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WITH CONVENTIONAL SHEAR WALL STRUCTURES

BY

L M V KANCHANA

UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA

SRI LANKA

DETERMINATION OF LATERAL BEHAVIOUR OF

FRAMED TUBE STRUCTURES AND COMPARISION

WITH CONVENTIONAL SHEAR WALL STRUCTURES

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

OF UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA, FOR THE

PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER

OF ENGINEERING IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

By

L M V Kanchana

Supervised by

Prof M T R Jayasinghe

UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA

SRI LANKA

December 2010

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the content of this thesis is the output of original research work

carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa.

Whenever the work done by others was used, it was mentioned appropriately as a

reference.

L M V Kanchana

i

ABSTRACT

Even today, only a very few number of tall buildings are available in Sri Lanka,

compared to other countries in the world. However with increase in population and

due to the limited space availability the latest trend is to spread buildings vertically

than laterally. Nowadays, there is a much greater demand for taller buildings relative

to the past.

within a short time period and because of that concrete buildings spread all over the

world. Due to the higher strength ranges that can be achieved by good quality

concrete, the section dimensions of members in concrete buildings have reduced

drastically in the recent past. The increase in height accompanied with the reduced

member sizes formed slender buildings, which require more attention focused on the

lateral stability of the building. This problem was however solved by the introduction

of various efficient structural forms such as shear walls, shear cores, outriggers,

framed tube, etc. in to the building skeleton.

The lateral behaviour of framed tube substructure and conventional shear wall

structure is observed in this research to a certain extent. 40, 35, 30, 25 and 20 storey

framed tube buildings are analysed for different lateral load combinations. The same

scenario is carried out for conventional shear wall structure. Mainly the deflection,

wind induced acceleration and fundamental period due to lateral loads are observed

and analysed. The frame tube structures give 50% reduction in deflection and wind

induced acceleration.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

his valuable time in guiding me to complete the research study. It is no doubt that

without his interest and guidance this would not have been a success. He not only

provided direction and guidance through the course of this research, but also inspired

me to really learn and understand structural engineering.

I wish to thank the Vice Chancellor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Head of

the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Moratuwa, for the

permission granted for this research work. Further, I wish to offer my thanks to the

Co-ordinator of the Post Graduate research work of Structural Engineering and all the

lecturers and staff of the Department of Civil Engineering who helped me in

numerous ways. Also I wish to thank the librarian and the staff of the library for the

co-operation extended to me for this research work.

Anuruddha Edirisinghe Associates, for the encouragement and support given me to

success this research work and to prepare this thesis during the period of research.

Whole hearted thanks to my husband for the encouragement given from the beginning

of the research. The final acknowledgement is to all others helped in various ways for

completing the work.

iii

CONTENTS

Declaration i

Abstract ii

Acknowledgement iii

Contents iv

List of Figures ix

List of Tables xi

Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 General 1

1.2 Objectives 3

1.3 Methodology 3

1.4 Main findings 3

1.5 An overview of the thesis 3

Chapter 2

Literature review

2.1 General 5

2.2 Structural forms 6

2.2.1 Rigid-frame structures 11

2.2.2 Braced frame structures 11

2.2.3 Infilled-frame structures 12

2.2.4 Flat-plate, flat-slab and columns structures 13

2.2.5 Shear wall structures 14

2.2.6 Wall-frame structure 15

2.2.7 Outrigger-braced structures 15

2.2.8 Tube structures 16

2.2.9 Core structures 18

2.2.10 Hybrid structures 18

2.2.11 Height to width ratios of high rise buildings 19

2.3 Structural stability 19

2.3.1 Recommended values 19

iv

2.3.2 Drift constraints 20

2.4 Loads on structures 21

2.4.1 Wind loads on structures 21

2.4.2 Human tolerance to wind action 22

2.4.3 Human perception of building motion 23

2.4.4 Perception thresholds 23

2. 5 Structural analysis by software SAP 2000 version 12 24

2.6 Verification of SAP 2000 software by modelling a 10 storey

frame and drift calculation 25

2.7 Summary 28

Chapter 3

Structural arrangements and loads applied for case study

3.1 General 30

3.2 Layout of structure 30

3.2.1 Vertical Circulation of the building 30

3.2.2 Service Core and Shear Walls 31

3.2.3 Floor loads 31

3.2.4 Initial member sizing 32

3.3 Material properties of the structure 32

3.3.1 Concrete 32

3.3.2 Reinforcement 33

3.4 Loading to be applied on the structures 33

3.4.1 Dead and Imposed (Live) loads 33

3.4.2 Lateral loads 33

3.4.2.1 Selection of wind speed for high rise buildings in

Sri Lanka 34

3.4.2.2 Wind load calculation 35

3.5 Structural forms for case study 35

3.5.1 40 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube

(Model No 01:- 40 TUBE) 35

3.5.2 40 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube

(Model No 02:- 40 SHEAR) 38

v

3.5.3 35 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube

(Model No 03:- 35 TUBE) 41

3.5.4 35 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube

(Model No 04:- 35 SHEAR) 44

3.5.5 30 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube

(Model No 05:- 30 TUBE) 46

3.5.6 30 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube

(Model No 06:- 30 SHEAR) 49

3.5.7 25 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube

(Model No 07:- 25 TUBE) 51

3.5.8 25 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube

(Model No 08:- 25 SHEAR) 53

3.5.9 20 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube

(Model No 09:- 20 TUBE) 55

3.5.10 20 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube

(Model No 10:- 20 HEAR) 58

3.6 Summary 60

Chapter 4

Computer modelling and case study

4.1 Computer modelling 61

4.2 Load cases and combinations 61

Chapter 5

Results and observation

5.1 40 storey building 63

5.1.1 Deflection 63

5.1.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 64

5.1.3 Wind induced acceleration 64

5.1.4 Summary of analysis result 64

5.2 35 storey building 65

5.2.1 Deflection 65

5.2.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 66

5.2.3 Wind induced acceleration 66

vi

5.2.4 Summary of analysis result 66

5.3 30 storey building 67

5.3.1 Deflection 67

5.3.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 68

5.3.3 Wind induced acceleration 68

5.3.4 Summary of analysis result 68

5.4 25 storey building 69

5.4.1 Deflection 69

5.4.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 70

5.4.3 Wind induced acceleration 70

5.4.4 Summary of analysis result 70

5.5 20 storey building 71

5.5.1 Deflection 71

5.5.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 72

5.5.3 Wind induced acceleration 72

5.5.4 Summary of analysis result 72

5.6 Summary 73

Chapter 6

Conclusion and future work

6.1 Conclusion 74

6.2 Future work 75

References 76

Appendices

Appendix A

A.1 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 40

storeyed building 78

A.2 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 35

storeyed building 80

A.3 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 30

storeyed building 82

vii

A.4 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 25

storeyed building 84

A.5 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 25

storeyed building 85

Appendix B

B.1 Calculations Determination of number of lifts 87

B.2 Calculations Sizing of stairway 89

Appendix C

Wind load calculation 90

viii

List of figures

Figure 2.2 Interior Structural Forms in High Rise Buildings 9

Figure 2.3 Exterior Structural Forms in High Rise Buildings 10

Figure 2.4 Flat slabs with drop panels and shear walls 13

Figure 2.5 Flat slabs with drop panels and shear walls 13

Figure 2.6 Shear Wall-Frame Interactions 14

Figure 2.7 Exterior braced tube: (a) schematic elevation; (b) plan 18

Figure 2.8 Moment resisting frame with lateral loads 25

Figure 2.9 SAP analysis window of the moment resisting frame 27

Figure 2.10 Height vs. drift in 10 storey moment resisting frame 28

Figure 3.1 Wind zones in Sri Lnka 34

Figure 3.2 Layout of the 40 Storey building with perimeter tube 36

Figure 3.3 Layout of the 40 Storey building without perimeter tube 39

Figure 3.4 Layout of the 35 Storey building with perimeter tube 41

Figure 3.5 Layout of the 35 Storey building without perimeter tube 44

Figure 3.6 Layout of the 30 Storey building with perimeter tube 47

Figure 3.7 Layout of the 30 Storey building without perimeter tube 49

Figure 3.8 Layout of the 25 Storey building with perimeter tube 51

Figure 3.9 Layout of the 25 Storey building without perimeter tube 54

Figure 3.10 Layout of the 20 Storey building with perimeter tube 56

Figure 3.11 Layout of the 20 Storey building without perimeter tube 58

Figure 4.1 Wind directions and selected locations to get results 62

Figure 5.1 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

40 TUBE, 40 SHEAR) 63

Figure 5.2 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

40 TUBE, 40 SHEAR) 63

Figure 5.3 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

35 TUBE, 35 SHEAR) 65

ix

Figure 5.4 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

35 TUBE, 35 SHEAR) 65

Figure 5.5 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

30 TUBE, 30 SHEAR) 67

Figure 5.6 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

30 TUBE, 30 SHEAR) 67

Figure 5.7 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

25 TUBE, 25 SHEAR) 69

Figure 5.8 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

25 TUBE, 25 SHEAR) 69

Figure 5.9 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

20 TUBE, 20 SHEAR) 71

Figure 5.10 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination

1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models

20 TUBE, 20 SHEAR) 71

x

List of tables

Table 2.2 Drift calculation results for 10 storey moment resisting frame 26

Table 2.3 Drift results from SAP 2000 analysis 27

Table 3.1 Grade of concrete and their properties, as per BS8110 33

Table 3.2 Recommended basic wind speed for Sri Lanka 34

Table 3.3 Regional wind speeds - VR (AS/NZS 1170.2: 2002) 43

Table 5.1 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 40 storey

building 64

Table 5.2 Wind induced acceleration for 40 storey building 64

Table 5.3 Summary of Analysis Results of 40 storey building 64

Table 5.4 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 35 storey

building 66

Table 5.5 Wind induced acceleration for 35 storey building 66

Table 5.6 Summary of Analysis Results of 35 storey building 66

Table 5.7 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 30 storey

building 68

Table 5.8 Wind induced acceleration for 30 storey building 68

Table 5.9 Summary of Analysis Results of 30 storey building 68

Table 5.10 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 25 storey

building 70

Table 5.11 Wind induced acceleration for 25 storey building 70

Table 5.12 Summary of Analysis Results of 25 storey building 70

Table 5.13 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 20 storey

building 72

Table 5.14 Wind induced acceleration for 20 storey building 72

Table 5.15 Summary of Analysis Results of 20 storey building 72

Table C.1 Calculation of wind force per unit area 40 storey building 93

Table C.2 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 40

storey building 95

Table C.3 Calculation of wind acceleration 40 storey building 96

Table C.4 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 40 storey building

(for wind acceleration) 98

xi

Table C.5 Calculation of wind force per unit area 35 storey building 99

Table C.6 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 35

storey building 101

Table C.7 Calculation of wind acceleration 35 storey building 102

Table C.8 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 35 storey building

(for wind acceleration) 104

Table C.9 Calculation of wind force per unit area 30 storey building 105

Table C.10 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 30

storey building 107

Table C.11 Calculation of wind acceleration 30 storey building 108

Table C.12 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 30 storey building

(for wind acceleration) 110

Table C.13 Calculation of wind force per unit area 25 storey building 111

Table C.14 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 25

storey building 113

Table C.15 Calculation of wind acceleration 25 storey building 114

Table C.16 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 25 storey building

(for wind acceleration) 116

Table C.17 Calculation of wind force per unit area 20 storey building 117

Table C.18 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 20

storey building 118

Table C.19 Calculation of wind acceleration 20 storey building 119

Table C.20 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 20 storey building

(for wind acceleration) 121

xii

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