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Penrith Regional City Garden


November 2008
Penrith Regional City Garden
Feasibility Study Report

November 2008
Job No. 07628

Prepared for: Penrith City Council

Prepared by:
Context Landscape Design
Level 2, 52 - 58 William Street
East Sydney, NSW 2011
T. +612 8244 8900 F. +612 8244 8988
E. context@context.net.au

Revision Date Description By Chk App



03 07 NOV 2008 FINAL REPORT - Council and Landcom comments incorporated H.A U.B
Penrith Regional City Garden

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Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden


Executive Summary 1
1.0 Study Background 3
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Study Objectives
1.3 Study Methodology
2.0 Penrith Background 9
2.1 History
2.2 Natural and Cultural Landscape
2.3 Current and Future Physical Planning Strategies
2.4 Current and Changing Population Trends
2.5 Current Open Space Provisions and Recreation Trends
3.0 Informing the Concept 19
3.1 Overview of International and National Garden Examples
3.2 Current Australian Examples
3.3 Contemporary Design Initiatives and Best Practice
3.4 Environmental Sustainability Opportunities
3.5 Education Initiatives
3.6 Universal Design Initiatives
3.7 Programming Initiatives
4.0 Key Issues 39
4.1 Current Penrith Issues
4.2 Future Recreational Styles and Facilities
4.3 Links with Local Regional Open Space Network
4.4 Identifying Niche Opportunities in Penrith
4.5 Providing Leadership in Sustainability
4.6 Financial Issues
4.7 Management and Maintenance Issues
4.8 Partnerships
5.0 Public Consultation 45
5.1 Think Tank Outcome

6.0 Developing a Model 47

6.1 Vision and Objectives of the City Garden
6.2 Analyses for Model Development
6.3 Components of the Model City Garden

7.0 Model Options 55

7.1 Options
7.4 Possible Sites
8.0 Preferred Model 63
9.0 Cost Assessment and Possible Funding Sources 65
9.1 Lessons Learnt from Existing Gardens
9.2 Cost Analysis for Proposed City Garden
9.3 Implementation and Maintenance
9.5 Possible Funding Sources
10.0 Implementation and Timing 73
11.0 Conclusion 75

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden

Appendix A: Recreation Study 93
Appendix B: OUT & About in Penrith Study 109
Appendix C: Garden Research 115
Appendix D: ANBG Interpretive Typologies 127
Appendix G: Model Development, Comparison of Elements 177
Appendix I: Urban Agriculture Opportunities 219
Appendix J: Botanical Themes Research , Dr David J. Collins 223
Appendix K: Funding and Grants 233
Appendix L: Landscape Maintenance Guidelines 237

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden


As a major river city at the nexus of the Cumberland Plains, the Blue
Mountains and the emerging Penrith Lakes, Penrith has outstanding
opportunities for pleasurable and responsible urban living in the 21st
century. To contribute to this vision, the City would like to explore the
opportunity to develop a Regional City Garden. This study explores the
feasibility of such a proposal.

The study reviews a wide range of international and national public

gardens including botanic gardens and new urban parks. It also reviews
design initiatives and social and environmental innovations that can
be incorporated into a model city garden, augmenting the recent
Penrith City Council. The extensive review highlights the importance
of programs and activities within a city garden to sustain its vitality and
continued visitation.

An analysis of current recreational trends and facilities in Penrith

indicates that if a regional city garden is modelled on current botanical
gardens, it will limit its potential as a recreational destination. Instead
there are niche opportunities for Penrith to develop a unique city garden
forging a number of local and regional partnerships. Themes for such a
city garden, explored through workshops with design experts, relevant

Drawing from the city garden research, recreation analysis and

consultative workshops, three options for a city garden were developed;
a single centrally located site, multiple sites with green connections,
and the whole city as a garden. A range of possible locations were
considered for these options.

The option of a single central garden has advantages of economies

of scale and the opportunity to concentrate resources into a focused
location. The management of a single garden would be less expensive
and more self-sustaining.

Multiple sites have the advantage of being accessible to the wider

Penrith community. The plurality of city garden destinations may increase
overall patronage as each location will offer an independent experience
encouraging separate visits rather than a single visit to a more compact
whole facility. Disadvantages of the multiple site option include the
additional costs of dispersed resources for operations and maintenance,
the lack of focus for the city gardens, and the lack of a critical mass

The whole city as a garden option was not pursued as it is already

achievable through current planning strategies for open space, streets
and the public domain.

for private partnerships could be explored further as a hybrid option
between the single and multiple sites. This option combines a major

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Penrith Regional City Garden

focal site, for example, near the Penrith Lakes development with a
smaller adjunct site as part of the Riverlink development; both linked by
the garden proper, this should be part of at least 30 ha to permit future
expansion and the eventual inclusion of additional facilities. This is
recommended as the preferred model for the Regional City Gardens.

The proposed City Gardens can brand Penrith as a leader in

environmental sustainability and the application of universal design.
It can consolidate community partnerships and showcase local
products, including those from local farms. The educative role of the
City Garden can operate through stimulating thematic gardens as well
as collaborative research projects with universities in Sydney and the
Sydney Botanic Gardens.

Contextually, the City Garden can sit within and augment the existing
and developing regional open space network. As a recreation
destination, the City Garden can provide an urban setting for fun
activities, particularly based on water and, through a well-developed
events program, contribute to Penrith as a balanced city on the edge of
the Sydney metropolitan area, attracting professionals and managers to
live in the area.

The cost assessment and evaluation shows that the preferred city
garden hybrid model with a range of programs and activities and
educational links could be feasible, particularly if its location can increase
the economic and aesthetic value of surrounding developments.

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Penrith Regional City Garden


1.1 Introduction
The City of Penrith will become the principal centre servicing the north
west Sydney sub-region, consolidating the unique opportunities it has
link between the south west and the north west growth centres, as well

The City is planned to grow by some 33,000 people up to 2021 and

seven Regional Cities in the State Government’s Metropolitan Strategy,
Penrith will have a new urban footprint and enjoy more dynamic cultural,
recreation and leisure trends. The establishment of a Regional City
Sydney’s dynamic metropolitan north-west growth sector.

Penrith’s 2007/08 Management Plan requires that the City’s recreation

City Centre, Penrith
and leisure needs. A Regional City Garden could provide an innovative
urban leisure facility, particularly if it was founded on a design philosophy
which stamped it as uniquely Penrith, inventive and widely renowned as
a place to visit.

Penrith City Vision

Penrith City’s vision is one of a sustainable and prosperous region
with a harmony of urban and rural qualities with a strong commitment
to environmental protection and enhancement. It would offer both the Ropes Crossing, St Marys
cosmopolitan and cultural lifestyles of a mature city and the casual
character of a rural community. The vision includes:
ƒ enhancement of the landscape setting of the City Centre,
ƒ the creation of a new city park that brings the atmosphere of the
country into the city
ƒ connections from the city to the river

Aerial of Nepean River and Riverlink precinct

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 3

Penrith Regional City Garden

Study Vision
owned and administered by the city, and providing a range of
recreational uses including activities associated with botany and

The study proposes and evaluates models for the Penrith City Garden so
Passive Recreation in Penrith Parks
that it can be a world class facility, designed and built to universal design
standards as well as inform, entertain, and enrich the recreational,
cultural, environmental and educational experiences of Penrith’s
residents and visitors for many years to come.

The City Garden model will ensure exemplary water-wise design and
environmental sustainability. Themes celebrating the city’s biodiversity,
cultural and natural heritage, and a commitment to environmental values
Sporting Facilities, Jamison Park
1.2 Study Objectives
The study provides the background information required to determine
important role of Penrith Regional City in serving the needs of existing
and future residents, visitors, and the wider metropolitan context. The
objectives are:
ƒ to investigate the need for a City Garden
ƒ to investigate a possible Model for the City Garden
Skate Boarding, Jamison Park ƒ WRSUHSDUHD&RVW%HQH¿W$QDO\VLV
ƒ to investigate possible sites
ƒ to identify possible funding sources
ƒ to identify possible partnerships
ƒ to identify the way forward


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Penrith Regional City Garden

1.3 Study Methodology

1.3.1 Team
A multi-disciplinary Consultant Team, highly skilled and experienced
Context Landscape Design
Oi Choong Project Coordination and Management
Professor Helen Armstrong Comparative Analysis of City Gardens
Uyen Bui Site Feasibility
Model, City Garden Concept Plan Art Installation, Glenmore Park
Victoria Peet
Funding Partnerships
Conybeare Morrison (CM+)
Judith Rintoul Cultural Heritage
Urban Design
Model City Garden Concept Plan
Stratcorp Consulting
Richard Simon Recreational Planning
Boundary Trees, Boronia Park
Dr Garrick Small &RVW%HQH¿W$QDO\VLV
Economists and Valuers

The members of this Team share a commitment to achieving the

highest standards of urban and landscape design, providing sustainable
economic, social and environmental solutions, and addressing both
client and community needs.

1.3.2 Process
The process follows the City Garden Brief by:
City Garden
ƒ Identify opportunities based on best practice design
ƒ Assessing opportunities and constraints and potential funding
sources for the long term operation of the City Garden
ƒ Embracing design initiatives that incorporate sustainability and
ABOUT in PENRITH Study on cultural barriers in open space.
The garden model is proposed to incorporate a number of social, cultural
and environmental considerations, including;
Transition from rural to urban

High Street, Penrith

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Revealing Local Identity

In an era of globalisation, local identity has become increasingly
important. A City Garden can reinforce local identity associated with the
natural and cultural landscape of Penrith. It has the potential to provide
wide appeal by embracing its indigenous and pioneering past with the
vitality promised by its multi-cultural future.

Exploring the Future

and educational landscapes. City Gardens today can respond to the
potential impact of climate change and demonstrate the latest forms of
environmental technology and sustainability in an artful way. This study
highlights how core sustainability principles and water-wise design can
be embedded into the Garden vision and how a ‘clever country’ can
address its enduring landscape future.

Penrith Open Space in a Regional Context

The Penrith City Garden can form the nucleus of a green web of open
Local Park, Cranbrook space within the parameters of an urban growth centre and its region,
sites for Penrith City’s “Green Trail”.

The City Garden as Best Practice Universal Design

Penrith City is a leader in promoting Universal Design in its open space
planning. The City Garden would reinforce Penrith City’s leadership in
world class sustainable recreation and leisure facilities appealing to all
age and cultural groups.
Universal Design, Oizumi Ryokuchi
Park, Japan

Out & About in Penrith, Children’s Map

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Thematic Gardens in the City

ƒ The City Garden can provide a number of thematic gardens
ƒ Urban water garden
ƒ Indigenous plant garden
ƒ The cultural landscape historical garden
ƒ Reviving horticultural and agricultural traditions garden
ƒ A garden for climate change
Art in the landscape, Charles Jencks
Elevation of the Soul
Living in a 21st century city requires special spaces for spirituality
including mandalas, mazes, and labyrinths. The City Garden could be
a place where the spiritual and sensory experiences of sight, sound,
smell and touch are heightened thus inviting repeated visits. The garden
increasingly dense cities.

The City Garden as Art Space

Art as Social Space. A City Garden could be a delightful venue for
ephemeral art displays that explore particular themes associated with
local history, sustainability or simply the notion of play.

1.4 Consulting the Community

Penrith has a diverse community. Different groups in the community
have varying interests and aspirations for a City Garden. A half-day
workshop was held with community representatives, stakeholders, and
artists to explore their responses to three speculative scenarios for the

‘River Quiver’: ephemeral art,

children’s water creature

‘Unbounded’: Installation art in the garden

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Penrith Regional City Garden

City Garden. This was followed by a half-day workshop with Penrith City
planners to discuss community concerns and opportunities.

1.5 Background Studies

The following studies were reviewed. Those of particular relevance to a
possible city garden are summarised in Section 2.3.
ƒ PLANS Report (2004)
ƒ Penrith City Open Space Action Plan (2007)
Think Tank participants ƒ Penrith City draft District Open Space Facilities Development
ƒ Contributions Plan
ƒ Penrith City Sustainability Blueprint for urban release areas
ƒ Sustainable Penrith Sustainable Garden initiatives information
Plan 2005
ƒ Penrith Biodiversity Strategy
ƒ Draft Penrith Integrated Transport and Land Use Study 2007
(currently nearing completion)
ƒ Local Environmental Plans & Development Control Plan applicable
Exploring the Garden of the Future to infrastructure issues in Penrith City
Garden ƒ Penrith City 2005-2009 Strategic Plan and
ƒ Penrith City 2006-2007 Draft Management Plan
ƒ Penrith City Council Forecast. ID
ƒ Penrith City Centre Strategy
ƒ St Mary’s Town Centre Strategy
ƒ Penrith City Centre draft Vision/LEP/DCP/Civic Improvements
ƒ Social Planning Framework
ƒ Cultural Planning Framework
ƒ Draft Public Art Policy
ƒ Riverlink Project Study
Ideas for the Garden of the Future ƒ 7KH:652&ZHEVLWH³)XWXUH:HVW6WXG\´

observations and feedback from participants in workshops. Additional
surveys were not undertaken for this study. Expert input was limited to
the study team. The study was undertaken over 20 weeks.

1.7 Acknowledgements
The preparation of this report has involved assistance and consultation
with numerous people. Thanks to the following for insight and guidance:
Dr David J.Collins for his research and insights for botanically themed

Penrith City planners workshop

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Penrith Regional City Garden


2.1 History
The Aboriginal people lived on the western edge of the Plain for over
30,000 years. By 1789, a few settlers had spread westward along the
Cumberland Plain and began clearing the land to establish farms;
most of the land grants occurring around 1821. A government farm
was established at Emu Plains in 1819 and by the 1840’s some larger
estates were being established in the Mulgoa Valley. The impact of
white settlement on Aboriginal land reveals both active resistance and
attempts at negotiation with different governors by Aborigines. Orchards beside Nepean River n.d. c.1870s
source: www.nepeanhistoricalsociety.org.au

Drought and depression slowed the settlement until 1863 when the
railway reached Penrith. This was followed by a period of expansion and
consolidation with some industrial development at St Marys.

Penrith continued as a quiet rural town surrounded by orchards,

vegetable production for the Sydney markets.

The rural landscape and the easy access to the Nepean River attracted
many day-trippers and weekend stays at local guesthouses. This
becoming a city in 1959. This growth was driven by industrial
development at St Marys and the expansion of the sand and gravel

As well, by the 1960’s developers were opening broad-acre estates

and the government was establishing public housing areas. By 1971,
expansion. Growth has continued with the 2006 Sydney Metropolitan
Strategy designating Penrith as one of three river cities within seven
regional cities.

Llandilo Hall

New Housing Estates on Old Vineyard


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Penrith Regional City Garden

2.2. Natural and Cultural Landscape:

Triassic sandstone and shale strata of the Sydney Basin, warped into a
River. Tertiary Aeolian sand dunes occur to the north at Agnes Banks.

the Nepean River. Hills rise to the south and the plain is dissected by

Deep alluvial beds of sand and gravel interlaced with clays derived from
Cumberland Plain, Remnant Vegetation
Remnants persist of the grass plains and woodlands of grey box, forest
red gum and narrow-leafed ironbark which were characteristic of the
western edge of the Cumberland Plain. Remnants also exist of the
denser forest at the river edge, the ironbarks being replaced by cabbage
gum, river oak and occasional tall Deane’s gum. To the north of Penrith,
at Agnes Banks, ancient sand-dunes support unusual stands of Banksia
spp. The two major creek lines support she-oaks and paperbarks.
Former Pasture, Penrith
Cultivated Landscape
There are still some market gardens and orchards plus pasture
surrounding and threading through Penrith City, particularly in the
north-west and south-west. Until recently, a number of vineyards were
found on hillsides, most of which are now new housing estates. There
has been a policy of extensive indigenous tree planting along drainage
reserves and roadsides which has resulted in a distinctive landscape
Though the detail of the landscape has been drastically changed over
the past two hundred years, the major elements of Penrith’s distinctive
topography, the undulating country leading down to the river, the gravel
bed of the Nepean itself, the presence of the great warp of the Blue
Mountains with its ridges and valleys beyond covered in indigenous
forests, continue to reinforce the identity of the urban areas of the City of
Penrith providing drama and atmosphere to its surrounding landscape.

Rural Land on Flood Plain Sandstone cliffs, Eucalyptus Forest, Nepean

Chinese Market Garden, Penrith Blue Mountains

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Penrith Regional City Garden

2.3 Current and Future Physical Planning Strategies

Open Space Action Plan (2007) ±'HYHORSHGRQWKHEDVLVRIWKH
Council’s 2004 PLANS (People’s Lifestyle Aspirations and Needs Study)
space and facilities through a focus on quality open space experiences
for different age groups and interests, and states that “Development of
open space land will be in accordance with universal design principles
and standards” (p9).
Open Space, Tench Reserve

Disability Action Plan (2003-2006) ±EDVHGRQDFRPSUHKHQVLYHDXGLW

in 2002 of accessibility issues across Penrith, discrimination within
Council and Community, and makes suggested solutions, with inclusion
of user groups in design a key theme.

City Centre Vision (2008) - developed as part of the Planning Ministry’s

Cities Task Force. It articulates a vision of Penrith City Centre that
includes enhanced pedestrian orientation, greater connections between
different shopping and business precincts, and between these and the
water to reinforce the river city. Creating a recreational link between the Children’s Playground, Tench Reserve
square will provide a major civic focus.

Local Environmental Plan, 2008 (LEP)±LGHQWL¿HVGLIIHUHQW]RQHVRI

use and potential development of both built and natural environment;
including design standards and values for these.

Development Control Plan, 2007 (DCP) - complements the Local

Environmental Plan (LEP) and gives more detailed design parameters
for new development in the city centre. Civic Improvement, City Centre

Civic Improvement Plan (CIP) - relevant to this research, the CIP

focusses on design strategies for the public domain and special city
projects, including various civic centre and park refurbishments and

Design Excellence Guidelines for City Centres (2007)±SUHSDUHGE\

City Centre LED, focusing on guidelines for Design Competitions.
Bay to the Southern Highlands, includes the full length of the Nepean-
Hawkesbury River. Penrith City Council is concentrating initially on the
funded by the State Government’s Metropolitan Greenspace Program

sites and a number of smaller holdings. The precinct has a highly
the Nepean River, to the south by the M4 and to the north by the rail-

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Penrith Regional City Garden

permeable access and a clear and legible public domain. It also seeks

2.4 Current and Changing population trends

Key demographic data for the City of Penrith were obtained from the
ƒ Penrith City: Population and Household Forecasts, id Consulting

The current estimated population of Penrith City is 177,000 people
(2008). In 2006, the population was 172,142, marginally down on the
2006 compared to the Sydney Statistical Division (SSD) shows that
there was a larger proportion of people in the younger age groups (0 to
17) but a smaller proportion of people in the older age groups (60+). The
detailed analysis of the age structure is supplied in Appendix A.

Population Characteristics
Country of Birth
Penrith City has a higher proportion of residents born in Australia
(73.8%) when compared to the SSD (60.4%). Overall, 20.5% of the
population was born overseas (compared to 31.7% for the SSD), and
12.5% were from a non-English speaking background (23.9% for the

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Household Income
Analysis of the distribution of households by income quartile in Penrith
City compared to the SSD shows that there is a smaller proportion
of households in the highest income quartile, as well as a smaller
proportion in the lowest income quartile.

in the lowest quartile which showed an increase of 21.0% households.

Of persons in Penrith City aged over 15 years in 2006, there was a
respectively for the SSD.
between 2001 and 2006 were:

Household Type
The combined proportion of couple families and one parent families in
Penrith City is 70.2%, which is higher than for the SSD (64.9%), and
which has increased since 2001(65.5%). Conversely, the proportion of
lone person households in 2006 is 18.0%, which is lower than the SSD
average at 21.8%, but higher than 2001 at 16%.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Population Projections
The current estimated population for Penrith City of 177,000 is projected
to grow by an estimated 33,000 people by 2021 and by an additional
50,000 to 2031. Further details are provided in Appendix A.

Visitation Issues The ABS commissioned survey titled, Attendance

at Selected Cultural Venues & Events provides valuable data on the
basic demographic characteristics of those who attend selected venues
Mt Annan Botanic Gardens, Camden and events, including botanic gardens. The survey was undertaken
previously in 1991, 1995, 1999, 2001 and 2005, enabling trends and
feasibility of establishing a City Garden within the City of Penrith.

People aged over 15 years who visit botanic gardens are typically:
ƒ female
ƒ born overseas in the mainly English-speaking countries
ƒ employed
Gardens ƒ in the highest household income quintile
ƒ family-oriented


indicates there was a fall in annual visitations of 3.7% from 2000 to 2006.
Visitations drew heavily from the local catchment area, with around
80% of visitors coming from the outer Sydney region and a total of 95%
much higher visitation levels (80% of all visits) than week days (20%).
Botanical Display, Mt Annan Botanic Just under half of all visitors in 2006 were aged over 55 years and the
Gardens elements that visitors most liked in the Gardens were Australian plants
and the physical beauty.

3.2 and Appendix H) are the basis upon which a preliminary assessment
of need and demand for a Penrith City Garden have been made.

a botanic garden. Nevertheless, the large population of Penrith City,
combined with the population of the balance of the outer region of
Sydney, suggests that a reasonable level of annual visitations could
be expected to occur at any new Penrith City Gardens assuming it has
some characteristics, attractions and community appeal similar to a
botanic garden.

Based on the assessment, it is evident there would be some feasibility

risk to Council in establishing a City Garden, if:
ƒ If the design, management and programming of the City Garden

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Penrith Regional City Garden

were based on the typical model of a botanic garden. Instead

demands with the emphasis on sustaining the quality of the City
Garden, should be a priority. This could also include the introduction
of unique recreation and cultural experiences and creative
programming establishing a point of difference and could result in
an increased catchment and target population for the Penrith City
Garden. District Park, Jamison Park, Penrith

2.5 Current Open Space Provisions and Recreation Trends

2.5.1 Open Space Provisions in Penrith
Penrith City Council manages 1,206 hectares of open space, comprising:
ƒ 328 hectares of parks,
ƒ 199 hectares of community land for drainage and community uses,
ƒ 153 hectares of natural areas, and
ƒ 151 hectares of land where Council has care, control and
In all, there are 540 separate parks and reserves throughout the City and
141 of these parks contain playgrounds.

In relation to the overall quantity of publicly accessible open space Neighbourhood Park, St Clair
within the City of Penrith, the existing provision of open space is
adequate when compared to recognised industry standards. (Current
standard of 2.83). Further, when the data is broken down to assess the
facilities) and “passive” open space across the City, the results show
that the provision for both categories is also adequate. The provision of
“passive” open space areas between new and old areas does not show
the same discrepancy.

Local Park, Cranbrook

Drainage Reserve, Parker St Reserve,

Lake, Neighbourhood Park, Glenmore Park
Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 15
Penrith Regional City Garden

A key outcome from the research conducted during PLANS (2004)

space areas that provide for a range of experiences for different age
Aspirations Survey” undertaking as part of the PLANS, include:
1. Access to parks and open space was rated by new residents as
the 3rd most important facility/service when choosing a place of
:HUULQJWRQ/DNH residence.
2. Participation in passive recreation (e.g. walking, picnicking, and
socialising) was by far the most popular recreation activity for
residents (77%),and compares with 26% of people who nominated
organised sport.
3. Over 70% of residents ranked the need for parks to be improved as
either “very important” or “somewhat important”.


Community Planting, Jamison Park
quality open space as part of new developments coming on-stream in
the future. The proposed City Garden is another option by which Council
can respond to the community need to provide high quality park environs
of a size equal to or greater than the ‘District Park’ category, see below.

The Open Space Action Plan divides the Council area into twelve
clusters of suburbs and categorises the open space areas as
ƒ District Park - greater than 5 hectares, with a wide range of
Boronia Park, Ropes Crossing recreational experiences and facilities for locals and visitors, with
car parking, toilets and change rooms, BBQs and picnic furniture,
lighting, landscaped areas, shade and universally designed
playground systems.
ƒ Neighbourhood Park - up to 5 hectares in area, with several of the
same facilities as a district park, including standard toilets, it typically
ƒ Local Park - from 0.5 to 3 hectares in area, serving a suburban area
up to 2km in radius; typically with on street parking, landscaping,
natural shade, park benches and seating, and a playground area.
ƒ Pocket Park - between 0.25 and 1 hectare in area, and caters for
local residents within a 5 minute walk with facilities that include
natural surface and shade areas, sometimes seating, informal play
and passive recreation areas, and perhaps play equipment.
ƒ Linear Park / Drainage Reserves ±SULPDULO\IRUGUDLQDJHEXWDOVR
provide pathway and cycleway access, space for passive play /
recreation, and sometimes basic exercise equipment.
ƒ Natural Areas (Council owned) ±RIYDU\LQJVL]HDLPHGDW
and encouraging community appreciation and awareness. May
include pathways, basic picnic facilities (seating and shelters) and
playgrounds. There is potential to strengthen relationships and
use aspects of current open space categories for a City Garden as
shown in the following Diagram 2.5.

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Penrith Regional City Garden


• Wetlands • Showground
• Rowing • City Park
• Entertainment
• Beach
• Island



• River Walk & Park DRAINAGE LINES
• Jetty • Creek Lines
• Entertainment Precinct • Bike Paths

• Waterbodies
• Children’s Play
• Sports Fields

Diagram 2.5 Relationship between Penrith Regional City Garden and Existing Open Space

2.5.2 Current Recreation Trends

over 15 years was 5.7% higher in 2005 (83.5%) than 2001 (77.8%).
non-sporting activities of walking and recreational cycling increased
by 9.8% and 1.0%, respectively between 2001 and 2005.
Other general trends include
ƒ There appears to be a link between the higher expectations of
people in relation to the quality of services and experiences, and the
propensity by people to pay for a quality experience.
ƒ The provision of recreation opportunities for people with special
needs and for people from diverse communities (inclusiveness) is
improving, in relation to both facilities and services. Future recreation
trends are discussed in Section 4.2.

Penrith’s increasing population and residential density as a regional

city will require more recreational open space of a different character to
high quality open space areas that provide a range of experiences for
different groups and interests. These issues could be addressed in a
number of ways including a City Garden.The following section explores
examples which can inform a possible regional city garden.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

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There are timely opportunities for Penrith to develop a regional

recreational space in association with two major private sector interests;
Penrith Panthers and Penrith Lakes. Such opportunities allow for
innovation in environmental, recreational and cultural designs. This
section describes and evaluates national and international models
associated with gardens in cities, seen as successful and innovative
exemplars for best practice design.

3.1 Overview of International and National Gardens

An overview of innovative City and Botanic Gardens shows that a range
of possible gardens can inform the model for Penrith, including arid
climate gardens, revitalised city centre gardens in Scandinavia, new city
gardens in Germany, universal design sensory gardens in Japan, and
children focused gardens in the United States. The gardens reviewed
ƒ Botanic Gardens: Australian, Israel, South Africa, United
States, Britain, Singapore, France Mandai Gardens, Singapore
ƒ New Urban Gardens: Europe, China, North America
ƒ New Universal Design Gardens: Japan, Manchester, Jerusalem,
ƒ Gardens for Special Groups (children, elderly etc): Denmark,
Chicago, New York

Rice Growing Shenyang Architectural

University, China

Harvesting Rice Shenyang Architectural

New Bastide Garden, Bordeaux Botanic Garden, France University, China

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.2 Current Australian Examples

3.2.1 Botanic Gardens
Botanic gardens are traditional examples of gardens in the city. They
are places where visitors come for a host of reasons including peace,
relaxation, entertainment, recreation, education, botany and horticulture.

Most major botanic gardens have educational facilities and programmes

for school students, teachers and the wider community to inform people
Auburn Botanic Garden about horticulture and landscaping, plants and biological communities,
and raise community awareness about biodiversity and plant

Evaluation: A review of national horticultural, botanical and recreation

gardens, such as Auburn Botanic Gardens, Mt Penang Parklands,
Orange Botanic Gardens, and Cranbourne Botanic Gardens, Victoria
indicates that despite offering a range of facilities, they have mixed
visitation success and that all rely on continued funding. Appendices C
Aerial View, Mt Penang Parklands and H provide detailed analyses and evaluations of these gardens.

Birrarung Marr, Melbourne, Axis to City




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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.2.2 New City Parks

Melbourne’s new city park, Birrarung Marr, located alongside the Yarra
River, provides popular grassed open spaces, sculptured terraces,
dramatic Australian plant designs, and a state-of-the-art playground.

Brisbane has two recent city parks, Roma Street Parklands and the up-
graded Southbank Parklands. Opened in 2001, Roma Street Parklands
includes a Celebration Lawn, which can hold 8000 people, the Forest
with walks past wetlands, a Panadus headland and paper bark forests.
The Upper Parkland has an amphitheatre which occasionally holds
small concerts and events. Various artworks are scattered around the
South Bank Parklands are located on the southern bank of the Brisbane
River, directly opposite the CBD. Connected to the city centre by two
bridges, the area is readily accessible. It includes a swimming lagoon
with sandy beaches, a long sinuous arbour, rainforest walks, picnic areas
and an attractive riverfront promenade. Recently a children’s water play Events and Activities Roma St Parklands
area, Aquativity, has been opened.
Evaluation: Brisbane’s new city parks indicate that water features such
highly popular with local residents and tourists. The strong and legible
pedestrian links to the CBD facilitate high visitation. This is augmented
by a successful events programme for both parks.

Plant Australian Connection :DWHU3OD\ Maintenance Public Art Popularity

Design Plants to CBD Require-
ments Lake and New Urban Edge, Roma
Street Parklands
99 99 99 9 999 99
999 9 99 9 99 9 999

9 9 99 999 99 99 9999

Table 3.1 Rating Criteria relevant to Penrith City Garden

Good 9 Very Good 99 Excellent 999 Outstanding9999
Southbank Brisbane Riverside

Southbank Brisbane, City Beach 6RXWKEDQN%ULVEDQH:DWHU3OD\

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.3 Contemporary Design Initiatives and Best Practice

3.3.1 City Garden Design Initiatives
New city gardens are emerging in the reinvigorated city centres of
former industrial cities such as Manchester, UK. Linked with urban
redevelopment, they provide image and branding for the current concept
of Creative Cities.

Current best practice design explores advanced levels of environmental

King Abdullah Garden, Glasshouses sustainability, including innovative designs for water management, new
ways to integrate parks and gardens into city buildings, energy gardens
and a range of design criteria that address climate change.

Innovative glasshouses feature in a number of gardens ranging from

the huge structure for the Eden project, the extensive dome for the
International Gardens in Saudi Arabia. In contrast the small city centre
glasshouse in Malmo Sweden provides an urban retreat from the harsh
climate. A particularly delightful use of glasshouses is in the Parc Andre
Citroën in Paris. This park is an urban haven that celebrates plants
through a series of small glasshouses associated with themed gardens,
as well as two large glasshouses on one side of a large central lawn.
King Abdullah Garden, Plan

Small Glasshouses, Parc Andre Citroen


Detail, Glasshouse, Malmo Sweden

City Glasshouse, Malmo Sweden

Large Glasshouses, Parc Andre Citroen

22 Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden

Increasingly Vertical Gardens or Living Walls are becoming attractive

urban features in Paris, Tokyo, London, the Netherlands, etc. Pioneered
by Patrick Blanc, the walls are lightweight and can cover extensive
areas. The Acros Building, Fukuoka, Japan, designed by Emilio
Ambasz, doubles the green area of a city park by continuing the park up
one side of the multi-storey building as a series of connected terraces.

Marches des Halles, Avignon, Patrick


Vertical Garden, Patrick Blanc

Roof Garden, Michael Valkenburg, US

Acros Building Fukuoka, Japan Toyota Roof Garden, US

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Design competitions have been held for two unusual new city gardens
in North America, ‘Highline’ in New York City and ‘Downsview Park’ in
Toronto. A review of the range of design initiatives in the competition
entries shows that there are inventive concepts for sustainable parks in
the city from the conversion of an elevated urban railway in NYC into a
programme of diverse gardens, including urban water management and
a recreational beach to the concept of sequencing a forested tree city
Urban Beach, Highline NYC

There are some innovative designs for urban connections with

surrounding agricultural land. China has developed some inventive
gardens that include active agriculture (rice cultivation) as well as
environmental remediation of damaged riverfronts. There is also a
complex urban park in Berlin, Gleisdreick Park, that incorporates

The new Bastide Garden in Bordeaux Botanic Garden explores links

with agriculture and environment. The design is concerned with change,
Berlin space, the two main areas, The Environment Gallery and the Field
of Crops, are dynamic and changing. For further details on Design
Initiatives, see Appendix F: Garden Research

Community Play, Gleisdreick Park, Berlin

New Bastide Garden, Bordeaux Botanic


Agricultural Beds, Bordeaux Botanic


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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.3.2 Design Best Practice

The relevant best practice for a possible City Garden in Penrith includes
new concepts of Land-Arch, new concepts of functionality, new design
modeling, and environmental branding of localities.

Innovative designs are emerging in response to environmental issues
which combine landscape and architecture in visionary yet practical
ways. Examples which can inform the Penrith’s City Garden are; *UHDW*ODVVKRXVH:DOHV%RWDQLF
structure, designed by Norman Foster, is buried within the land so
that only the glass dome is evident.
ƒ Lucille Halsell Conservatory, San Antonio Botanic Gardens,
designed by Emilio Ambasz is a complex of glass houses with
different ecosystems. Different conical and triangular shapes are the
exposed skylight rooftops of the buildings which are located
ƒ The New de Young Art Museum located in Golden Gate Park, San
Francisco (by architects Herzog & de Meuron) and the Academy of
Science Exhibition Building ( by Renzo Piano) are city park features
which explore the integration of landscape and architecture in
innovative ways. Both buildings attract world-wide visitation.
ƒ A similar project, ‘The Miami Art Museum’ is currently being
designed as an open-air structure with a broad shading ‘green’ roof
with gallery spaces slung below and suspended amid a structural
Land Arch, San Antonio Botanic
framework set above a Flood Plain. The broad roof will permit Gardens
incremental additions over time without further affecting the park
setting. The natural elements of the Park are penetrating the Art
Museum, creating an ‘outdoor interior’.

attractant possibly comprising an Environmental Education Centre, a
Function and Exhibition Space and a Cafe/Restaurant.
Californian Academy of Science Exhibi-
tion Building, San Francisco

De Young Museum, San Francisco

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 25

Penrith Regional City Garden New functionality

Landscapes which act as ‘Soft Systems’ are increasingly part of the city
landscape, including
ƒ urban water features that undertake water treatment,
ƒ phyto-remediation and ruderal growth on derelict sites,
ƒ energy harvesting,
ƒ green roofs and walls,
ƒ designed landscapes that accommodate climate change by
Solar Fields, Spain employing increasingly sophisticated use of rain water to address

Solar Park, Regensburg

Green Roof ALSA


Phyto-remediation Field Design for Ruderal Garden, Malmo

26 Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden New Design Modeling

Designing for complex urban spaces requires new tools. Computer
innovative matrices have been used in developing designs for parks
with complex sites and programmes. New green matrices are designed
to calibrate relationships between parameters in a dynamic fashion
allowing for multiple perspectives, scales and types so that the park can
be more than a static collection of items.

proposed by the British designers, Meta-gardens, in particular their
concepts for the use of roofs as ‘evoterraria’.

New design Modelling Fluid Forms

Digital Future Garden Green Matrix, datascape, MVRDV

Metagarden, ‘Evoterraria’

Seasonscape, IBA, Germany

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.3.4 Ephemeral Installation/Events

In Europe temporary exhibitions and events associated with
interpretation of environmental stewardship are animating new parks.
Chaumont-sur-Loire in France is an outstanding example of a Garden
Festival that uses annual or biennial temporary art interventions to
explore environmental and cultural issues.

‘Knowledge’, Art Installation, Chaumont

‘Mint’, Art Installation, Chaumont ‘Gaspacho’, Art Installation, Chaumont

Flexible Follies, Parc de la Villette New Parks for Growth Centres
Many of the new urban parks in growth centres tend to be uni-
dimensional and bland. In response there has been a call for more
dimensions, more layers and more meanings to be incorporated into the
design of new city parks. Rather than simulated pastoralism or Beaux
with strong programmes, building on the Paris examples developed for
rehabilitating former industrial sites, such Parc de la Villette.

Programme, Parc de la Villette, Paris

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.4 Environmental Sustainability Opportunities

3.4.1 Ecological Design and Citizen Engagement
A city garden is a hybrid between culture and nature. Ecological design
can be a form of engaged learning to assist communities to explore
and model environments in order to make informed choices. The
Toronto based environmental group, Evergreen, is an example of how
gardening workshops and demonstration gardens with leading-edge
green technology can connect culture, nature and community in the
city. Similarly, Paris Nature is an innovative urban ecology organization (YHUJUHHQ:RUNVKRSV7RURQWR
that aims to develop ‘eco-citizens’ through a range eco-gardens and
facilities threaded throughout Paris. Both programmes employ designed
ecology which is managed to provide aesthetic, educational, and spiritual

Citizen Forests, ‘Downsview’, Toronto

Citizen Engagement, Hamburg

Citizen Forests, ‘Downsview’, Toronto

New Community Farming, Hamburg

Citizen Forests, ‘Downsview’, Toronto

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.4.2 Resilience and Legibility

Using the principles of Eco-urbanism, particularly being open-ended,
complex and subject to dynamic change, needs a resilient city garden
which has the ability to recover and adjust to change. As such, the city
organizational systems and logic that enables it to absorb and facilitate
change yet maintain its design integrity. It should be legible so that the
design is understood in its intentions and identity. A resilient city garden
Eco-urbanism, IBA, Osterfeld would accommodate the tension between
ƒ Design and management
ƒ Constancy and change
ƒ Predictability and unpredictability

Guerilla Farming, Chicago

Designed Resilience under Motorway

Community Resilience under Motorway,


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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.4.3 Environmental Branding

Environmental branding has the potential to explore funding and engage
community support. Two such examples are Green Square in Sydney
which markets its urban water management image and Blacktown which
projects until 2012.

The city garden has the potential to promote environmental branding

for Penrith as a sustainable city. This branding could build on the many
initiatives already undertaken under Penrith’s Principles for a Sustainable

Solar Forms


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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.4.4 Environmental Innovations

There are an increasing number of sustainability innovations that can be
considered for a potential city garden such as;
ƒ Underground structures associated with contoured land-forms that
can merge and punctuate with buildings and infrastructure
ƒ Living roofs and living walls which reduce heat islands, reduce
runoff, reduce CO2 and insulate buildings
Contoured Land Over Building green, often integrating urban water treatment into recreational
open space. Some cities now use their innovative water treatment
initiatives for ecological education and tourism.
ƒ Sustainable energy designs that include appropriate orientation,
natural ventilation, suitable insulation, solar voltaic cells, sun-shading
devices, wind generators, thermal storage units. These tend to
be related to buildings but similar innovations are also possible for
urban space.
ƒ Innovative recycling of materials.
ƒ Biodiversity innovations that go beyond protecting habitats by
developing new landscapes that foster diveUVL¿FDWLRQDQGLQFUHDVHG
Underground House, Mt Macedon
complexity. This helps species become less fragile.
ƒ Climate Change: innovations related to climate change include
and minimize the use of fossil fuels.

Green Roof, Japan

2ULHQWDWLRQ:DWHU0DQDJHPHQW*UHHQ Temporary designs for climate change


Possibilities for Climate Change

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.5 Education Initiatives

3.5.1 Demonstration
The important education role of
the gardens can be facilitated in
a number of ways including:
ƒ Demonstration gardens,
particularly showcasing
environmental research
ƒ Garden programmes and
Demonstration Garden, NYC
3.5.2 Interpretation
The Australian National Botanic
Gardens provides ten conceptual
categories or “typologies” for
interpretation of the role of the
Gardens through public art.
These are explained in Appendix

Children’s Garden, NYC

Interpretative Art in the Garden Plant Art by Burle Marx

Learning through Growing, NYC

Discovered Art in the Garden Land Art in the Garden

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 33

Penrith Regional City Garden

3.5.3 Research
Sydney can inform the new interest in urban agriculture and the
potential role a city garden can play.
landscape, the garden can augment the invaluable plant heritage
undertaken by the Seed Savers organisation.

Plant Heritage

Seed Savers Strawberries, Urban Agriculture

‘Stacked Nature’ MVDV

Cultural Heritage of Seeds

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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.6 Universal Design Initiatives

3.6.1 Design Principles
A review of the principles of Universal Design, including the new
research on cultural inclusion (see Appendix B), provides some key
criteria for the model of the city garden. The following table summarises
the design principles.
Universal Design Principles Cultural Dimensions
Equitable Use Non-exclusive Universal Design for Amphitheartre,
This design is useful and marketable The designed environment does %UDGIRUG:RRGV86$

to people with diverse abilities not offend cultural sensitivities

or exclude different cultures or
cultural activities.
Flexibility in Use Accommodates Diversity
The design accommodates a wide The designed environment
range of individual preferences and accommodates a range of
abilities. cultures and cultural activities
Garden of the Senses, Denmark
Simple and Intuitive Use Understandable
Use of the design is easy to The designed environment is
understand, regardless of the user’s easy to understand, regardless
experience, knowledge, language of the user’s experience,
skills, or current concentration level. knowledge, language skills
Perceptible Information Legible and Empathic
The design communicates The designed environment
necessary information effectively is legible and communicated
Horticultural Therapy Garden, Victoria
to the user, regardless of ambient necessary multilingual and non-
conditions or the user’s sensory linguistic information effectively
abilities to the user, including empathy
Tolerance for Error Safe
The design minimises hazards The designed environment
and the adverse consequences of minimises anti-social or criminal
accidental or unintended actions acts and promotes sociable
interactions between different
groups, and/or provides
opportunities for mutual Universal Design, Lake in Oizumi
avoidance Ryokuchi Park, Japan

Low Physical Effort Comfortable

7KHGHVLJQFDQEHXVHGHI¿FLHQWO\ People feel welcome and free
and comfortable and with a minimum to use the space, and do not
of fatigue have to work hard emotionally
or socially to feel at ease there.
Size and Space for Approach and Convenient
use It is easy for people of different
Appropriate size and space is cultures and subcultures to
provided for approach, reach, pursue their desired activities
manipulation, and use regardless there.
of user’s body size, posture, and

Table 3.1: Universal Design Principles and Cultural Translations

Source: Out and About in Penrith Project, PCC &UWS.
Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 35
Penrith Regional City Garden

3.6.2 Sensory Gardens

Sensory experiences within parks and gardens are associated with the
concept of Universal Design. The Sensory and Interactive Garden in
Darlington, UK contains a series of galleries highlighting the four senses.
The Ramat Hanadiv Memorial Gardens in Israel use fragrance gardens
as a form of horticultural therapy. Sensory garden experiences are
also relevant to the elevation of the soul in 21st century cities. These
experiences can be facilitated by the following elements
Tactile Ceramic Tiles, Japan ƒ lightness and density
ƒ solid and void
ƒ texture and rhythm
ƒ overlap and transparency
ƒ touch, smell, warmth, shade, breezes

Fragrance Garden in the Ramat Hanadiv

Memorial Gardens

Colours and Textures, Sensory Garden,


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Penrith Regional City Garden

3.7 Programming Initiatives

From the research it is clear that successful public gardens around the
world have a focus on diverse and changing programmes. A key to the
success of Penrith’s proposed city garden will be the way in which it
incorporates stimulating programmes and activities. The OUT & ABOUT
Project in Penrith highlights the importance of the concept of ‘park as
event’ (Appendix B). A review of successful current programmes in-
dicates the importance of knowledge and dissemination activities and
ephemeral art. The following are a number of programme possibilities
for the city garden,
ƒ Garden festivals
ƒ Education workshops
ƒ Horticultural displays
ƒ Annual and biennial events
ƒ Magnetic places programme
ƒ Art as Social Space, Artist in Residence
ƒ Visitors Centre with interactive digital programmes such as Farmers’ Markets, Hawkesbury Harvest
community stories, seed savers, green streets etc,
ƒ Garden as library with outdoor wireless
ƒ Changing thematic gardens
ƒ Markets
ƒ Outdoor cinema
ƒ Music and Dancing
ƒ Outdoor Exercise Programme including Tai Chi

Changing Horticultural Displays

Artist in Residence


Tai Chi in the Park Movies in the Park

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 37

Penrith Regional City Garden

Dancing in the Plaza


Garden as Library

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Penrith Regional City Garden


4.1 Current Penrith Issues

City Environs Opportunities
ƒ Penrith has the largest river of the three River Cities in Sydney
ƒ Penrith sits within an outstanding natural environment at the nexus
ƒ Penrith has extensive open space including the emerging Penrith
ƒ The environs provide river and bush as recreation spaces. Nepean River Setting

Social and Cultural Matters

ƒ Penrith is the driest and hottest part of Sydney.
ƒ There are asthma, allergies and air pollution concerns.
ƒ Site accessibility and transport are important issues.
ƒ Penrith is increasingly diverse culturally with different values and
ways of using park and open space.

4.2 Future Recreational Styles and Facilities

The following recreational trends are noted,
disposable income of the baby boom generation is one of the most Creek
and adolescents associated with increasing concern about obesity.
ƒ There are changes in ethnic diversity and population growth in
immigrant communities who are family-based with children, but
whose recreational interests and needs are different than the
traditional programs.
ƒ Global warming will impact outdoor recreation where warm weather
activities last longer and cold weather activities will be shorter.
ƒ Limited spare time and the fact that households are generally
busier with work and home life responsibilities are increasing trends
pointing to “time deepening” where activities that take less time are
Fitness in the Park
selected, multi-tasking, and scheduling leisure activities within very
tight timelines.
non-traditional/new leisure patterns. An increasing number of single
parent families are visiting recreation sites.
increased demand for recreational opportunities, including after
school and summer programs.
ƒ Increased urbanization indicates that urban residents are more likely
to participate in activities utilizing specialised facilities, such as city
parks and recreational facilities.
ƒ The increasing trend towards ‘cocooning’ where people remain
indoors using media recreation is also evident in a recent interest in
home gardening.


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Penrith Regional City Garden

4.3 Linking with the Local Regional Open Space Network

The Penrith City Garden can form the nucleus of a green web of open
space within the parameters of an urban growth centre and its region,
also provide a link with the Blue Mountains National Park and Mt Tomah
Botanic Gardens. Such linkages will draw people to the city gardens
from a wide region and there will be environmental and recreational

4.4 Identifying Niche Opportunities in Penrith

There are a number of niche opportunities for a city garden in Penrith.
ƒ The garden as an image which can be used to promote the region as
a ‘soft location factor’ for economic development,
ƒ The particular location of Penrith which acts as a gateway to the
which provides interpretative opportunities for a city garden,
Regional link to Mt Tomah Botanic
Gardens ƒ The unusual environment of river, mountains and plains which
provides unique opportunities to observe and interpret the effect of
climate change within the gardens,
ƒ The niche opportunity to showcase Penrith City Council’s pioneering
work on Universal Design in public open space,
ƒ The heritage of productive rural lands close to the city provides
opportunities to address food miles and develop innovative urban
agriculture which can be showcased in a city garden
ƒ Promoting the image of Penrith as a water city in the west providing
cooling water recreation and children’s water play
Soft Location Factor for economic
4.5 Providing Leadership in Sustainability
Sustainability should be in the forefront of the City Garden. Because of
are within international, national and local contexts. The City Garden
should seek to obtain a high ranking under the Sustainable Sites
Initiative, see below.

4.5.1 Core Sustainability Indicators

International: Environmental Performance Index (2008)
Gateway to tourist destinations in the Commission’s 2008 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) focuses on
Blue Mountains environmental outcomes within two broad objectives:
ƒ reducing environmental stresses on human health, and
ƒ promoting ecosystem vitality and sound natural resource

Australian Government Core Environmental Indicators

The following indicators have been taken from the National State of the
Environment report. Indicators include
ƒ Climate Variability
Indicators focus mainly on the comparatively high variability of Australia’s
Opportunities with Rural Lands climate, which is important in its own right, regardless of any possible
human effects on the climate.
40 Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008
Penrith Regional City Garden

ƒ Enhanced Greenhouse Effect

Indicator relate to implementing the National Greenhouse Strategy re-
sponse measures.
ƒ Stratospheric Ozone
Indicators relate to the concentration of ozone depleting substances in
the atmosphere
ƒ Outdoor Air Quality
Indicators relate to ambient air quality and the concentration of pollutants
that are harmful to human health.
ƒ Biodiversity
Indicators consider ecosystem diversity, species diversity, and genetic
ƒ Land Use and Management
ƒ Human Settlement
Urbeach, Silicon Sand

Core Environmental Sustainability Indicators for Penrith City

Building on the existing ‘ESD criteria for Penrith City Council’s
Community Facilities’, the following indicators are suggested for the City
ƒ Bring sustainability to the forefront of Penrith concerns.
ƒ Demonstrate the research and learning for schools and public
ƒ Reduce carbon emissions.
ƒ Reduce ecological footprints and reserve major areas of fertile soil
areas for future use.
ƒ Protect native habitats and restore the aquifer system of the rivers
and wetlands.
ƒ Use minimal irrigation, prescribe harvested rainwater, waste water
for recycling.
The following ESD initiatives are suggested for new structures in the Management
ƒ Design architecture to reduce heating and cooling i.e. green roofs,
walls, under ground;
ƒ Minimise expectations of 25 - 27° as comfortable temperature.
ƒ Use the water bodies in the area to offset heat and cooling; use night
sky cooling.
ƒ Use the thermal mass of hard surfaces to offset heating needs
return air walls.
ƒ Use solar energy for hot water heating and cooling; set up a grid-
connected photo-voltaic system; use wind and solar power for
ƒ Retain and reticulate the scarce water resources.
ƒ Use natural or recycled materials wherever possible.
ƒ Ensure high durability; consider life-style deterioration and toxicity
issues in all materials.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Sustainable Sites Initiative (2008-2011)

Sustainable Sites Initiative (2008-2011), a recent program from the
American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA), features over 200
recommendations for designing and building sustainable landscapes. It
includes a ranking system for sustainable design.

4.6 Financial Issues

4.6.1 Financial Sustainability Principles
ƒ Use charges reduce patronage
ƒ Community expectation of public service
ƒ Competition for local government resources for infrastructure
ƒ Competition with other public gardens
ƒ Costs associated with their management and maintenance

ratio through:
Potential Increase in Land Values
ƒ Impact on local business
ƒ Amenity for visitors
ƒ Impact on land values
ƒ Garden as employer and as purchaser of local products
ƒ Opportunities for new environmental product development

land-related venture, for example:
Opportunities with Private Sector, ƒ Increased land rate capture due to increased land value
Glenmore Park
ƒ Penrith is not yet fully developed, therefore there are future
opportunities with private sector, similar to:
à Centennial Park model
à Mt Penang Parklands model
à US Script universities model
à US private railways model (see Appendix H)

4.6.2 Strategies for Financial Sustainability

ƒ Strategy 1: Obtain more undeveloped land than needed for the
fund garden
ƒ Strategy 2: Place garden in area yet to be released and place
rates to harvest land value uplift
ƒ Strategy 3: Explore the Singapore model where the government
buys areas at market value, improves with infrastructure and then
values through government funded improvements are returned to
the government.

4.7 Management and Maintenance

4.7.1 Management Structure
The management of the Regional City Garden provides opportunities

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Penrith Regional City Garden

to extend beyond Penrith City Council to various State Government

authorities such as the Department of Environment, National Parks
management partnerships locally such as Penrith Panthers consortium

Centennial Parklands management structure provides an established

model of a Trust and Trustees. This is similar to the Mt Penang

A suggested model for Penrith’s city garden is to establish a Penrith

Regional City Garden consisting of relevant land-owners, Council and
nominated representatives from government, education, industry, com-
merce and community.

4.7.2 Maintenance of Gardens

that initial maintenance be done by Council to ensure quality control.
The establishment of a Friends of Penrith’s Regional City Gardens will
facilitate some small amount of fund-raising as well as providing a pool
of volunteers. Orange Botanic Gardens has a successful collaboration
between the Council and community volunteers for the maintenance
of selected areas of the gardens. Details about the management and
maintenance of selected Botanic Gardens are supplied in section 9.3

Diligent landscape maintenance will be essential for the success of the

Gardens. General landscape maintenance schedules indicate the type
and frequency of maintenance recommended for parks, however the
landscape maintenance involves care of vegetation (trees, shrubs,
turf), irrigation, maintenance of utilities, facilities (furniture, playgrounds,
etc), paved and road areas, and signage. Appendix L: Landscape
Maintenance Guidelines indicates a typical maintenance schedule.

4.8 Partnerships
There is potential for a number of relevant partnerships for a possible

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 43

Penrith Regional City Garden

UWS Research,
The particular location of Penrith within the multiple campuses of
partnerships exploring growth centre urban leisure, urban agriculture,
forestry and climate change and innovative environmental sustainability.
Urban Research Centre has a research programme called Feeding
There is also a relevant research programme, Hawkesbury Forest, which
could be extended to urban forests.

University of Sydney, Plant Breeding Unit (PBI)

Since 2003, the Institute has been exploring amenity horticulture. Of
particular relevance to a Penrith City Garden is the recent research into
native plant breeding for the changing world climate. The PBI has also
been developing a suitable plant palette for green roofs in Sydney.

Hawkesbury Harvest and Farm Gate Trail

In 2000, the farmers and orchardists in the north-west of the Penrith
City joined with farmers and orchardists in the Hawkesbury to form a
collaborative group, known as Hawkesbury Harvest. The community-
based organisation coordinates:
ƒ Farm Gate Trail,
ƒ Special Events,
3DUWQHUVKLSV8QLYHUVLW\RI:HVWHUQ ƒ Hawkesbury Harvest’s Farmers & Gourmet Food Market,
Sydney ƒ Industry Development (including regional branding)
There are possible partnerships with this group including showcasing
their produce.

Penrith Panthers
and culture beyond the more traditional means of sponsorship, artist
Hawkesbury Harvest logo
community, culture and commerce in order to create high quality creative
Campement Urbain, a Paris collective, has prepared a proposal for
the Penrith Panthers Club which re-envisions the Panthers within their
local community. Panthers Executives have accepted the proposal as
a philosophical and material foundation to a large multi million dollar
Panthers expansion, Riverlink. A City Garden would be a possible
Penrith Panthers as Partners extension of this initiative.

Western Sydney Parklands

There is the potential to extend the current local government
Council, to include Penrith City Council.

Muru Mittagar Aboriginal Centre

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Muru Mittigar Cultural Centre

The Aboriginal Community run the Muru Mittigar Cultural Centre and its
Provenance Nursery. A number of opportunities exist to work with this

Regional Nurseries
There are a number of substantial regional plant nurseries in the north-
west and the mountains who could engage in partnerships with a Original Penrith Lakes Concept
possible city garden in Penrith, given Penrith’s central location.

Penrith Lakes Development Corporation

The Penrith Lakes Development Corporation is responsible for the
coordinates site remediation after extraction and the redevelopment of
the area.

Potential exists for a city garden site within the Lakes redevelopment.
Penrith Lakes Regatta Centre

University of Sydney Plant Breeding Unit


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Penrith Regional City Garden

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Two workshops were held on 12th May 2008; one a Think Tank with
a range of stakeholders including representatives of local interest
groups, artists, academics, architects and landscape architects; the
participants is included in Appendix F.

A presentation of research and opportunities was presented to PCC

Councillors on Monday 26th May 2008.
Theme, Garden of Eden- Urban
5.1 Think Tank Workshop
5.1.1 Participants and Information Package
Participants were given information package one week before workshop
ƒ Principles of Universal Design
ƒ Thematic History
ƒ Botanic Garden Examples
ƒ City Gardens Examples
ƒ New Sustainability Parks and Gardens
ƒ Interpretative Typologies for Australian Public Gardens
ƒ Core Sustainability Principles& Green Architecture Examples
Details of the information package are provided in Appendix E.

5.1.2 Workshop Themes

Participants were divided into 3 groups to explore scenarios for each of
three themes

A Garden of Eden: Regional Garden at the Edge

Revealing Local Identity, Productive gardens/farms in the region,
Urban Agriculture Theme, Garden of Eden- Productive
Botanical and Horticultural traditions
A Diverse Community
City as Garden – Garden of Flows:
New Forms of Urban Space
Continuous Change and Flexibility
City Garden as Art Space
A Futurist Garden
Pioneering Environmental Sustainability
Designing for Climate Change
Universal Design Theme, City as Garden- Art Space by
Maya Lin
Elevation of the Soul

5.1.3 Summary of Outcomes


Common Intrinsic Values

Best Practice Environmental Sustainability
ƒ Zero Foot-print
ƒ Branding Penrith as a Sustainable City

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Supporting Agricultural Lands

ƒ Sustain as food bowl of the city
ƒ Community agriculture
ƒ A bio-water city
ƒ Innovative water management
ƒ Connection between water and food
ƒ Penrith as destination
ƒ Place for all
ƒ 24 hour space
ƒ Demonstrating environmental sustainability
ƒ Garden as a campus

ƒ Reveal the landscape heritage
A Heritage of Gardeners ƒ Demonstrate cultural traditions: Aboriginal, colonial, immigrants,
ƒ The concept of ‘Commons’ in 21st century city
ƒ Garden as open-air wireless ‘library’
ƒ Garden as incubator for ‘esd’ technology
ƒ Seamless inside/outside
ƒ Art, water gardens, and play
ƒ Exploring the senses
ƒ Community support for agriculture

Penrith City Garden.
City Garden Opportunities
Rural Heritage
ƒ Incorporate urban/ rural history & heritage into gardens
ƒ Living tool for children
ƒ Potential for urban agriculture & related industry eg South Creek
ƒ Evolution to regional city
ƒ A park for 100-200 years; timeless but with potential for change
ƒ Research site for ESD, climate change, universal design
ƒ A place for well-being and recovery
ƒ Synergy with Blue Mountains community
ƒ Community gardening to address shrinking home gardens
ƒ Become a large community meeting place
ƒ Contribute to culture of city with art that functions eg ‘ESD’ and art


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Penrith Regional City Garden


6.1 Vision and Objectives of the City Garden

ƒ Creating a different form of open space
ƒ Should be uniquely Penrith : revealing local identity
ƒ Exploring the future
ƒ Innovative and cutting edge design for sustainability
ƒ Best practice Universal Design
ƒ Elevate the soul
ƒ Recreational experience for all ( building on Out & About Project)


Street Fair, Recreation for All

Revealing Local Identity

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Penrith Regional City Garden

6.2 Analysis for Model Development

The city garden research, found in Appendix C and in the
Bibliography, was analysed in order to develop a conceptual model
for the City Garden. This analysis included
ƒ developing trends in city gardens

Birrarung Marr, Vic Developing Trends as Opportunities for Penrith’s Regional City
An analysis showed that there are emerging trends in new city garden
designs which have opportunities for Penrith. This is detailed in
Appendix G.

Analysis of Penrith City Garden Themes

The major themes and sub-themes indicate a number of elements
found in existing models could be developed further for a City Garden
in Penrith. This is detailed in Appendix G.

6.3 Components of the Model City Garden

6.3.1 Comparative Sizes
The following diagrams compare the suggested size of the city
6\GQH\%RWDQLF*DUGHQV16: garden, 20 hectares, to a range of other city gardens and parks.


Roma St Parklands, Brisbane, QLD Cranbourne Botanic Gardens, Vic

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Penrith Regional City Garden

6.3.2: Garden Elements Relationship Models

An analysis of themes and garden research has resulted in a number of
garden elements suitable for a city garden in Penrith, see Appendices C
and G. Two potential relationships between these elements, either on a
single site or multiple sites are shown Diagrams 6.3.2.
use / Pavillion
,Single Site
al Design, RIVER
& ESD CONNECTION Garden Entry, NMA, Canberra
an & Cycle Connection
ral Vehicular Access & Parking









Rock Entry, Dorset

Multiple Sites
Cycle Connection



Glasshouse / Pavillion
Forestry, Ecological Corridors
Art Installations, Pedestrian & Cycle Connection
Universal Design, Peripheral Vehicular
WSUD & ESD Access & Parking

6.3.2 Garden Elements Relational Models Entry Pillars, Moore Park

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Penrith Regional City Garden

6.3.3 Generic Spaces

A series of generic spaces are suggested for the city garden.
ƒ Entry/gateway: highly visible and enticing
ƒ Piazza: large open space to accommodate markets and events ,
night and day
ƒ Common: a large green space for recreation and displays
ƒ Amphitheatre: universally accessible performance area,
ƒ Beach: an urban beach similar to Brisbane’s Southbank
Piazza, Erina Fair, Gosford ƒ Lake: a large water body associated with the beach and piazza
ƒ Islands: islands for habitat or as connecting features
ƒ Thematic gardens: a series of discrete gardens associated with
ƒ Children’s play/garden: area for children’s engagement with plants
and gardening
ƒ Productive garden: an area for community gardening
ƒ Ecological corridors: green links to other open spaces
ƒ Lookout: for over-viewing the garden and viewing the mountains,
river and rural plains
Piazza, Canal Square, Dublin
ƒ River connection: a promenade to the River and the Great River
ƒ Information centre, gift shop, café, toilets
ƒ Glasshouses: innovative glasshouses for interactive plant displays
ƒ Vertical Gardens and Green Roofs: for buildings and structures
where possible
ƒ Universal Design: innovative integration of accessible features and
Amphitheatre by Lake signage
ƒ Art installations: permanent and changing art, including ephemeral
ƒ Urban Forest: tree planting throughout for carbon sink and
productive forest
ƒ Plant displays: plant designs throughout that highlight biodiversity
between pedestrians and cyclists.
ƒ Community Cultural Educational Centre: a building associated with
the community gardens for education, seed savers register and other
Island wihin River, Graz, Austria interactive activities.

Interior of Island

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Penrith Regional City Garden

6.3.4 Thematic Gardens

Thematic Gardens would be a major feature of the city garden. Broad
thematic areas are
Urban water
Indigenous plants
The cultural landscape history
Reviving horticultural and agricultural traditions
Sustainability and climate change
suggested, shown in diagram 6.3.4

Productive Greenwall

Diagram 6.3.4 Linking Thematic Gardens Therapeutic Garden, VIC

Reviving Horticultural Traditions

6.3.5 Linking Themes

ƒ Discovery, Botanical, History
There are a number of themes that link Penrith with Discovery, Botany
and History including;
à The Joseph Banks Discovery Garden
à The First Settlement Garden
à The Allen Cunningham Garden (see Appendix J) Bunyas, Garden for Botanic Explorers

ƒ Edible, Urban Agriculture

An Edible Garden can showcase the Hawkesbury Harvest group and
Sydney project

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Penrith Regional City Garden

A thematic garden about Science and Sustainability would be of much
research about climate change. This thematic garden could also include
digital aspects of a future garden.

ƒ Therapeutic, Sensory, Elevation of the Soul

A therapeutic thematic garden would include sensory elements such
Music in the Garden as colour, texture, scent, dappled sunlight and shade, breezes. Such

ƒ Cultural Diversity, Future

be a dynamic place with constantly changing displays. Associated with
this, could be a thematic garden that explores a multicultural future using
Relaxing seat, Vienna imaginative interactive technology.

Play for All, Erina

Vietnamese Bonsai, Brisbane


Dragonfruit, Vietnamese Garden, Bris- Vietnamese Topiary, Brisbane


3DFL¿F,VODQGHU<DP3ODQWDWLRQ%ULV- Somalian Garden, Brisbane Italian Garden, Brisbane


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Penrith Regional City Garden

6.2.6 Generic Activities and Support Facilities

different city gardens, see Appendix C, Garden Research and G: Model
Development, including:
Education workshops
Glasshouse and Visitors Centre activities with interactive digital Outdoor Cinema, Federation Square
programs for community stories, seed savers, green streets etc,
Garden as library with outdoor wireless
Outdoor cinema
Music and dancing
Cycling, walking, outdoor exercise

Support facilities include:

Maintenance compounds
Peripheral access
Peripheral vehicular access and parking
Universal design principles
Lighting Accessible Amphitheatre, Highline, NYC

Southbank Markets

Community Gardening, Brisbane &\FOLQJDQG:DONLQJ

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Penrith Regional City Garden

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7.1 Options
Three models were developed, derived from consultation and research.
Each is able to generate a different form of urban space for Penrith City.
ƒ Concentrated : single site
ƒ Dispersed : multiple sites ‘Green Necklace’
ƒ City as Garden: Strategic Planning

The following table provides a comparison of the characteristics of each

Options Characteristics
A New Site Related to river
Related to new urban footprint villion

An Urban Common- An active garden cle Connection


Concentrated: ular Access & Parking

People and plants An recreation place for urban living

Single Site
A garden for children and elderly THEMATIC GARDENS LOOKOUT

Revealing larger context Maintaining views


local identity; mountain, Connected to river COMMON

river, plains RECYCLED


An urban living room A meeting place for commercial centre WETLANDS LAKE

Environmental Demonstrating latest environmental COMPOUND GARDENS

sustainability tourism technology in an artful way

Integration with new architecture
Diverse collection of Different activities for different sites
gardens Gardens as productive landscapes
Dispersed: Gardens for horticultural education

Multiples Sites Gardens for community gardening ign,


‘Green Cycle Connection


Revealing local identity in Neighbourhood sites, creek sites, king


Necklace’ GARDENS

smaller contexts Larger recreational sites eg Panthers, COMMON


Linking and Connections Streets as gardens that link THEMATIC

Building on existing parks and open space

Ecological Boulevards- esd projects PRODUCTIVE

5HÀHFWLQJWKH Augmenting existing hydrology as water THEMATIC


environmental systems wise design

Integrating natural vegetation associations Model of Multiple Sites
5HÀHFWLQJWKHFXOWXUDO Some sites highlight the agricultural lands
landscape Some sites link to thematic history
Urban infrastructure as All streets, roads, rail and motorway sidings
gardens to be thematically planted
Green walls and green All new buildings to incorporate green walls
roofs and green roofs
City as
Garden: Horticultural displays in Maintain rotating and themed displays e.g.
Strategic public plazas Singapore examples
Education and training /LDLVHZLWK7$)(DQG8:6VFKRROVDQG
opportunities for urban community groups
Industrial estates to City as garden branding for Penrith City As Garden
present theme garden
Urban forestry on all PCC state-of-art tree nursery and
available space pioneering urban arboriculture
Table 7.1 Comparison of Models

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Penrith Regional City Garden

7.2 Strengths and Weaknesses

7.2.1 Comparison between models

Models Strengths Weaknesses &RVW%HQH¿W

Site image
Ease of Management & Restricted opportunity for Focused revenue generating
operation growth facilities
Easier to create synergy with Less ability to build on existing Less expensive management
CBD & river open space resources
Demonstration of Showcase new environmental
environmental design products
Multiple Greater accessible edge /HVVLGHQWL¿DEOH Additional costs of dispersed
Sites resources
More attractive to industry
Potential for variety of uses/ Dissipation of energy Multiple visits by local
activities community
spaces maintain
Opportunities for urban and Good community involvement
community gardening
City as :KROHRIFLW\LGHQWLW\ Longer implementation time :LWKLQH[LVWLQJ3&&IXQGLQJ
Branding Cost of maintenance Revenue for advertising
Environmental Sustainability Implementation through Staged Implementation costs
opportunities strategic planning Cost neutral
Implementation through
strategic planning

Model Description Strengths Weaknesses &RVW%HQH¿W

5HJLRQDOO\LGHQWL¿DEOH Public/private sector
2 feature sites as /HVVÀH[LEOH partnerships as
Hybrid anchors connected Can build on existing joint investment and
Model by green ribbon spaces management
Opportunity to create
synergy with feature
sites, river and CBD

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Penrith Regional City Garden

The single central garden has the advantages of economies of scale and
the opportunity to concentrate resources into a well focused location.
The management of a single garden will be less expensive with a more
self-sustaining scale of operation. A single location has the advantage
of being a “one stop shop” that will develop a stronger location brand

Multiple sites have the advantage of being more accessible to the wider Aerial View of Penrith Lakes
Penrith community. This plurality of City Garden destinations may
increase overall patronage as each location will offer an independent
experience encouraging separate visits rather than a more compact
single visit to the whole facility.

Disadvantages of the multiple site model include the additional costs of

dispersed resources for operations and maintenance, the lack of focus
vibrant and memorable experience.

The City as a Garden concept would not be able to succeed within


A hybrid between the single and multiple sites where two regionally
opportunity to exploit major natural and cultural resources. Such an :HWODQGV3HQULWK/DNHV
opportunity exists with the Riverlink precinct and the Penrith Lakes

partnerships and joint investment and management opportunities.

Obtaining land for the City Gardens will be a major initial challenge.
Generally land for parks and open space within new developments are
unlikely to provide suitable spaces. Building contributions to the City
Gardens into the City’s Section 94 plan would be appropriate, especially
as the gardens are likely to enhance land values all through the City. A
more straightforward approach would be to choose a site that could be
obtained in one piece as part of a major development area. This would
have the advantage of yielding the necessary land directly and the
linkage between the land contribution and the land value uplift would
also be stronger.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

60 Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008

Penrith Regional City Garden

Penrith Lakes Site, an Example

The Penrith Lakes site consists of about 2,000ha and includes land
Penrith City is currently considering negotiations related to the
development, including the provision of open space. The site also
development and has little consequent land value. It may have value for
agricultural purposes and may serve as a useful adjunct to the planned
City Gardens, but the City Gardens project would not be suitable over :HLU5HVHUYH

The preliminary modelling by Hill PDA suggests that land made available
for the Penrith City Gardens will increase the value of immediately
adjacent lands by at least half of its own value. The impact of this value
uplift should be considered in negotiating the private contribution of open
cost to the developer. Aerial of Riverlink

positive resource as an adjunct to the City Garden including components
of traditional commercial gardening and agriculture as part of the whole

connected to the Nepean River, and via the open space corridor along
the river to other open spaces and indirectly to the City centre. The
creation of a non-road land connection between the City Garden and

Birds Eye View of ADI site, St Mary’s

Glenmore Park

‘Emerald Necklace’ Boston; chain of

Fig 7.4 Boston Emerald Necklace, a chain of connecting sites connecting sites

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Penrith Regional City Garden

7.4 Possible Sites

7.5.1 Single Site

Site Ownership Access Availability Advantages Disadvantages

Riverlink ¥¥¥¥ Possible Close to city Private Sector

Carpenter Site PCC centre
Panthers Redevel- Panthers Connects to
opment the river
Penrith Showground Agricultural ¥¥¥¥ Not Close to city Not available
Society centre
Penrith Lakes PLDC ¥¥ Possible Large area Not close to CBD
water Availability of
Infrastructure ÀRRGIUHHODQG
St Mary’s release $',13:6 ¥ To be clari- New com- not close to river
area ADI ¿HG munity or CBD

Multiple Satellite Sites

Site Ownership Access Availability Advantages Disadvantages

8:6&DPSXV 8:6 ¥¥ Possible Links with Multiple use

Ropes & South PCC ¥¥ possible potential complex manage-
Creek corridors community ment
or shared
*LSSV5RDG/DQG¿OO PCC ¥ Available Showcase /DQG¿OO
phyto-reme- Not close to com-
diation munity
Mamre Homestead Dept. of Plan- ¥ Leased by Attractive Not close to cen-
ning Sisters of Pastoral tre or residential
Mercy areas
:HUULQJWRQ/DNHV PCC ¥¥¥ Available Attractive
Glenmore Park Open PCC ¥¥¥ Available Attractive Sense of resident
Space Setting ownership
Emu Plains Prison Correctional ? To be clari- Close to river Community per-
Farm Services ¿HG ceptions
Table 7.5.1 Evaluation of Single and Multiple Sites

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Hybrid of Sites Ownership Access Availability Advantages Disadvantages

Panthers Panthers ¥¥¥¥ Possible Close to city centre negotiated
Redevelopment consortium Connects to the partnership
River Link PCC ¥¥¥¥ possible Beside river ÀRRGLQJ
Tench &
Penrith Lakes PLDC ¥¥¥ possible large water area negotiated
infrastructure partnership. Flood
installed free land for major
negotiated infrastructure
Table 7.5.2: Evaluation of Hybrid Site


St Clair Open Space Ropes Creek Open Space

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Penrith Regional City Garden

7.5.3 Comparison of Elements – single site, multiple sites or hybrid site

From the evaluation, the Penrith Lakes appear to be an ideal location

for the prime focus with links to other sites along the Nepean River to
compared (see below). Broader opportunities also exist throughout the
Ropes and South Creek corridors as future opportunities for potential
community or shared garden concepts which would not be as suitable
along the Nepean River or at the Penrith Lakes.

Elements Single Multiple Hybrid

Look-out • •
Gateway • •
:HWODQG • • •
Lakes, Islands • • •
Common • •
Urban Beach • •
Children Garden • • •
5HF\FOH:DWHU • • •
Productive • • •
Forestry • • •
Markets • • •
Info Centre, Shop • •
CommunityCentre • •
Agropark City farm •
Demonstration Gardens • • •
Thematic garden • •
Plaza • •
Pavilions Glasshouse • •
Interpretive art • • •
Toilets • • •
Table 7.5.3 Comparison of Garden Elements on Single, Multiple or Hybrid Sites

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Penrith Regional City Garden


8.1 A Hybrid Model

The preferred model for a regional city garden in Penrith is suggested
as a hybrid between the centralised single site model and the dispersed
multiple sites model; the main city garden being located on a site within
the Penrith Lakes. This major facility would be connected to a smaller
urban site within the Riverlink precinct by a chain of existing green
sites along the Nepean River. In this setting such a model, a dynamic
collection of sites along the river with strong attractors at each end,
allows for the blending of private and public realms.

The main Penrith Lakes site could be large (20ha), featuring an urban
beach, lake and wetlands, piazza, common, children’s garden and
associated facilities including glasshouses and community cultural and
education centre, productive gardens and some thematic gardens.

The chain of connecting riverside sites could provide a series of thematic

stories of different journeys associated with the region.
The sites could explore the themes of:
ƒ Discovery, Botany, History
ƒ Therapeutic, Sensory, Elevation of the Soul

Rowing Precinct and the water recreation lakes.

The Riverlink Precinct site could be part of the open space attractions
associated with private sector opportunities such as the Penrith Panthers
redevelopment. Given its location close to the CBD and the future high
density residential area it could be more urban in its character, featuring
an urban piazza and amphitheatre, a biolake, wetlands and themed
gardens that explore ideas of:
ƒ Edible Urban Agriculture
ƒ Cultural Diversity and Futuristic gardens showcasing sustainability

The concept of a managed urban forest, sustainability and water-wise

design can be extended over all the sites. Similarly interpretative art and
ephemeral events can exploit the collection of sites.

Other sites also have potential but lack the particular synergy of the
The potential for the three creek corridors as adjunct opportunities is
recognised and can inform the existing strategies in place for these

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Penrith Regional City Garden

8.2 Feasibility of Preferred Model

In order to improve the feasibility of establishing and maintaining a
sustainable collection of sites making up the Regional City Garden, the
Penrith Lakes development which is progressing under part 3A of the
development. It could also include negotiations with the developers
of the Panthers site to consider opportunities for innovative and
sustainable City Garden concepts.

It is felt that the model of two anchor sites connected by a chain of

existing riverside sites presents more opportunity for a synergy between
a number of private sector interests and government. It provides
potential for joint ownership and management. Such a suggested
the proposal.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

8.2 Preferred Model

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Penrith Regional City Garden

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Penrith Regional City Garden Feasibility Study Report - November 2008 69

Penrith Regional City Garden










Thematic Gardens

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9.1 Lessons Learned from Existing Gardens
possible similarity to the proposed Penrith City Garden. These were
Mt. Penang Parklands, Orange Botanical Gardens, Cranbourne Royal
Botanical Gardens and Auburn Botanical Gardens.

9.1.1 Mt. Penang Summary Observations

The lessons learned from Mt Penang Parklands include the following:
public garden complex; and
ƒ There are (possible) synergies between a city garden and an event

Overall, Mt. Penang Gardens and Event Park appear to generate

revenues of about $160,000 per annum compared to operating costs of
about $400,000 per annum. The managers of the Parkland Corporation
note that the cost structure of maintaining the gardens may contain some
existing capacity for parks and gardens maintenance. Restaurant-Pavillion, Mt Penang

Mt. Penang Parklands is close to the geographical centre of Gosford

Local Government Area (LGA). Gosford LGA has a 154,000 people
Coast. The catchment for the gardens may extend into neighbouring
Penang Gardens may be attributable to its recent establishment, the
diffused population in the area and the attractions of the coast.
Restaurant in Central Park
9.1.2 Orange Botanic Gardens
Lessons from Orange Botanical Gardens that could be applicable to
Penrith City Gardens include the following:
ƒ Community involvement may be useful for some special interest
components of the City Garden, such as horticultural and gardening
traditions. These will extend the level of development achievable
within the City Garden at low cost, but will not create a revenue
ƒ The inclusion of a feature such as a relocated historic church may
provide a connection with history, provide a focus for a theme of
Corporate Event in the Park
spiritual tranquillity and become a desirable venue for weddings.
This could leverage patronage for a function centre elsewhere within
the gardens to cater for receptions.
ƒ The extensive use of volunteers may expand the potential of the City
Gardens, but may compromise opportunities for cost recovery. Local
cultural differences between Orange and Penrith may make the
importation of the former’s level of community involvement unlikely.

9.1.3 Auburn Botanic Garden

The Auburn Botanical Gardens have become well known and well
patronised in the greater Sydney area. They provide many useful
lessons in the design and management of city gardens including the
Concert in the Park

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Penrith Regional City Garden

ƒ An integrated park/garden system can provide a superior community
facility, especially where it is connected to the existing fabric of open
ƒ The provision of wildlife enriches the visitor experience and most
probably increases patronage, but results in elevated maintenance
and security problems;
ƒ Events spaces, such as amphitheatres, should be located to be
practical, yet acoustically sensitive, for night use, while still being
able to leverage the ambience of the gardens and open space;
ƒ Admission income policy needs to be balanced between providing
service for the local rate payers and some cost recovery from
external visitors;
ƒ Opportunities exist for privately managed service facilities, such as
kiosks, restaurants and function centres but they need to be carefully
designed to make best use of the garden environment;
achieved through less staff and a more focused service provision.
with internal sub-contracting of general maintenance of lawns and
infrastructure from other Council departments, such as parks and
roads; and
land owners as a result of the gardens. Council should consider

9.2 Cost Analysis of Proposed Regional City Garden

It appears that the City Garden should be between 10ha and 30ha.
Establishment costs will run at approximately $1,500,000 per hectare
and ongoing running costs may be somewhere between $200,000 and
$800,000 per annum. It would appear prudent to provide space for
expansion in the initial land acquisition. Patronage of the City Gardens
will likely include both ends of the demographic spectrum suggesting
that the seating and rest rooms should be provided in greater proportion
to other parks. The facilities should also include provision for mobility
impaired persons.

The inclusion of a function centre or other facilities suitable for attracting

the City Garden’s operating revenue given the experience of Mt.
Penang. The inclusion of a wedding venue and reception facilities may
attract a key private function group that could have the potential to utilise
the function space on weekends to complement the corporate activities
that would be more likely mid-week. The gardens should be branded
as a desirable location for weddings and corporate functions and a
component of the cultural life of Penrith.

Security and protection of the garden plantings may require careful

planning to create the ambience that evening functions are within
the garden environment, while not necessarily having free access to

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Penrith Regional City Garden

it. Evening functions have the capacity to utilise car parks and other
facilities that would otherwise be unused at that time. Given the size and
geography of Penrith, it would appear likely that special function income
for the City Garden should be able to comfortably exceed that of Mt
Penang, perhaps providing revenues between $100,000 and $150,000
the park is mature, well promoted and facilities optimised. Choice
of facilities, management and promotion will be key variables in the
eventual revenues

The inclusion of retail and restaurant facilities may also contribute to

the garden’s revenue potential particularly if it is a quality destination.
High standard services should be pursued as it is more likely that these
will have positive social and economic outcomes compared to a simple
kiosk. There may be scope for the provision of more than one eating
facility to cater for all needs. The goal would be to create a location that
provides a superior dining experience with good parking provisions in
order to be able to support restaurant rents comparable to those in the
heart of Penrith.

Despite these revenue opportunities, none of the gardens examined

were able to be self-supporting on the basis of their gardens alone.
Mt. Penang is perhaps the closest to this goal, but uses its control
of adjacent employment lands to subsidise the gardens proper. This
approach has been used in the past in such places as Sydney’s
Centennial Park, where the sale of residential land adjacent the
park proper was used to fund its construction. It has also been used
internationally for a variety of public facilities including universities and
even railroads in the USA. The key to these historical cases was the
allocation of land in addition to the needs of the facilities themselves.
other strategies designed to capture the increased land value resulting
from the gardens may be appropriate.

There is evidence that the existence of a community open space feature,

such as a park or golf course enhances the value of adjacent land.
measurable value gradient that falls off over a distance of between 500m
and 1,000m.

Preliminary modelling by HillPDA suggests that the value uplift for a City
Garden of 12ha with an average externality value uplift of 10% over a
hinterland 400m deep, will be of the order of $13,000,000-$14,000,000
depending on the shape of the perimeter. If the hinterland extends to
800m, the value uplift will be in the order of $26,000,000-$42,000,000.
Furthermore, the annual real growth in value due to the City Gardens
will be between $130,000 and $850,000 per annum. Exploring ways of
capturing this externality may form part of negotiations with owners in the
case of seeking to obtain land as part of development contributions.

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Penrith Regional City Garden

operating the City Garden will be of the same order as their impact on
surrounding land values and their growth into the future. The impact of a
land values should be considered in negotiating for their acquisition.

More generally, the City Garden will have a positive impact on land
values across the Penrith City. It is generally accepted that the causes
of land values are predominantly the surrounding community and the
quality of available infrastructure. The Penrith City Garden will provide
quality open space and community infrastructure that will be perceived
as desirable for all residents of Penrith which will contribute to land value

Although the rate of this value increase will be quite small, its overall
of between 0.2% to 0.5% on Penrith land values generally, they will
there is strong reason to believe that it will be one of the factors that will
strengthen the perception of Penrith as a desirable location and that fact
must have a land value impact, even if it cannot be empirically isolated.
The funding of the operation of the City Garden should be considered in
the light of the probable long term impact the Garden will have on rate

9.3 Implementation and Maintenance

9.3.1 Implementation
Site acquisition costs depend on a number of variables. Land zoned
hectare; 20 hectare costing approximately $3,000,000.

to determine without a design for the sites. The following range could
act as a guide;

Low end costs - $400,000 per hectare

Meadows, trees, basic roads and paths

Middle range - $600,000 per hectare

Meadows, trees, some planting beds, toilets, lighting, signage, paths and
roads, connections to existing infrastructure

High end costs - $1.6-2.0 million per hectare

Meadows, trees, planting beds, paving, walls, pavilions, glass houses,
toilets, water features, infrastructure, lighting and signage

These rates assume that the site is a tabula rasa and does not

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specialized buildings such as research facilities etc.

As a comparison, Cranbourne Botanic Gardens’ stage one, 18 hectares,

cost $11 million and it is estimated that stage two will cost $1.5 million
per hectare. Mt Penang Gardens, approx 12 hectares, cost $8 million in

9.3.2 Maintenance
for the gardens. Although maintenance can be outsourced, it is
recommended that PCC undertake the maintenance until the gardens
are established.
The following comparisons provide a guide to anticipated annual costs.
Mt Penang Auburn Orange
Gardens Botanic Botanic
Gardens Garden
Area 12 8 41
Maintenance Intensive Inhouse Community/
type Council
Maintenance $400,000 $780,000 p.a $138,000 p.a
costs p.a private (salaries +
contractors costs)
In-house staff 6 12 3FT + 5-10
Income, $160,000 $86, 000 No entry fee
visitors &
leases, hiring
Table 9.3.2 Comparative Maintenance Costs for Gardens

9.3.3 Maintenance and Management Guidelines

care of plants and inert materials. They should be used by the grounds
numerous and varied plant types, natural and man-made landscape
project components, and functional areas on installations require detailed
maintenance clauses are supplied in Appendix L: Landscape
Maintenance Guidelines.

A quality City Garden can contribute to the array of cultural and
recreational facilities available in Penrith enhanced through the inclusion
of function spaces suitable for corporate events as well as wedding
of Penrith as a corporate location and a family focused location, as well

The location of at least one quality eating venue as part of the garden

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Penrith Regional City Garden

revenue stream. It would leverage the resources of the garden by using
facilities well after garden closing time for a different client base and
reinforce promotion of it as a function location thus supporting evening
safety and security.

Other cultural facilities, such as an outdoor concert venue, may further

towards the operation of the Gardens.

If located as part of the Penrith Lakes area, a City Garden could also be
low lying land. In this way these lands could become a community
resource and create positive externalities for neighbouring development

The City Garden will incur several costs. The most important is the cost
land for both present and future needs as expanding the garden in the
future may be especially expensive due to the likelihood that adjacent
land will probably become premium residential property.

The City Garden will also have operating costs. It will be only possible
to recoup part of these, possibly between 15% and 40% from direct
City Garden revenues, such as rents and function revenues. This will
require a commitment to recurrent funding from Penrith City Council
however the existence of the City Garden will eventually contribute to
the strengthening of land values in Penrith generally translating into
portion of operating costs.

The operation of any community facility generates some disruption to

may generate noise if outdoor cultural events are incorporated into
its activities. Appropriate connection to roads and transport should be
considered. The layout of the facilities within the garden should be
considered in order that noise generating activities are located close to
the centre of the gardens. In that way the garden will provide a natural
sound buffer to the surrounding private lands.

9.5 Possible Funding Sources

A range of funding opportunities are described below. Appendix K:
government grants for climate change.

Project Partners
Potential partnerships within the community, education and private
sectors can be negotiated to include in-kind support, sponsorships for

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Community Trusts
remain for city garden purposes only.

Percentage for Art from Capital Works Budgets

A dedicated Public Art Budget can be established through the annual

Australia Council for the Arts

Visual Arts/Craft: Triennial Grants
Visual arts and craft organisations can apply for funding for projects
Australia, as well as an effective and viable three-year plan.
Community Partnerships Grants
Priority areas include:
Regional Australia
Young People
Emerging communities
Indigenous People

National Heritage Trust


NSW Department of Natural Resources

Landcare Grants

Stormwater Trust
Councils are able to apply for grants for certain stormwater projects
under the Government’s Urban Sustainability Program, administered by
the Department of Energy, Utilities and Sustainability. This includes the
Stormwater Trust Strategic Grants Scheme for water sensitive urban
design solutions for catchments above wetlands.

Tourism NSW

Comprehensive directory of grants for community projects drawn from
the many Commonwealth grant programs.

Cultural Sector Grants and Services Database

National database of organisations that provide grants for cultural
sector practitioners compiled by the Commonwealth Department of
Communications, Information Technology and the Arts.

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Penrith Regional City Garden


Gordon Darling Foundation

institutions to promote innovative projects in Australia.
The Gordon Darling Foundation Email: gdarling@vic.bigpond.net.au

Philanthropy Australia Inc.

National membership organisation for grant making trusts and
foundations in Australia Over 130 members annually distribute tens
of millions of dollars to the community, in the areas of education, arts,
welfare, health and medical research.
Email: pa@philanthropy.org.au

Ian Potter Foundation

Aims to nurture excellence and diversity in cultural activities. They
support the linking of education and the arts with particular reference to
extending cultural opportunities to regional centres.

Myer Foundation
Supports projects that resolve problems and addresses issues that
make a positive measurable difference to society through focus areas.

New South Wales Community Arts Association

To provide support and services which assist the diverse communities
their own cultural development and information, advice, referrals and
consultancy on and for community cultural development

Children’s Charities, Spastic Centre

The Spastic Centre supports Universal Design and fosters community
participation. It invests in research and development of equipment that
facilitates access thus providing more opportunities to connect with the
wider community.

Australian Arts Business Foundation, Art NSW

Role is to link government agencies and coporate businesses as
partnerships to develop major projects with the component of cultural

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Council Approval of Regional City Garden 'Concept'


Development of Design Brief

Call for Expressions of Interest

Call for Tenders for Design Consultancy Services

Tender Assessment

Appointment of successful Tenderer for Design

Consultancy Services

Secure Funding Sources and Partnerships

Development of Concept and Design for Planning


Detailed Design Development & Preliminary Cost


Review and finalise Design Documentation for

Construction & Maintenance Tender Purposes


Tender Assessment

Appointment of successful Tenderer for Construction &

Maintenance Services

Construction and Establishment

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This study concludes that a regional city garden in Penrith could be

feasible economically, environmentally and culturally. The conclusion is
based on research and public consultation over a wide range of issues,
including whether or not there is a need for such a city garden.

A recreational analysis showed that currently Penrith is supplied with ad-

equate recreational open space, however with the increasing population
and residential density, Penrith will require additional high quality open
space in a form that provides a range of experiences for different groups
importantly, there are a number of timely opportunities.

tres in the Metro Strategy for Sydney. This provides the opportunity for
exemplary and coordinated strategic city planning. Penrith is distinguish-
able from the other growth centres because of its location at the western
including the Blue Mountains National Park, the riverine landscape asso-
plain. The combination of these factors suggests a city garden drawing
from such natural and cultural features would be a regional attraction.

The proposed city garden could also act as a local cultural and recrea-
tional facility, facilitating a balanced city on the western edge of Sydney’s
metropolitan area which can sustain a demographically and socially
diverse community. As a ‘soft location factor’, the city garden could en-
courage economic development and attract professionals and managers
to live in the area.

Second, there are two major private sector recreational developments

proposed for Penrith City; the redevelopment of the Penrith Panthers/
cant advantages in integrating a possible city garden into these devel-
clear funding advantages, as well as the opportunity for a more inclusive
management structure.

Third, Penrith City Council is undertaking a number of city and open

space improvements including a proposed extension of Jane Street and

Fourth, the current focus on environmental sustainability and the implica-

tions of climate change suggest that the city garden could develop timely
research partnerships with universities in Sydney. Current research in
den. Equally concerns about localized food production could encourage
market opportunities and partnerships with the farmers and orchardists
in north-west of Penrith. There is also the opportunity to apply innova-

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Given the need and the opportunities, options were developed based on
research into existing national and international city gardens, particularly
botanic gardens and the various new city parks as successful exemplars
of best practice design. The popularity of the new city parks in Brisbane
and Melbourne indicate the importance of strong and legible pedes-
trian links with the CBD and the attraction of interactive water features.
Other contemporary design initiatives that informed the options were the
increasing environmental value of ‘soft urban systems’ such as green
walls and roofs, urban water management and new forms of energy.

This wide-ranging review highlighted the importance of programs and

activities within a city garden to sustain its vitality and continued visita-
tion as well as new ways to engage citizens in eco-design.

The options were also informed by consultative workshops with design

comes of the consultations indicated strong support for the landscape
heritage of productive lands, a desire for a bio-water city, a garden as a
living tool for children and support for a cultural garden through art and
activities. The outcomes were integrated into three options for a city
garden; a single centrally located site, multiple sites with green connec-
tions, and the whole city as a garden. A range of possible locations were
considered for these options.

The option of a single central garden has the advantages of economies

of scale and the opportunity to concentrate resources into a focused
location. The management of a single garden would be less expensive
as well as more self-sustaining.

Multiple sites have the advantage of being accessible to the wider Pen-
rith community. The plurality of city garden destinations may increase
overall patronage as each location will offer an independent experience
encouraging separate visits rather than a single visit to a more compact
whole facility. Disadvantages of the multiple site option include the addi-
tional costs of dispersed resources for operations and maintenance, the
to create a vibrant and memorable experience.

The whole city as a garden option was not pursued as it is already

achievable through current planning strategies for open space, streets
and the public domain.

for private partnerships should be explored further as a hybrid option
between a single focal site supported by smaller multiple sites, such as
a major focal site within the Penrith Lakes development together with a
smaller adjunct site as part of the Penrith Panthers/Riverlink redevelop-

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has been considered for the main garden, this should be part of at least
30 ha to permit future expansion and the eventual inclusion of additional
facilities. This is recommended as the preferred model for the Regional
City Gardens.

This proposal allows for a strong and legible connection to the river and
the CBD. The main Penrith Lakes location can provide a market/piazza,
a large common with grassy amphitheatre, a central lake and urban
beach, a designated children’s garden, a prominent hill as a lookout,
wetlands and productive gardens with an associated community centre
can act as the link between the main garden and the smaller Riverlink/
Panthers’ garden which can include lakes/wetlands and urban plaza.

The proposed City Gardens provide an opportunity to brand Penrith as

a leader in environmental sustainability and the application of universal
design. It can consolidate community partnerships and showcase local
products, including those from local farms. The educative role of the City
Gardens can operate through stimulating thematic gardens as well as
collaborative research projects with universities and the Sydney Botanic
Gardens. The design of the City Garden can result in a different form of
open space that is uniquely Penrith, exploring the future, elevating the
soul and grounding the community in an environmentally sustainable

Contextually, the City Garden can sit within and augment the existing
and developing regional open space network. As a recreation destina-
tion the City Garden can provide an urban setting for fun activities,
particularly based on water and through a well-developed events pro-
gram contributing to Penrith as a dynamic city on the edge of the Sydney
metropolitan area.

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Selected Bibliography
Betsky, Aaron (2002) Landscrapers: Building with Land, London: Thames
and Hudson.
De Geyter, Xavier (2002) After Sprawl: Research for the Contemporary
City. Rotterdam: NAi Publishers.
Landscape Biennial 2003, Barcelona: Collegi d’Arquitectes de Catalunya
Gregory, Poalo. (2003) New Scapes: Territories of Complexity. Berlin:
‘Inside Out’, Contemporary Landscape Architecture 2007, Berlin:
Journal of Landscape Architecture, Beauty/Floods/Climate, Spring 2008
Reed, Peter (2005) Groundswell: Constructing the Contemporary
Landscape, New York: Museum of Modern Art Publication.
Richardson, Tim (2008) Avant Gardeners, London: Thames and Hudson
Ruano, Miguel (2006) Eco-urbanism, Sustainable Human Settlements:
60 Case Studies, Barcelona: GG Publishing.
SchrÖder, Thiess (2003) ‘German Landscape Architecture Prize 2003:
Taking Stock’ in Hoppenstedt, Adrian (ed) (2003) Event Landscape?
Berlin: Birkhauser pp70-91.
Zoë Sofoulis, Helen Armstrong, Michael Bounds, Abby Lopes, & Tara
Andrews (June 2008) OUT & ABOUT IN PENRITH, Universal Design
and Cultural Context: Accessibility, diversity and recreational space in
City of Cities: A Plan for Sydney’s Future, (Dec 2005)
The State Environmental Planning Policy (Sydney Region Growth
Centres) (2006)
Infrastructure, Planning and Natural Resources
Mount Annan Botanic Garden Site Master Plan Review report (2007)
Penrith City: Population and Household Forecasts, id Consulting (2007)

Penrith Background

Botanic Gardens and City Garden Examples

Australian Arid Lands Botanic Gardens
2004, Australian Botanic Gardens http://www.chah.gov.au/chabg/bg-dir/
Auburn Botanic Gardens http://www.auburn.nsw.gov.au

Mt Penang Gardens http://www.mpp.nsw.gov.au

Cranbourne Botanic Gardens www.rbg.vic.gov.au/rbg_cranbourne
Cowra Japanese Garden www.chabg.gov.au/chabg/bg-dir/cowra-nsw.
The Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy 1989 endorsed by IUCN,

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Gardens in Conservation (2000)
Heywood, V.H. (ed) (1989) The Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy,
IUCN Botanic Gardens Conservation Secretariat, Kew, Richmond, UK.
for Botanic Gardens in Conservation, Botanic Gardens Conservation
International, Kew, Richmond, UK
Bordeaux Botanic Gardens - http://www.stichtingtijd.nl/pdf/Raxworthy-


Bordeaux Botanic Garden’ Lecture for 4th European Landscape
Architecture Biennale, 2006
Helen and Peter Bing Children’s Garden

Jerusalem Botanic Gardens


Meredith, Stephen 2000 ‘Investigation of the organisation of displays,

events, education and interpretive programmes in botanic gardens - UK,
France, Germany’ Report for Churchill Fellowship.

European Garden Heritage Network ‘Gardens cultivating local pride and

regional standing’
EGHN (2004) Innovative Regional Development through Gardens

‘Saudis to build their own version of Eden Project’ by Steve Connor, The
New Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Egypt http://www.bibalex.org/English/
Michel Conan (2005) ‘Charlotte Garden, An Urban Awakening to the
Sense of Life’ Dumbarton Oaks http://www.sla.dk/Images/indhold/sla/
Danish Urban Gardens http://www.sla.dk/indexgb.htm
Gleisdreik Urban Park, Berlin, www.sla.dk/indexgb.htm

The Hydroponicum Centre, Scotland www.thehydroponicum.com/

Land+Living - Metagardens www.landliving.com/
Gardens by the Bay, Singapore www.gardensbythebay.org.sg/

Paris Plage http://www.eukn.org/eukn/news/2008/08/interview-jean-

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Johnson, Dale A. and Ferrell, Brian (2006) Eco-Spirituality: Creating
Religion”, June 3-7, 2006, in Philadelphia, PA, USA,

Recreation Trends
from the Demographic Shift in the New Millennium, Toronto: Macfarlane

Godbey G, Leisure and Leisure Services in the 21st Century, State

College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc., 1997.
Popcorn, Faith and Marigold, Lys, ‘Trends that Drive Your Business
Incorporated, 1997
Ecological Design and Citizen Engagement
Evergreen Toronto http://www.evergreen.ca
Eco Design Le Roy Cathedral http://www.megacities.nl/lecture_8/83-
Paris-Nature, DPG. 2004. Parcs & jardins. http://www.paris.fr/fr/

Mark Lellouch 2005. ‘Paris-Nature: An innovative urban ecology

program’ In Ted Trzyna, ed., The Urban Imperative. California Institute of
Public Affairs, Sacramento, California.
Lucille Halsell Conservatory Highlight of San Antonio Botanical Garden
Spotlight Shines on Climatically Controlled Conservatory by Greg
Melikov, 2005 www.associatedcontent.com/article/3788/lucille_halsell_
Malmo, Glass Bubble

Innovative Chinese Landscape Designs

Shenyang Architectural University Campus
‘The art of Survival, Recovering Landscape Architecture, www.

The Floating Gardens - Yongning River Park www.turenscape.com/

The Red Ribbon - Tanghe River Park www.turenscape.com/english/
Zhongshan Shipyard Park www.turenscape.com/english/projects
City Farms
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Melbourne Victoria, March 20 - 25, 2007
Australian City Farms and Community Gardens Network

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Penrith Regional City Garden

Jac Smit, President of the Urban Agriculture Network and co-author of

“Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs, and Sustainable Cities
Bidwill Community Vegetable Garden

Community Gardens As Community Rehabilitation

Persistence and Healthy Food - the story of St Clair Community Farm
Community Spaces programme; Federation of City Farms & Community
http://www.farmgarden.org.uk/ www.community-spaces.org.uk.
Urban Farming: Coming to a City near You, by Jason Mark, E Magazine.
March 26, 2007.
Sydney’s Community Gardening Experience by Russ Grayson. March
“Urban Agriculture: Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities” by Jac Smit,
Annu Ratta and Joe Nasr, UNDP, Habitat II Series, 1996, http://www.
“Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development”
by Luc J.A. Mougeot, International Development Research Centre 2006

“Farming in the City: The Rise of Urban Agriculture”, IDRC Reports,

October 1993 (Volume 21, Number 3) http://www.echotech.org/technical/
“Cultivating Community: Principles and Practices for Community
Gardening as a Community-Building Tool” by Karen Payne and Deborah
Fryman, American Community Gardening Association (ACGA)
The British Foundation for Local Food Initiatives http://www.localfood.
The Federation of City Farms and Community Gardens http://www.

Netherlands Agroparks///, the concept, the responses, the practice.

Innovation Network, Editor / Leonie van den Schoor (Stuk Producties)
Utrecht, December 2005, Agriculture in City, www.innovatienetwerk.org
Mason D. and Docking A., 2005: Agriculture in Urbanising Landscapes
Congress, Melbourne Australia + contributions made by Ian Know post
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March 2000 http://www.erin.gov.au/soe/soe.html

Blacktown Solar Cities consortium: www.blacktownsolarcity.com.au
Parc Downsview Park Inc. Sustainability Policies& Indicators; A
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Network Conference, Lakeshore Assembly Hall, March 14, 2003
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Judy Van Delderen (2000) ‘Creative solutions for water conservation

using recycled water - UK, Europe, Israel, Churchill Fellowship Report
Metropolis (2004)The Prediction Issue: Downsview Park
Deja Downsview. 2001 http://www.canadianarchitect.com/issues/

Sewell Chan ‘High Line Designs Are Unveiled’ www.nytimes.

Millennium Park, Chicago ‘A people’s park of international importance
in downtown Chicago’ by Renato Pesci, Built Environment Editor, 2004
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(Malmo Sweden) by Louise Lundberg www.greenroofs.com/archives/
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Queens Botanical Garden Uses Innovative Methods to Promote

Sustainable Design September 2006 www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/
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Designs for Climate Change
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Universal Design
Horticultural Therapy - Create an Enabled Garden by Joyce Schillen
Doing Universal Design by B.J. Novitski http://www.architectureweek.

Universal Design Exemplars by the Center for Universal Design, North

Carolina State University, 2000
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Lynsey Robinson & Jane Stoneham, The Japanese Connection www.

Sensory Garden for Royal Schools for the Deaf Manchester www.
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Appendix A: Recreation Report, Stratcorp Consulting

Trends and Demographic Analyses for a Possible Penrith Regional City
Appendix B: OUT & ABOUT IN PENRITH Universal Design and Cultural
Context: Accessibility, diversity and recreational space in Penrith
Appendix C: Garden Research, an International Review of City Gardens
Appendix D: The Australian National Botanic Garden Interpretive
Appendix G: Model Development

Appendix I: Urban Agriculture Opportunities

Appendix J: Botanical Themes by Dr David J. Collins

Appendix K: Funding and Grants
Appendix L: Landscape Maintenance Guidelines

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