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THE GUIDE TO BUYING COTTON, 2017

CONTENT
IN THE FIELD: REGIONS OF U.S. COTTON PRODUCTION 05
COTTON USA promotes U.S. cotton fiber and U.S. Cotton Production by State 06
manufactured cotton products around the globe. U.S. Cotton Production Map 07
Our reach extends to more than 50 countries through IN THE FIELD: COTTON VARIETIES PLANTED, 2016 CROP 10
20 offices around the world. Through COTTON USA American Pima Cotton 13
programs, we touch lives every day by setting the Varieties of Upland Cotton 14
global standard for purity, quality and responsibility.
FROM FIBER TO FABRIC: CLASSIFICATION OF U.S. COTTON 19
We promise consistently excellent quality to inspire
Official Cotton Standards 21
your unique style of life.
Cotton Properties for Selected Fabrics 23

Prepared and distributed by Cotton Council CCI thanks the NCC; Cotton Incorporated; FROM HARVEST TO PORT: THE BALES 26
International (CCI) and the National Cotton the American Cotton Shippers Association U.S. Cotton Exports by Port 28
Council of America (NCC), this guide (ACSA); the American Cotton Marketing Bale Weights and Sizes 28
provides information to potential buyers Cooperatives (AMCOT); California Cotton
Bale Sampling and Packaging 29
of U.S. cotton about the fiber properties of Alliance; the Committee for Cotton
the principal varieties of cotton grown in Research; ICE Futures U.S.; the National FROM PORT TO PORT: THE COTTON USA MARKET 31
the various regions of the U.S. Cotton Belt. Cottonseed Products Association; Plains Contracts and Information for Selling Overseas 32
Cotton Growers, Inc.; Southern Cotton How U.S. Cotton is MarketedShipment and Delivery Terms 33
Information such as the names and
Growers, Inc.; Supima; the USDA; U.S.
addresses of exporting companies, Letter of Credit 36
cotton yarn and textile manufacturers; and
production and ginning seasons, official Export Guarantee Programs 38
COTTON USA licensees around the world
U.S. cotton standards and packaging and
for their continued support. CONTACT INFO 40
transportation data is also included. Unless
otherwise stated, the information source is Cotton Organizations 41
the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Merchandisers and Handlers 42
CCI Offices and Local Representatives 52

TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 2 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 3


IN THE FIELD:
REGIONS OF
U.S. COTTON
PRODUCTION
From 15,852 square miles of farmland in 17 states
springs Upland and American Pima cotton diverse,
top quality fiber to fit any customers needs.

Upland cotton is grown in four major The Southwest region is comprised of


geographic areas of the U.S.: the Southeast, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas. This region
Mid-South, Southwest and West, collectively accounts for about 36 percent of the Upland
called the Cotton Belt. crop. The average staple length is 35.2
thirty-seconds of an inch. Planting in south
The Southeastern growing area includes Texas begins in late February with harvesting
the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, running from late July until mid-September.
North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia. In the rest of the region, planting begins
This regions production averages about in mid-April and harvest last from
34 percent of the total Upland production. mid-October through December.
Planting is from early April to early June.
The average staple length is 35.7 The states of Arizona, California and New
thirty-seconds of an inch. Harvest generally Mexico comprise the West region, which
runs from late September to early December. accounts for about 7 percent of total
Upland production. The average staple
About 23 percent of the total Upland crop length is 36.7 thirty-seconds of an inch.
is grown in the Mid-South, which spans the Planting begins in early April and is usually
states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, completed by early June. Harvest runs from
Missouri, and Tennessee. Planting begins in late September through early December.
mid-April and continues through early June.
The average staple length is 36.1 thirty-
seconds of an inch. Harvest occurs from
early September to early December.

TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 5


U.S. COTTON PRODUCTION BY STATE

CROP & AREA 2011-12* 2012-13* 2013-14* 2014-15* 2015-16* 5-YR AVG**

UPLAND

SOUTHEAST 5,040 5,871 4,362 5,160 3,787 4,844

Alabama 685 745 590 653 554 645

Florida 183 200 175 192 153 181

Georgia 2,465 2,910 2,320 2,570 2,255 2,504

North Carolina 1,026 1,225 766 995 527 908

South Carolina 519 593 360 528 155 431

Virginia 162 198 151 222 143 175


Seattle
MIDSOUTH 4,542 4,242 2,675 3,333 2,037 3,366 Tacoma

Arkansas 1,277 1,297 720 787 471 910


Duluth
Louisiana 511 478 326 404 189 382
Ogdensburg
Mississippi 1,200 993 719 1,078 672 932
Buffalo
Missouri 741 731 496 570 400 588
Detroit
Tennessee 813 743 414 494 305 554

SOUTHWEST 3,656 5,225 4,365 6,492 6,129 5,173 Oakland


San Francisco
Kansas 69 70 41 48 35 53

Oklahoma 87 155 154 269 374 208 Norfolk

Texas 3,500 5,000 4,170 6,175 5,720 4,913 Los Angeles


Long Beach Wilmington
FARWEST 1,484 1,197 873 768 502 965
San Diego
Arizona 800 605 480 490 277 530
Charleston
California 556 508 333 214 165 355
Savannah
New Mexico 128 84 60 64 60 79
Mobile
TOTAL UPLAND 14,722 16,535 12,275 15,753 12,455 14,348 Houston New Orleans
Galveston

Corpus Christi
ELS Laredo
Arizona 20 7 3 30 31 18

California 785 753 610 500 361 602

New Mexico 6 5 6 8 13 8

Texas 40 15 15 28 28 25

TOTAL ELS 851 780 634 566 433 653

ALL COTTON 15,573 17,315 12,909 16,319 12,888 15,001 Cotton Shipping Port

Indicates Cotton Producing Area


Not a Specific Average or Production

Source: NASS, USDA * Thousand Bales (480 lb. Bales)


Note: Totals may not add due to rounding ** 5-year average is for Crop Year 2011-2015 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 7
6
8 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 9
IN THE FIELD:
COTTON VARIETIES
PLANTED, 2016 CROP
The Deltapine brand of Upland cottonseed was the most popular
planted in the United States for the 2016-2017 season, according
to the USDA, Agricultural Marketing Services Cotton and
Tobacco Program. The Americot brand was the second most
popular followed by Bayer CropScience FiberMax, Phytogen,
Bayer CropScience Stoneville, and All-Tex/Dyna-Gro.

Transgenic varieties - genetically engineered varieties resistant


to worms, herbicides, or both - accounted for about 98.7
percent of the Upland cotton planted in the United States in
2016. Usage of transgenic varieties in 2016 was reported at 100
percent in Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Missouri, and Tennessee.
Other states planted from 95.0 - 99.9 percent transgenic.

10
Deltapine brand varieties were the most southeastern states, 15.8 percent of the AMERICAN PIMA COTTON
popular planted in 2016, accounting for 32.6 acreage in the south central states, 8.4
percent of the United States acreage. This percent in the southwestern states and
Supima is the promotional organization of The annual Supima Design Competition ran
brand accounted for 62.0 percent of the 22.9 percent in the western states. The
the American Pima cotton growers. Supimas for the eighth consecutive year and was a
acreage planted in the southeastern states most popular Phytogen varieties were
primary objective is to promote the increased featured show during New York Fashion
(Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, PHY 333 WRF, PHY 444 WRF, and PHY
worldwide awareness and consumption of Week. The objective is always to keep Supima
South Carolina, and Virginia). It accounted 499 WRF accounting respectively for 5.9,
U.S.-grown American Pima cotton. Supima demand strong for all stakeholders from
for about 50.3 percent in the south central 2.6, and 2.0 percent of the United States
apparel and home fashion products are growers to brands and retailers.
states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, acreage planted to Upland cotton.
recognized by consumers the world over for
Missouri, and Tennessee), 16.8 percent in
their soft hand, lustrous color and durability. Three decades of intense advertising and
the southwestern states (Texas, Oklahoma, Bayer CropScience Stoneville brand
Supima is also the registered trademark promotional activity has yielded impressive
and Kansas), and 31.5 percent in the varieties were the fifth most popular and
brand for U.S.-grown American Pima cotton, results. Supima has become popular in the
western states (Arizona, California, and New accounted for about 8.8 percent of the U.S.
the worlds finest, extra-long staple cotton. home textile category and can be found in
Mexico). Deltapines most popular varieties acreage planted in 2016. All-Tex/Dyna-Gro
many of the premium towel and sheeting
were DP 1522 B2XF, DP 1538 B2XF, DP varieties were the sixth most popular and
Supima licenses use of the Supima lines offered by top brands. In apparel,
1553 B2XF, and DP 1518 B2XF, accounting accounted for about 6.0 percent of the
trademark to leading spinners, knitters, Supima has gained a significantly higher
respectively for 5.6, 4.7, 3.2, and 3.0 percent 2016 cotton acreage.
weavers, manufacturers, brands and retailers profile. Premium quality Supima apparel
of the U.S. Upland cotton acreage.
for apparel and home textile products. can be found in leading brands such as
Phytogen was the most popular brand of
Licensees use the Supima brand so Brooks Brothers, Uniqlo, Marks & Spencer,
Americot brand varieties were the second American Pima varieties planted in 2016.
their consumers know their products are Tommy Bahama, James Perse, Agave
most popular planted in 2016, accounting Phytogen variety PHY 805 RF accounted
made with only the worlds finest cottons. Denimsmith, Michael Stars, Splendid, AG
for 22.5 percent of the United States for 27.8 percent of the United States Pima
As consumer awareness of Supima has Jeans, Lands End, and L.L Bean, and at
acreage. These varieties accounted for acreage. Phytogens PHY 811 RF was the
grown, the number of Supima licensees a variety of retailers.
2.6 percent of the acreage planted in the second most planted American Pima variety
has expanded to meet that demand. There
southeastern states, 13.7 percent in the and accounted for 20.0 percent of the U.S.
are currently more than 360 licensees Spinners, knitters, weavers and
south central states, 33.1 percent in the crop. Phytogens PHY 881 RF was the next
representing 37 countries worldwide. manufacturers focused on delivering
southwestern states, and 1.2 percent in the most popular variety and accounted for 12.2
Supima enforces the highest quality and product to the premium market should
western states. The most popular Americot percent of the U.S. Pima acreage.
distribution standards to maintain the success consider making Supima a part of their
varieties were NG 3406 B2XF, NG 3306
and integrity of the licensing program. product offering.
B2RF, NG 4545 B2XF, and NG 1511 B2RF, Bayer CropScience FM 958, AFD 2485, and
accounting respectively for 12.0, 2.5, 1.7, All-Tex 7A21 were the predominate varieties
Trends toward higher quality goods for
and 1.5 percent of the United States planted by organic cotton producers. Other
affluent consumers have driven Supima TYPICAL FIBER PROPERTIES
acreage planted to Upland cotton. varieties planted by organic producers
consumption up across all product categories.
include All-Tex LA122 and 8202, Seed 1-3/8 or longer with an average length
Designers and brands find that using Supima Fiber Length
Bayer CropScience FiberMax brand Source Genetics CT 210, Downer Cotton exceeding 1-1/2
is an ideal way to improve the performance
varieties were the third most popular Genetics DCG 1374, Acala 1517, and
and appearance of their apparel and home Micronaire 4.0 average
planted in 2016, accounting for 16.2 DeltaPine DP 340.
fashion offerings. As a consequence, Supima
percent of the United States acreage. Strength 43.4 grams/tex average
demand has expanded from its traditional
They accounted for 1.1 percent of the Estimates of the percentage of the various
base of dress shirts, sheets and towels to ACTUAL PRODUCTION AND ACREAGE BY STATE 2016-2017
acreage planted in the southeastern varieties of cotton planted in the United
luxury knits for women, basic knit T-shirts and
states, 0.4 percent of the acreage in the States for 2016 were based on informal ELS Bales* Harvested Acres
even denim. These programs have created
south central states, 26.1 percent in the surveys made by the Cotton and Tobacco
profitable niches for manufacturers despite Arizona 27,000 14,700
southwestern states and 21.5 percent in Program Classing Offices. Those surveyed
falling prices for most other finished goods.
the western states. The most popular included ginners, seed dealers, extension California 484,000 153,000
Bayer CropScience FiberMax brand agents, and other knowledgeable sources.
Supima advertises its trademark brand to
varieties were FM 2011 GT, FM 1830 GLT, New Mexico 15,000 7,700
support the retailers, brands and licensees
and FM 2334 GLT, accounting respectively
that identify their products Supima content. Texas 36,000 16,000
for 5.0, 2.5, and 2.0 percent of the United
Supimas U.S. consumer and trade advertising
States acreage planted to Upland cotton.
campaign runs in publications such as The TOTAL ELS 562,000 191,400
New York Times Sunday Style Magazine, as
Phytogen brand varieties were the fourth (*480 lb. bales)
well as various trade publications. Supima
most popular planted in 2016. These
also participates in fashion shows and trade
varieties accounted for 12.9 percent of
events that reach decision-makers at the
the acreage planted. They accounted for
retail and brand level.
21.8 percent of the acreage planted in the

12 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 13


COTTON VARIETIES PLANTED / U.S. 2016

MIDSOUTH
AR LA MS MO TN
Upland Acres 380,000 Upland Acres 145,000 Upland Acres 440,000 Upland Acres 285,000 Upland Acres 255,000
DP 1518 B2XF 29.91 PHY 499 WRF 20.42 DP 1522 B2XF 19.64 NG 3406 B2XF 27.53 DP 1522 B2XF 29.69
NG 3406 B2XF 17.97 DP 1555 B2RF 15.10 DP 1321 B2RF 13.30 DP 1522 B2XF 19.97 DP 1518 B2XF 18.39
PHY 333 WRF 14.46 ST 6448 GLB2 7.55 ST 4946 GLB2 10.42 DG 3385 B2XF 11.71 NG 3406 B2XF 14.68
ST 4946 GLB2 14.24 ST 4946 GLB2 7.11 DP 1646 B2XF 10.24 DP 1518 B2XF 11.44 ST 4946 GLB2 8.12
PHY 312 WRF 8.25 DP 1133 B2RF 7.08 DP 1555 B2RF 8.24 ST 4946 GLB2 7.06 PHY 333 WRF 5.71
ST 4747 GLB2 4.01 PHY 444 WRF 6.95 DP 1518 B2XF 7.22 NG 3405 B2XF 3.86 DG 3385 B2XF 4.88
DG 3385 B2XF 3.63 DP 1518 B2XF 6.70 DP 1614 B2XF 6.05 PHY 333 WRF 3.60 NG 3405 B2XF 3.25
DP 1522 B2XF 2.76 PHY 495 W3RF 4.98 PHY 333 WRF 4.17 ST 4747 GLB2 3.03 PHY 499 WRF 3.25
ST 4848 GTL 0.97 DP 1522 B2XF 4.67 DP 1137 B2RF 3.18 ST 5032 GLT 2.70 NG 3306 B2RF 1.92
ST 5115 GLT 0.97 DP 1639 B2XF 4.48 PHY 444 WRF 3.02 PHY 499 WRF 1.83 ST 5032 GLT 1.63

SOUTHEAST
AL FL GA NC SC VA
Upland Acres 345,000 Upland Acres 102,000 Upland Acres 1,190,000 Upland Acres 280,000 Upland Acres 190,000 Upland Acres 73,000
DP 1538 B2XF 12.41 DP 1555 B2RF 26.72 DP 1538 B2XF 21.28 ST 4946 GLB2 19.22 DP 1538 B2XF 26.41 PHY 333 WRF 26.09
PHY 333 WRF 11.82 DP 1538 B2XF 17.77 DP 1553 B2XF 17.09 PHY 333 WRF 17.66 DP 1553 B2XF 19.56 PHY 499 WRF 16.01
PHY 444 WRF 10.83 DP 1646 B2XF 14.24 DP 1252 B2RF 10.41 DP 1538 B2XF 12.58 DP 1646 B2XF 11.05 ST 4946 GLB2 13.69
DP 1050 B2RF 8.37 DP 1252 B2RF 12.05 PHY 444 WRF 8.56 DP 1522 B2XF 10.96 PHY 499 WRF 9.55 DP 1538 B2XF 6.68
DP 1522 B2XF 7.90 PHY 444 WRF 8.23 DP 1646 B2XF 7.79 PHY 499 WRF 8.75 DP 1522 B2XF 5.00 DP 1522 B2XF 6.44
DP 1553 B2XF 5.51 DP 1137 B2RF 7.70 DP 1555 B2RF 6.83 PHY 495 W3RF 2.77 PHY 333 WRF 4.57 NG 3406 B2XF 3.42
DP 1518 B2XF 4.98 CG 3787 B2RF 2.57 PHY 333 WRF 6.02 DP 1639 B2XF 2.61 NG 5007 B2XF 3.85 PHY 495 W3RF 3.22
DP 1639 B2XF 3.79 DG 2285 B2RF 2.30 ST 6182 GLT 3.79 PHY 444 WRF 2.18 NG 3406 B2XF 2.72 DP 1639 B2XF 3.18
ST 6182 GLT 3.73 DG 2595 B2RF 2.30 DP 1558NR B2RF 3.14 FM 1944 GLB2 2.15 PHY 444 WRF 2.06 ST 6182 GLT 2.78

DP 1555 B2RF 3.67 DP 1050 B2RF 1.44 DP 1050 B2RF 2.30 DP 1646 B2XF 2.13 ST 4946 GLB2 1.57 PHY 444 WRF 2.54

Percent Acres Planted By State: USDA/AMS Cotton Varieties Planted, 2015 Crop
Acreage: USDA/NASS Revised-June Planted Acreage Report

14 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 15


COTTON VARIETIES PLANTED / U.S. 2015

SOUTHWEST FAR WEST


KS OK TX AZ CA NM
Upland Acres 32,000 Upland Acres 305,000 Upland Acres 5,700,000 Upland Acres 115,000 Upland Acres 66,000 Upland Acres 47,000
NG 3406
NG 3406 B2XF 56.32 DP 1522 B2XF 34.32 16.39 DP 1044 B2RF 12.38 FM Acala Daytona RF 28.83 FM 2484 B2F 21.60
B2XF
DP 1522 B2XF 16.16 NG 3406 B2XF 19.32 FM 2011 GT 8.87 DP 1518 B2XF 11.60 PHY 764 WRF 22.02 DG 2355 B2RF 15.00
NG 1572 RF 7.40 DG 2570 B2RF 5.92 PHY 333 WRF 4.88 DP 1522 B2XF 8.16 PHY 755 WRF 13.91 PHY 339 WRF 14.50
ST 4747 GLB2 6.24 DP 1518 B2XF 5.86 NG 3306 B2RF 4.29 ST 4946 GLB2 8.13 PHY 725 RF 9.45 PHY 499 WRF 13.50
PHY 333 WRF 6.00 DP 1549 B2XF 5.59 DG 3385 B2XF 4.16 ST 4848 GTL 7.16 FM 1830 GLT 3.37 PHY 333 WRF 10.90
PHY 222 WRF 3.60 DP 1044 B2RF 4.35 FM 1830 GLT 4.07 FM 1911 GLT 7.00 DP 1646 B2XF 3.09 DG 2570 B2RF 9.00
NG 1551 RF 2.20 ST 4747 GLB2 4.32 ST 4946 GLB2 3.83 ST 4949 GTL 6.40 FM 1911 GLT 2.55 DG 2285 B2RF 8.00
MISC 1.28 FM 1830 GLT 3.78 FM 2334 GLT 3.63 DP 1614 B2XF 4.90 DP 1522 B2XF 2.27 MISC 5.00
PHY 490 W3FE 0.80 NG 1511 B2RF 2.78 DP 1219 B2RF 3.17 FM 1830 GLT 4.81 ST 4949 GTL 2.01 ST 4946 GLB2 1.50
DP 912 B2RF 2.11 DP 1044 B2RF 3.02 MISC 3.80 ST 4946 GLB2 1.81 PHY 725 RF 1.00

PIMA
AZ CA 155,000 NM TX 17,000
Pima Acres 15,000 PHY 805 RF 28.34% Pima Acres 8,000 Deltapine DP 357 24.50%
PHY 805 RF 54.75% PHY 811 RF 24.78% Individual State Data Withheld Deltapine DP 348 19.01%
DP 348 27.68% PHY 881 RF 14.72% Deltapine DP 340 19.01%
PHY 881 RF 9.31% HA 1432 -Pima 13.03% TX Deltapine DP 358 RF 15.00%
DP 358 RF 5.04% PHY 841 RF 8.57% Pima Acres 17,000 Phytogen PHY 805 RF 11.49%
PHY 841 RF 2.85% PHY 802 5.62% Individual State Data Withheld Phytogen PHY 802 5.50%
MISC -Pima 0.37% DP 358 RF 2.32% Phytogen PHY 811 RF 4.50%
MISC -Pima 2.28% Phytogen PHY 881 RF 0.50%
PHY 830 0.33% Phytogen PHY 841 RF 0.50%

Percent Acres Planted By State: USDA/AMS Cotton Varieties Planted, 2016 Crop
Acreage: USDA/NASS Revised-June Acreage Report

16 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 17


FROM FIBER
TO FABRIC:
CLASSIFICATION
OF U.S. COTTON
Cotton classification is the process of describing the quality
of cotton according to the official cotton standards. High Volume
Instrument (HVI) classing hasbeen available on an optional basis
to all growers since 1981. In 1990, the National Advisory Committee
on Cotton Marketing, an industry-wide committee that represents
U.S. growers, exporters, manufacturers, ginners and warehousemen,
recommended that HVI measurements be required forany Upland
cotton that might be placed in the governments price support
program, effective with the 1991 crop. As a result, all of the U.S.
Upland cotton crop is now HVI-classed.

18 19 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 19


HVI MEASURES DATA FROM THE 2015-16 U.S.
CROP SEASON
Leaf Grade code is used to indicate the color grade. The U.S. grows the widest range of cotton
Leaf refers to small particles of the cotton This color grade is determined by locating fiber from short, thick fiber ideal for coarse
plants leaf, which remain in the lint after the quadrant of the color chart in which the yarns and heavy cloth, to fine, extra-long staple
the ginning process. Upland leaf grades are Rd and +b values intersect. For example, cotton perfectly suited for high-count yarns
determined by the HVI and are identified as a sample with an Rd value of 72 and a +b and fine fabrics.
numbers 1 through 7. value of 9.0 would have a color code of 41-3.

Length Color Grades AVERAGE MICRONAIRE VALUE


FAR WEST SOUTHWEST
Measure of the average length of the longer There are 25 color grades and five
Far West 4.5
one-half of the fibers (upper half mean categories of below grade color that are Total Total
length), reported in hundredths and thirty- divided into five key color grades, which Southwest 4.1 (AZ, CA, NM) (TX, OK, KS)
seconds of an inch. are further divided into various subgrades. MidSouth 444,162 Bales 5,991,804 Bales
4.7
The five main color grades are: White,
Length Uniformity Southeast Micronaire 4.5 Micronaire 4.1
Light Spotted, Spotted, Tinged and Yellow 4.7
Determined by dividing the mean length
Stained. In addition, there are seven leaf Length (32's) 36.9 Length (32's) 35.6
of the fibers by the upper mean length and
grades, as well as one below grade leaf 3.0 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 (100's) 1.15 (100's) 1.11
reported as a percentage. The higher the
grade category.
percentage, the greater the uniformity. LUI 81.0% LUI 80.5%
Trash Strength (g/tex) 32.2 Strength (g/tex) 30.6
Micronaire AVERAGE STRENGTH (g/tex)
Trash, or foreign matter in raw cotton, is
Fineness and maturity in combination are Grade (11&21) 39.4% Grade (31) 40.9%
measured by a video scanner, commonly Far West 32.2
measured by resistance to airflow. Air is
referred to as a trashmeter. It is a measure Grade (31) 31.8% Grade (11&21) 21.2%
forced through a specimen of specific Southwest 30.6
of both leaf and other non-lint materials such DP 1044 B2RF 12.9% DP 1044 B2RF 8.7%
weight compressed to a fixed volume.
as grass and bark. The surface of the cotton MidSouth 32.0
The resistance to airflow is related to specific ST 4946 GLB2 7.8% FM 2011 GT 7.9%
sample is scanned by the camera, and the
surface area of the fibers and is a function Southeast 28.6
percentage of the surface area occupied by
of both the fiber fineness and maturity.
trash particles is calculated. MIDSOUTH SOUTHEAST
The measurement is commonly referred 26.0 28.0 30.0 32.0 34.0
to as micronaire or mic. This has an HVI Classification of Pima Cotton Total Total
effect on how well the fiber accepts dye Fiber properties/qualities are also measured (AR, MO, TN, MS, LA) (AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, VA)
and the overall appearance of the fabric. for American Pima cotton. While the basic AVERAGE LENGTH UNIFORMITY INDEX (%) 2,142,235 Bales 3,499,937 Bales
Variation in color within one piece of fabric testing procedures for American Pima
Far West 81.0 Micronaire 4.7 Micronaire 4.7
could indicate poor blending or extreme cotton are the same as for American Upland
micronaire limits. cotton, different grade standards are used Southwest 80.5
Length (32's) 36.9 Length (32's) 35.7
because of the genetic differences in Upland (100's) 1.15 (100's) 1.12
Strength MidSouth 82.3
and Pima cotton and the different ginning
Strength is reported in grams per tex. A LUI 82.3% LUI 81.3%
methods used. Since American Pima cotton Southeast 81.3
tex unit is equal to the weight in grams of
is ginned on roller gins, rather than saw Strength (g/tex) 32.0 Strength (g/tex) 28.6
1,000 meters of fiber. Therefore, the strength
gins, its appearance is not as smooth as 79.0 80.0 81.0 82.0 83.0 Grade (31) 52.4%
reported is force in grams required to break Grade (41) 28.1%
that of Upland. Also, the color of American
a bundle of fibers one tex unit in size. Grade (41) 21.2% Grade (52) 20.2%
Pima is creamier than that of American
Color Upland cotton. ST 4946 GLB2 32.1% PHY 499 WRF 13.2%
The color of cotton is measured by the AVERAGE STAPLE LENGTH (32s)
PHY 333 WRF 9.4% DP 1252 B2RF 11.8%
degree of reflectance (Rd) and yellowness Far West 36.9 * Length Uniformity Index
(+b). Reflectance indicates how bright or dull
Southwest 35.6
a sample is, and yellowness indicates the Current information available at:
http://www.cottoninc.com/fiber/quality/US-Fiber-Chart/Properties-of-the-Growing-Regions/index.cfm
degree of color pigment. A three-digit color MidSouth 36.9

Southeast 35.7

34.0 35.0 36.0 37.0

Current information available at:


http://www.cottoninc.com/fiber/quality/US-Fiber-Chart/
Properties-of-the-Growing-Regions/index.cfm

20 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 21


DATA FROM THE 2015-16 U.S. OFFICIAL COTTON STANDARDS
CROP SEASON
COLOR GRADES SYMBOLS CODE LEAF GRADES SYMBOLS CODE
White Good Middling GM 11 Leaf Grade 1 LG 1 1
Strict Middling SM 21 Leaf Grade 2 LG 2 2
Middling Mid 31 Leaf Grade 3 LG 3 3
Strict Low Middling SLM 41 Leaf Grade 4 LG 4 4
Low Middling LM 51 Leaf Grade 5 LG 5 5
Strict Good Ordinary SGO 61 Leaf Grade 6 LG 6 6
Good Ordinary GO 71 Leaf Grade 7 LG 7 7

Light Spotted Good Middling GM LtSp 12 STAPLE LENGTH CODE

Strict Middling SM LtSp 22 Below 13/16 24

Middling Mid LtSp 32 13/16 26

Strict Low Middling SLM LtSp 42 7/8 28

Low Middling LM LtSp 52 29/32 29

Strict Good Ordinary SGO LtSp 62 15/16 30


31/32 31

Spotted Good Middling GM Sp 13 1 32

Strict Middling SM Sp 23 1-1/32 33

Middling Mid Sp 33 1-1/16 34

Strict Low Middling SLM Sp 43 1-3/32 35

Low Middling LM Sp 53 1-1/8 36

Strict Good Ordinary SGO Sp 63 1-5/32 37


1-3/16 38

Tinged Strict Middling SM Tg 24 1-7/32 39

Middling Mid Tg 34 1-1/4 40

Strict Low Middling SLM Tg 44 1-9/32 41

Low Middling LM Tg 54 1-5/16 42


1-11/32 43

Yellow Stained Strict Middling SM YS 25 1-3/8 44

Middling Mid YS 35 1-13/32 45


1-7/16 46
1-15/32 47
1-1/2 48

22 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 23


FROM HARVEST TO
PORT: THE BALES
To help make the purchased cotton crop as consistent and
predictable as possible, the U.S. cotton industry strives to
deliver bales that are uniform in weight and size through the
implementation of several rigorous programs.

This happens through the machine-harvesting and ginning processes,


as well as through bale compression and sampling; the regulated
weighing of bales; and the tying, wrapping and packaging of
bales. Ultimately, shipper and customer get an extremely close
approximation of kilograms of cotton in bales shipped.

24 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 25


U.S. COTTON EXPORTS BY PORT AVERAGE
PERCENTAGE 2009-2013
U.S. COTTON EXPORTS Sampling and bale packaging assigns a net weight (gross weight minus
Modern U.S. gins begin the sampling and tare weight) for each bale. An official tare
EAST COAST PORTS % packing process by pressing loose lint cotton weight table is available for review in the
From the gin, cotton is usually transported to
Savannah, GA 19.84 into densely packed bales. The goal of bale Specifications for Cotton Bale Packaging
a warehouse to be weighed, tagged and stored.
Charleston, SC 2.41 compression is to produce gin universal Materials. Bale weights are spot-checked at
Negotiable warehouse receipts are prepared,
Norfolk, VA 2.29 density bales that are uniform in size, density cotton warehouses. An outgrowth of that
showing weight, storage date and tare. Upon sale,
and shape. U.S. bales weigh approximately commitment formed the JCIBPC, a cotton
Other 0.35 cotton moves by railroad or motor carrier to
500 pounds (227 kg), but some variation industry committee comprised of two
points of domestic consumption or to ports.
GULF PORTS is normal. Bale sampling for classing is segments. Bales are tied with and wrapped
Houston-Galveston, TX 11.30 typically accomplished by extracting a in Joint Cotton Industry Bale Packaging
sample from each side of the compressed Committee (JCIBPC) approved materials
Laredo, TX 9.15 U.S. HARVESTING AND bale per the requirements of the USDA-AMS because of requirements found in USDA
New Orleans, LA 2.10 GINNING PRACTICES Cotton Classing Program. These samples are policies and industry trade rules.
Other 0.74 normally cut during bale formation in the
More than 50 years ago, the U.S. cotton
Bale weight and size uniformity is a U.S. baling press, but there are other accepted
GREAT LAKES PORTS industry established a bale-packaging
cotton industry goal. In 2015-16, 100 percent methods of sampling as determined by the
Duluth, MN 0.13 program to work with USDA and firms
of the crop was machine-harvested, with USDA-AMS Cotton Program.
manufacturing bagging and ties to
Detroit, MI 0.02
approximately 70 percent machine-picked After a bale is tied out and released from improve the packaging, performance, bale
Ogdensburg, NY 0.02 and the rest machine-stripped. After the press, cut slices of lint from the round appearance and the general condition of
Other 0.00 harvest,cotton is taken to the gin in modules sides of each bale are drawn and joined U.S. cotton bales. An outgrowth of that
WEST COAST PORTS or stored in modules for later transport to to form a sample. A USDA-AMS Cotton commitment formed the JCIBPC, a cotton
the gin. This season, nearly 100 percent of Identification Coupon, with a barcode that industry committee comprised of two
Los Angeles, CA 48.31
the seed cotton was ginned from modules. matches the bale number, is removed from segments. The committees voting members
San Francisco, CA 3.29 Gins are widely distributed throughout the the bales Permanent Bale Identification are representatives from the raw cotton
San Diego, CA 0.03 production areas, resulting in seed cotton (PBI) tag and placed between the inside segment (producers, ginners, warehousers,
Other 0.00 being transported only relatively short surfaces of the sample. Thus, the joined lint merchants and marketing cooperatives)
distances. There were about 550 active gins slices become the official sample. and the domestic mill segment (yarn and
in 2015-16 that ginned about 12.5 million textile manufacturers). Nonvoting advisers
running bales. Next, the sample is placed in a bag with
APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE OF COTTON GINNED represent the National Cotton Council,
other samples. Bagged samples are collected
IN 2015-2016 PRIOR TO SPECIFIC DATES Cotton Incorporated, several USDA agencies
During the ginning process, the cotton lint fiber and sent to USDA-AMS Cotton Classing
and other groups whose goods and services
State Oct 1 Nov 1 Dec 1 Jan 1 Feb 1 Total Ginned is removed from the cottonseed, cleaned of Offices, where samples are conditioned
are affected.
extraneous matter and pressed into 500 pound (temperature: 70 +/- 1 degree F [21 +/- 0.6
AL 2% 32% 71% 97% 99% 531,650
(227 kg) bales. American Upland cotton is saw degree C] and relative humidity: 65 +/- 2 Each year, the JCIBPC reviews and publishes
AZ 0% 17% 43% 81% 89% 291,500 percent) prior to grading. the Specifications for Cotton Bale Packaging
-ginned, a different process from the roller
AR 2% 58% 97% 100% 100% 481,300 Materials. Once the committees review is
ginning used for American Pima ELS cotton. Every U.S. PBI tag and its matching sample
CA 0% 25% 68% 93% 100% 516,050 complete, the specifications undergo
coupon contain a unique barcoded and eye-
FL 0% 24% 61% 97% 100% 111,100 To ensure the textile mills receive uniform a second review by USDA prior to publication.
readable number. At least one barcoded and
cotton bales, the U.S. ginning industry adopted These specifications become guidelines for
GA 1% 20% 54% 90% 98% 2,220,550 numbered PBI bale tag must be permanently
the gin universal density bale, which has a manufacturers of bale-packaging materials.
KS 0% 0% 25% 51% 89% 37,300 attached to the bale bag during bagging.
nominal density of about 28 pounds per cubic The annual review, along with JCIBPC
PBI numbers provide a method for tracing
LA 23% 92% 98% 100% 100% 192,850 sponsored test programs, provides a venue
foot (450 kilograms per cubic meter) and has bale ownership and classing data.
MS 5% 61% 94% 100% 100% 613,350 standard dimensions for length and width. where improvements in packaging material
MO 0% 50% 97% 100% 100% 405,400 Bales are weighed on licensed scales at performance are the norm.
These specifications are intended for use as
gins or receiving warehouses. A weigher
NM 0% 5% 24% 97% 100% 33,050 manufacturing guidelines and are designed
NC 1% 36% 79% 100% 100% 521,600 to improve the quality and protection of the
OK 0% 10% 37% 65% 91% 344,950 cotton bale, and to improve the appearance
and marketability of the American cotton bale. BALE CHARACTERISTICS GIN UNIVERSAL DENSITY
SC 2% 21% 55% 91% 100% 138,600
It is estimated that 100 percent of the U.S. Length 54-55 inches (1370-1400 mm)
TN 0% 53% 99% 100% 100% 300,750 cotton crop is in universal density bales, which Width 20-21 inches (508-533mm)
TX 9% 24% 55% 83% 96% 5,656,900 meets international standards (ISO8115). This
Average Thickness at Ties 28 inches (711 mm)
VA 0% 40% 91% 99% 100% 132,050 feature gives the shipper and customer a very
close approximation of how many kilograms Average Bulge Thickness between Ties 33 inches (840 mm) or less
of cotton there are in the number of bales Average Density 28 pounds per cubic feet (449 kg/m3)
US 5% 29% 63% 86% 94% 12,528,950
shipped.

26 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 27


FROM PORT TO
PORT: THE COTTON
USA MARKET
The best method of buying cotton starts with U.S. cotton merchants are private firms that
your quality goals and product lines. Because buy cotton in the U.S. and sell it to overseas
the U.S. Cotton Belt stretches some 2,800 mills. U.S. cotton marketing cooperatives
miles from the Atlantic to the Pacific, U.S. are producer-owned organizations that sell
exporters can provide you with cotton that cotton produced by the member producers
suits your needs. to overseas mills. There are three ways the
U.S. cotton exporter can do business in
Modern U.S. cotton trade is a complicated
overseas markets:
business, which is well over 220 years old.
1) Through agents in international markets
In recent years, there have been significant
2) Through overseas merchants/importers
changes in the way cotton is exported,
3) Directly from the exporter to the mill
brought on by advances in communication
technologies, shipping techniques and Of these three methods, sales through
instrument classing techniques. These local commission agents are the most
advances have enhanced the U.S. cotton common. Cotton agents serve as a point
industrys ability to ensure that unsurpassed of contact between the exporter and
service is provided to the worlds textile mills. the mill by negotiating on behalf of the
exporter, monitoring Letter of Credit (L/C)
The following overview highlights some
progress (see p. 36), and advising the mill on
of the primary methods for selling U.S.
shipments. Direct business between overseas
cotton and the basic contractual elements
clients and U.S. exporters is not extremely
that are used to sell U.S. cotton overseas.
common, for various reasons. However,
Most often, there are two types of suppliers
some importers prefer to deal directly with
for overseas mills: U.S. cotton merchants
shippers.
(members of the American Cotton Shippers
Association, ACSA) and U.S. marketing
cooperatives (members of the American
Cotton Marketing Cooperatives, AMCOT).

TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 29


HOW U.S. COTTON IS MARKETED

Methods of Offering Cotton Micronaire shipper would have to carry the cotton longer
Modern communications have revolutionized If bales are stated in the contract, it is usually Practically every contract contains than foreseen in the contract. It is only fair that
the cotton business. Mill buyers and cotton understood that the average net weight specifications for micronaire. Both minimum the shipper be reimbursed by the buyer for
exporters have virtually equal access should be 500 pounds. and maximum levels can be stated. If cotton the additional cost of interest, insurance and
to important supply, demand and price is sold on description or type, the micronaire storage. In no case does this clause entitle the
Quality
information. This has made the process is guaranteed by the exporter. If cotton is sold buyer to delay the shipment by payment of
Cotton quality description should include
for offering cotton on the world market, as on USDA class, it is usually included on the carrying charges.
grade (i.e., trash content), color, staple
well as for submission/acceptance of bids, computer printout.
(length), micronaire and strength (if Weights
considerably more efficient.
applicable). There are several ways to Price There are two primary ways to buy cotton:
Cotton may be offered on call or at fixed describe quality: As previously discussed, the sales contract one is certified shipping weights final and the
price. When cotton is offered on call, the price can be fixed or on call and is usually in other is net landed weights final. Certified
1) ON DESCRIPTION:
price is based on premiums or discounts (on U.S. cents per pound. shipping weights specify that the cotton will be
Described in terms of Universal Standards
or off) in a certain month of the ICE Futures. reweighed by a licensed public weigher before
such as Strict Middling, Light Spotted. Delivery Terms
The base price of the cotton will remain unfixed shipment, with the seller, providing weight
The most common ways to buy cotton are
until the buyer instructs the seller to buy (fix) 2) ON TYPE: certificates showing gross weight, tare and net
FOB (free on board), FAS (free alongside ship),
futures in order to establish the final contract Cotton is sold on basis of exporters private weights. With net landed weights, the cotton
CNF (cost and freight) or CIF (cost, insurance
price by adding the ICE Futures fixation level type or sample for grade and color. will be invoiced on provisional weights and
and freight). In the case of FOB or FAS, the
to the contract on an on call, (on or off On Description/Type sales, the staple, final settlement will be effected on the basis of
buyer books and pays the ocean freight, and
basis.) The sales price of a fixed-price contract micronaire and strength (if applicable) weights determined upon arrival. The landed
is final at conclusion of the sale and does not
the seller delivers the cotton to the docks
are separately guaranteed. weights are determined by internationally
change, regardless of fluctuations in the ICE of the steamship line specified by the buyer.
3) ON GOVERNMENT CLASS: recognized controllers appointed by the sellers
Futures market prices. Business results mostly FOB/FAS contracts should specify the loading
Cotton is described in terms of USDA class for at the time of shipment.
from firm offers, mill inquiries or bids received range (i.e., West Coast, Gulf or East Coast). The
grade, color, staple and micronaire. buyer is responsible for costs after the cotton Payment
from abroad.
Common forms are: is delivered to the steamship line. In CNF, Typically, Letters of Credit are required.
The Contract the seller is responsible for all shipping costs The timing of the opening duration and other
(a) GREEN CARDS:
The natural evolution of improved excluding marine insurance. Under CIF, the details should be specified in the contract.
The original classification given to the cotton
communication is that business is concluded seller has additional responsibility for providing There are numerous other items that might
producer by the USDA Classing Board.
via a phone call between the buyer and the marine insurance. Once the cargo arrives and is be specified in any L/C for U.S. cotton sold in
The shipper presents to the buyer a notarized
seller (or agent). It is the foundation of the discharged from the ship, the buyer becomes the export market, including shipment dates,
computer printout of the USDA classing.
cotton trade that this verbal commitment is responsible for all costs. carrying charges and marine insurance, which
contractually binding. The verbal commitment (b) FORM A: must be agreed upon by the parties involved.
is reconfirmed in writing by either email or Classification is made on the basis of samples Shipments
The L/C does not replace the contract. It is the
facsimile through the local sales agent. The submitted directly from a public warehouse to Shipment terms can be for one month or
facility for payment under the contract.
seller then prepares the contract form and the USDA Classing Board. several months. A custody bill of lading should
sends it to the buyer (or agent for submission be allowed, as well as partial shipments, Arbitration
(c) FORM R: however, neither buyers nor sellers like partial In the event of disputes over quality or
to the buyer), who signs it and returns it to the
The form used by the USDA to rewrite the shipments. Due to the complexity of the technical matters, the rules of arbitration
seller. This formal contract is the written record
original green card class on certificate. This shipping business, partial shipments cannot should be specified in the contract. Dispute
for both parties of the previously agreed
must be done within 12 months of the original always be avoided. Sometimes cotton is loaded settlements should be pursuant to the rules
upon terms of the business. A good contract
classing date. at more than one port. The introduction of mutually agreed upon in the contract.
will spell out all important provisions of the
sales agreement. Most exported U.S. cotton containerized shipments has resulted in less
is sold on a standard contract form, usually shipper control over the loading. Once the
Growth specifies the origin of the cotton to be exported.
incorporating International Cotton Association Common growths are:
cotton has been loaded in containers, the The recognized cotton arbitration boards are:

Ltd. (ICA) or ACSA Rules. steamship line only controls the vessel on
BELGIUM: Association Cotonnire de Belgique
American (i.e., no specific origin) which the container is actually transported,
BRAZIL: Bolsa de Mercadorias & Futuros, So Paulo
San Joaquin Valley (SJV) meaning that shippers are at the mercy of the
Quantity EGYPT: Cotton Exporters Association in ARE
California/Arizona
Quantity can be specified in bales, pounds or steamship lines. FRANCE: Association Franaise Cotonnire
Orleans/Texas (Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico,
metric tons. It is generally understood that GERMANY: Bremer Baumwollbrse
Missouri, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee Carrying Charges INDIA: The East India Cotton Association
the quantity stated in the contract is subject and Arkansas)
A carrying charge is assessed against the ITALY: Associazone Cotoniera Liniera e delle Fibre Affini
to a tolerance of 3 percent to account for Memphis/Eastern Territory (Arkansas, Tennessee,
Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Georgia, Alabama, buyer in case of unforeseen delays in opening JAPAN: Japan Cotton Arbitration Institute
differences in bale weight, etc. POLAND: Gdynia Cotton Association
North Carolina, South Carolina and Florida) the L/C or in providing available freight space
SPAIN: Centro Algodonero Nacional
(in case of FOB or FAS). In that case, the UK: International Cotton Association, Ltd.

30 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 31


32 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 33
LETTER OF CREDIT HOW DOES A LETTER OF CREDIT WORK?
A contract between an importer and AMOUNT: The sum of money, usually Once the exporter and importer have 5) Details of the L/C itself, including the
an exporter may call for payment under expressed as a maximum amount of the concluded a transaction that calls for amount (usually expressed as a maximum),
a Letter of Credit, often abbreviated as credit defined in a specific currency. payment under some form of an L/C, the the expiry date, how the credit will be
L/C or LC. An L/C is a written commitment TERMS: The requirements, including importer makes an application for the made available and the transferability
by a bank to make payment of a defined documents, that must be met for the credit to the bank that will issue the credit, of the credit.
amount of money to a beneficiary collection of the credit. either locally or in another country. The
6) The type of credit the revocable
(exporter) according to the terms and importer/applicant will give the issuing
EXPIRY: The final date for the beneficiary credit, the irrevocable credit or the
conditions specified by the importer bank instructions that cover such items as:
to present against the credit. confirmed irrevocable L/C.
(applicant). The L/C should set a time
1) The full, correct name, address and
limit for completion and specify which Upon approval of the credit application
These are the necessary components of contact information of the beneficiary,
documents are needed to confirm the by the issuing bank, the L/C is usually
any L/C for the credit to become a valid, usually the exporter.
transactions fulfillment. advised to the exporter; that is, the bank
operable instrument. In addition, L/Cs
2) A brief description of the cotton makes the exporter (beneficiary) aware
More properly called a documentary letter come in various forms that define their
involved, including the quantity, quality that an L/C is opened.
of credit, it is important to remember level of risk. A revocable L/C allows the
and unit price.
that an L/C is an additional contract issuing bank (at the applicants request) The advising is often done by a bank other
dealing with credit between the applicant to amend or cancel the credit at any time 3) The method, place and form of than the issuing bank, and this second
(importer) and the issuing bank and is without the approval of the exporter shipment, the location of the final bank may also confirm the credit.
separate from the original cotton contract. (beneficiary) and is the most risky form. destination and other shipping issues Once the importer and exporter are
including transshipment, partial shipment satisfied that the credit is operable,
Proper L/Cs have the following basic
In contrast, an irrevocable L/C has terms and the latest shipping date. the exporter ships against the original
components:
and conditions that cannot be amended cotton contract and presents the required
4) The full, correct description of the
APPLICANT: The party applying for the or changed without the expressed consent documents and a draft (the instrument
documents required, including the period
L/C, usually the importer in a cotton of all parties: the issuing bank, the exporter by which the exporter directs the importer
of time after the documents are issued
transaction. (beneficiary) and the importer (applicant). to make payment) to the confirming,
within which they must be presented for
Finally, the addition of a commitment correspondent or issuing bank. Upon
THE ISSUING BANK: The bank that issues payment. In addition, the credit should
by a bank other than the issuing bank checking the documents for accuracy,
the L/C and assumes the obligation to specify if payment is to be immediate (at
irrevocably honoring the payment of the the bank(s) passes the documents onto
make payment to the beneficiary, in most sight) or with some degree of deferment
credit results in a confirmed irrevocable the importer and makes payment against
cases the exporter. (e.g., four days after acceptance).
L/C, provided the exporter meets the the draft to the exporter.
BENEFICIARY: The party in whose favor terms and conditions of the credit.
the L/C is issued, usually the exporter in
the cotton transaction.

34 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 35


EXPORT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS
GSM-102 GUARANTEE PROGRAM Under the GSM-102 program, the CCC Eligible Commodities: Financing:
The USDAs export credit guarantee guarantees payments due from approved The CCC selects agricultural commodities The CCC-approved foreign bank issues a
programs help ensure that credit is available foreign banks to exporters or financial and products according to market potential dollar denominated, irrevocable L/C in favor
to finance commercial exports of U.S. institutions in the U.S. The CCC provides and eligibility based on applicable legislative of the U.S. exporter, ordinarily advised or
agricultural products, while providing the guarantee, but the financing must and regulatory requirements. confirmed by the financial institution in the
competitive credit terms to buyers. By be obtained through normal commercial U.S. agreeing to extend credit to the foreign
Participation:
reducing the financial risk to lenders, credit sources. Typically, 98 percent of principal bank. The U.S. exporter may negotiate an
CCC must qualify exporters for participation
guarantees encourage exports to buyers and a portion of interest are covered by a arrangement to be paid as exports occur by
before accepting guarantee applications.
in countries mainly developing countries guarantee. assigning to the U.S. financial institution the
Financial institutions must meet established
where credit is necessary to maintain or right to proceeds that may become payable
criteria and be approved by CCC. CCC sets
increase U.S. sales, but where financing may Eligible Countries or Regions: under the CCCs guarantee. Under this
limits and advises each approved foreign
not be available without such guarantees. Interested parties, including U.S. exporters, arrangement, the exporter would also provide
financial institution on the maximum
foreign buyers and banks, may request that transaction-related documents required by
EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAM amount CCC will guarantee for that bank.
the CCC establish a GSM-102 program for the financial institution, including a copy
(GSM-102) Requirements for exporter and U.S. and
a country or region. Prior to announcing of the export report, which must also be
The Export Credit Guarantee Program (GSM- foreign financial institution participation are
the availability of guarantees, the CCC submitted to the CCC.
102) underwrites credit extended by the available in the program regulation and on
evaluates the ability of each country and
private banking sector in the U.S. (or, less the FAS website. Defaults/Claims:
foreign bank to service CCC-guaranteed
commonly, by the U.S. exporter) to approved If the foreign bank fails to make any
debt. New banks may be added or levels Once approved to participate, the exporter
foreign banks using dollar-denominated, payment as agreed, the exporter or assignee
for current banks changed (increased or negotiates terms of the export sale with
irrevocable L/Cs for purchases of U.S. food must submit a notice of default to the CCC
decreased) as information becomes available. the importer. Once a firm export sale exists,
and agricultural products by foreign buyers. within the timeframe required by the
the qualified U.S. exporter must apply for
USDAs Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) program regulations.
a payment guarantee before the date of
administers the programs on behalf of the
export. The exporter pays a fee calculated
Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), which A claim for loss may also be filed, within the
on the dollar amount guaranteed. Fee rates
issues the credit guarantees. GSM-102 covers required timefame, and CCC will pay claims
are currently based on the country risk that
credit terms of up to 18 months; maximum found to be in good order. For CCC audit
CCC is undertaking, including country-
terms may vary by country. purposes, the U.S. exporter must obtain
specific macroeconomic variables; risk of
documentation to show that the commodity
the foreign obligor (bank); the repayment
arrived in the eligible country, and must
term (tenor); and repayment frequency
maintain all transaction documents for
under the guarantee.
five years from the date of completion of
all payments.

36 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 37


CONTACT INFORMATION FOR SUPPORTING ORGANIZATIONS

American Cotton Marketing National Cotton Ginners Association


Cooperatives (AMCOT) (NCGA)
P.O. Box 2827 7193 Goodlett Farms Parkway
Lubbock, TX 79408 Cordova, TN 38016 or
Tel: 806-763-8011 P.O. Box 2995
Fax: 806-762-7335 Cordova, TN 38088
www.amcot.org Tel: 901-274-9030
Fax: 901-725-0510
American Cotton Shippers
www.cotton.org/ncga
Association (ACSA)
88 Union Ave., Ste. 1204 National Cottonseed Products
Memphis, TN 38103 Association (NCPA)
Tel: 901-525-2272 P.O. Box 3715
Fax: 901-527-8303 Cordova, TN 38088
www.acsa-cotton.org Tel: 901-682-0800
California Cotton Alliance Fax: 901-725-0510
1521 I Street www.cottonseed.com
Sacramento, CA 95814-2322 Plains Cotton Growers, Inc.
Tel: 916-441-2272 4517 West Loop 289
Cotton Incorporated Lubbock, TX 79414
6399 Weston Parkway Tel: 806-792-4904

CONTACT INFO
Cary, NC 27513 Fax: 806-792-4906
Tel: 919-678-2220 www.plainscotton.org
Fax: 919-678-2230 Southern Cotton Growers, Inc.
www.cottoninc.com 139 Prominence Court, Ste. 110
Committee for Cotton Dawsonville, GA 30534
Research Tel: 706-344-1212
Supporting organizations, merchandisers, handlers, Fax: 706-344-1222
The Cotton Foundation
and CCI offices and local representatives P.O. Box 783 www.southern-southeastern.org
Cordova, TN 38088 Supima
Tel: 901-274-9030 9885 S Priest Dr, Ste 101
Fax: 901-725-0510 Tempe, AZ 85284
www.cotton.org/foundation Tel: 602.792.6002
Fax: 602.792.6004
ICE Futures U.S.
info@supima.com
One North End Ave.
www.supima.com
New York, NY 10282
Tel: 212-748-4000 United States Department
Fax: 212-643-4537 of Agriculture (USDA)
www.theice.com Foreign Agricultural Service
1400 Independence Ave., SW
National Cotton Council
Washington, DC 20250
of America
Tel: 202-720-9516
P.O. Box 2995
Fax: 202-690-1171
Cordova, TN 38088 or
www.fas.usda.gov
7193 Goodlett Farms Parkway
Cordova, TN 38016
Tel: 901-274-9030
Fax: 901-725-0510
www.cotton.org

TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 39


U.S. COTTON EXPORTERS

Many of the listed firms have branch American Cotton Shippers Cargill Cotton Cotton Traders International, LLC Engelhart CTP (US) LLC. Hang Tung Resources
offices which are not included Association 7101 Goodlett Farms Pkwy. P.O. Box 1647 Weslayan Tower, 24, Greenway Plaza, 2700 Patriot Blvd., Suite 160
here, and some are trade names or 88 Union Ave., Ste. 1204-LB 38 Cordova, TN 38016 Lubbock, TX 79408 Ste. 700 Houston, TX 77046 Glenview, IL 60062
subsidiaries of parent companies. Memphis, TN 38103 Tel: 901-937-4500 Tel: 806-687-4793 Tel: 212-441-3026 Tel: 847-637-3350
Tel: 901-525-2272 Fax: 901-937-4461 Fax: 806-687-4792 www.ectp.com peter.loo@hangtungusa.com
ACG Cotton Marketing, LLC Fax: 901-527-8303 www.cargillcotton.com peter.bunce@ectp.com
P.O. Box 2463 www.acsa-cotton.org cotton_us@cargill.com DECA International LLC Jabbour Cotton Co., LLC
Lubbock, TX 79408 bmay@acsa-cotton.org 2029 Peabody Ave. Ezra Cotton Co. Inc. 65 Union Ave., Mezz. Fl.
Tel: 806-740-0970 Carolinas Cotton Growers Memphis, TN 38104 6022 79th St. Memphis, TN 38103
Fax: 806-740-0142 Autauga Quality Cotton Cooperative Tel: 901-529-0059 Lubbock, TX 79424 Tel: 901-577-6580
www.acgcotton.com Association 101 Sigma Dr. Fax: 901-529-0049 Tel: 806-794-9015 kenny@jabbourcotton.com
acg@acgcotton.com 208 Medical Center Ct. Garner, NC 27529 www.decaint.com Fax: 806-794-9031
Prattville, AL 36066 Tel: 919-773-2120 Jess Smith & Sons Cotton Co.
Allbright Cotton Tel: 334-365-3369 Fax: 919-773-4495 Darden Cotton Company Francis & Company, Inc. P.O. Box 1178
466 W. Fallbrook Ave. #109 Fax: 334-365-9261 www.carolinascotton.com P.O. Box 638 P.O. Box 3043 Bakersfield, CA 93302
Fresno, CA 93711 www.aqca.com mquinn@carolinascotton.com Albertville, AL 35950 Memphis, TN 38173 Tel: 661-325-7231
Tel: 559-276-1664 Tel: 256-878-0241 Tel: 901-525-6741 Fax: 661-325-9745
Fax: 559-276-2094 Baco Trading CC Cotton LLC Fax: 256-878-0242 Fax: 901-525-6742 www.jesssmith.com
chuck@allbrightcotton.com 110 East Louisiana, Ste. 201 3517 Cimmaron Trl. cotton@jesssmith.com
McKinney, TX 75069 Fort Worth, TX 76116 Drachenberg Trading Company Frazer-Blocker Cotton, LLC
Allenberg Cotton Co. Tel: 214-504-1934 Tel: 817-244-5862 7211 78th St. P.O. Box 210309 J.G. Boswell Company
(Louis Dreyfus Commodites) bgarrott@bacotrading.com Lubbock, TX 79424 Montgomery, AL 36121 101 W. Walnut St.
7255 Goodlett Farms Pkwy Chesnutt Cotton Co. Tel: 806-794-4547 Tel: 334-279-9665 Pasadena, CA 91103
Cordova, TN 38016 Barrentine Company 2017 Broadway Fax: 806-687-9445 Fax: 334-260-5100 Tel: 626-583-3000
Tel: 901-383-5000 P.O. Box 11076 Lubbock , TX 79401 www.cottontrader.com stuarthfrazer@att.net Fax: 626-583-3090
Fax: 901-383-5010 Bakersfield, CA 93389 Tel: 806-762-4648 rd@cottontrader.com gbmark@jgboswell.com
www.ldcom.com Tel: 661-397-7017 Fax: 806-762-0134 Glencore Ltd.
steve.dyer@ldcom.com Fax: 661-397-8332 CC Cotton LLC Laughlin Cotton Co., Inc.
301 Tresser Blvd., 14th Floor
craig@pimatrader.com Choice Cotton Company, Inc. 3517 Cimmaron Trl P.O. Box 93875
Stamford, CT 06901
AMCOT. 119 East Main St. Fort Worth, TX 76116 Tel: 203-328-4900 Phoenix, AZ 85070
P.O. Box 2827 Brighann Marketing, Inc. Prattville, AL 36067 Tel: 817-244-5862 Tel: 480-775-0382
Fax: 203-328-3177
Lubbock, TX 79408 800 E. Campbell Rd., Ste. 173 Tel: 334-380-4745 Fax: 480-775-0384
www.glencore-us.com
Tel: 806-763-8011 Richardson, TX 75081 Fax: 334-365-9261 Eastern Trading Company jmlaughlin57@hotmail.com
Colin.Iles@glencore.com
Fax: 806-762-7335 Tel: 559-351-1156 www.choicecotton.com P.O. Box 3848
www.amcot.org www.brighann.com.au jdmitchell@choicecotton.com Greenville, SC 29608 Lee Horn Cotton Co.
Greenbelt Cotton Company
wally@wldsolutions.com Tel: 864-233-0613 P.O. Box 28 P.O. Box 2911
Calcot, Ltd. Cofco Agri Fax: 864-242-1038 Lubbock, TX 79408 Lubbock, TX 79408
Allenberg Cotton Co. P.O. Box 259 16190 City Walk, Ste. 200 www.easterntrading.net Tel: 806-762-0586 Tel: 806-762-5764
1353 Conservancy Dr. E. Bakersfield, CA 93302 Sugar Land, TX 77479 jlea@easterntrading.net Fax: 806-762-0588 Fax: 806-762-5560
Tallahassee, FL 32312 Tel: 661-327-5961 Tel: 832-944-6340 greenbeltcotton@live.com horncotton@sbcglobal.net
Tel: 805-765-8566 Fax: 661-861-9870 Fax: 832-944-6060 ECOM USA, Inc.
Fax: 805-893-2314 www.calcot.com www.cofcoagri.com 13760 Noel Rd., Ste. 500 Handwerker-Winburne, Inc. Lincoln Fibers Inc.
www.ldcom.com staff@calcot.com ctatum@cofcoagri.com Dallas, TX 75240 8925 W. Larkspur Dr., #110 4646 Poplar Ave., Ste. 541
Tel: 214-520-1717 Peoria, AZ 85381 Memphis, TN 38117
America Tongzhou Caney Valley Cotton Company Commodity Export Corp. Fax: 214-520-1859 Tel: 602-943-4234 Tel: 901-537-0664
Cotton Trading Inc. P.O. Drawer 470 4015 84th St. www.ecomtrading.com Fax: 602-943-9799 Fax: 901-537-0665
2083 Center Ave., Ste. 3C Wharton, TX 77488 Lubbock, TX 79423 timnorth@ecomtrading.com www.hwicotton.com www.lincolnfibers.com
Fort Lee, NJ 07024 Tel: 979-532-5210 Tel: 806-798-2299
Tel: 201-363-4612 Fax: 979-282-2935 Fax: 806-798-1771
Fax: 201-363-4613 caneycot@att.net
www.hntzmy.com/en/
songzt@hntzmy.com

40 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 41


Loeb & Company, Inc. Noble Ellington Cotton Co., Inc. RJB Trading & Consulting Turley Cotton Co., Inc.
P.O. Box 909 4270 Front St. P.O. Box 1116 65 Union Ave., Mezz.
Montgomery, AL 36101 Winnsboro, LA 71295 Lubbock, TX 79412 Memphis, TN 38103
Tel: 334-834-1570 Tel: 318-435-9752 Tel: 806-763-5278 Tel: 901-527-5449
Fax: 334-834-1575 Fax: 318-435-9885 Fax: 806-763-7500 Fax: (901)-521-1231
www.loebandcompany.com ellingtoncotton@bellsouth.net rnbar@sbcglobal.net
info@loebandco.com Underwood Cotton Co., Inc.
Norman W. Paschall Co., Inc. San Joaquin Valley Quality 1320 Texas Ave.
Lone Star Cotton P.O. Box 2100 Cotton Growers Association Lubbock , TX 79401
P.O. Box 1704 Peachtree City, GA 30269 P.O. Box 1510 Tel: 806-762-1787
Lubbock, TX 79408 Tel: 770-487-7945 Shafter, CA 93263 Fax: 806-762-8074
Tel: 806-763-2514 Fax: 770-487-0840 Tel: 661-237-0900 www.underwood-cotton.com
Fax: 806-763-4934 www.paschall.com Fax: 661-746-3402 josh@underwood-cotton.com
zeke@paschall.com www.sjvqualitycotton.com
Lowery Cotton Co. Walcot Trading Company
1373 Highway 29 E. Nunn Cotton Company Staplcotn P.O. Box 65
Llano, TX 78643 27 N. Lafayette Ave. Cooperative Association Memphis, TN 38101
Tel: 325-247-2704 Brownsville, TN 38012 P.O. Box 547 Tel: 901-685-7475
Fax: 325-247-2737 Tel: 731-772-0184 Greenwood, MS 38930 Fax: 901-685-9144
Goldplus11@verizon.net Fax: 731-772-0189 Tel: 662-453-6231 www.walcottrading.com
nunncotton@newwavecomm.net Fax: 662-453-5347
Lubbock Fibers www.staplcotn.com W.D. Felder & Company
4604 11th St. Olam Cotton hank.reichle@staplcotn.com P.O. Box 815
Lubbock, TX 79416 740 E. Campbell Rd., Ste. 470 Lubbock, TX 79408
Tel: 806-765-0909 Richardson, TX 75081 Strickland Cotton, Co. Tel: 806-763-6630
LUBFIBER@SWBELL.NET Tel: 214-965-0070 13122 I H 37 Fax: 806-762-5031
Fax: 214-965-0082 Corpus Christi, TX 78410
Lyons Cotton, Inc. www.olamgroup.com Tel: 361-241-7289 White Gold Cotton Marketing, LLC
P.O. Box 3650 dale.cougot@olamnet.com Fax: 361-241-7268 5555 Business Park South #210
Memphis, TN 38173 cotton@interconnect.net Bakersfield, CA 93309
Tel: 901-521-1215 Omnicotton, Inc. Tel: 661-636-0280
Fax: 901-521-1231 555 Republic Dr., Ste. 550 Supima Fax: 661-636-0286
hicotton@bellsouth.net Plano, TX 75074 9885 S. Priest Dr. #101 www.wgacotton.com
Tel: 972-398-0993 Tempe, AZ 85284 mark@wgacotton.com
M. Schiefer Trading Co. Fax: 972-398-0983 Tel: 602-792-6002
P.O. Box 1065 www.omnicotton.com Fax: 602-792-6004 William B. Griffin
Lubbock, TX 79408 cwhite@omnicotton.com www.supima.com 5118 Park Ave., Ste. 230
Tel: 806-762-0700 info@supima.com Memphis, TN 38117
Fax: 806-762-0078 Panamerica Commodities. Tel: 901-680-8281
65 Union Ave., Mezz. Fl. Toyo Cotton Company Fax: 901-680-8282
MemTex Cotton Marketing LLC Memphis, TN 38103 11611 Forest Central Drive wgrifcot370@gmail.com
3323 23rd St. Tel: 901-244-6777 Dallas, TX 75243
Lubbock, TX 79410 Fax: 901-244-6774 Tel: 214-538-2503
Tel: 512-431-6307 www.panamericacc.com www.toyocotton.com
ray@memtexcotton.com jkarn@panamericacc.com daltr@toyocotton.com

Plains Cotton Cooperative Toyoshima (U.S.A.), Inc.


NJN Cotton Co., Inc.
Association 19600 Magellan Dr.
P.O. Box 433
P.O. Box 2827 Torrance, CA 90502
Lamesa, TX 79331
Lubbock, TX 79408 Tel: 310-879-4400
Tel: 806-872-8802
Tel: 806-763-8011 Fax: 310-879-4401
Fax: 806-872-3157
Fax: 806-724-3208 www.toyoshima.com
www.pcca.com ryota@toyoshimausainc.com

42 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 43


Your partner, every step along the way.

Omnicotton Inc.
555 Republic Drive Suite 550
Plano, Texas 75074
United States
tel 972 398 0993

ww
www.omnicotton.com | info@omnicotton.com

Omnicotton Agri Comercial Ltda. Omnicotton Australia Pty Ltd.


Rua Helena 285, Vila Olmpia, Conjunto 124 Suite 72, 283 Given Terrace
So Paulo, SP Cep: 04552-050 Paddington, QLD, 4064
Brasil Australia
tel 55 11 2769 6784 tel 61 417 728440

44 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 45


The Natural Choice

For 95 years, Staplcotn has provided Memphis/Eastern cotton to


mills around the world and developed a reputation for excellent
service, trustworthiness and on-time delivery. As the oldest
grower-owned cotton marketing cooperative in the United States,
Staplcotn is the natural choice for your supply of quality cotton
and exceptional service thats delivered with every bale.

214 W. Market Street


Greenwood, MS 38930
662-453-6231 www.staplcotn.com

We are Noble Agri, the new global


supply chain manager redefining the
world of agricultural commodities.

TOYO COTTON CO. TOYO COTTON (JAPAN) CO.


11611 Forest Central Dr. 8-2, Utsubo-Honmachi 1-Chome, Nishi-Ku
Dallas, TX 75243 Osaka, 550-0004, Japan
Phone: 214-349-1376 Phone: 06-6479-1412
Noble Agri
16190 City Walk, Suite 200 Fax: 214-349-6490 Fax: 06-6479-1425
Sugar Land, Texas, USA 77479 daltr@toyocotton.com
+1 832 944 6340 www.nobleagri.com

Your partner, every step along the way.

Variety.
Dependability.
Integrity. Omnicotton Inc.
555 Republic Drive Suite 550
Plano, Texas 75074
United States
tel 972 398 0993

806-763-8011 ww
www.omnicotton.com | info@omnicotton.com

www.pcca.com Omnicotton Agri Comercial Ltda.


Rua Helena 285, Vila Olmpia, Conjunto 124
So Paulo, SP Cep: 04552-050
Omnicotton Australia Pty Ltd.
Suite 72, 283 Given Terrace
Paddington, QLD, 4064

sales@pcca.com Brasil
tel 55 11 2769 6784
Australia
tel 61 417 728440

46 TH E GU IDE TO BU YING COT TON 47


CCI OFFICES LOCAL REPRESENTATIVES

CCI Washington CCI Ahmedabad CCI Lahore


Worldwide Headquarters India Pakistan
1521 New Hampshire Ave., NW Tel: +91-96876-45345 Tel: +92-300-848-7912
Washington, DC 20036 USA Fax: +91-79403-27897 mazhar@sypher.biz
Tel: +1-202-745-7805 peush_narang@yahoo.com
Fax: +1-202-483-4040 CCI Manila
cottonusa@cotton.org CCI Bangkok Philippines
www.cottonusa.org Thailand Tel: +63-2-892-0247
www.cottonusasourcing.com Tel: +66-81-753-1000 Fax: +63-2-892-0223
www.cottonsrevolutions.org Fax: +66-2-381-1437 monica@seinc.com.ph
kraipob@pangsapa.com
CCI Memphis CCI Osaka
7193 Goodlett Farms Parkway CCI Beijing Japan
Cordova, TN 38016 USA China Tel: +81-6-6231-2665
Tel: +1-901-274-9030 Tel: +86-10-6515-5990 Fax: +81-6-6231-4661
Fax: +1-901-725-0510 Fax: +86-10-6515-7049 hfukumasu@cotton.or.jp
cottonusa@cotton.org cynthia@yuanassociates.com.cn www.cotton.or.jp
www.cottonusa.org www.cottonusa.org.cn www.cottonusa.jp
www.cottonusasupplychain.com
CCI Bogot CCI San Jos
CCI Hong Kong Colombia Costa Rica
20th Floor, Zoroastrian Building Tel: +571-623-3132 Tel: +506-2288-2626/
101 Leighton Road nina@cottonusaandean.com +506-2289-8680
Causeway Bay, Hong Kong www.cottonusa.com.co Fax: +506-2289-5124
Tel: +852-2890-2755 floribeth.schuyler@cotton-cr.com
Fax: +852-2882-5463 CCI Dhaka www.cottonusasourcing.com
cci-hongkong@cotton.org Bangladesh
Tel: +880-171-303-6247 CCI Taipei
www.cottonusa.org.cn
Fax: +880-2-989-6106 Taiwan
CCI London shabbir@asanaventures.com Tel: +886-2-2876-2870
Liberty House Fax: +886-2-2876-2872
222 Regent St. CCI Dsseldorf ccitwn@ms9.hinet.net
London W1B 5TR Germany www.cottonusa.org.tw
United Kingdom Tel: +49-211-17-95-636
Tel: +44 (0) 20-7297-2288 Fax: +49-211-17-95-766
Fax: +44 (0) 20-7297-2136 ebaumann@cotton.org
sthiers@cotton.org www.cottonusa.de
www.cottonusa.co.uk
CCI Ho Chi Minh City
www.cottonusa.it
Vietnam
CCI Seoul Tel: +84-8-3991-1172
Suite 303 Leema Building Fax: +84-8-3990-5083
42, Jongro 1-gil, Jongro-gu vhung@cotton.org
Seoul 03152 Korea
CCI Istanbul
Tel: +82-2-722-3681
Turkey
Fax: +82-2-722-3684
Tel: +90-212-539-8841
cci-seoul@cotton.org
Fax: +90-212-539-8842
CCI Shanghai info@cottonusaturkey.com
Suite 750, East Office Building www.cottonusaturkey.com
Shanghai Centre, No. 1376
CCI Jakarta
Nanjing Road West,
Indonesia
Shanghai 20040 China
Tel: +62-21-837-95-073
Tel: +86-21-6288-0808
Fax: +62-21-837-06-103
Fax: +86-21-6288-6822
uscotton.indonesia@gmail.com
cci-shanghai@cotton.org
www.cottonusa.org.cn

See the world of cotton at


cottonusa.org

CCI is an EEO employer.