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HEC4812 Safety and Risk Management

Lecture 1

A state of being safe
A condition of being protected against
Other types of consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents,
harm or any other event which could be considered non-desirable

It can also be defined to be the control of recognized hazards to
achieve an acceptable level of risk.
This can include:
being protected from the event or exposure to something that causes
health or economical losses
protection of people or of possessions

All engineers have a duty to use their best endeavors to ensure

that plant designed and/or operated under their control is as safe
as is reasonably practicable. Not only is this now a legal duty, it
should also be considered as a moral obligation.

This duty is wide reaching and can be divided into a number of
Prevention of death and injury to workers
Prevention of death or injury to the general public
Prevention of damage to plant
Prevention of damage to third party property
Prevention of damage to the environment

A physical situation with a potential for:
human injury;
damage to property;
damage to the environment or;
some combination of these.

Hazard Analysis:
It is used as the first step in a process used to assess risk. The result
of a hazard analysis is the identification of different type of hazards.

The likelihood of a specified undesired event occurring within a
specified period or in specified circumstances.

A vessel containing a toxic chemicals Risk exists
If people far away from the vessel Risk = 0
However, there may still be a risk to property or the environment
Individual risk or Societal risk

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA):

Quantitative estimates of risks, given the parameters defining them.
They are used in the financial sector, the chemical process industry,
and other areas.

Risk Management

The Flixborough Incident
Vapor cloud explosion in
Nypro (UK) Ltd. plant at 4.53
pm on 1st June 1974.
Destruction of entire plant.
On-site: 28 killed and 36
injured; hundreds more
suffered unrecorded minor
1821 houses, 167 shops and
factories affected.

The Bhopal Disaster
One of the world's worst chemical
disasters in India.
Incident occurred on the night of
December 2-3, 1984.
Toxic gas was leaked from the poorly
maintained and understaffed plant
owned by Union Carbide.
4,000 people were killed and left
120,000 lingeringly health effects,
overwhelming the emergency services.
The exact numbers of dead and injured
were uncertain, as people had continued
to die because of the effects over a
period of years.
The severity of this accident makes it the
worst record in the chemical industry.

Piper Alpha Accident
Operated by Occidental Petroleum
(Caledonia) Ltd
Situated on Piper Oilfield, 206 km
northeast of Aberdeen
Began operation as a oil platform in
1976 and started to focus on gas
production in 1980
Piper Alpha was producing 10% of the
oil and gas production from the North
It hosted 229 personnel when the
incident occur.
On July 6, 1988, there was a massive
leakage of gas condensate which was
ignited causing an explosion. The heat
ruptured the riser of a gas pipeline from
another installation and produced further
massive explosions.
All this took just within an hour.
The casualty of this disaster is 167 death
which is 73% while only 62 survived.

Texas BP Refinery Explosion
Own and licensed under
British Petroleum (BP)
Largest and most complex oil
refinery located in Texas
Rated capacity of 460,000
barrels per day
Ability to produce about 11
million gallons of gasoline a
Accounts of about 3 percent of
the gasoline supply of the US
Important to both BP and the
Incident occurred in 2005

Image Source: Kong, Y. (2013). Enhancing Safety and Sustainability of Malaysian Refineries. Scientific Malaysian Magazine.
Retrieved from http://magazine.scientificmalaysian.com/issue-6-2013/enhancing-safety-sustainability-malaysian-refineries/
Loss Prevention (LP)
Loss Prevention (LP) concerned with the avoidance both
of personal injury and economic loss.
The essential problem which the loss prevention
addresses is:
the scale, depth and pace of technology.
The prime emphasis in loss prevention is on:
the management system.

Loss Prevention (LP)

The insured cost was the compensation to the workers of

The total uninsured cost were US$1,273,518; majorly was property
damage cost
Ratio of uninsured to insured cost was ca. 6.1

Loss Prevention (LP)

General reduction trend across industries

The trend for chemical and its allied industries fell from 4.3 to 1.2
The Flixborough disaster, England (June 1974)
Safety Assurance
The complete elimination of risk in human activity
will never be possible.
All that can be done is to ensure that the risk is kept
As Low As Reasonably Practicable (ALARP).
Risk is a function of both frequency or probability of
an unexpected event and consequences of that event.
The best way is to reduce the consequences, this can
be done by reducing the potential for harm of
particular operations.

Safety Culture
Whilst nothing can guarantee absolute safety,
provided that every one in an organization realize
that they have a moral and often a legal duty to
ensure the safety of the operations in which they are
involved, then it should be possible to ensure that the
risks are kept as low as reasonably practicable.

Health, Safety and Environment (HSE)
HSE are high level management concerns that require
company-wide commitment and measures.
In Chemical Engineering, these are the three main areas that
need to be considered in risk management.

Health The plant should be designed and operated so

that it does not affect the health of any of
the workers or general public.
Safety The process should have the highest level of
safety (lowest risk) possible through good
design and operation.
Environment The discharge and emissions from the plant
should not affect the environment in a
negative way.
Risk Management in Plant Design and
Risk management identifies, analyses and manages any
potential risks when a plant is designed as well as the
process operations of the plant.
When a plant is designed, it is designed in which the
process operations can accommodate the plants
operability in collaboration with risk management such
that the employees are not exposed to any risky working

Quality Control and Quality Assurance
The process of enforcing quality control standards and working to
improve the processes that are used for continuous improvement and
innovation. Quality assurance always makes sure quality control is

Quality control: Quality assurance:

The inspection / testing A set or system of procedures to
(i.e. pass / fail criteria) ensure that the products meets
of products to ensure the specs and required standards.
that they meet These systems are applied to all
specifications. parts of production.
If the raw and intermediate
products do not meet spec then it
is almost impossible for the final
product to meet spec.

Standards related to Risk Management
ISO 9000 is becoming the most popular quality standard in the world.
The ISO helps firms to better themselves and product through self
analysis and review into smoother and more efficient operations.

ISO 9000/1/2/3:
A means of standardizing the implementation of a quality system but
does not take into the final quality specification of the product or
It can be used by any organization of any size or industry.
ISO does not have to be adhered to. (It is not legislation)
International standard ISO 9000 companies meet for accreditation.

ISO 14001:1996
Similar in usage to ISO 9000 but related to an organization interested in
establishing and maintaining an environmental management system

The ISO 14000 exist to ensure products and services
have the lowest possible environmental impact.
It is an option of plant certification (associated with
Environmental Auditing)
ISO 14001 is an internationally accepted
specification for an Environmental Management
System (EMS).

These are further expanded upon by the following:
ISO 14020 series (14020 to 14025), Environmental Labeling,
covers labels and declarations.
ISO 14030 discusses post-production environmental
ISO 14031 Evaluation of Environmental Performance.
ISO 14040 series (14040 to 14043), Life Cycle Assessment,
discusses pre-production planning and environment goal
ISO 14050 terms and definitions.
ISO 14062 discusses making improvements to environmental
impact goals.
ISO 14063 is an addendum to 14020, discussing further
communications on environmental impact.
Total Quality Management (TQM)
TQM has its origins in quality control on production
It has spread to industry generally, including the process
The spirit of TQM:
1. Can we make it OK?
2. Are we making it OK?
3. Have we made it OK?
4. Could we make it better?

Just In Time (JIT)
The Concept: Once ideal conditions are achieved, take
action to correct deviations as soon as they occur, so
larger, more serious deviations do not result.

JIT has an intolerance of failure and requires rapid detection

and rectification.
The whole approach can be summarized as:
Definition : Conformance to requirements
System : Prevention
Performance standard : Zero defects
Measurement : Price of non-conformance
Cleaner Production and Sustainable
Inherent Cleaner Production / Cleaner Design:
The aim to minimize waste (Inherent initial design
For example, flaring of hydrocarbons cause carbon
dioxide emissions, which results in global warming.
While absorption and recycling results in higher capital
costs, but lowers emissions. This of course depends on
the amount of hydrocarbons (concentration) which boils
down to able to recycle or not.

Cleaner Production and Sustainable
Development which meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs.
Allowing technological progress to utilize available
resources in a way that provides (sustains) those
resources for generations, and does minimal damage (or
zero long-term damage?) to the world environment.

Insurance & Legal Company Image
The costs of losses the result of not taking adequate loss
prevention measures is to give rise to losses and costs
(Explicit and Implicit costs).
The cost of implementing LP measures what are they?
How much to spend on LP does it represent value for money?
Starting from quantitative risk assessment methods and
data / result. We need to determine what levels of risk are
acceptable, and what will be the cost if they are breached.
What are the consequences of a loss what will it cost?

Process Control
The instrumentation, process control and alarm system are all
components needed by an equipment to operate safely and
Each component is needed by the other components. They are meant
to be linked and operated together and all will not be functioning
correctly if one component was missing or not linked.
o What is the control system meant to achieve?
o What control is actually required? (control to maintain the material balance)
o Is there any overlapping control? (avoid redundant)
o Look at the P&ID.
Identify what the equipment forms the control system for correct operation and
identify scheduled events, e.g. start-up procedure, shut-down procedure.
Control system for unidentified occurrences, i.e. for plant safety.
If there was no instrumentation, how could the process control know what valve
or pump to open/close, turn on/shutdown? Or how would the alarm system
know when to activate?
If there was no process control, there would be no need for instrumentation and
an alarm system as the plant would have most probably blown up at start-up.
If the instrumentation or process control or alarm system did not compliment
each other in their operation, the reactor would be either dangerous or not
running efficiently.
Take for instance, if the control was designed to use
pressure readings, then a level indicator would be a useless piece of
instrumentation or the alarm system was either not connected to the
automatic control system or is manually activated. These could be useless
for process control as some processes may need immediate corrective
action taken.
Therefore, components must suit each other and they must be linked for
the practical safety and efficiency of the reactor. Careful consideration
for instrumentation, process control and alarm system suitability and how
they will be linked must be taken in the design stage to avoid reactor
shutdowns or alterations.

Chemical Plant & Process design
Consideration of the problems associated with industrial
growth and technological development, such as:
Environment (amenities, countryside, pollution, waste
disposal, noise)
Resources (oil, minerals)
Transport (road building, road accidents, aircraft crashes,
tanker shipwrecks)
Buildings and structures (high-rise developments, bridges)
Oil and chemical industry (pollution, noxious releases,
Nuclear power (major accidents, low-level release, waste
Toxic substances (food and drug additives, side-effects,
materials at work)
Risks issues
Some of the issues related to risks are:
Risk Perception
Risk Criteria
Risk Management
Risk Estimation

Risks issues
Risk Perception & Criteria:

Risk = inherent property of hazard

Acceptable risk (to whom?):

People are prepared to tolerate higher levels of risk for
hazard to which they expose themselves voluntarily.
The risk to which a member of the public is exposed from
an industrial activity is an involuntary one.

Risks issues
Risk Management:
Generally covers the process of identifying and assessing
risks and setting goals and creating and operating systems
for their control.
It requires risk assessment as its input criteria

Risk Estimation:
Cost-benefit analysis in relation to risk
Estimate the value of a statistical life (approach: individual
earning power)
Consider small increments of risks and then determine what
people will pay to eliminate these
Reducing the risk until the marginal costs equals the
marginal benefit (both expressed in money terms)

Safety and Expenditure
The expenditure required over and above that necessary for a
workable plant
As expenditure on safety is increased, the returns diminish and
eventually the company goes out of business
Quantitative assessment of hazard; view on the level of risks
which are unacceptable and which are removable by

Costs of accidents, plant unreliability and
downtime, and prevention
Cost of Losses: Cost of Prevention:
Accidents Management effort
Damages Research effort
Plant design delays Design effort
Process route
Plant commissioning delays
Operational constraints
Plant downtime (restricted
Plant siting
Plant layout
Equipment repairs
Plant equipment
Loss of markets Process instrumentation
Public reaction Fire protection
Insurance Inspection effort
Emergency planning

Costs of accidents, plant unreliability and
downtime, and prevention
Insurance of process plant:
No insurance without inspection/assessment
Questions of insurance require on safety and loss prevention
(to set premium rates)
Fire insurance (fire & explosion)

Insurance surveyor will consider:
Size of plant
Novelty of technology
Process materials (flammable liquids at high pressures and
Process features
Plant layout
Building design
Fire protection of structures
Fire fighting arrangements

Methods to assess damage risk (for the purpose of premium rating):

Hazard indices
Formal premium rating plans
Checklist for insurance assessment of a chemical plant:
Plant location
Material movement
Plant layout
Building and structures
Process materials
Loss prevention program
Chemical process
Equipment (design, testing and maintenance)

Process design
Process design from the Safety and Loss Prevention (SLP)
Try to get the process fundamentals right from the start
Aim to eliminate hazard rather than to develop procedure to control it
It is necessary to build into the design process some quite specific
Checks on safety and to carry out hazard identification
Assessment studies

Elements of the detailed design:

Process Mechanical Fire

Storage Transport Utilities Layout
design design protection

Pressure relief- Control & Explosion Toxic emission Personnel

venting-disposal instrumentation protection protection protection
Plant reliability- Equipment Health, safety
Plant Plant
availability & specification-selection &
operation maintenance
maintainability & procurement environment

Process design
In relation to hazard identification, process design should include
design information:
1. The physical & chemical properties of the chemicals
2. The reaction characteristics, including mechanism, kinetics and
thermal data for all likely reactions
3. Fire, explosion and toxic hazards
4. The effect of impurities