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IS 2026-1 (2011): Power transformers, Part 1: General [ETD


16: Transformers]

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Satyanarayan Gangaram Pitroda
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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

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Indian Standard
POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART 1 GENERAL

( Second Revision )

ICS 29.180

BIS 2011
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS
MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG
NEW DELHI 110002

December 2011 Price Group 10


Power Transformers Sectional Committee, ETD 16

FOREWORD
This Indian Standard (Part 1) (Second Revision) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft
finalized by the Power Transformers Sectional Committee had been approved by the Electrotechnical Division
Council.
This standard was first published in 1962 and covered naturally cooled oil-immersed transformers. With subsequent
amendments forced cooled transformers were included, use of synthetic liquids as cooling medium was permitted
and requirements for aluminium windings were incorporated.
First revision was undertaken with a view to bringing it in line with the revision of IEC 76 : 1967 Power
transformers.
This revision has been based on IEC 60076-1 : 2000 Power transformers Part 1: General, issued by the
International Electrotechnical Commission with following modifications.
The temperature of ambient air and cooling medium oil is as per Indian Environment and tests are conducted
accordingly.
The requirements for power transformers are covered in eight parts. Other parts in the series are:
Part 2 Temperature-rise
Part 3 Insulation levels and dielectric tests
Part 4 Terminal markings, tappings and connections
Part 5 Ability to withstand short circuit
Part 7 Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers
Part 8 Application guide
Part 10 Determination of sound levels
This standard shall be read in conjunction with the following standard:
IS No. Title
2026 Power transformers:
(Part 2) : 2010 Temperature-rise (first revision)
(Part 3) : 2009 Insulation levels, dielectric tests and external clearances in air (third revision)
(Part 4) : 1977 Terminal markings, tappings and connectioins
(Part 5) : 2011 Ability to withstand short circuit (first revision)
5553 : 1989 Reactors
(All parts)
6600 : 1972 Guide for loading of oil immersed transformers
9001 : 2000 Quality management systems Requirements
11171 : 1985 Specification for dry-type power tansformers
13964 : 1994 Methods of measurement of transformer and reactor sound levels
In addition assistance has also been derived from following IEC Standards:
IEC Standard Title
60137 : 2008 Insulated bushings for alternating voltages above 1 000 V
60815 : 1986 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions
60310 : 2004 Railway applications Traction transformers and inductors on board rolling stock
60068-3-3 : 1991 Environmental testing Part 3: Guidance, seismic test methods for equipment
For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with, the final value,
observed or calculated, expressing the result of a test or analysis, shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960
Rules for Rounding off numerical values (revised). The number of significant places retained in the rounded off
value should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard.
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

Indian Standard
POWER TRANSFORMERS
PART 1 GENERAL

( Second Revision )

1 SCOPE exceeding 1 000 m (3 300 ft).


This standard (Part 1) applies to three-phase and single- b) Temperature of ambient air and cooling
phase power transformers (including auto- medium A temperature of ambient air not
transformers) with the exception of certain categories below 5 C and not above +50 C. For water-
of small and special transformers such as; cooled transformers, a temperature of cooling
water at the inlet not exceeding +30 C.
a) single-phase transformers with rated power Further limitations, with regard to cooling are
less than 1 kVA and three-phase transformers given for;
less than 5 kVA;
1) oil-immersed transformers in IS 2026
b) instrument transformers; (Part 2); and
c) transformers for static convertors; 2) dry-type transformers in IS 11171.
d) traction transformers mounted on rolling c) Wave shape of supply voltage A supply
stock; voltage of which the wave shape is
e) starting transformers; approximately sinusoidal.
f) testing transformers; and NOTE This requirement is normally not critical in
public supply systems but may have to be considered
g) welding transformers.
in installations with considerable convertor loading. In
Where Indian Standards do not exist for such categories such cases there is a conventional rule that the
deformation shall neither exceed 5 percent total
of transformers, this part of IS 2026 may still be harmonic content nor 1 percent even harmonic content.
applicable either as a whole or in part. Also note the importance of current harmonics for load
loss and temperature-rise.
For those categories of power transformers and reactors
which have their own Indian Standards, this part is d) Symmetry of three-phase supply voltage For
applicable only to the extent in which it is specifically three-phase transformers, a set of three-phase
called up by cross reference in the other standard. supply voltages which are approximately
symmetrical.
NOTE Such standards exist for dry-type tranformers (see
IS 11171) and for reactors in general (see IS 5553). For traction e) Installation environment An environment
transformers and reactors and for stastic convertor transformers, with a pollution rate that does not require
standards are under preparation. special consideration regarding the external
At several places in this Part it is specified or insulation of transformer bushings or of the
recommended that an agreement shall be reached transformer itself.
concerning alternative or additional technical An environment not exposed to seismic disturbance
solutions or procedures. Such agreement is to be made which would otherwise require special consideration
between the manufacturer and the purchaser. The in the design. (This is assumed to be the case when the
matters should preferably be raised at an early stage ground acceleration level ag is below 2 m/s).
and the agreements included in the contract
specification. 1.1.2 Provision for Unusual Service Conditions
1.1 Service Conditions Any unusual service conditions which may lead to
special consideration in the design of a transformer
1.1.1 Normal Service Conditions shall be stated in the enquiry and the order. These may
This standard gives detailed requirements for be factors such as high altitude, extreme high or low
transformers for use under the following conditions: temperature, tropical humidity, seismic activity, severe
contamination, unusual voltage or load current wave
a) Altitude A height above sea-level not shapes and intermittent loading. They may also concern

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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

conditions for shipment, storage and installation, such 3.2.2 Line Terminal A terminal intended for
as weight or space limitations (see Annex B). connection to a line conductor of a network.
Supplementary rules for rating and testing are given 3.2.3 Neutral Terminal
in other publications for:
a) For three-phase transformers and three-phase
a) temperature rise and cooling in high ambient banks of single-phase transformers:
temperature or at high altitude: IS 2026 The terminal or terminals connected to the
(Part 2) for oil-immersed transformers, and common point (the neutral point) of a star-
IS 11171for dry-type transformers, and connected or zigzag connected winding.
b) external insulation at high altitude: IS 2026 b) For single-phase transformers:
(Part 3) for oil-immersed transformers, and
IS 11171 for dry-type transformers. The terminal intended for connection to a
neutral point of a network.
2 REFERENCES 3.2.4 Neutral Point The point of a symmetrical
The standards given in Annex A are necessary adjuncts system of voltages which is normally at zero potential
to this standard. 3.2.5 Corresponding Terminals Terminals of
3 DEFINITIONS different windings of a transformer, marked with the
same letter or corresponding symbol.
For the purpose of this standard, the following
definitions shall apply. 3.3 Windings

3.1 General 3.3.1 Winding The assembly of turns forming an


electrical circuit associated with one of the voltages
3.1.1 Power Transformer A static piece of apparatus assigned to the transformer.
with two or more windings which, by electromagnetic
NOTE For a three-phase transformer, the winding is the
induction, transforms a system of alternating voltage combination of the phase windings (see 3.3.3).
and current into another system of voltage and current
usually of different values and at the same frequency 3.3.2 Tapped Winding A winding in which the
for the purpose of transmitting electrical power. effective number of turns can be changed in steps.
3.1.2 Auto-Transformer A transformer in which at 3.3.3 Phase Winding The assembly of turns forming
least two windings have a common part. one phase of a three-phase winding.
NOTE Where there is a need to express that a transformer is NOTE The term phase winding should not be used for
not auto-connected, use is made of terms such as separate identifying the assembly of all coils on a specific leg.
winding transformer, or double-wound transformer
3.3.4 High-Voltage Winding The winding having
3.1.3 Booster Transformer A transformer of which the highest rated voltage.
one winding is intended to be connected in series with
a circuit in order to alter its voltage and/or shift its 3.3.5 Low-Voltage Winding The winding having the
phase. The other winding is an energizing winding. lowest rated voltage.
NOTE For a booster transformer, the winding having the
3.1.4 Oil-Immersed Type Transformer A transformer lower rated voltage may be that having the higher insulation
of which the magnetic circuit and windings are level.
immersed in oil.
3.3.6 Intermediate-VoltageWinding A winding of a
NOTE For the purpose of this part any insulating liquid, multi-winding transformer having a rated voltage
mineral oil or other product, is regarded as oil.
intermediate between the highest and lowest winding
3.1.5 Dry-Type Transformer A transformer of which rated voltages. The winding which receives active
the magnetic circuit and windings are not immersed in power from the supply source in service is referred
an insulating liquid. to as a primary winding, and that which delivers
active power to a load as a secondary winding.
3.1.6 Oil Preservation System The system in an oil-
immersed transformer by which the thermal expansion These terms have no significance as to which of the
of the oil is accommodated. Contact between the oil and windings has the higher rated voltage and should
external air may sometimes be diminished or prevented. not be used except in the context of direction of
active power flow. A further winding in the
3.2 Terminals and Neutral Point transformer, usually with lower value of rated power
than the secondary winding, is then often referred to
3.2.1 Terminal A conducting element intended for
as tertiary winding (see also 3.3.8).
connecting a winding to external conductors.

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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

3.3.7 Auxiliary Winding A winding intended only 3.4.4 Rated Voltage Ratio The ratio of the rated
for a small load compared with the rated power of the voltage of a winding to the rated voltage of another
transformer. winding associated with a lower or equal rated voltage.
3.3.8 Stabilizing Winding A supplementary delta- 3.4.5 Rated Frequency (fr) The frequency at which
connected winding provided in a star-star-connected the transformer is designed to operate.
or star-zigzag-connected transformer to decrease its
3.4.6 Rated Power (Sr) A conventional value of
zero-sequence impedance (see 3.7.3).
apparent power assigned to a winding which, together
NOTE A winding is referred to as a stabilizing winding with the rated voltage of the winding, determines its
only if it is not intended for three-phase connection to an
rated current.
external circuit.
NOTES
3.3.9 Common Winding The common part of the
1 Both windings of a two-winding transformer have the same
windings of an auto-transformer. rated power which by definition is the rated power of the whole
transformer.
3.3.10 Series Winding The part of the winding of
2 For a multi-winding transformer, half the arithmetic sum of
an auto-transformer or the winding of a booster the rated power values of all windings (separate windings, not
transformer which is intended to be connected in series auto-connected) gives a rough estimate of its physical size as
with a circuit. compared with a two-winding transformer.
3.4.7 Rated Current (Ir) The current flowing through
3.3.11 Energizing Winding The winding of a booster
a line terminal of a winding which is derived from rated
transformer which is intended to supply power to the
power Sr and rated voltage Ur for the winding.
series winding.
NOTES
3.4 Rating 1 For a three-phase winding the rated current Ir is given by:

3.4.1 Rating Those numerical values assigned to Sr


Ir = A
the quantities which define the operation of the trans- 3 Ur
former in the conditions specified in IS 2026 (Part 2) 2 For single-phase transformer windings intended to be
and on which the manufacturers guarantees and the connected in delta to form a three-phase bank the rated current
tests are based. is indicated as line current divided by 3 , for example:
3.4.2 Rated Quantities Quantities (voltage, current, 500
Ir = A
etc), the numerical values of which define the rating. 3
NOTES 3.5 Tappings
1 For transformers having tappings, rated quantities are related
to the principal tapping (see 3.5.2), unless otherwise specified. 3.5.1 Tapping In a transformer having a tapped
Corresponding quantities with analogous meaning, related to winding, a specific connection of that winding,
other specific tappings, are called tapping quantities (see
3.5.10).
representing a definite effective number of turns in the
2 Voltages and currents are always expressed by their r.m.s. tapped winding and, consequently, a definite turns ratio
values, unless otherwise specified. between this winding and any other winding with fixed
number of turns.
3.4.3 Rated Voltage of a Winding (Ur) The voltage
assigned to be applied, or developed at no-load, NOTE One of the tappings is the principal tapping, and
other tappings are described in relation to the principal tapping
between the terminals of an untapped winding, or of a
by their respective tapping factors. See definitions of these
tapped winding connected on the principal tapping terms below.
(see 3.5.2). For a three-phase winding it is the voltage
between line terminals. 3.5.2 Principal Tapping The tapping to which the
rated quantities are related.
NOTES
1 The rated voltages of all windings appear simultaneously at 3.5.3 Tapping Factor (corresponding to a given
no-load when the voltage applied to one of them has its rated tapping)
value.
2 For single-phase transformers intended to be connected in The ratio:
star to form a three-phase bank, the rated voltage is indicated
as phase-to-phase voltage, divided by 3 , for example Ud
Ur = 400 3 kV.
(tapping factor) or
Ur
3 For the series winding of a three-phase booster transformer
which is designed as an open winding (see 3.10.5) the rated Ud
voltage is indicated as if the winding were connected in star, 100 U (tapping factor expressed as a percentage)
for example U r = 23 3 kV. r

3
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

where 3.5.12 Reduced-Power Tapping A tapping whose


tapping power is lower than the rated power.
Ur = rated voltage of the winding (see 3.4.3); and
Ud = voltage which would be developed at no- 3.5.13 On-load Tap-changer A device for changing
load at the terminals of the winding, at the the tapping connections of a winding, suitable for
tapping concerned, by applying rated operation while the transformer is energized or on
voltage to an untapped winding. load.
NOTE This definition is not appropriate in relation to a
3.6 Losses and No-load Current
series winding of a booster transformer (see 3.1.3), and in that
case the percentage notation would be referred to the voltage NOTE The values are related to the principal tapping, unless
of the energizing winding or of the winding of an associated another tapping is specifically stated.
system transformer.
3.6.1 No-load Loss The active power absorbed when
3.5.4 Plus Tapping A tapping whose tapping factor rated voltage (tapping voltage) at rated frequency is
is higher than 1. applied to the terminals of one of the windings, the
3.5.5 Minus Tapping A tapping whose tapping factor other winding or windings being open-circuited.
is lower than 1. 3.6.2 No-load Current The r.m.s. value of the current
3.5.6 Tapping Step The difference between the flowing through a line terminal of a winding when rated
tapping factors, expressed as a percentage, of two voltage (tapping voltage) is applied at rated frequency,
adjacent tappings. the other winding or windings being open-circuited.
3.5.7 Tapping Range The variation range of the NOTES
tapping factor, expressed as a percentage, compared 1 For a three-phase transformer, the value is the arithmetic
mean of the values of current in the three phases.
with the value 100.
2 The no-load current of a winding is often expressed as a
NOTE If this factor ranges from 100 + a to 100 b, the percentage of the rated current of that winding. For a multi-
tapping range is said to be: +a percent, b percent or a winding transformer this percentage is referred to the winding
percent, if a = b. with the highest rated power.

3.5.8 Tapping Voltage Ratio (of a pair of windings) 3.6.3 Load Loss The absorbed active power at rated
The ratio which is equal to the rated voltage ratio: frequency and reference temperature (see 10.1),
associated with a pair of windings when rated current
a) multiplied by the tapping factor of the tapped (tapping current) is flowing through the line terminals
winding, if this is the high-voltage winding; of one of the windings, and the terminals of the other
and winding are short-circuited. Further windings, if
b) divided by the tapping factor of the tapped existing, are open-circuited.
winding, if this is the low-voltage winding.
NOTES
NOTE While the rated voltage ratio is, by definition, at 1 For a two-winding transformer there is only one winding
least equal to 1, the tapping voltage ratio can be lower than 1 combination and one value of load loss. For a multi-winding
for certain tappings when the rated voltage ratio is close to 1. transformer there are several values of load loss corresponding
to the different two-winding combinations. A combined load
3.5.9 Tapping Duty The numerical values assigned loss figure for the complete transformer is referred to a specified
to the quantities, analogous to rated quantities, which winding load combination. In general, it is usually not
refer to tappings other than the principal tapping. accessible for direct measurement in testing.
2 When the windings of the pair have different rated power
3.5.10 Tapping Quantities Those quantities the values the load loss is referred to rated current in the winding
numerical values of which define the tapping duty of a with the lower rated power and the reference power should be
particular tapping (other than the principal tapping). mentioned.

The tapping quantities are: 3.6.4 Total Losses The sum of the no-load loss and
the load loss.
a) Tapping voltage (analogous to rated voltage,
NOTE The power consumption of the auxiliary plant is not
see 3.4.3);
included in the total losses and is stated separately.
b) Tapping power (analogous to rated power,
see 3.4.6); and 3.7 Short-Circuit Impedance and Voltage Drop
c) Tapping current (analogous to rated current, 3.7.1 Short-circuit impedance of a pair of windings
see 3.4.7). the equivalent series impedance Z = R + jX, in ohms,
NOTE Tapping quantities exist for any winding in the at rated frequency and reference temperature, across
transformer, not only for the tapped winding (see 5.2 and 5.3).
the terminals of one winding of a pair, when the
3.5.11 Full-Power Tapping A tapping whose tapping terminals of the other winding are short-circuited and
power is equal to the rated power.
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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

further windings, if existing, are open-circuited. For a of the current and the temperature, particularly in transformers
without any delta-connected winding.
three-phase transformer the impedance is expressed
3 The zero-sequence impedance may also be expressed as a
as phase impedance (equivalent star connection).
relative value in the same way as the (positive sequence) short-
In a transformer having a tapped winding, the short- circuit impedance (see 3.7.1).
circuit impedance is referred to a particular tapping. 3.8 Temperature Rise The difference between the
Unless otherwise specified the principal tapping temperature of the part under consideration and the
applies. temperature of the external cooling medium.
NOTE This quantity may be expressed in relative, 3.9 Insulation For definitions relating to insulation,
dimensionless form, as a fraction z of the reference impedance
Zref, of the same winding of the pair. In percentage notation: see IS 2026 (Part 3).

z = 100
Z 3.10 Connections
Z ref
3.10.1 Star Connection (Y-connection) The winding
where
u2 connection so arranged that each of the phase windings
Zref = (Formula valid for both three-phase and single- of a three-phase transformer, or of each of the windings
Sr
phase transformers), for the same rated voltage of single-phase transformers
U = voltage (rated voltage or tapping voltage) of the associated in a three-phase bank, is connected to a
winding to which Z and Zref belong, and common point (the neutral point) and the other end to
Sr = reference value of rated power. its appropriate line terminal.
The relative value is also equal to the ratio between 3.10.2 Delta Connection (D-connection) The
the applied voltage during a short-circuit measurement winding connection so arranged that the phase
which causes the relevant rated current (or tapping windings of a three-phase transformer, or the windings
current) to flow, and rated voltage (or tapping voltage). for the same rated voltage of single-phase transformers
This applied voltage is referred to as the short-circuit associated in a three-phase bank, are connected in series
voltage of the pair of windings. It is normally expressed to form a closed circuit.
as a percentage.
3.10.3 Open-Delta Connection The winding
3.7.2 Voltage Drop or Rise for a Specified Load connection in which the phase windings of a three-
Condition The arithmetic difference between the phase transformer, or the windings for the same rated
no-load voltage of a winding and the voltage developed voltage of single-phase transformers associated in a
at the terminals of the same winding at a specified load
three-phase bank, are connected in series without
and power factor, the voltage supplied to (one of) the
closing one corner of the delta.
other winding(s) being equal to,
3.10.4 Zigzag Connection (Z-connection) The
a) its rated value if the transformer is connected
winding connection in which one end of each phase
on the principal tapping (the no-load voltage
winding of a three-phase transformer is connected to a
of the former winding is then equal to its rated
common point (neutral point), and each phase winding
value); and
consists of two parts in which phase-displaced voltages
b) the tapping voltage if the transformer is
are induced.
connected on another tapping.
NOTE These two parts normally have the same number of
This difference is generally expressed as a percentage turns.
of the no-load voltage of the former winding.
3.10.5 Open Windings Phase windings of a three-
NOTE For multi-winding transformers, the voltage drop or phase transformer which are not interconnected within
rise depends not only on the load and power factor of the
winding itself, but also on the load and power factor of the
the transformer.
other windings. 3.10.6 Phase Displacement of a Three-Phase
3.7.3 Zero-Sequence Impedance (of a three-phase Winding The angular difference between the phasors
winding) The impedance, expressed in ohms per representing the voltages between the neutral point
phase at rated frequency, between the line terminals of (real or imaginary) and the corresponding terminals
a three-phase star-connected or zigzag-connected of two windings, a positive-sequence voltage system
winding, connected together, and its neutral terminal. being applied to the high-voltage terminals, following
each other in alphabetical sequence if they are lettered,
NOTES
or in numerical sequence if they are numbered. The
1 The zero-sequence impedance may have several values
because it depends on how the terminals of the other winding phasors are assumed to rotate in a counter-clockwise
or windings are connected and loaded. sense.
2 The zero-sequence impedance may be dependent on the value

5
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

NOTE The high-voltage winding phasor is taken as terminals of a secondary winding, the transformer
reference, and the displacement for any other winding is
receives the relevant rated power for that pair of
conventionally expressed by the clock notation, that is, the
hour indicated by the winding phasor when the H.V. winding windings.
phasor is at 12 Oclock (rising numbers indicate increasing
phase lag). The transformer shall be capable of carrying, in
continuous service, the rated power [for a multi-
3.10.7 Connection Symbol A conventional notation winding transformer: the specified combination(s) of
indicating the connections of the high-voltage, winding rated powers] under conditions listed in 4.2
intermediate-voltage (if any), and low-voltage and without exceeding the temperature-rise limitations
windings and their relative phase displacement(s) specified in IS 2026 (Part 2).
expressed as a combination of letters and clock-hour
figure(s). NOTE The interpretation of rated power according to this
subclause implies that it is a value of apparent power input to
the transformer including its own absorption of active and
3.11 Kinds of Tests
reactive power. The apparent power that the transformer delivers
3.11.1 Routine Test A test to which each individual to the circuit connected to the terminals of the secondary
winding under rated loading differs from the rated power. The
transformer is subjected voltage across the secondary terminals differs from rated
voltage by the voltage drop (or rise) in the transformer.
3.11.2 Type Test A test made on a transformer which
Allowance for voltage drop, with regard to load power factor,
is representative of other transformers, to demonstrate is made in the specification of the rated voltage and the tapping
that these transformers comply with specified range.
requirements not covered by routine tests. This is different from the method used in transformer standards,
where rated kVA is the output that can be delivered at... rated
NOTE A transformer is considered to be representative of secondary voltage.... According to that method, allowance for
others if it is fully identical in rating and construction, but the voltage drop has to be made in the design so that the necessary
type test may also be considered valid if it is made on a primary voltage can be applied to the transformer.
transformer which has minor deviations of rating or other
characteristics. These deviations should be subject to agreement 4.2 Loading Cycle
between the manufacturer and the purchaser.

3.11.3 Special Test A test other than a type test or a If specified in the enquiry or the contract, the
routine test, agreed by the manufacturer and the transformer may, in addition to its rated power for
purchaser. continuous loading, be assigned a temporary load cycle
which it shall be capable of performing under
3.12 Meteorological Data with Respect to Cooling conditions specified in IS 2026 (Part 2).
3.12.1 Monthly Average Temperature Half the sum NOTE This option is to be used in particular to give a basis
for design and guarantees concerning temporary emergency
of the average of the daily maxima and the average of loading of large power transformers.
the daily minima during a particular month over
many years. In the absence of such specification, guidance on
loading of transformers complying with this part may
3.12.2 Yearly Average Temperature One-twelfth of be found in IS 6600.
the sum of the monthly average temperatures.
The bushings, tap-changers and other auxiliary
4 RATING equipment shall be selected so as not to restrict the
loading capability of the transformer.
4.1 Rated Power
NOTE These requirements do not apply to special purpose
The transformer shall have an assigned rated power transformers, some of which do not need loading capability
for each winding which shall be marked on the rating above rated power. For others, special requirements will be
specified.
plate. The rated power refers to continuous loading.
This is a reference value for guarantees and tests 4.3 Preferred Values of Rated Power
concerning load losses and temperature rises.
For transformers up to 10 MVA, values of rated power
If different values of apparent power are assigned under should preferably be taken from the R10 series given
different circumstances, for example, with different in IS 1076 (Part 1)
methods of cooling, the highest of these values is the
rated power. (...100, 125, 160, 200, 250, 315, 400, 500, 630, 800,
1 000, etc)
A two-winding transformer has only one value of rated
power, identical for both windings. 4.4 Operation at Higher than Rated Voltage and/or
at Disturbed Frequency
When the transformer has rated voltage applied to a
primary winding, and rated current flows through the Methods for the specification of suitable rated voltage

6
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

values and tapping range to cope with a set of loading 5.2 Tapping Voltage Tapping Current Standard
cases (loading power and power factor, corresponding Categories of Tapping Voltage Variation Maximum
line-to-line service voltages) are described in as per Voltage Tapping
requirement.
The short notation of tapping range and tapping steps
Within the prescribed value of Um, a transformer shall indicates the variation range of the ratio of the
be capable of continuous service without damage under transformer. But the assigned values of tapping
conditions of overfluxing where the ratio of voltage quantities are not fully defined by this alone. Additional
over frequency exceeds the corresponding ratio at rated information is necessary. This can be given either in
voltage and rated frequency by no more than 5 percent. tabular form with tapping power, tapping voltage and
NOTE Um is the highest voltage for equipment applicable tapping current for each tapping, or as text, indicating
to a transformer winding [see IS 2026 (Part 3)]. category of voltage variation and possible limitations
of the range within which the tappings are full-power
5 REQUIREMENTS FOR TRANSFORMERS tappings.
HAVING A TAPPED WINDING
The extreme categories of tapping voltage variation are:
5.1 General Notation of Tapping Range
a) constant flux voltage variation (CFVV); and
The following clauses apply to transformers in which
only one of the windings is a tapped winding. b) variable flux voltage variation (VFVV).

In a multi-winding transformer, the statements apply They are defined as follows:


to the combination of the tapped winding with either a) CFVV
of the untapped windings.
The tapping voltage in any untapped winding
In auto-connected transformers, tappings are is constant from tapping to tapping. The
sometimes arranged at the neutral which means that tapping voltages in the tapped winding are
the effective number of turns is changed simultaneously proportional to the tapping factors.
in both windings. For such transformers, the tapping b) VFVV
particulars are subject to agreement. The requirements
The tapping voltage in the tapped winding
of this clause should be used as far as applicable.
is constant from tapping to tapping. The
Unless otherwise specified, the principal tapping is tapping voltages in any untapped winding
located in the middle of the tapping range. Other are inversely proportional to the tapping
tappings are identified by their tapping factors. The factor.
number of tappings and the range of variation of the c) CbVV (Combined voltage variation)
transformer ratio may be expressed in short notation
In many applications and particularly with
by the deviations of the tapping factor percentages from
transformers having a large tapping range, a
the value 100 (for definitions of terms, see 3.5).
combination is specified using both principles
Example: A transformer with a tapped 160 kV winding applied to different parts of the range:
having altogether 21 tappings, symmetrically placed, combined voltage variation (CbVV). The
is designated: change-over point is called maximum voltage
(160 10 1.5 percent)/66 kV tapping. For this system the following
applies:
If for some reason the tapping range is specified
1) CFVV applies for tappings with tapping
asymmetrically around the rated voltage, we may get:
factors below the maximum voltage
(160 +12 1.5%
8 1.5% ) / 66 kV tapping factor.
2) VFVV applies for tappings with tapping
NOTE This way of short notation is only a description of
the arrangement of the tapped winding and does not imply factors above the maximum voltage
actual variations of applied voltage on that winding in service. tapping factor.
This is dealt with in 5.2 and 5.3.
3) Graphic presentation of tapping voltage
Regarding the full presentation on the nameplate of variation categories:
data related to individual tappings (see 7). CFVV (see Fig. 1A) VFVV
Some tappings may be reduced-power tappings due (see Fig. 1B) CbVV (see Fig. 1C).
to restrictions in either tapping voltage or tapping Symbols:
current. The boundary tappings where such limitations
appear are called maximum voltage tapping and UA, IA : Tapping voltage and tapping current in
maximum current tapping (see Fig. 1). the tapped winding.

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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

UB, IB : Tapping voltage and tapping current in range. It constitutes both a maximum voltage tapping
the untapped winding. (UA) and a maximum current tapping (IB constant, not
SAB : Tapping power. rising above the change-over point). An additional,
optional maximum current tapping (in the CFVV
Abscissa : Tapping factor, percentage (indicating
range) is also shown.
relative number of effective turns in
tapped winding). 5.3 Tapping Power. Full-Power Tappings
1 : Indicates full-power tappings Reduced-Power Tappings
throughout the tapping range.
All tappings shall be full-power tappings, except as
2 : Indicates maximum-voltage tapping, specified below.
maximum current tapping and range
of reduced power tappings. In separate-winding transformers up to and
including 2 500 kVA with a tapping range not
The change-over point is shown in the plus tapping
exceeding 5 percent the tapping current in the tapped

Optional maximum current tapping shown Optional maximum current tapping shown
1A Constant Flux Voltage Variation CFVV 1B Variable Flux Voltage Variation VFVV

FIG. 1 TAPPING VOLTAGE VARIATION (Continued)

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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

1C Combined Voltage Variation CbVV

FIG. 1 TAPPING VOLTAGE VARIATION

winding shall be equal to rated current at all minus otherwise specified. This means that the untapped
tappings. This means that the principal tapping is a winding current stays constant up to the extreme plus
maximum current tapping. tapping (see Fig. 1C).
In transformers with a tapping range wider 5.4 Specification of Tappings in Enquiry and Order
than 5 percent, restrictions may be specified on values
of tapping voltage or tapping current which would The following data are necessary to define the design
otherwise rise considerably above the rated values. of the transformer:
When such restrictions are specified, the tappings a) Which winding shall be tapped;
concerned will be reduced-power tappings. This b) The number of steps and the tapping step (or
subclause describes such arrangements. the tapping range and number of steps).
When the tapping factor deviates from unity, the Unless otherwise specified it shall be assumed
tapping current for full-power tappings may rise above that the range is symmetrical around the
rated current on one of the windings. As Fig. 1A principal tapping and that the tapping steps
illustrates, this applies for minus tappings, on the in the tapped winding are equal. If for some
tapped winding, under CFVV, and for plus tappings reason the design has unequal steps, this shall
on the untapped winding under VFVV (see Fig. 1B). be indicated in the tender;
In order to limit the corresponding reinforcement of c) The category of voltage variation and, if
the winding in question, it is possible to specify a combined variation is applied, the change-
maximum current tapping. From this tapping onwards over point (maximum voltage tapping,
the tapping current values for the winding are then see 5.2); and
specified to be constant. This means that the remaining d) Whether maximum current limitation
tappings towards the extreme tapping are reduced- (reduced power tappings) shall apply, and if
power tappings (see Fig. 1A, 1B and 1C). so, for which tappings.
Under CbVV, the maximum voltage tapping, the Instead of 5.4 (c) and 5.4 (d), tabulation of the same
change-over point between CFVV and VFVV shall at type as used on the rating plate may be used to
the same time be a maximum current tapping unless advantage (see example in Annex C).
9
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

The specification of these data may be accomplished Economic optimization of the design, bearing in mind loss,
leads towards a certain range of impedance values. Parallel
in two different ways,
operation with an existing transformer requires matching
a) either the user may specify all data from the impedance.
beginning, in his enquiry; and If an enquiry contains a specification of not only the impedance
at the principal tapping but also its variation across the tapping
b) alternatively, the user may submit a set of range, this means a quite important restriction on the design
loading cases with values of active and (placing of windings in relation to each other). Such a detailed
reactive power (clearly indicating the specification should therefore not be issued without good
reason.
direction of power flow), and corresponding
on-load voltages. 5.6 Load Loss and Temperature Rise
These cases should indicate the extreme values of a) If the tapping range is within 5 percent, and
voltage ratio under full and reduced power. Based on the rated power not above 2 500 kVA, load
this information the manufacturer will then select the loss guarantees and temperature rise refer to
tapped winding and specify rated quantities and tapping the principal tapping only, and the temperature
quantities in his tender proposal. rise test is run on that tapping.
5.5 Specification of Short-Circuit Impedance b) If the tapping range exceeds 5 percent or the
rated power is above 2 500 kVA, it shall be
Unless otherwise specified, the short-circuit impedance stated for which tappings, in addition to the
of a pair of windings is referred to the principal tapping principal tapping, the load losses are to be
(see 3.7.1). For transformers having a tapped winding guaranteed by the manufacturer. These load
with tapping range exceeding 5 percent, impedance losses are referred to the relevant tapping
values are also to be given for the two extreme tappings. current values. The temperature-rise limits are
On such transformers these three values of impedance valid for all tappings, at the appropriate tapping
shall also be measured during the short-circuit test power, tapping voltage and tapping current.
(see 10.4).
A temperature-rise type test, if specified, shall be
When impedance values are given for several tappings, carried out on one tapping only. It will, unless otherwise
and particularly when the windings of the pair have agreed, be the maximum current tapping (which is
dissimilar rated power values, it is recommended that usually the tapping with the highest load loss). The
the impedance values be submitted in ohms per phase, total loss for the selected tapping is the test power for
referred to either of the windings, rather than as determination of oil temperature-rise during the
percentage values. Percentage values may lead to temperature-rise test, and the tapping current for that
confusion because of varying practices concerning tapping is the reference current for determination of
reference values. Whenever percentage values are given winding temperature-rise above oil. For information
it is advisable that the corresponding reference power about rules and tests regarding the temperature rise of
and reference voltage values be explicitly indicated. oil-immersed transformers [see IS 2026 (Part 2)].
A way of specifying short-circuit impedance values in In principle, the temperature-rise type test shall
the enquiry which leaves some degree of freedom in demonstrate that the cooling equipment is sufficient
the design, is to indicate an acceptable range between for dissipation of maximum total loss on any tapping,
upper and lower boundaries, across the whole tapping and that the temperature-rise over ambient of any
range. This may be done with the aid of a graph or a winding, at any tapping, does not exceed the specified
table. maximum value.
The boundaries shall be at least as far apart as to permit The second purpose normally requires the maximum
the double-sided tolerances of 9 to be applied on a current tapping to be selected for the test. But the
median value between them. An example is shown in amount of total loss to be injected in order to determine
Annex D. The manufacturer shall select and guarantee maximum oil temperature-rise shall correspond to the
impedance values for the principal tapping and for the highest value for any tapping, even if this is other than
extreme tappings which are between the boundaries. the tapping connected for the test [see also 5.2 in
Measured values may deviate from guaranteed values IS 2026 (Part 2)].
within the tolerances according to 9, but shall not fall
outside the boundaries, which are limits without 6 CONNECTION AND PHASE DISPLACEMENT
tolerance. SYMBOLS FOR THREE-PHASE
TRANSFORMERS
NOTE The selection of an impedance value by the user is
subject to conflicting demands: limitation of voltage drop The star, delta, or zigzag connection of a set of phase
versus limitation of overcurrent under system fault conditions.
windings of a three-phase transformer or of windings
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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

of the same voltage of single-phase transformers changeable (series-parallel or Y-D), both connections
associated in a three-phase bank shall be indicated by will be noted, coupled with the corresponding rated
the capital letters Y, D or Z for the high-voltage (HV) voltages as indicated by the following examples:
winding and small letters y, d or z for the intermediate
220(110)/10,5 kV YN(YN)d11
and low-voltage (LV) windings. If the neutral point of
a star-connected or zigzag-connected winding is 110/11(6,35)kV YNy0(d11)
brought out, the indication shall be YN (yn) or ZN (zn) Full information shall be given on the rating plate
respectively. [see 7.2 (e)].
Open windings in a three-phase transformer (that are Examples of connections in general use, with
not connected together in the transformer but have both connection diagrams, are shown in Annex E.
ends of each phase winding brought out to terminals)
are indicated as III (HV), or iii (intermediate or low- Diagrams, with terminal markings, and with indication
voltage windings). of built-in current transformers when used, may be
presented on the rating plate together with the text
For an auto-connected pair of windings, the symbol of information that is specified in 7.
the lower voltage winding is replaced by auto, or a,
for example, YNauto or YNa or YNa0, ZNa11. The following conventions of notation apply:

Letter symbols for the different windings of a The connection diagrams show the high-voltage
transformer are noted in descending order of rated winding above, and the low-voltage winding below.
voltage. The winding connection letter for any (The directions of induced voltages are indicated.)
intermediate and low-voltage winding is immediately The high-voltage winding phasor diagram is oriented
followed by its phase displacement clock number with phase I pointing at 12 Oclock. The phase I phasor
(see 3.10.6). Three examples are shown below and of the low-voltage winding is oriented according to
illustrated in Fig. 2. the induced voltage relation which results for the
The existence of a stabilizing winding (a delta- connection shown.
connected winding which is not terminated for external The sense of rotation of the phasor diagrams is counter-
three-phase loading) is indicated, after the symbols of clockwise, giving the sequence I II III.
loadable windings, with the symbol +d.
NOTE This numbering is arbitrary. Terminal marking on
If a transformer is specified with its winding connection the transformer follows national practice.

F IG. 2 ILLUSTRATION OF CLOCK NUMBER NOTATION T HREE EXAMPLES

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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

Example 1 combinations should also be indicated unless


the rated power of one of the windings is the
A distribution transformer with high-voltage winding
sum of the rated powers of the other
for 20 kV, delta-connected. The low-voltage winding
windings);
is 400 V star-connected with neutral brought out. The
LV winding lags the HV by 330. h) Rated frequency (in Hz);
j) Rated voltages (in V or kV) and tapping range;
Symbol: Dyn11
k) Rated currents (in A or kA);
Example 2 m) Connection symbol;
A three-winding transformer: 123 kV star with neutral n) Short-circuit impedance, measured value in
brought out. 36 kV star with neutral brought out, in percentage. For multi-winding transformers,
phase with the HV winding but not auto-connected. several impedances for different two-winding
7.2 kV delta, lagging by 150. combinations are to be given with the
respective reference power values. For
Symbol: YNyn0d5 transformers having a tapped winding [see
Example 3 also 5.5 and 7.2(b)];
p) Type of cooling. (If the transformer has
A group of three single-phase auto-transformers
several assigned cooling methods, the
400 130 respective power values may be expressed as
kV with 22 kV tertiary windings. percentages of rated power, for example
3 3
ONAN/ONAF 70/100 percent);
The auto-connected windings are connected in star, q) Total mass; and
while the tertiary windings are connected in delta. The r) Mass of insulating oil.
delta winding phasors lag the high-voltage winding
If the transformer has more than one set of ratings,
phasors by 330.
depending upon different connections of windings
Symbol: YNautod11 or YNad11 which have been specifically allowed for in the design,
the additional ratings shall all be given on the rating
The symbol would be the same for a three-phase auto-
plate, or separate rating plates shall be fitted for each
transformer with the same connection, internally.
set.
If the delta winding is not taken out to three line
terminals but only provided as a stabilizing winding, 7.2 Additional Information to be Given when
the symbol would indicate this by a plus sign. No phase Applicable
displacement notation would then apply for the a) For transformers having one or more windings
stabilizing winding. with highest voltage for equipment Um equal
Symbol: YNauto+d. to or above 3.6 kV:
short notation of insulation levels (withstand
7 RATING PLATES voltages) as described in IS 2026 (Part 3).
The transformer shall be provided with a rating plate b) For transformers having a tapped winding,
of weatherproof material, fitted in a visible position, particulars about the tappings are as follows:
showing the appropriate items indicated below. The 1) for transformers having a tapping range
entries on the plate shall be indelibly marked. not exceeding 5 percent: tapping
voltages on the tapped winding for all
7.1 Information to be Given in All Cases tappings. This applies in particular to
a) Kind of transformer (for example transformer, distribution transformers;
auto-transformer, booster transformer, etc); 2) for transformers having a tapping range
b) Number of this standard; exceeding 5 percent: a table stating
c) Manufacturers name; tapping voltage, tapping current and
tapping power for all tappings. In
d) Manufacturers serial number;
addition the short-circuit impedance
e) Year of manufacture; values for the principal tapping and at
f) Number of phases; least the extreme tappings shall be given,
g) Rated power (in kVA or MVA). (For multi- preferably in ohms per phase referred to
winding transformers, the rated power of each a specific winding.
winding should be given. The loading c) Temperature-rises of top oil and windings (if

12
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

not normal values). When a transformer is b) Diaphragm-type oil preservation system


specified for installation at high altitude, this where an expansion volume of air at
shall be indicated, together with information atmospheric pressure is provided above the
on either the reduced temperature-rise figures oil but prevented from direct contact with the
valid under normal ambient conditions, or the oil by a flexible diaphragm or bladder.
reduced loading which will result in normal c) Inert gas pressure system where an expansion
temperature rise at the high altitude (standard space above the oil is filled with dry inert gas
transformer with normal cooling capacity). at slight over-pressure, being connected to
d) Insulating liquid, if not mineral oil. either a pressure controlled source or an
e) Connection diagram (in cases where the elastic bladder.
connection symbol will not give complete d) Sealed-tank system with gas cushion, in which
information regarding the internal a volume of gas above the oil surface in a stiff
connections). If the connections can be tank accommodates the oil expansion under
changed inside the transformer, this shall be variable pressure.
indicated on a separate plate or with duplicate
e) Sealed, completely filled system in which the
rating plates. The connection fitted at the
expansion of the oil is taken up by elastic
works shall be indicated.
movement of the permanently sealed, usually
f) Transportation mass (for transformers
corrugated tank.
exceeding 5 t total mass).
g) Untanking mass (for transformers exceeding 8.3 Load Rejection on Generator Transformers
5 t total mass).
Transformers intended to be connected directly to
h) Vacuum withstand capability of the tank and
generators in such a way that they may be subjected to
of the conservator.
load rejection conditions shall be able to withstand 1.4
In addition to the main rating plate with the information times rated voltage for 5 s at the transformer terminals
listed above, the transformer shall also carry plates with to which the generator is to be connected.
identification and characteristics of auxiliary
equipment according to standards for such components 9 TOLERANCES
(bushings, tap-changers, current transformers, special It is not always possible, particularly in large, multi-
cooling equipment). winding transformers with relatively low rated
8 MISCELLANEOUS REQUIREMENTS voltages, to accommodate turns ratios which
correspond to specified rated voltage ratios with high
8.1 Dimensioning of Neutral Connection accuracy. There are also other quantities which may
not be accurately explored at the time of tender, or
The neutral conductor and terminal of transformers
are subject to manufacturing and measuring
intended to carry a load between phase and neutral
uncertainty.
(for example, distribution transformers) shall be
dimensioned for the appropriate load current and earth- Therefore tolerances are necessary on certain
fault current. guaranteed values.
The neutral conductor and terminal of transformers not Table 1 gives tolerances to be applied to certain rated
intended to carry load between phase and neutral shall quantities and to other quantities when they are the
be dimensioned for earth-fault current. subject of manufacturers guarantees referred to in this
standard. Where a tolerance in one direction is omitted,
8.2 Oil Preservation System there is no restriction on the value in that direction.
For oil-immersed transformers the type of oil
A transformer is considered as complying with this
preservation system shall be specified in the enquiry
part when the quantities subject to tolerances are not
and order. The following types are distinguished:
outside the tolerances given in Table 1.
a) Freely breathing system or conservator
system where there is free communication 10 TESTS
between the ambient air and an air-filled
10.1 General Requirements for Routine, Type and
expansion space above the surface of the oil,
Special Tests
in the tank or in a separate expansion vessel
(conservator). A moisture-removing breather Transformers shall be subjected to tests as specified
is usually fitted in the connection to the below.
atmosphere.
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IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

Table 1 Tolerances
(Clause 9)
Sl Item Tolerance
No.
(1) (2) (3)
i) a) Total losses +10 percent of the total losses
b) Component losses (see Note 1) +15 percent of each component loss, provided that the tolerance for total
losses is not exceeded
ii) a) Voltage ratio at no load on principal The lower of the following values:
tapping for a specified first pair of a) 0.5 percent of declared ratio
windings b) 1/10 of the actual percentage impedance on the principal tapping
b) Voltage ratio on other tappings, same pair To be agreed, but not less than the lesser of the values given in (a) and (b)
above
c) Voltage ratio for further pairs To be agreed, but not less than the lesser of the values given in (a) and (b)
iii) Short-circuit impedance for:
a) separate-winding transformer with two
windings, or
b) a specified first pair of separate windings
in a multi-winding transformer
1) principal tapping When the impedance value is 10 percent
7.5 percent of the declared value
When the impedance value is <10 percent
10 percent of the declared value
2) any other tapping of the pair When the impedance value is 10 percent
10 percent of the declared value
When the impedance value is <10 percent
15 percent of the declared value
iv) Short-circuit impedance for:
a) an auto-connected pair of winding, or
b) a specified second pair of separate
windings in a multi-winding transformer
1) principal tapping 10 percent of the declared value
2) any other tapping of the pair 15 percent of the declared value for that tapping
3) further pairs of windings To be agreed, but 15 percent
v) No-load current +30 percent of the declared value

NOTES
1 The loss tolerances of multi-winding transformers apply to every pair of windings unless the guarantee states that they apply to a
given load condition.
2 For certain auto-transformers and booster transformers the smallness of their impedance justifies more liberal tolerance. Transformers
having large tapping ranges, particularly if the range is asymmetrical, may also require special consideration. On the other hand, for
example, when a transformer is to be combined with previously existing units, it may be justified to specify and agree on narrower
impedance tolerances. Matters of special tolerances shall be brought to attention at the tender stage, and revised tolerances agreed
upon between manufacturer and purchaser.
3 Declared value should be understood as meaning the value declared by the manufacturer.

Tests shall be made at any ambient temperature The test basis for all characteristics other than
between 10 C and 50 C and with cooling water insulation is the rated condition, unless the test clause
(if required) at any temperature not exceeding 30 C. states otherwise.
Tests shall be made at the manufacturers works, unless All measuring systems used for the tests shall have
otherwise agreed between the manufacturer and the certified, traceable accuracy and be subjected to
purchaser. periodic calibration, according to IS/ISO 9001.
All external components and fittings that are likely to Where it is required that test results are to be corrected
affect the performance of the transformer during the to a reference temperature, this shall be:
test shall be in place.
a) for oil-immersed transformers: 75 C; and
Tapped windings shall be connected on their principal b) for dry-type transformers: according to the
tapping, unless the relevant test clause requires general requirements for tests in IS 11171.
otherwise or unless the manufacturer and the purchaser
NOTE Specific requirements on the accuracy and
agree otherwise. verification of the measuring systems are under
consideration.

14
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

10.1.1 Routine Tests In all resistance measurements, care shall be taken that
the effects of self-induction are minimized.
a) Measurement of winding resistance
(see 10.2); 10.2.2 Dry-Type Transformers
b) Measurement of voltage ratio and check of
phase displacement (see 10.3); Before measurement the transformer shall be at rest in
a constant ambient temperature for at least 3 h.
c) Measurement of short-circuit impedance and
load loss (see 10.4); Winding resistance and winding temperature shall be
d) Measurement of no-load loss and current measured at the same time. The winding temperature
(see 10.5); shall be measured by sensors placed at representative
e) Dielectric routine tests IS 2026 (Part 3); and positions, preferably inside the set of windings, for
example, in a duct between the high-voltage and low-
f) Tests on on-load tap-changers, where
voltage windings.
appropriate (see 10.8).
10.2 Oil-Immersed Type Transformers
10.1.2 Type Tests
After the transformer has been under oil without
a) Temperature-rise test [see IS 2026 (Part 2)];
and excitation for at least 3 h, the average oil temperature
shall be determined and the temperature of the winding
b) Dielectric type tests [see IS 2026 (Part 3)].
shall be deemed to be the same as the average oil
10.1.3 Special Tests temperature. The average oil temperature is taken as
the mean of the top and bottom oil temperatures.
a) Dielectric special tests [see IS 2026 (Part 3)];
b) Determination of capacitances windings-to- In measuring the cold resistance for the purpose of
earth, and between windings; temperature-rise determination, special efforts shall be
made to determine the average winding temperature
c) Determination of transient voltage transfer
accurately. Thus, the difference in temperature between
characteristics;
the top and bottom oil should be small. To obtain this
d) Measurement of zero-sequence impedance(s) result more rapidly, the oil may be circulated by a
on three-phase transformers (see 10.7); pump.
e) Short-circuit withstand test [see IS 2026
(Part 5)]; 10.3 Measurement of Voltage Ratio and Check of
f) Determination of sound levels (see IS 13964); Phase Displacement
g) Measurement of the harmonics of the no-load The voltage ratio shall be measured on each tapping.
current (see 10.6); The polarity of single-phase transformers and the
h) Measurement of the power taken by the fan connection symbol of three-phase transformers shall
and oil pump motors; and be checked.
j) Measurement of insulation resistance to earth
of the windings, and/or measurement of 10.4 Measurement of Short-Circuit Impedance and
dissipation factor (tan ) of the insulation Load Loss
system capacitances. (These are reference The short-circuit impedance and load loss for a pair of
values for comparison with later measurement windings shall be measured at rated frequency with
in the field. No limitations for the values are approximately sinusoidal voltage applied to the
given here.) terminals of one winding, with the terminals of the
If test methods are not prescribed in this standard, or other winding short-circuited, and with possible other
if tests other than those listed above are specified in windings open-circuited (For selection of tapping for
the contract, such test methods are subject to the test, see 5.5 and 5.6). The supplied current should
agreement. be equal to the relevant rated current (tapping current)
but shall not be less than 50 percent thereof. The
10.2 Measurement of Winding Resistance measurements shall be performed quickly so that
temperature rises do not cause significant errors. The
10.2.1 General difference in temperature between the top oil and the
The resistance of each winding, the terminals between bottom oil shall be small enough to enable the mean
which it is measured and the temperature of the temperature to be determined accurately. If the
windings shall be recorded. Direct current shall be used cooling system is OF or OD, the pump may be used
for the measurement. to mix the oil.

15
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

The measured value of load loss shall be multiplied and sinusoidal voltages across the three wound limbs.
with the square of the ratio of rated current (tapping
The test voltage shall be adjusted according to a
current) to test current. The resulting figure shall then
voltmeter responsive to mean value of voltage but
be corrected to reference temperature (see 10.1). The
scaled to read the r.m.s. voltage of a sinusoidal wave
I2R loss (R being dc resistance) is taken as varying
having the same mean value. The reading of this
directly with the winding resistance and all other losses
voltmeter is U.
inversely with the winding resistance. The
measurement of winding resistance shall be made At the same time, a voltmeter responsive to the r.m.s.
according to 10.2. The temperature correction value of voltage shall be connected in parallel with the
procedure is detailed in Annex F. mean-value voltmeter and its indicated voltage U shall
be recorded.
The short-circuit impedance is represented as reactance
and ac resistance in series. The impedance is corrected When a three-phase transformer is tested, the voltages
to reference temperature assuming that the reactance shall be measured between line terminals, if a delta-
is constant and that the ac resistance derived from the connected winding is energized, and between phase
load loss varies as described above. and neutral terminals if a YN or ZN connected winding
is energized.
On transformers having a tapped winding with tapping
range exceeding 5 percent, the short-circuit The test voltage wave shape is satisfactory if the
impedance shall be measured on the principal tapping readings U and U are equal within 3 percent.
and the two extreme tappings. The measured no-load loss is Pm, and the corrected no
On a three-winding transformer, measurements are load loss is taken as:
performed on the three different two-winding Po = Pm (1 + d)
combinations. The results are re-calculated, allocating
impedances and losses to individual windings. Total U U
d = (usually negative)
losses for specified loading cases involving all these U
windings are determined accordingly.
If the difference between voltmeter readings is larger
NOTES than 3 percent, the validity of the test is subject to
1 For transformers with two secondary windings having the agreement.
same rated power and rated voltage and equal impedance to
the primary (sometimes referred to as dual-secondary The r.m.s. value of no-load current is measured at the
transformers), it may be agreed to investigate the symmetrical same time as the loss. For a three-phase transformer,
loading case by an extra test with both secondary windings
short-circuited simultaneously.
the mean value of readings in the three phases is taken.
2 The measurement of load loss on a large transformer requires NOTES
considerable care and good measuring equipment because of 1 It is recognized that the most severe loading conditions for
the low power factor and the often large test currents. Correction test voltage source accuracy are usually imposed by large
for measuring transformer errors and for resistance of the test single-phase transformers.
connections should be applied unless they are obviously
2 In deciding the place of the no-load test in the complete
negligible.
test sequence, it should be borne in mind that no-load loss
measurements performed before impulse tests and/or
10.5 Measurement of No-load Loss and Current temperature rise tests are, in general, representative of the
average loss level over long time in service. Measurements
The no-load loss and the no-load current shall be after other tests sometimes show higher values caused by
measured on one of the windings at rated frequency spitting between laminate edges during the impulse tests, etc.
and at a voltage corresponding to rated voltage if the Such measurements may be less representative of losses in
test is performed on the principal tapping, or to the service.
appropriate tapping voltage if the test is performed on
10.6 Measurement of the Harmonics of the No-load
another tapping. The remaining winding or windings
Current
shall be left open-circuited and any windings which
can be connected in open delta shall have the delta The harmonics of the no-load current in the three
closed. phases are measured and the magnitude of the
harmonics is expressed as a percentage of the
The transformer shall be approximately at factory
fundamental component.
ambient temperature.
For a three-phase transformer the selection of the 10.7 Measurement of Zero-Sequence Impedance(s)
winding and the connection to the test power source on Three-Phase Transformers
shall be made to provide, as far as possible, symmetrical The zero-sequence impedance is measured at rated

16
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

frequency between the line terminals of a star- 2 The zero-sequence impedance is dependent upon the physical
disposition of the windings and the magnetic parts and
connected or zigzag-connected winding connected
measurements on different windings may not, therefore, agree.
together, and its neutral terminal. It is expressed in
ohms per phase and is given by 3 U/I, where U is the 10.8 Tests on On-load Tap-Changers
test voltage and I is the test current.
10.8.1 Operation Test
I
The test current per phase shall be stated With the tap-changer fully assembled on the
3 transformer the following sequence of operations shall
It shall be ensured that the current in the neutral be performed without failure:
connection is compatible with its current-carrying a) with the transformer un-energized, eight
capability. complete cycles of operation (a cycle of
In the case of a transformer with an additional delta- operation goes from one end of the tapping
connected winding, the value of the test current shall range to the other, and back again);
be such that the current in the delta-connected winding b) with the transformer un-energized, and with
is not excessive, taking into account the duration of the auxiliary voltage reduced to 85 percent of
application. its rated value, one complete cycle of operation;
c) with the transformer energized at rated voltage
If winding balancing ampere-turns are missing in the
and frequency at no load, one complete cycle
zero-sequence system, for example, in a star-star-
of operation; and
connected transformer without delta winding, the
applied voltage shall not exceed the phase-to-neutral d) with one winding short-circuited and, as far
voltage at normal operation. The current in the neutral as practicable, rated current in the tapped
and the duration of application should be limited to avoid winding, 10 tap-change operations across the
excessive temperatures of metallic constructional parts. range of two steps on each side from where a
coarse or reversing changeover selector
In the case of transformers having more than one star- operates, or otherwise from the middle
connected winding with neutral terminal, the zero- tapping.
sequence impedance is dependent upon the connection
(see 3.7.3) and the tests to be made shall be subject to 10.8.2 Auxiliary Circuits Insulation Test
agreement between the manufacturer and the purchaser. After the tap-changer is assembled on the transformer,
Auto-transformers with a neutral terminal intended to a power frequency test shall be applied to the auxiliary
be permanently connected to earth shall be treated as circuits as specified in IS 2026 (Part 3).
normal transformers with two star-connected windings.
11 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY
Thereby, the series winding and the common winding
(EMC)
together form one measuring circuit, and the common
winding alone forms the other. The measurements are Power transformer shall be considered as passive
carried out with a current not exceeding the difference elements in respect to emission of, and immunity to,
between the rated currents on the low-voltage side and electromagnetic disturbances.
the high-voltage side. NOTES
NOTES 1 Certain accessories may be susceptible to electromagnetic
1 In conditions where winding balancing ampere-turns are interference.
missing, the relation between voltage and current is generally 2 Passive elements are not liable to cause electromagnetic
not linear. In that case several measurements at different values disturbances and their performance is not liable to be affected
of current may give useful information. by such disturbances.

17
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

ANNEX A
(Clause 2)
LIST OF REFERRED INDIAN STANDARDS

IS No Title IS No Title
1076 (Part 1): Preferred numbers: Part 1 Series of 5553 : 1989 Reactors
1985 preferred number (All parts)
2026 Power transformers: 6600 : 1972 Guide for loading of oil immersed
(Part 2) : 2010 Temperature rise (first revision) transformers
(Part 3) : 2009 Insulation levels and dielectric tests 11171 : 1985 Specification for dry-type power
(Part 4) : 1977 Terminal marking, tappings and transformers
connections 13964 : 1994 Methods of measurement of
(Part 5) : 2011 Ability to withstand short circuit (first transformer and reactor sound levels
revision) IS/ISO 9001 : Quality management systems
2000 Requirements

ANNEX B
(Clause 1.1.2)
INFORMATION REQUIRED WITH ENQUIRY AND ORDER

B-1 RATING AND GENERAL DATA k) Rated voltage for each winding;
m) For a transformer with tappings:
B-1.1 Normal Information
1) which winding is tapped, the number of
The following information shall be given in all cases: tappings, and the tapping range or
tapping step;
a) Particulars of the specifications to which the
transformer shall comply; 2) whether off-circuit or on-load tap-
changing is required;
b) Kind of transformer, for example, separate
winding transformer, auto-transformer or 3) if the tapping range is more than 5
booster transformer; percent, the type of voltage variation, and
c) Single or three-phase unit; the location of the maximum current
tapping, if applicable, (see 5.4).
d) Number of phases in system;
e) Frequency; n) Highest voltage for equipment (Um) for each
f) Dry-type or oil-immersed type. If oil- winding [with respect to insulation [see
immersed type, whether mineral oil or IS 2026 (Part 3)];
synthetic insulating liquid. If dry-type, degree p) Method of system earthing (for each
of protection (see IS 11171); winding);
g) Indoor or outdoor type; q) Insulation level [see IS 2026 (Part 3)], for each
winding;
h) Type of cooling;
j) Rated power for each winding and, for tapping r) Connection symbol and neutral terminals, if
range exceeding 5 percent, the specified required for any winding;
maximum current tapping, if applicable. If the s) Any peculiarities of installation, assembly,
transformer is specified with alternative transport and handling. Restrictions on
methods of cooling, the respective lower dimensions and mass;
power values are to be stated together with t) Details of auxiliary supply voltage (for fans
the rated power (which refers to the most and pumps, tap-changer, alarms, etc);
efficient cooling); u) Fittings required and an indication of the side

18
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

from which meters, rating plates, oil-level details to be given;


indicators, etc, shall be legible; n) Whether transformers will be subjected to
v) Type of oil preservation system; and frequent overcurrents, for example, furnace
w) For multi-winding transformers, required transformers and traction feeding transformers;
power-loading combinations, stating, when p) Details of intended regular cyclic
necessary, the active and reactive outputs overloading other than covered by 4.2 (to
separately, especially in the case of multi- enable the rating of the transformer auxiliary
winding auto-transformers. equipment to be established);
B-1.2 Special Information q) Any other exceptional service conditions;
r) If a transformer has alternative winding
The following additional information may need to be
connections, how they should be changed, and
given:
which connection is required ex works;
a) If a lightning impulse voltage test is required, s) Short-circuit characteristics of the connected
whether or not the test is to include chopped systems (expressed as short-circuit power or
waves [see IS 2026 (Part 3)]; current, or system impedance data) and
b) Whether a stabilizing winding is required and, possible limitations affecting the transformer
if so, the method of earthing; design [see IS 2026 (Part 5)];
c) Short-circuit impedance, or impedance range t) Whether sound-level measurement is to be
(see Annex D). For multi-winding carried out (see IS 13964);
transformers, any impedances that are u) Vacuum withstand of the transformer tank
specified for particular pairs of windings and, possibly, the conservator, if a specific
(together with relevant reference ratings, if value is required; and
percentage values are given); v) Any special tests not referred to above which
d) Tolerances on voltage ratios and short-circuit may be required.
impedances as left to agreement in Table 1,
or deviating from values given in the table; B-2 PARALLEL OPERATION
e) Whether a generator transformer is to be If parallel operation with existing transformers is
connected to the generator directly or through required, this shall be stated and the following
switchgear, and whether it will be subjected information on the existing transformers given:
to load rejection conditions;
a) Rated power;
f) Whether a transformer is to be connected
directly or by a short length of overhead line b) Rated voltage ratio;
to gas-insulated switchgear (GIS); c) Voltage ratios corresponding to tappings other
g) Altitude above sea-level, if in excess than the principal tapping;
of 1 000 m (3 300 ft); d) Load loss at rated current on the principal
h) Special ambient temperature conditions or tapping, corrected to the appropriate reference
restrictions to circulation of cooling air; temperature;
j) Expected seismic activity at the installation e) Short-circuit impedance on the principal
site which requires special consideration; tapping and at least on the extreme tappings,
if the tapping range of the tapped winding
k) Special installation space restrictions which
exceeds 5 percent; and
may influence the insulation clearances and
terminal locations on the transformer; f) Diagram of connections, or connection
symbol, or both.
m) Whether load current wave shape will be
heavily distorted. Whether unbalanced three- NOTE On multi-winding transformers, supplementary
information will generally be required.
phase loading is anticipated. In both cases,

19
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

ANNEX C
(Clause 5.4)
EXAMPLES OF SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSFORMERS WITH TAPPINGS

C-1 EXAMPLE 1 CONSTANT FLUX VOLTAGE The tapping current of the untapped winding (LV) is
VARIATION then limited to 2 020 A from the tapping +5 percent to
the extreme tapping +15 percent where the tapping
Transformer having a 66 kV/20 kV three-
power is reduced to 18.3 MVA.
phase 40 MVA rating and a 10 percent tapping range
on the 66 kV winding, with 11 tapping positions. Short C-3 EXAMPLE 3 COMBINED VOLTAGE
notation: (66 5 2 percent ) / 20 kV. VARIATION
Category of voltage variation : CFVV Transformer having a 160 kV/20 kV three-
Rated power : 40 MVA phase 40 MVA rating and a 15 percent tapping range
Rated voltages : 66 kV/20 kV on the 160 kV winding. The changeover point
Tapped winding : 66 kV (maximum voltage tapping), is at +6 percent, and there
(tapping range is also a maximum current tapping in the CFVV range
10 percent ) at 9 percent:
Number of tapping positions : 11
Tapped winding: 160 kV, range 10 1.5 percent.
If this transformer shall have reduced power tappings,

Tapping Current
Tapping Voltage
say, from tapping 6 percent, add: Tappings

Tapping Power
maximum current tapping : tapping 6

Voltage Ratio

SMVA
UHT/ UMT
percent
The tapping current of the HV winding is then limited
to 372 A from the tapping 6 percent to the extreme
tapping 10 percent where tapping power is reduced UHT IBT IHT IBT IHT/
to 38.3 MVA. kV A A A IBT
C-2 EXAMPLE 2 VARIABLE FLUX VOLTAGE (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
VARIATION 1 (+15 9/20 169.6 18.43 125.6 1 155 36.86
percent )
Transformer having a 66 kV/6 kV, three-phase 20 MVA
rating and a +15 percent, 5 percent tapping range on 7 (+6 8/48 169.6 20 136.2 1 155 40
the HV winding, but having a constant tapping voltage percent)
for the HV winding and a variable tapping voltage for 11 (0 8 160 20 144.4 1 155 40
the LV winding, between: percent)
6 6 17 (9 7/28 145.6 20 158.7 1 155 40
= 6.32 kV to = 5.22 kV percent)
0.95 1.15
Category of voltage variation :
VFVV 21 (15 6/80 136 20 158.7 1 080 37.4
Rated power :
20 MVA percent)
Rated voltages :
66 kV/6 kV
Tapped winding :
66 kV NOTES
(tapping 1 On completing with data for intermediate tappings, the
range +15 preceding table can be used on a rating plate.
percent,5 2 Compare this specification and a CFVV specification which
percent ) would be:
Number of tapping positions : 13 (160 15 percent ) / 20 kV 40 MVA
Tapping voltages of 6 kV winding : 6.32 kV, 6 The difference is that the HV tapping voltage,
kV, 5.22 kV according to the example, does not exceed the system
If this transformer shall have reduced power tappings, highest voltage of the HV system, which is 170 kV
add for example: (IEC standardized value). The quantity highest voltage
for equipment which characterizes the insulation of
maximum current tapping : tapping +5 the winding, is also 170 kV [see IS 2026 (Part 3)].
percent

20
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

ANNEX D
(Clauses 5.5 and B-1.2)
SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE BY BOUNDARIES

The upper boundary (Fig. 3) is a constant value of overcurrent on the secondary side during a through-
short-circuit impedance as a percentage, which is fault.
determined by the permissible voltage drop at a
The dashed line is an example of a transformer short-
specified loading and at a specified power factor.
circuit impedance curve which would satisfy this
The lower boundary is determined by permissible specification.

F IG. 3 EXAMPLE OF SPECIFICATION OF SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE BY BOUNDARIES

21
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

ANNEX E
(Clause 6)
THREE-PHASE TRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS
Common Connections are given in Fig. 4 and other connections are given in Fig. 5, 6 and 7.

NOTE It should be noted that these conventions differ from those previously used in Fig. 5 of IS 2026 (Part 5).

FIG. 4 COMMON CONNECTIONS

22
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

Additional Connections

NOTE It should be noted that these conventions differ from those previously used in Fig. 5 of IS 2026 (Part 4)

FIG. 5 ADDITIONAL CONNECTIONS

23
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

FIG. 6 DESIGNATION OF C ONNECTIONS OF THREE -PHASE AUTO-TRANSFORMERS BY C ONNECTION SYMBOLS


AUTO-TRANSFORMER YA0

FIG. 7 EXAMPLE OF THREE SINGLE-PHASE T RANSFORMERS CONNECTED TO FORM A THREE -PHASE B ANK
(CONNECTION SYMBOL YD5)

24
IS 2026 (Part 1) : 2011

ANNEX F
(Clause 10.4)
TEMPERATURE CORRECTION OF LOAD LOSS

F-1 LIST OF SYMBOLS At reference temperature r, the winding resistance is


Rr, the additional loss Par, the whole load loss Pr.
Index 1 : Refers to measurement of cold winding
resistance (see 10.2). 235 + r
Index 2 : Indicates conditions during measurement Rr = R1 (copper)
235 + 1
of load loss (see 10.4).
r : Indicates conditions at reference 235 + 2
temperature (see 10.1). Par = Pa 2 235 +
r
R : Resistance.
: Winding temperature, in C. 225 + r
Rr = R1 (aluminium)
P : Load loss. 225 + 1
I : Specified load current for loss
determination (rated current, tapping 225 + 2
current, other specified value related to a Par = Pa 2 225 +
r
particular loading case).
Pa : Additional loss. For oil-immersed transformers with reference
temperature 75 C the formulae become as follows:
The winding resistance measurement is made at a
temperature 1. The measured value is R1. 310
Rr = R1 (copper)
The load loss is measured with the winding at an 235 + 1
average temperature 2. The measured loss referred to
specified current I, is P2. This loss is composed of 235 + 2
Par = Pa 2
ohmic loss: I2R2 and additional loss: Pa2 310

235 + 2 300
R2 = R1 (copper) Rr = R1 (aluminium)
235 + 1 225 + 1

225 + 2 225 + 2
R2 = R1 (aluminium) Par = Pa 2
225 + 1 300
Pa2 = P2 I2R2 Finally: Pr = I2Rr + Par

25
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This Indian Standard has been developed from Doc No.: ETD 16 (6058).

Amendments Issued Since Publication

Amend No. Date of Issue Text Affected

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