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Colloidal and surface phenomena project

Hair conditioner

Group members

Juan Carlos Alva Nieto

Ken-Tye Yong
Anthony Rivers

4 / 9 / 2002



What is hair conditioner?.2

Hair conditioner as consumer product.3

Hair chemistry

Human hair description....4

Macroemulsions and Microemulsions.5

The Stability of emulsions...8


What is Foams?9

The Stability of foams..9

Interactions of surfactants and polymer with hair..10


Types of hair conditioners



Making procedure for the emulsion products16



Process control...20



What is hair conditioner?

Hair conditioners are basically designed to restore hair to its natural state rather than
produce an artificial effect. Mostly, the hair conditions have treatments of washing to
dyeing or to sustain permanent waving hair [7]. Hair conditioner has also the ability to
undo the damage by giving a better look and feel to the hair fibers. However, hair
conditioners are not meant to repair damaged hair. Most hair conditioner is basically
compositions containing cationic surfactants in combination with long chain fatty alcohol
and other lipid components [1].

Modern hair conditioners are actually derived from old-age practices. For example,
anointing the head with polar solvent, this gives protection to hair fiber during cleaning
of hair. Hair conditioners were first formulated at the early 30, and it was based on self-
emulsifying waxes, which then broke down into liquid form when it was massage to the
hair. They were usually applied in conjunction with an electric heating cap. Early hair
conditioners have only lubricating effect, and left a thin layer coating on the hair. At late
80s further development have included liquid-foam form used immediately after a
shampoo or for hair styling purpose. This liquid-foam form is often referring as hair
detanglers that end fly-away hair and leave the hair to be soft, shiny and manageable.

Hair conditioner became popular and it is widely used today, many other brands and
products of hair conditioner has appear in different form at the market. Even though,
there are so much of hair conditioner products in the market, still it can be characterize
into three main categories that is moisturizers, reconstructors and detangles.

Moisturizers are actually organic solvent concentrated with humectants. Humectants are
compounds that able to attract and hold moisture into the hair. They may not necessarily
contain botanicals or protein as compare to reconstructors hair conditioner [16]. As for
reconstructors hair conditioner, it contains protein. For Hydrolized human hair keratin,
protein will be the best source since it has all 19 amino acids found in the hair. Human

hair keratin protein has a low molecular weight. This enables the proteins to penetrate the
hair shaft (the cortex) and gives better looking hair. A reconstructors also has the ability
to strengthen the hair [16].

Most detanglers are acidifiers and have low pH. The function of detanglers is
commonly used to close the cuticle of the hair, which causes tangles. Some protection or
"shield" the hair shaft with surfactants and polymers. Some detanglers are instant, some
take 1-5 minutes to work.

As a summary, when consumer continue to subject their hair to physical and chemical
stress, hair conditioners will definitely play an important role in the market.

Hair conditioner as consumer product

Hair conditioner became very popular around 90s and it has an averaged of 11 percent
annual growth rate in gross rate. Nowadays, different brands hair conditioners are sold in
many places and the prices are reasonable since there are too many competitors in the

As for safety concern aspect, most hair conditioners are fairly toxic chemicals when
swallowed. The oral lethal dose appears to vary from 100mg to 700mg since it depend on
the body weight. Mostly hair conditioners have quaternary ammonium compounds, and it
serve as a cream rinses for hair. In high concentration of quaternary ammonium
compounds can injure the eye. Even at as low as 0.5 percent concentration, quaternary
ammonium compounds can do harm to the eyes such as conjunctivitis, clouding of the
cornea, and impairment of vision. Beside from quaternary compounds, roughly of 2.5
percent of benzalkonium chloride or steralkonium chloride was found in hair conditioners
as well. At this percentage, swallowing 8 fluids-ounces of conditioners will be the lethal
dose for a 40-pound child. Therefore while selecting a hair conditioner it is important to
know the ingredients used in preparing for the hair conditioners and always keep it away
from children.

In most hair conditioner, colorants is a must in the ingredients of formulating conditioner
since it is visual appealing and gives better looking to the conditioner. However,
color instability still might happen and it can be caused by many reasons, such as
the degradation of colorants, chemical interaction with formula components, and
ultraviolet radiation reactions [1]. Therefore, in order to control the color stability
in hair conditioner is to add ultraviolet absorbers. By adding ultraviolet absorbers to
the product it can absorb degrading radiation and also inhibit prevention of product

Preservation of consumer products against microbial contamination is very important

because contamination can lead to bad quality of product, furthermore the spread of
disease. Thus, it is a must to preserve consumer products against microbial contamination
at the time of manufacture and to ensure the products is able to preserved for a given time

Hair chemistry

Human hair description

Human hair is a keratin-containing appendage that grows from large cavities or sacs
called follicles. Hair follicles extend from the surface of the skin through the stratum
corneum and the epidermis into the dermis.

Morphologically , a fully formed hair fiber contains three and sometimes four different
units or structures. At its surface, hair contains a thick protective covering consisting of
layers of flat overlapping scale like structures called cuticle. The cuticle layers surround
the cortex which contains the major part of the fiber mass. The cortex, the second unit
consists of spindle-shaped cells that are aligned along the fiber axis. Cortical cells contain
the fibrous proteins of hair. Thicker hair often one or more loosely packed porous regions
called medulla, located near the center of the fiber. The fourth unit is the intercellular
cement that glues or binds the cells together, forming the major pathway for diffusion
into the fibers.

The human hair fiber can be divided into three distinct zones along its axis. The zone of
biological, synthesis and orientation resides at and around the bulb of the hair. The next
zone in an outward direction along the hair shaft is the zone of keratinization, where
stability is built into the hair structure via the formation of cystine linkages, the third
zone that eventually emerges through the skin surface is the region of the permanent hair
fiber, the permanent hair fiber consists of dehydrated cornified cuticle, cortical, and
sometimes medullary cells, and intercellular cement. Robbins (1) suggested that the
diameter of human hair fibers varies from 15 to 100 m.

Human hair is a complex tissue consisting of several morphological components (Figure

1), and each component consists of several different chemical species. It is an integrated
system in terms of both its structure and its chemical and physical behavior wherein its
components can act separately or as a unit.

The frictional behavior of hair is related primarily

to the cuticle, but the softness of hair is determined
by the cuticle, the cortex, and its intercellular

Depending of its moisture content (up to 32% by

weight) human hair consists of approximately 65 Figure (1). Morphological hair structure.
% to 95 % proteins. Its remaining constituents are
water, lipids, pigment and trace elements.

Proteins are condensation polymer of amino acids, and the structures of those amino
acids found in human hair are: Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine,
Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, Lysine, Arginine, Histidine, Citrulline, Aspartic acid, Glutamic

acid, Threonine, Serine, Cystine, Methionine, Cysteine, Cysteic acid, Proline and
Tryptophan. Refer to Table (1) for a quantified description of the composition of the
morphological components of hair:

Amino acid Cuticle Cortex Medulla

Aspartic acid 287 449 470
Threonine 524 664 140
Serine 1400 1077 270
Glutamic acid 819 1011 2700
Proline 994 667 160
Glycine 611 485 300
Alanine --- 374 400
Cystine 2102 1461 Trace
Valine 6347 499 320
Methionine 38 53 40
Isoleucine 184 249 130
Leucine 418 516 700
Tyrosine 132 184 320
Phenylalanine 91 142 ---
Cysteic acid 68 29 ---
Lysine --- 217 740
Histidine --- 71 100
Arginine 360 529 180
Ammonia --- --- 700

Table (1). Amino acid composition of the different morphological components of hair.
(Micrograms of amino acid per gram of dry hair)

Macroemulsions and Microemulsions

An emulsion may be defined as a mixture of particles of one liquid with some second
liquid, and, since almost invariably one of them is aqueous in nature, the two common
types of emulsions are: oil-in-water and water-in-oil. That is, the term oil is used as a
general word denoting the water-insoluble fluid, and the term water is similarly used to
denote the aqueous phase.

The abbreviations O/W and W/O
are frequently used to denote the
two above types of emulsions,
respectively. These two types are
illustrated in the Figure (2), It is
Figure (2) Two types of emulsions:
clear that one phase (the outer (a) Oil in Water O/W. (b) Water in Oil W/O
phase) is continuous whereas the
other (the inner phase) is not.

Microemulsions are transparent or translucent single-phase systems of oil, water and

amphiphile in which large swollen micelles are dispersed. It is well known that a larger
amount of surfactant is usually required to form single-phase microemulsions compared
with macroemulsions [2]. (In cosmetic applications, it is often very important to
minimize the amount of surfactant for cost and safety reasons.)

Spontaneous formation, clear appearance, thermodynamic stability, and low viscosity are
some characteristics of microemulsions that render these systems attractive and suitable
for many industrial applications. The widespread use of and interest in microemulsions
are based mainly on the high solubilization capacity for both hydrophilic and lipophilic
compounds, on their large interfacial areas, and on the ultra low interfacial tensions
achieved when they coexist with excess aqueous and oil phases [2].

In some applications, microemulsions and emulsions could be used. However,

microemulsions have important advantages. Low energy input is required for their
preparation (spontaneous formation) and stability. Their isotropic or clear appearance not
only is an aesthetic property of interest for consumer products but also allows
applications such as photochemical reactions, for which emulsions are unsuitable. For
applications, which requiring high solubilization power, microemulsions are with any
doubt superior than emulsions.

Many proteins can be solubilized in microemulsions based on apolar solvents, such as
aliphatic hydrocarbons without denaturation of loss of function. This is remarkable
because most proteins are sparingly soluble in apolar solvents and that transfer of
proteins into these solvents, and that transfer of proteins into these solvents frequently
results in irreversible denaturation and loss of biological activity.

Most hair conditioner are used today is consider as a microemulsion systems due to the
extremely fine droplets of oil form in contrast to the ordinary macroemulsions.
However, there is no clearly defined region and boundary between microemulsion and
macroemulsions. But, it is generally agree that the lower limit of a macroemulsion is
around 0.1 micrometer of size droplet. As for microemulsion is around quarter of visible
light. For example, fragrance and flavor oils are used in preparing hair conditioner at
relatively low concentrations. When fragrance oils is dissolved microemulsion system is

The Stability of emulsions

Proteins, glucosoides, lipoids, sterols, etc., although generally very watersoluble, are
nonetheless frequently able to impart considerable stability to emulsions and foams.
Saponin, albumin, pectin, gelatin, lecithin, and casein are among the natural substances
possessing emulsionstabilizing properties. (Berkman&Egloff -4)

In the foams as with the emulsions, it seems necessary to have some third surfactant
present to insure stability, pure liquids foam slightly or not at all, and such bubbles as
may be produced collapse quickly. Similarly, some of the methods for breaking
emulsions, such as heating, freezing, or the addition of certain surfactants, may also be
applied to foam prevention or elimination.

There are two problems of considerable interest in connection wit foams, but of much
less importance in the case of emulsions, are the nature of the mechanical structure of the

foam system and the mechanism of foam drainage. With respect to foam structure, there
are two extreme situations. In one of them, the liquid phase is rather viscous and the foam
consists of nearly spherical bubbles separated by rather thick liquid films. The other
extreme situation contains mostly gas phase, and structure-wise, consists of gas cells
separated by thin films, this due the low viscosity of the liquid.


What is Foams?
Foams can be considered as concentrated emulsions, having a das instead of a liquid as
the dispersed component. On the other hand, the fact that the formation of an emulsion is
often accompanied by the formation of foam indicates that, at least in these cases, foam
systems originate under the same conditions as emulsion systems. Oils, which are readily
emulsified in water, act as foam forming substances. Foam can be considered as a type of
emulsion in which the inner phase is a gas, usually air. The inverse of foam however is an
aerosol rather than another foam.

Foams as well as emulsions are three components systems, that is, they require the
presence of an agent for their formation. Factors influencing the origin of foam systems
and those influencing their ability to sustain themselves indicate another similarity
between properties of emulsion and foam systems.

Foam is a formation in which microscopic and micronic and submicronic liquid layers
separate ultramicroscopic gas bubbles. Therefore, foam is a union of laminae. The
formation of foam occurs in the same manner as the formation of a single liquid lamina.
Each film formed serves as a basis for the formation of other surface films; consequently,
knowledge concerned with the formation of other surface films may account to some
extent for a number of films, called in the aggregate foam.

The Stability of foams

There is no rigorous analysis possible of the interrelation of factors determining film
stability and hence foam lifetimes. Qualitatively, the lifetime depends on the drainage

rate, which in turns depends, in general, on some combination of fluid and film
viscosities and on the elasticity of the film, which determines how extensively drainage
must occur before rupture becomes probable. The factors (Adamson -6) affecting the
stability of foams are a) low equilibrium surface tension, b) a moderate rate of attainment
of equilibrium surface tension c) high surface viscosity as the most important properties
leading to high foam stability.

It has already been made clear that foam-stabilizing agents will, in general, be
surfactants, and most any substance capable of lowering the surface tension of the liquid
phase will show some effectiveness in stabilizing foam. In addition, as was true for
emulsions, solid particles forming a finite contact angle may also serve as foam-
stabilizing agents.

Interactions of surfactants and polymer with hair

Surfactants and polymer have become important components for hair care product over
the past few decades. The more important uses of surfactants are as primary ingredients
for hair conditioner, styling products and hair sprays. Interactions of surfactants and
polymer with hair have been well studied over past few decade, especially in 90s.
Basically, it is convenient to describe three extreme types of bonds between surfactants
and hair:

Primary valence bonds (ionic and covalent bonds)

Polar interactions (Hydrogen bonds)
Dispersion forces (van der waals attractions)

Primary valence bonds include ionic and covalent bonds, which are the strongest binding
forces. These bonds have energies of approximately 50 to 200 kcal/mol. Ionic bonds are
extremely important to the interactions of cationic ingredients and hair. As for covalent
bonds only involved between polymer and hair in certain polymerization reaction.

Hydrogen bonds are the most important polar interactions and are the next strongest
binding forces. These bonds are meant to bind polymers that are containing polyalcohol
or polyamide units, which also include polypeptides as well.

Dispersion forces or wan der waals attractions are relatively weak and are dipolar in
nature. This is due to the electrons are in constant motion, at any instant at time the
electrons distribution is probably distorted and creating a small dipole moment. These
types of forces are short range and act only between the surfaces of molecules. Therefore,
total strength of wan der waals bonding will increase when surface area increases.


The attachment of hair conditioning ingredients to hair fibers is fundamental to their

action. The amount of sorption or uptake of an ingredient by hair from an aqueous
solution is governed by its attraction or binding interactions to the keratin, its
hydrophilicity or binding interactions to the aqueous phase, and the diffusibility of the
ingredient into the hair.

For conditioning ingredients in shampoos and hair conditioners (1 -Robbins), have

suggested that adsorption is more critical than absorption, because the conditioning
ingredients are relatively large species.
The proteins in the hair conditioner (reconstructers) should have a low enough molecular
weight to actually penetrate and reconstruct the hair cuticle, cortex and medulle. This
product targets specific layers of the hair shaft working from the inside out,
reconstructing, revitalizing and strengthening the hair.

Types of Hair conditioners


Purpose and objective

As mention above detanglers has been widely used nowadays since there is a strong
demand in the market. For hair to remain flexible and easier to comb a certain amount of
moisture must be present within the hair shaft. Without this moisture, the hair becomes
dry and brittle. These will results the hair to split and form tangles within the hair.

The basic purpose of using detanglers hair conditioner is to remove tangles from hair
and gives straighten curly, and wavy hair. However, improvements have been made for
the past decade. Therefore, many other beneficial functions have added in to
detanglers. One of the crucial functions is to improve the texture of the hair and at the
same time gives glass like shine to the hair. Another beneficial functions of using
improved detanglers would be repairing and smoothen hair.

The common used ingredients to formulate detanglers are subdivide into five types are
humectants, cationic surfactants, acidifiers, colorants and fragrance. Each of this has a
unique role to play in formulating hair conditioner. In this part, we are going to discuss
detail about these five categories.

In order to illustrate and explained on how this five types of ingredients work together, an
example of common ingredients used to prepare detanglers hair conditioner is given as

De-ionized water (94.6 % wt)
1-hexadecanol (co-surfactant) (2.5 % wt)
Glycerin (humectants) (0.5 % wt)
Stearalkonium chloride (cationic surfactant) (1.5 % wt)
Citrus acid (acidifiers) (0.4% wt)
Colorants (0.2 % wt)
Fragrance (oil) (0.3 % wt)

From the list of ingredients it is obvious that the weight percent for surfactants used in
formulating hair conditioner is very little as compare to solvent. This is because excessive
use of surfactants is usually undesirable not only from the viewpoint of cost but also from
the safety concern and efficiency consideration. Many surfactants are irritating to the
sebum when it is used in high concentration. Some surfactants can even promote
penetration of other materials to the hair and increase the irritation potential on the
surface of skin. Therefore, using too much of surfactants in formulating will not offer any
beneficial effect towards the products.

As seen in the list two types of surfactants were used in the ingredients is 1-hexadecanol
and Stearalkonium chloride. Stearalkonium chloride is belonging to the cationic
surfactants family. Cationic surfactants are characterized by the fact that the hydrophobic
surface-active grouping is positively charged. They are mainly used in deodorants,
mouthwash, and hair care products. Stearalkonium chloride is also named quaternary
ammonium salts. The application of quaternary ammonium compounds are based on the
properties of positively changed nitrogen atom, which allowed the cationic group to be
attach onto the negatively charged surfaces such as hair and skin. This physical reaction
will neutralized the electrostatic charges on the hair and make hair easier to comb.

As for the co-surfactants 1-hexadecanol, which can be act as solubilizers in formulating

hair conditioner microemulsion. Generally, it is always a rule of thumb to used a
combination of two surfactants rather than one because this will gives better
microemulsion form in the system. From thermodynamics point of view, the system will
be much stable by using two surfactants since smaller droplet size may form.

In detanglers hair conditioner, glycerin serves as a type of alcohol that has a

humectants action. Humectants are chemicals compounds, which are attracted to water.
Humectants can hold and absorb moisture from the air. When humectants are applied to
hair as a conditioner, glycerin will penetrate the cuticle and stabilize the moisture content
within the hair shaft. The objective is to soften and swell dry brittle hair and results a
shiny smooth looking hair.

Acidifiers are commonly found in most hair conditioner product. Acidifiers are able to
dissolve the soap residue on the hair and at the same time it can eliminate greasy, sticking
feeling that caused by the air pollution. When all these components are applied to hair,
better manageable of hair can be achieved instantly.


Reconstructer is a hair conditioner, which rebuilds the hair. It deep penetrates in the hair
and represents an intense protein treatment that reconstructs dry, damaged and chemically
treated hair. Its ingredients penetrate deep into the layers of hair to replenish the
membranes lost in the hair shaft and on the scalp, or the cell membrane complex.

The reconstructers are water-based products (microemulsions or foams). They are usually
presented like foams, creams or mousses, which are rubbed into the hair and may then be
rinsed off with water or allowed to remain on the hair for conditioning and styling

The reconstructer consists of an emulsion or foam. The main purpose of this product is to
solubilize the proteins and to carry them to the hair surface. As it is discussed above the
emulsions and the foams are good environment to solubilize proteins.

The reconstructer (hair conditioner) carries the amino acids / proteins until the surface of
the hair, where it deposits them. These substances are the main components of the hair
and consequently they are the re-building blocks that the hair will use to strength and
reconstruct itself. Proteins are adsorbed onto the hair surface to reconstruct any possible
hair damage. They act on the surface of the hair and penetrate it. Inside the hair, the
proteins find the damaged area and stick on it. The amino acids and proteins rebuild the
hair, and make it thicker and more manageable. (i.e. keratin, milk protein and wheat
protein). On hair, the hydrolyzed or whole protein molecule exhibits extraordinary water
binding and texturizing properties that impart better flexibility and body to hair and

improve manageability. It also causes a reduction in split ends on damaged hair and
induces superior gloss and easy combability.

Formulation of the product

Similar to the formulation of the other hair conditioners, the reconstructers composition
include: Anionic (emulsifiers), lubricants additives, humectants, preservatives, water and

Anionic emulsifiers Glycerol stearate 1.5 % Wt

Cetyl alcohol 3 % Wt
Lubricant additives Stearyl dimethicone 4 % Wt
Humectants Glycerin 1.5 % Wt
Propylene glycol 1.5 % Wt
Preservatives Metyl paraben 0.30 % Wt
Carrier Deionized water 87 % Wt
Fragance Not established.

Table (2). Typical hair conditioner composition.

The emulsifiers are surface-active agents that promote the formation of intimate mixtures
of immiscible liquids, preventing separation of the emulsion ingredients (water and
emollients/humectants). (i.e. cetyl alcohol). The emulsifiers improve the formulation
stability and the self-life. The emulsifier provides the creamy consistency of the
conditioner and facilitates its application to the hair.

The emollients are fatty substances with lubricating action that have hydrating effects and
make hair feel soft and smooth it. (i.e. lanolin emollient from sheeps wool/ moisture

The humectants are substances that increase moisture content and moisture retention of
hair. They go directly to the hair, penetrate the hair shaft and promote the adhesion of the
humidity on the hair surface. They make the hair to be more water retentive. (i.e.

The preservative are added to the hair conditioner for the primary purpose of inhibiting
the development of microorganisms therein. (i.e Metyl paraben).

The reconstructers main active agents are the proteins, amino acids, botanicals and
amphoterics. All types of hydrolyzed proteins, such keratin, soy, yeast and wheat,
chemically modified and free amino acids, such as cystine , aspartic acid and lauryl
glutamate, and biological additives, such casein, beer, eggs, nettle extract, and horse
chestnut extract have been formulated into this kind of hair conditioners.Refer to Table 3.

Hydrolyzed proteins Keratin, hydrogenated soy, yeast, wheat germ

Amino acids Cystine, aspartic acid, lauryl glutamate.
Biological additives Casein, beer, eggs, nettle extract, etc.
Other Vitamins B-12, Inositol, Paba, and Iron.

Table (3), Most used rebuilding hair ingredients.

Making procedure for the emulsion products

The following procedure is used to make oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions (most

conditioners and conditioning shampoos) :

1) Dissolve the water-soluble ingredients in deionized water while stirring and heat
if necessary.
2) If necessary, heat the oil-soluble components to melt the solids. These ingredients
may be added together or separately. The order of addition is often critical. Before
adding this components the deionized water and the ingredients solubilized in it
should be heated to approximately 10 C above the melting point of the solids.
After this add all the oil-soluble components while stirring.
3) Continue stirring for at least 10 to 15 minutes and then add the remaining water.
4) Cool, add preservative, fragrance and colors.
5) Adjust pH and then the viscosity.

The speed of agitation, type of mixer, rate of cooling, and the order of addition are all-
important to produce consistent emulsion products that are stable and provide high


The reconstructers are disposed like foams, creams or

mousses. The commercial used package can vary from
a bottle (for the cream), an air-foam dispenser (finger
pump foamer)

Nowadays the finger pump foamer has been

redesigned to improve its mechanical function, and it
provides a precise mixture of liquid and air with just a
single stroke of the smooth-action button. Based upon
sophisticated valve technology, it is easy to use and
extremely reliable.
The Finger Pump provides instant foaming action. The pump can be
fully filled and emptied completely due to the angular design of the
dip tube, which allows the consumer to use the dispenser at any

The pump, which is made by Dutch company Airspray, requires no

chemical propellant, The innovative 'Finger Pump Foamer'
mechanical foam dispenser is now available in PET bottles. PET is
the ideal bottle material to partner the Finger Pump Foamer, as it is
lightweight with good mechanical strength. It also provides good
neck definition, is compatible with a very wide range of products and
gives excellent moisture and oxygen barrier performance.

The innovative dispenser system is easy to operate, a single push on the nozzle giving the
ideal dose of high quality foam. An angled dip-tube inside the bottle ensures that the
consumer can use the maximum amount of the product.

Hair conditioners can accomplish many different jobs. They can moisturize, detangle,
and reconstruct hair. Each one of these functions requires different types of chemicals to
accomplish their job. The moisturizing part of hair conditioner requires chemicals that
will help make hair soft and manageable, make all the hairs lay the same way, seals the
cuticle layer of the hair and prevents split ends. The chemicals that go into the
moisturing part of hair conditioners are as follows:

Deionized water
Hetoxide G-26
Methyl Paraben
Disodium EDTA
Hest CSO
Hetol G
Hetol CA
Hetamid MA
Glyceryl Stearate
Hetoxamate SA-100
Cocoa Butter
Hest MS
Hetsorb L-20
Propyl Paraben
Kathon CG

All of these chemicals contribute to the moisturizing aspect of hair conditioner. These
chemicals can be categorized into different types of surfactants, anionic, cationic,
nonionic, polymeric and ionic.

Anionic surfactants are surfactants that include, sulfates, sulfonates, carboxylates,

phosphates, alkyl phosphates, phosphates, alkyl ethoxylated sulfates, dialkyl esters of

Cationic surfactants are surfactants that include alkyl amines that have a chain length of
C8 to C18.

Nonionic surfactants are surfactants that are stable over the entire pH range, and they are
amphhiphilic, empirical HLB (hydrophilic-lipophilic balance) scale devised by Griffin.

Ionic surfactants are surfactants that are not affected by a change in temperature.

Polymeric surfactants are soluble polymers which has long hydrophobic groups, ( > C 10 ).
An example of a polymeric surfactant used in the hair moisturizer is glycerol.

All of these surfactants undergo micelle formation so that the surfactant chains minimize
their interactions with water.

Some attributes that are affected by colloidal materials are the materials thickness, the
ability to stay in the hair and its stability. Glycerol is added to hair conditioner so that it
is thicker so that it can stay in the hair longer and do a better job. If hair conditioner was
not as thick as it is it would run right out of the hair without doing anything. The proteins
and other chemicals in the conditioner would not be able to interact with the hair before
they are removed from the hair.

The major design considerations of hair conditioner is its ability to make hair soft and
manageable, make the hairs all lay the same way, seal the cuticle layer of the hair and
prevent split ends. Conditioners make hair softer and more manageable by filling in the
holes in the hair that are left behind after you curl it, dye it or do other damaging things to
it. Hair can become damaged just by going outside and doing things that you would do
during an ordinary day. Hair conditioners make all the hairs lay the same way by making
all of the charges of the hair neutral so that they do not repel each other and look like a
mess. Conditioner seals the hair by leaving behind a protective layer that will help
protect the hair from the elements. This makes the hair look and feel better. The
protective layer that is left behind also prevents split ends from forming.

Process Control

The order in which ingredients are added is important to the production of hair
conditioner. By mixing them in an order you can correct the amount of shear mixing so
that you get a stable final viscosity. The basic ingredients in this process are quaterniery,
hot fats, cold water, perfume and colour. The process to make conditioner is called the
BRAN+LUEBBE. In this process all ingredients are controlled in proportion to each
other. This system is shown in the diagram below (next page, also see power point)

Start with hot fats, quaterniery, hot water, being controlled by and Pentax in line dynamic
controller, the Pentax mixer is usually fitted with a variable speed drive which enables
amount of shear and final viscosity to be controlled. This mixture is then passed through
an in-line heat exchanger, before perfume and colour are added.


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5) Feinberg Herbert, All about hair, Wallingford Press.
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9) The colloidal domain Evans Wennerstrom, 2nd edition, wiley. Vch.
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13) CFTA Cosmetic Ingredients dictionary
14) Polymer handbook
15) The surfactants Virtual library
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