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Index

Abstract-------------------------------------------------------------05

Introduction:------------------------------------------------------06
Chapter I: ---------------------------------------------------------07

Chapter II: --------------------------------------------------------09

Chapter III:--------------------------------------------------------11
Chapter IV: -------------------------------------------------------13
Suggestions:--------------------------------------------------------14
Bibliography:------------------------------------------------------15
Abstract
Montreal Protocol is hailed as the only successful environment convention of the world.
World reacting promptly after realizing the consequences world has to face if something is
not done to curb Ozone depleting Substances. There were funds created for helping
developing countries, for transfer of technology etc. The results were phenomenal, as the
latest research shows that ozone layer is recovering and will be back to pre 1980 level by
middle of the century. Paper has classified the Protocol into 2 stages, i.e. Pre introduction of
HFCs in Montreal Protocol and Post inclusion of HCFCs in the list. This was the Stage I of
this protocol. Protocol banned the use of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and thus
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HFCs) were used as its replacements as HFCs does not have
Chlorine, whose emission depletes the Ozone. Thus consumption of HFCs multiplied in the
last decades. With the latest researchs it has been found that HFCs are the Green House
gases and has very high Global Warming Potential. Thus there have been negotiations for
inclusion of HFCs in the same list. These negotiations have marked the beginning of the
second Stage of this Protocol. Now the motive of Montreal Protocol along with the Protection
of Ozone also includes Reducing the Global Temperature This paper talks about the success
of the Protocol in controlling the emission of CFCs, HCFCs and Halons during the Stage I.
Paper also talks about the challenges in the future and Suggestions which implemented can
help in better implementation of Protocol in its Second Stage Also.

Keywords: Montreal Protocol, CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs


Introduction:
The Montreal Protocol is widely recognized as the most successful environment protection
agreement in the world. The Protocol sets out a compulsory timetable for the phase out of
ozone depleting substances. This timetable has been reviewed regularly, with phase out dates
accelerated in accordance with scientific understanding and technological advances.

This Protocol sets obligatory progressive phase out obligations for developed and developing
countries for all the major ozone depleting substances, including CFCs, halons and less
damaging transitional chemicals such as HCFCs.

The Multilateral Fund, the first ever financial mechanism to be created under any
international treaty, was created under the Protocol in 1990 to provide financial assistance to
developing countries from developed countries to help them achieve their phase out
obligations; this was another example of one unique co-operation shown by world.

The Montreal Protocol targets 96 chemicals in thousands of applications across more than
240 industrial sectors. The Multilateral Fund has provided more than US $2.5 billion in
financial assistance to developing countries to phase out production and consumption of
ozone depleting substances since the Protocols origin in 1987.

The Protocol has been further strengthened majorly through five Amendments - London
1990, Copenhagen 1992, Vienna 1995, Montreal 1997 and Beijing 1999 - which have
brought forward phase out schedules and added new ozone depleting substances to the list of
substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol.

Ratification: This protocol has been ratified by all countries in UN Cook Islands, Holy
See, Niue and the supranational European Union. South Sudan being the last country to ratify
the agreement.
Stage 1
Chapter I: Substances Banned as per the Protocol

Chlorofluorocarbons
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are nontoxic, non-combustible chemicals containing atoms of
Carbon (C), Chlorine(Cl), and fluorine(F). They are used in the manufacture of aerosol
sprays, processing agents for foams and packing materials, as solvents, and as refrigerants.
CFCs area unit classified as halocarbons, a category of compounds that contain atoms of
carbon and halogen atoms. Individual chlorofluorocarbon molecules area unit labelled with a
singular listing system as an example, the chlorofluorocarbon range of eleven indicates the
amount of atoms of carbon, hydrogen, fluorine, and element (e.g. CCl3F as CFC-11).1

As per Montreal Protocol from 1991 to 1992, the levels of consumption and production of the
controlled substances (CFCS) in Group I of Annex A do not exceed 150 percent of its
calculated levels of production and consumption of those substances in 1986;

And from 1994 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled
substances in Group I of Annex A does not exceed, annually, twenty-five percent (25%) of its
calculated level of consumption and production in 1986.

From 1996 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled substances in
cluster I of Annex A ought to stopped, 1996 was the deadline wherever consumption should
come to an end.

There are some exceptions for "essential uses", wherever no acceptable substitutes are found
or organic compound fireplace suppression systems utilized in submarines and craft (but not
generally industry).

The provisions of the Protocol embrace the necessity that the Parties to the Protocol base
their future selections on the present scientific, environmental, technical, and economic data
1 ESRL Global Monitoring Division - Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species, ESRL
Global Monitoring Division - Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species,
http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/publictn/elkins/cfcs.html (last visited Mar 1, 2016).
that's assessed through panels drawn from the worldwide professional communities to
produce that input to the decision-making method, advances in understanding on these topics
were assessed in 1989, 1991, 1994, 1998 and 2002 during a series of reports entitled
Scientific assessment of gas depletion.

Several reports are printed by varied governmental and non-governmental organizations to


gift alternatives to the gas depleting substances, since the substances are utilized in varied
technical sectors, like in cold, agriculture, energy production, and laboratory measurements.

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are a large cluster of compounds,


whose structure is extremely near that of Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),
however together with one or a lot of hydrogen atoms. under traditional
conditions, HCFCs are gases or liquids that evaporate simply. they're
typically fairly stable and unreactive. HCFCs don't typically dissolve in
water, however do dissolve in organic (carbon-containing) solvents. HCFCs
are chemically almost like Hydrobromofluorocarbons (HBFCs),
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and Halons and therefore show some similar
properties, although they're a lot of less stable and chronic. HCFCs also
are a part of a gaggle of chemicals referred to as the volatile organic
compounds (VOCs).2

Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, especially
Executive Committee (ExCom) 53/37 and ExCom 54/39, Parties to this Protocol agreed to set
year 2013 as the time to freeze the consumption and production of HCFCs. They also agreed
to start reducing its consumption and production in 2015. The time of freezing and reducing
HCFCs is then known as 2013/2015.

2 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), Pollutant Fact Sheet,


http://apps.sepa.org.uk/spripa/pages/substanceinformation.aspx?pid=120 (last
visited Mar 1, 2016).
The HCFCs are transitional CFCs replacements, used as refrigerants, solvents, blowing
agents for plastic foam manufacture, and fire extinguishers. In terms of Ozone Depleting
Potential (ODP), in comparison to CFCs that have ODP 0.6 1.0, these HCFCs have lower
ODPs (0.01 0.5). In terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP), in comparison to CFCs that
have GWP 4,680 10,720, HCFCs have lower GWPs (76 2,270).

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC), are composed of hydrogen, fluorine, and carbon. HFCs are
produced synthetically and are used primarily as refrigerants. HFCs are relatively non-
flammable, chemically stable, and nonreactive. Many are colourless, odourless gases, but
somesuch as HFC-365mfc (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane)are liquids at room
temperature.3

Use of HFCs rapidly increases after the introduction of Montreal protocol. Montreal Protocol
has banned the use of CFCs and HCFCs. Thus world soon shifted HCFCs as they were the
alternative of these gases.

The ultraviolet rays from sun could potentially have harmful effects on both plant and animal
life on the earth. A thin scattering of ozone in the stratosphere however acts as an effective
filtering device and blocks the incoming UV rays.

Since 1950s lack of knowledge about atmospheric chemistry and processes led to a
significant emission of man-made chemicals, especially chlorine and bromine compounds,
such as chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and a broad range of industrial chemicals that attack the
ozone layer. These man-made chemicals when reached stratosphere are broken into highly
reactive forms of chlorine and bromine by the ultraviolet radiation and take part in a series of
chain reactions leading to ozone depletion. Hence these man-made chemicals are recognized
as ozone depleting substances. The hole created due to destruction of ozone layer leads to
increased penetration of ultraviolet radiation to the Earth surface.

3 Kara Rogers, hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) Encyclopedia Britannica Online,


http://www.britannica.com/science/hydrofluorocarbon (last visited Feb 15, 2016).
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires, in Article 4 6.
The assessments shall be made at least every four years. The Montreal Protocol are its
requirements regarding control of compounds5 which destroy the earths ozone shield. In
order to maintain a sufficient supply of CFC and halon based products 6 for developing
countries and to respond to supply shortages and achieve economic efficiency in some of the
more industrialized nations, the Protocol provides certain specific exceptions to the general
limitations it imposes on CFC and halon consumption.

CFCs are extremely stable in the lower atmosphere, only a negligible amount are removed by
the oceans and soils. However, once CFCs reach the stratosphere, UV light intensities are
high enough to break apart the CFC molecule, freeing up the chlorine atoms in them. These
free chlorine atoms then react with ozone to form oxygen and chlorine monoxide, thereby
destroying the ozone molecule. The chlorine atom in the chlorine monoxide molecule can
then react with an oxygen atom to free up the chlorine atom again, which can go on to
destroy more ozone as a "catalytic reaction"7

Cl (chlorine) + O3 (ozone) ClO (chlorine monoxide) + O2 (oxygen)


ClO (chlorine monoxide) + [O] (oxygen) Cl (chlorine) + O2 (oxygen)

4 http://ozone.unep.org/en/handbook-montreal-protocol-substances-deplete-ozone-layer Beginning
in 1990, and at least every four years thereafter, the Parties shall assess the control measures provided
for in Article 2 and Articles 2A to 2I on the basis of available scientific, environmental, technical and
economic information. At least one year before each assessment, the Parties shall convene appropriate
panels of experts qualified in the fields mentioned and determine the composition and terms of
reference of any such panels. Within one year of being convened, the panels will report their
conclusions, through the Secretariat, to the Parties.

5 CFCs-11, 12, 113, 114, and 115, the halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform.

6 CFCs have a wide variety of commercial uses. They are employed, among other things, as
refrigerants, solvents for cleaning electronic components, and are used in the manufacture of flexible
and rigid polyurethane foams. Halons are also used in fire extinguishers and other products.

7catalytic action is a chemical reaction between the catalyst and a reactant, forming chemical
intermediates that are able to react more readily with each other or with another reactant, to form the
desired end product. During the reaction between the chemical intermediates and the reactants, the
catalyst is regenerated.
Chapter II: Timeline of Phase-out of different Chemicals

Montreal Protocol adopted different Time Period for phase-out of banned chemicals in both
Developed and Developing Country. Developing Country was giving more time period for
stopping the consumption of banned chemicals. The reason behind this was to make
developed country an example to the developing world and also to give the required time to
developing world for technology transfers and adoptions of new technology from developed
countries.8

Ozone depleting substances Developed countries Developing countries

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phased out end of 1995 Total phase out by 2010
Halons Phased out end of 1993 Total phase out by 2010
CCl4(Carbon tetrachloride) Phased out end of 1995 Total phase out by 2010

CH3CCl3 (Methyl Phased out end of 1995 Total phase out by 2015
chloroform)

Hydrochlorofluorocarbons Freeze from beginning of Freeze in 2013 at a base level calculated


(HCFCs) 1996 as the average of 2009 and 2010
35% reduction by 2004 consumption levels
75% reduction by 2010 10% reduction by 2015
90% reduction by 2015 35% reduction by 2020
Total phase out by 2020 67.5% reduction by 2025
Total phase out by 2030
Hydrobromofluorocarbons Phased out end of 1995 Phased out end of 1995
(HBFCs)
Methyl bromide (CH3Br) Freeze in 1995 at 1991 Freeze in 2002 at average 1995-1998
(horticultural uses) base levele base level

8 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT,
http://www.environment.gov.au/protection/ozone/montreal-protocol (last visited Mar 15, 2016)
25% reduction by 1999 20% reduction by 2005
50% reduction by 2001 Total phase out by 2015
70% reduction by 2003
Total phase out by 2005
Bromochloromethane Phase out by 2002 Phase out by 2002
(CH2BrCl)

Chapter III: Multilateral Fund


The Multilateral Fund9, the primary monetary mechanism to be created underneath a global
pact, was created underneath the Protocol in 1990 to supply monetary help to developing
countries to assist them come through their phase out obligations.

This fund, created in 1991 with aim of assisting developing countries to meet their Montreal
Protocol Commitments, Fund aims to reverse the deteriorated condition of Ozone Layer.
Executive Committee has both developed and developing countries as its members.
Committee is assisted by its Secretariat. Since its inception Fund has approved different
activities, technical transfers, training and coaching worth over 3 billion US$.

The fund was established by consensus at its Second Meeting at London in June, 1990. Funds
started its operation in 1990. This funds main object is to helping those countries whose
annual level of consumption of the ozone depleting substances (ODS) chlorofluorocarbons
(CFCs) and halons is less than 0.3 kilograms per capital to match the controlling measures of
this protocol. These countries are the developing countries only or the countries enclosed in
the Article 5 of the convention. There are around 147 current presently, who match this
criteria.

Fund is managed by the Executive Committee which has equal members from both develop
and developing world. The fund Secetariat is located at Montreal. Its assists the Committee in
its task. Implementation of Projects and activities is the responsiblity of 4 implementing
agencies.

9 http://www.multilateralfund.org/default.aspx (last visited Mar 15, 2016).


Contributions to the Multilateral Fund from developed countries, or non-Article 5 countries,
are assessed according to the UN scale of assessment. As at 15 May 2015 the contributions
made to the Multilateral Fund by some 45 countries (including Countries with Economies in
Transition or CEIT countries) has crossed over US$ 3.34 billion.

The Fund has been increased nine times: US $240 million (1991-1993), US $455 million
(1994-1996), US $466 million (1997-1999), US $440 million (2000-2002), US $474 million
(2003-2005), US $400.4 million (2006-2008), US $400 million (2009-2011), US $400
million (2012-2014) and US $437.5 million (2015-2017). The total budget for the 2015-2017
triennium is around US $507.5 million: $64 million of that budget will be provided from
anticipated contributions due to the Multilateral Fund and other sources for the 2012-2014
triennium, and that $6 million will be provided from interest accruing to the Fund during the
20152017 triennium.

Since the beginning of the Fund, the Executive Committee has held over 75 meetings. During
these meetings, the Executive Committee approved the expenditure of approximately US
$3.185 billion for the implementation of projects including industrial conversion, technical
assistance, training and capacity building that will result in the phase-out of 463,814 ODP
tonnes of controlled substances once all these projects have been implemented. As of the end
of December 2013, approximately 453,771 ODP tonnes had already been phased out.

For facilitating the phase-out by Article 5 countries, the Executive Committee has approven
over 144 country programmes, 142 HCFC phase-out management plans and has funded the
establishment and the operating costs of ozone offices in 145 Article 5 countries.
To facilitate the phase-out by Article five countries, the manager Committee has approved a
hundred and forty four country programmes, 142 hydro chlorofluorocarbon phase-out
management plans and has funded the institution and therefore the in operation prices of gas
offices in a hundred forty five Article five countries.

Presently Argentina, Cameroon, China, Egypt, India, Jordan and Mexico are the part of
Developing Countries as per Article 5 of the Montreal Protocol Agreement, Whereas Austria,
Belgium, Canada, Germany, Russian Federation and USA are the part of Developed
Countries. Mr. Agustin Sanchez (Mexico) serves as Chair of the Executive Committee for
one year beginning 1 January 2016 and Mr. Paul Krajnik (Austria) serves as Vice Chair.

Multilateral Fund works/ allotment of funds in developing countries is carried out by four
Implementing Agencies, which have contractual agreements with the Executive Committee,
These 4 agencies are:

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), through the UNEP


DTIE OzonAction Programme.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

World Bank.

Stage 1 results were phenomenal with different analysts, experts, diplomats hailing as the
most successful environment convention of the time. Ozone has started recovering and is
expected to reach the pre -1980 stage by 2050.

In the next Part we will be discussing the Stage II, this stage along with protection of ozone
also aims at controlling the Global Temperature.

Stage II of the Montreal Protocol


Chapter IV: Ban on HFCs
Use of HFCs multiplied after the acceptance of HFCs as the alternative of CFCs. Reason
for choosing HFCs was absence of Chlorine in this Chemical. But the excessive use of
HFCs has put us back on the same stage. HFCs are Green House Gases, they are very high
on Global Warming Potential.

International Policy has been bit confusing here, first they banned CFCs due to which
Industries and government policies shifted to HCFCs and HCFs as they have less GWP
compared to that of CFCs. Now UN wants to ban the usage of HCFs as they are Green
House Gases and many researchs have shown that if nothing is done now, then there will be
bigger problems then the present one. Reason for this is HCFs does not have Chlorine but
they have very Global Warming Potential.

Global Warming Potential?

Global warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas
gets trapped in the atmosphere. It compares the amount of heat trapped by a certain mass of
the gas in question to the amount of heat trapped by a similar mass of carbon dioxide. A GWP
is calculated over a specific time interval, commonly 20, 100 or 500 years. In case of HCFs
they have very high GWP. Its emission is much more deadly than the emission of CO2. As per
some latest research emission of HCFs has 60 times more GWP then CO 2. Thus if the
emission is not controlled at the preset rate, it can lead to the much warmer world. Research
Showed an increase of 2oC in temperature Globally.

Chapter V :Suggestions:
There need to be better research in adopting alternatives.
Adoption of any alternative should be only after properly understanding
its negative impacts
There should be a Technology Transfer to developing Countries, so they
can make their own products at cheaper costs.
Develop Countries should focus on transferring of technology in place of
transfer of products.
Global North should take care of banks of CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs, so
that harmful gases are not emitted in the atmosphere. It shall be their
liability to destroy the banks and if it required giving some compensation
to developing Countries, then the developing Countries should be
Compensated.
Monetary Compensation should be paid to developing countries in
helping them develop their own technologies rather than making them
dependent on the developed world for one thing or the other.
Propane Gas should be use as an alternative, as it does not emit ODS nor
does it has very high GPW.

Bibliography

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John H. Chafee, & Steven J. Shimberg. (1990). Supplementing the Montreal Protocol: The
Need for Domestic Legislation. Ambio, 19(6/7), 310312
Seidel, S. R., & Blank, D. P.. (1990). The Montreal Protocol: Pollution Prevention on a
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VIENNA CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER AND ITS
MONTREAL PROTOCOL: HELSINKI DECLARATION OF PARTICIPATING STATES.
(1989). VIENNA CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE OZONE LAYER
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Jamison Koehler, & Hajost, S. A.. (1990). The Montreal Protocol: A Dynamic Agreement for
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Website
http://ozone.unep.org/
http://www.livescience.com/17347-climate-success-montreal-protocol-ozone.html