molten metal ejection from the surface of the work piece. The pulse
discharge is produced by the relative motion between the tool and work piece
simplifying the equipment and reducing its cost. They have indicated that it is easy to
produce a combined technology which benefits from the virtues of ultrasonic
machining and EDM. In EDM, ultrasonic vibrations of the electrode can improve the
process. Firstly, the high frequency pumping action of the vibrating surface of the
electrode accelerates the slurry circulation, giving smaller machining times (up to 5
times less for finishing operations). Secondly, the great pressure variations in the gap
lead to more efficient discharges, which remove more melted metal from every crater.

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3. TYPES OF VIBRATION MEDIUM


There are mainly three types of vibration medium are introduced for the EDM
machining process as discussed below:

3.1 WORKPIECE VIBRATION


3.2 TOOL VIBRATION
3.3 ELECTROLYTE VIBRATION

3.1 WORKPIECE VIBRATION


The work piece was vibrated during machining and they have succeeded in
machining micro holes as small as 15 mm in diameter in quartz glass and silicon. In
the machining range, high tool wear posed a problem. To solve the problem, a
sintered diamond tool was tested and was proven to be effective. Prihandana et al
have studied the effect of vibrated work piece. They have shown that when the
vibration was introduced on the work piece the flushing effect increased. They have
found that high amplitude combined with high frequency increase the MRR.
Shabgard reduced the inactive pulses during the discharge and improved the process
stability by applying the US vibration in the work piece. In addition, high MRR was
observed in finishing regime. Gao noticed that holes with higher aspect ratios could
be machined in micro-EDM by applying US vibrations in the steel work piece.
Prihandana noticed a higher MRR when applying low frequency vibration to the work
piece. Uhlmann progressed on the die-sinking EDM machining of high aspect ratio
seal slots by using low frequency vibration to improve the flushing during the
process.

3.2 TOOL VIBRATION

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Introducing vibrations to the EDM process has been widely studied since Kremer
proved that an ultrasonic(US) vibration of the electrode could greatly improve the
removal rate. Murthy demonstrated that assisting the EDM process with US
vibrations significantly reduced in active pulses in a steel work piece. Abdullah
concluded that employing US vibration in the electrode increased the MRR when
machining cemented tungsten carbide(WC-Co), and observed that arcing was reduced
and the stability of the process was improved. Srivastava combined US vibration and
EDM with cryogenically cooled electrode(CEDM) and noticed that the
implementation of US vibration helped improving the MRR and maintaining the
TWR and surface roughness(SR). Iwai tested three types of ultrasonic vibration
modes and achieved an improvement of the MRR when machining polycrystalline
composite diamond(PCD). Shervani-Tabar developed numerical studies to analyse
the effect of the gap and the dynamic pressure on the small bubbles produced in the
dielectric fluid between the tool and the work piece in ultrasonic assisted EDM.

3.3 ELECTROLYTE VIBRATION

Ichikawa investigated and discussed the effects of US vibrations applied to the


dielectric fluid on hole drilling and showed that the machining time was greatly
shortened. Liew achieved a significant improvement of the micro-EDM performance
regarding MRR, maximum machining depth, surface topography, hole geometry and
process stability by transmitting the US vibration to the dielectric fluid using a probe-
type vibrator.

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4.VIBRATION MODES

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Fig. Various types of ultrasonic vibration mode and amplitude

Three types of ultrasonic vibration modes, namely, axial vibration,


flexural vibration and the complex vibration, were applied to the
electrode. In any of those vibration modes, two levels of vibration
amplitude, large and small were set switchable, and the effects in
the varied amplitude were studied. As for the discharge conditions,
setting the electrode polarity -, the other conditions were set so
that C-PCD can be machined without giving ultrasonic vibration.
Setting the total EDM time as 10 minutes, machining efficiency,
wear rate of the electrode and the surface roughness of the work
piece were evaluated.

5. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
5.1.EDM PROCESS

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Fig. Schematic diagram of the machining equipment.

For this study, a NX3 EDM machine from ONA was used. The tests were performed
using a copper rod electrode with a diameter of 15mm. Each electrode was polished
with a Mecatech 334 polisher from Presi until obtaining mirror finish in the front
face, in order to improve the surface roughness in finishing EDM operations.
Quenched and tempered 1.2344 (X40CrMoSiV5-1) tool steel (50 HRc) samples were
used for the EDM machining tests. The surface to be machined was grinded before
the EDM machining, in order to assure the same surface roughness and the same
parallelism between the electrode and the work piece in the different tests.

The objective roughness value(Ra) in these tests was around 0.30 mm, which was the
best obtainable roughness value taking into account the work piece material and
machining conditions mentioned in this section. The combination of the tool electrode
material, work piece material and machined area prevented from achieving 0.10 mm
surface roughness, which is the best roughness value that the cited NX3 EDM
machine can obtain.
The physical properties of the work piece material are shown in Table
1.

Table.1. Physical properties of 1.2344 tool steel.


.

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Fig. . Stochastic orbiting movement of the electrode in XY plane.


In order to achieve a better surface roughness and homogeneity, an orbiting
mechanism was used in every step. It is a usual practice to use the electrode orbiting
during finishing operation in EDM in order to achieve desired form precision and to
reduce the surface roughness. The main advantage of orbiting is the superimposition
of micro peaks of the electrode and the work piece surface, where the peaks are
removed by the small energy discharges.
The discharge conditions from the first and the last steps are collected in Table2.

Table.2. Discharge conditions in the first and the last step

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A special machining programme was prepared for these tests. This particular
programme starts with a high intensity regime, and it is progressively lowered until
finishing with the lowest intensity regime that the EDM machine can provide.

5.2. ULTRASONIC VIBRATION


An US transducer was designed to generate an axial vibration with a frequency of
40kHz in an unloaded mode (without being immersed in the dielectric). The reverse
piezo electric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an
applied electric field) was used to produce the axial vibration mentioned above.
Aluminium Alloys are common in US transducers. The Modulus of Elasticity(E) of
the aluminium alloys is relatively low, which enables are mark able amplification of
the vibration generated in the piezoelectric material in resonance. Nevertheless, the
yield stress of aluminium alloys is low too, which restricts the amplitude of the
vibration, as the transducer can fail if the yield stress value is exceeded.
The titanium alloys are proven to be interesting materials to manufacture US
transducers as they have a relatively low Modulus of Elasticity with a quite high yield
stress. In particular, Ti6Al4V alloy offers an interesting set of mechanical properties
among the materials available in the market. These mechanical properties are shown
in Table 3

Table.3. Mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy.

The US transducer used for this study was manufactured in Ti6Al4V with two PTZ-8
piezo- electric rings to generate the axial vibration. A MPI WG400 generator was
used for producing the electric field in the piezo electric rings, and it is able to supply
a power of 400W in 220V in a range of frequencies between 18 and 65 kHz. After
clamping the electrode in the US transducer and immersing both in the dielectric

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liquid, the frequency of the US vibration was lowered from 40 kHz to 39.4 kHz. The
generator and the US transducer were synchronized at that frequency so as to make
the transducer vibrate in its second axial mode, producing the highest vibration
amplitude in the tool tip. The movements of the electrode and the changes in the most
important parameters of the EDM process were monitored during machining. After
concluding all the tests, these recorded signals were examined with a mathematical
analysis software in order to detect any unusual behaviour during the EDM process.

5.3 ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENT


The roughness value of each machined area was measured with a confocal
microscope. In this study the roughness was measured in profiles, and thus,
ISO4287:1997and ISO 4288: 1996 standards were followed. The mentioned
microscope is able to acquire topographies and 3D surface texture parameters (in this
case ISO25178 would be used), but it was concluded that the use of the values of
surface roughness in area (Sa, Sz, Sq) is not wide spread, and consequently, they are
not significant in the industry. This is the reason why the roughness values were
measured in profiles (Ra).

Fig. 2. Machined area with a circular ring due to the inhomogeneity in the debris
layer.
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A visual observation of the machined area showed that the brightness was not
perfectly homogeneous, it being significantly brighter on the central region as
compared with the border. These brightness differences were caused by the variances
on roughness within the machined region. As it will be explained afterwards, this
phenomenon is caused by a dirt or debris layer which is retained in an in
homogeneous way between the tool electrode and the work piece.

Fig. 3. SEM images of the (a)centre (b)border of the machined area with EDM
process

In order to confirm the roughness difference between the brighter and matter zones in
the machined area, images captured with a Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
have been compared in the Fig. 3. In each area three different profiles were measured
(indifferent directions), in order to represent better, the roughness value of the area,
and an average value was calculated. The measurements in each position were
repeated 3 times.

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Fig. 4. Topographies of the (a)centre (b)border of the machined area with EDM
process

Fig. 5. Topographies of the (a)centre (b)border of the machined area with UEDM
process.

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Fig. 6. Topographies of the (a)centre (b)border of the machined area with PUEDM
process

These topographies were obtained by the confocal microscope mentioned before, and
were used to measure the roughness value in the different areas of each machining
process.

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6. RESULTS
During this study three different finishing processes were tested: EDM, UEDM and
PUEDM. The measured values showed a similar trend for each different process, and
that is why an average value has been used to represent the roughness value of each
process. From the mentioned figures difference in the surface finish quality and in the
brightness was appreciated between the Centre of the machined area and the border of
the area. This in homogeneity is common in the surfaces machined by finishing EDM
operations. A cross can be observed in case of the square electrodes and an exterior
ring in case of circular electrodes.

Fig. 7. Ra Comparison of EDM, UEDM and PUEDM in the centre and the border of
the Machined area

The EDM process by continuous US vibration is not beneficial for the final surface
roughness. The achieved Ra value of the finishing EDM process in the Centre was
0.37mm, this value increased to 0.57 mm in the case of assisting it with continuous
US vibration. However, applying the US vibrations discontinuously(PUEDM)
provided a better surface roughness than the EDM process without US vibration. The
Ra value achieved by the Pulsed Ultrasonic EDM process was 0.32 mm. The Ra value

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in EDM was 0.57 mm, which increased up to 1.12 mm by UEDM, while with
PUEDM the surface roughness was reduced to 0.46 mm.
It can be observed that the Ra difference between the centre and the border is
smaller in the case of PUEDM. Hence, it can be concluded that the PUEDM process,
besides offering lower surface roughness values, assures better homogeneity in the
whole machined area. The key of the success in these finishing operations is not to
completely clean the gap between the tool electrode and work piece so that this dirt or
debris layer is trapped in the gap in each discharge. In this way, the finishing EDM
operations are very close to the so called Powder-Mixed Dielectric (PMD) EDM
process.

Fig. 8. Pictures of the machined area with (a) EDM process, (b)UEDM process and
(c) PUEDM process.

The mentioned dirt or debris layer of the finishing operations is not homogeneously
distributed. This is the main reason why the machined areas show the inhomogeneity
in the roughness and in the brightness, as it has been stated before. Maradia achieved
to improve the distribution of the dirt layer with a novel stochastic orbiting strategy.
They worked with an extremely low stray capacitance sinking EDM machine, and
combining it with the novel orbiting strategy, they obtained super-finishing surfaces
with a better distributed surface roughness.
Ultrasounds are generated by high frequency harmonic oscillations. As
they propagate through a physic medium (oil in this case) they are reflected on any
solid surface generating standing waves. Solid particles or debris tend to travel from
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standing waves antinodes to nodes. Due to the fact that ultrasounds are applied by
pulses, the nodal distribution is constantly altered and therefore, particles migrate
randomly from one place to another. This fact explains that the pulsed ultrasonic
vibration causes a stochastic movement of the particles in the debris layer.
Consequently, the debris layer is distributed in a more homogeneous way, and the
surface roughness and brightness becomes more homogenous. In the case of UEDM,
as the US vibrations are active every moment, too many vibration and perturbation is
transmitted to the dielectric liquid, ejecting the debris particles out of the gap, which
is completely cleaned. Paradoxically, this fact is damaging for the surface finish. In
contrast, in the PUEDM process, as the US vibrations are activated and deactivated
periodically, the vibration generates enough movement to homogeneously disperse
the debris in the gap, but still not enough to eject the debris out of the gap.

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7. CONCLUSION
The US vibration can achieve a more homogeneous distribution of the debris
layer in the whole machined area. This results in a more homogeneous surface
roughness and brightness. The Pulsed EDM process was proven to be the best process
for finishing operations among the tested processes. The surface roughness achieved
without US vibration was improved introducing pulsed US vibration in the finishing
EDM process. The Ra value was lowered in 14% in the centre of the machined area
and in 20% in the border. The equilibrium of the debris layer in the gap that is
obtained during the finishing EDM process was shown to be altered when the gap
was completely cleaned, which is the case of the UEDM process. This altered state
was demonstrated to be harmful for the final roughness. A process close to PMD-
EDM was induced by not completely cleaning the gap, assuring a better surface
roughness, since the discharge energy was better distributed and thus, shallower
craters were produced. Assisting the finishing EDM process with US vibrations can
be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the vibration and perturbation transmitted
to the dielectric liquid. In the case of applying US vibrations continuously, the
transmitted vibration was too high, the gap was cleaned, and thus, a higher surface
roughness value was obtained in the machined region. In contrast, applying the US
vibration in a pulsed mode, the vibrations transmitted maintained the debris in
suspension, but these vibrations were not high enough to eject the debris out of the
gap. In this way, a better discharge homogeneity was ensured with PUEDM process,
with a lower roughness value.

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8.COMPARISON
EDM
Electrode material used are graphite, copper or brass.

Commonly used dielectric medium are kerosene and deionised water.

Surface roughness and brightness after machining is less homogeneous

It is less applicable for finishing operations

PUEDM
Copper electrode is preferable for tool material in us assisted EDM.

ONA oil is used as dielectric medium.

Titanium alloy is used for US transducer.

More homogeneous surface roughness and brightness is obtained.

It was proven to be the best process for finishing operations.

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9.APPLICATIONS

1. MICRO-SLIT MACHINING

The micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) has resulted in a greater research


interest and in the manufacture of precision products such as micro-pumps, micro-
engines, and micro-robots that have been demonstrated successfully in industrial
applications. A micro-slit machining using electro-discharge machining with a revised
rotary disk electrode to obtain a 42 m wide micro-slit with a depth of 1.02mm
successfully on a Ti6Al4V.

2. VIBRATION-ASSISTED EDM-MACHINING FOR TURBINE


COMPONENTS

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Modern aircraft engines are nowadays designed with the aim of


reducing fuel consumption and emission of pollutant gases as well
as increasing reliability and competitiveness in the manufacturing
and repair costs. It consists of a piezoelectric actuator for machining
seal slots in turbine components.
3.IMPROVEMENT OF EDM PROPERTIES OF PCD WITH ELECTRODE
VIBRATED BY ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER

By giving ultrasonic vibrations to the copper electrode, a machining


efficiency of the PCD improved.
4. IN AEROSPACE

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PUEDM provides the aerospace industry with multi-process machine tools that
polishing, drill, route, clean, and inspect.

10.BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Journal:

1. PULSED ULTRASONIC ASSISTED ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE


MACHINING FOR FINISHING OPERATIONS, International Journal of
Machine Tools & Manufacture, July2016, M. Goiogana, J.A. Sarasua

2. STATE OF THE ART ELECTRICAL DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM),


International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, June 2003, K.H. Ho, S.T.
Newman

3. A REVIEW ON CURRENT RESEARCH TRENDS IN ELECTRICAL


DISCHARGE MACHINING (EDM), International Journal of Machine Tools &
Manufacture, November 2007, Norliana Mohd Abbas, Darius G. Solomon
4. EFFECT OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON THE PERFORMANCE OF EDM
PROCESS WITH ULTRASONIC ASSISTED CRYOGENICALLY COOLED
ELECTRODE, Journal of Manufacturing Processes (2012), Vineet Srivastava,
Pulak M. Pandey.

5. STUDY OF ULTRASONIC ASSISTED CRYOGENICALLY COOLED EDM


PROCESS USING SINTERED (CuTiC) TOOLTIP, Journal of Manufacturing
Processes (2013), Vineet Srivastava, Pulak M. Pandey

6. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF VIBRATIONS ON THE MICRO-EDM


PROCESS AT THE WORKPIECE SURFACE, Precision Engineering (2011), R.
Garn, A. Schubert, H. Zeidler

7. A STUDY OF ULTRASONICALLY AIDED MICRO-ELECTRICAL-


DISCHARGE MACHINING BY THE APPLICATION OF WORKPIECE

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VIBRATION, Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2003), Changshui


Gao, Zhengxun Liu.

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HRSG is heat recovery steam generator


In it there are tubes filled with demineralized water
Hot exhaust gas at about 550oc coming out of the gas turbine is passed over these
tubes
Results in boiling the water and turning the water into steam
Gas exits at a much lower temperature of 120oc
Giving most of the gas heat for production of steam and this steam is fed into the
steam turbine

STEAM TURBINE
Steam turbine implements the Rankine cycle
In this cycle there should be a pump, boiler, turbine and condenser
As there is only one steam turbine, which is capable of producing upto 120 MW
Steam enters the turbine with temperature 550oc and pressure 2200 pounds per sq.
inch
This steam rotates the turbine blades which are coupled to a generator
Producing additional electricity, about 120MW per HRSG unit

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COMBINED CYCLE

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The implementation of gas and steam turbine together i.e. Brayton and
Rankine cycle is known as the combined cycle
By combined cycle only it produces a total of about 350MW of electricity
Combined cycle increases the efficiency of the plant about 50% to 60%
Utilising maximum fuel energy and reducing the amount of waste heat to
atmosphere
The residual steam leaves the turbine at low pressure and low temperature,
about 100oc
This exhaust steam passes into condenser, which converts in to water
A cooling tower is used to cool the circulating water that passes through the
condenser

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Cooling Tower
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device
It rejects waste heat to the atmosphere
There by cooling of water stream to a lower temperature.
DBT and WBT of air plays an important role in the working of a cooling
tower
As the WBT of air decreases, the capacity of cooling tower increases
The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower

The main types of cooling towers are:


1.NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS
2.MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS
In mechanical draft there is:
a) Mechanical induced draft cross flow
b) Mechanical induced draft counter flow
In NTPC Kayamkulam, mechanical induced draft counter flow cooling tower is used.
There are using eight individual cooling tower, combined to form as single main
cooling tower in this power plant.

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DEMINERALISATION PLANT
Source of water for the entire working of the plant is ACHANKOVIL river
Total water requirement is 1015m3/hr
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Water is drawn from Achankovil river from a single intake point (10 km away
from main plant area) into a desilting basin to remove sand and silt. Then
water is pumped from a raw water pump house to reservoir at plant site
through underground pipelines constructed by the state irrigation department.
Reservoir has 5 days of storage capacity
There is another makeup water pump at reservoir to pump water to clarifiers
in plant area for further processing.
After the clarification process, water is pumped to DM plant and to cooling
tower makeup sump.
Then the demineralized water is given to the boiler for production of steam.
Water to the township is supplied after filtering the water from DM plant

NEED FOR WATER TREATMENT

As the water that is fed into the plant is from the river, it contains lots of impurities,
sand, dissolved salts, suspended wastes etc. and if this water is fed into the plant
without proper treatment, then it may cause Blocks in heat exchanger tubes and
piping system, scaling in boilers and heat exchangers, Fouling and affect the
efficiency of the plant.

FOULING
Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted materials on solid surface that
detriment the proper functioning.
Fouling due to accumulation of living organisms like algae, bacteria, diatoms
etc. is called biofouling.
Fouling by non-living substances is called Inorganic fouling.
Biofouling can cause Microbiologically Influenced Corrossion(MIC).
PREVENTION OF FOULING
Macrofouling can be avoided by Prefiltration
Microfouling can be prevented by extensive methods of water treatment
which includes microfiltration,using ion exchange resins.

DEMINERALISATION PLANT
A demineralisation plant produces mineral free water by operating on the
principles of ion exchange and degasification.
The impurity ions present in water are replaced with ions released by the
resin.
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Ion exchange resins should be periodically regenerated to restore it to orginal


ionic form.
Ion exchange resins are basically cross linked polystyrene structure.
Two types of resins that are used are:
1. Cation exchange resin
2. Anion exchange resin

RESINS

Resins are generally porous and used in the form of spherical beads of
diameter 0.5 to 1mm

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Cation exchange resins exchanges all cations in water with hydrogen ions.
Anion exchange resins exchanges all anions in water with hydroxide ions.

DEMINERALISATION PROCESS
Complete demineralisation is achieved using 2 resins.
Water is first passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in hydrogen ion
form.
In cation exchange resin unit, all cations of water are replaced up by hydrogen
ions in resin.
Now water is passed on to anion exchange unit.
In anion exchange unit, all anions in water is replaced by hydroxide ions in
resin.
The released hydroxide ions react with hydrogen ions to form water.

REGENERATION OF RESINS
Resins are regenerated periodically in an interval of 12 to 48 hours.

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Resin is considered to be exhausted when ions in resin is mostly replaced by


ions that are being removed from solution.
Exhaustion of resins are detected by an electrical conductivity cell installed at
outlet.
When conductivity rises indicating the ionic breakthrough, a regeneration
cycle is initiated.
Cation exchange resins are regenerated using HCl or H2SO4.
Anion exchange resins are regenerated using aq.NaOH.

FIRE AND SAFETY DEPARTMENT

Fires in electrical power generating plants can have costly and even fatal
consequences.
Fire protection s/m are a combination of mechanical and electrical
components.
These system needs regular attentions.

FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS


1. Hydrant system
2. HVWS&MVWS systems
3. Sprinkler system
4. Foam system
5. Portable extinguishers
6. Fire alarm systems

1.HYDRANT SYSTEM
Cover the entire power station.
This system involves a combination of valves, hoses, nozzles, pipes, water
storage tanks and hydrant valves.

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2.HVWS & MVWS SYSTEM


Such a system is used in places where fire is likely to rapidly spread out of
control, within a short duration.
HVWS & MVWS systems are used in two different conditions.
Examples: Transformer , Combustible fuels

SPRINKLER SYSTEM
Provide early fire control or extinguishment.
Consist of water supply system, providing adequate water pressure and flow

rate and fire sprinklers are connected to this.

FOAM SYSTEM
Foam is used for the suppression of fire and can extinguish flammable liquid
or combustible liquid fires in four different ways:
Separate the flames from the fuel surface
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Retards vapour release from the fuel surface


Cools the fuel surface and any surrounding metal surfaces.
Excludes oxygen from the flammable vapours

PORTABLE EXTINGUISHER
Used in NTPC is Carbon Dioxide fire extinguisher.
These contains pressurised liquid carbondioxide gas, which turns to gas when
expelled.
Effective on class B fires.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM


A Fire Alarm System is a passive system.
The main function of FAS:
To give an early warning
Alert the responsible authorities

Department of Mechanical Engineering 34


PULSED ULTRASONIC ASSISTED EDM FOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

IN CASE OF FIRE.
If a fire occurs then the passage of information is like this

SAFETY MEASURES
Personal protective equipment.
Provide first-aid &prompt treatment of injuries & illness at work.
Publish regulations, instructions in the common language of employees.
Regular safety inspection.
Signs on floors are marked.
Unauthorised persons are not allowed to access the work sites.
Visitors are provided with protective equipment & guide.
Warning signs are displayed everywhere.

Department of Mechanical Engineering 35


PULSED ULTRASONIC ASSISTED EDM FOR FINISHING OPERATIONS

Department of Mechanical Engineering 36