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DETERMINATION OF LATERAL BEHAVIOUR OF

FRAMED TUBE STRUCTURES AND COMPARISION


WITH CONVENTIONAL SHEAR WALL STRUCTURES

BY
L M V KANCHANA

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA
SRI LANKA
DETERMINATION OF LATERAL BEHAVIOUR OF
FRAMED TUBE STRUCTURES AND COMPARISION
WITH CONVENTIONAL SHEAR WALL STRUCTURES

THESIS IS SUBMITTED TO THE


DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
OF UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA, FOR THE
PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE DEGREE OF MASTER
OF ENGINEERING IN STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING DESIGN

By
L M V Kanchana

Supervised by
Prof M T R Jayasinghe

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF MORATUWA
SRI LANKA

December 2010
DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the content of this thesis is the output of original research work
carried out at the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa.
Whenever the work done by others was used, it was mentioned appropriately as a
reference.

L M V Kanchana

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ABSTRACT

Even today, only a very few number of tall buildings are available in Sri Lanka,
compared to other countries in the world. However with increase in population and
due to the limited space availability the latest trend is to spread buildings vertically
than laterally. Nowadays, there is a much greater demand for taller buildings relative
to the past.

After concrete was introduced to construction world, it gained many improvements


within a short time period and because of that concrete buildings spread all over the
world. Due to the higher strength ranges that can be achieved by good quality
concrete, the section dimensions of members in concrete buildings have reduced
drastically in the recent past. The increase in height accompanied with the reduced
member sizes formed slender buildings, which require more attention focused on the
lateral stability of the building. This problem was however solved by the introduction
of various efficient structural forms such as shear walls, shear cores, outriggers,
framed tube, etc. in to the building skeleton.

The lateral behaviour of framed tube substructure and conventional shear wall
structure is observed in this research to a certain extent. 40, 35, 30, 25 and 20 storey
framed tube buildings are analysed for different lateral load combinations. The same
scenario is carried out for conventional shear wall structure. Mainly the deflection,
wind induced acceleration and fundamental period due to lateral loads are observed
and analysed. The frame tube structures give 50% reduction in deflection and wind
induced acceleration.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere thanks to the project supervisor Prof. M. T. R. Jayasinghe, for devoting


his valuable time in guiding me to complete the research study. It is no doubt that
without his interest and guidance this would not have been a success. He not only
provided direction and guidance through the course of this research, but also inspired
me to really learn and understand structural engineering.

I wish to thank the Vice Chancellor, Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Head of
the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Moratuwa, for the
permission granted for this research work. Further, I wish to offer my thanks to the
Co-ordinator of the Post Graduate research work of Structural Engineering and all the
lecturers and staff of the Department of Civil Engineering who helped me in
numerous ways. Also I wish to thank the librarian and the staff of the library for the
co-operation extended to me for this research work.

I am particularly indebted to Eng. A S B Edirisinghe, Managing Director of


Anuruddha Edirisinghe Associates, for the encouragement and support given me to
success this research work and to prepare this thesis during the period of research.

Whole hearted thanks to my husband for the encouragement given from the beginning
of the research. The final acknowledgement is to all others helped in various ways for
completing the work.

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CONTENTS
Declaration i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgement iii
Contents iv
List of Figures ix
List of Tables xi

Chapter 1
Introduction
1.1 General 1
1.2 Objectives 3
1.3 Methodology 3
1.4 Main findings 3
1.5 An overview of the thesis 3

Chapter 2
Literature review
2.1 General 5
2.2 Structural forms 6
2.2.1 Rigid-frame structures 11
2.2.2 Braced frame structures 11
2.2.3 Infilled-frame structures 12
2.2.4 Flat-plate, flat-slab and columns structures 13
2.2.5 Shear wall structures 14
2.2.6 Wall-frame structure 15
2.2.7 Outrigger-braced structures 15
2.2.8 Tube structures 16
2.2.9 Core structures 18
2.2.10 Hybrid structures 18
2.2.11 Height to width ratios of high rise buildings 19
2.3 Structural stability 19
2.3.1 Recommended values 19

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2.3.2 Drift constraints 20
2.4 Loads on structures 21
2.4.1 Wind loads on structures 21
2.4.2 Human tolerance to wind action 22
2.4.3 Human perception of building motion 23
2.4.4 Perception thresholds 23
2. 5 Structural analysis by software SAP 2000 version 12 24
2.6 Verification of SAP 2000 software by modelling a 10 storey
frame and drift calculation 25
2.7 Summary 28

Chapter 3
Structural arrangements and loads applied for case study
3.1 General 30
3.2 Layout of structure 30
3.2.1 Vertical Circulation of the building 30
3.2.2 Service Core and Shear Walls 31
3.2.3 Floor loads 31
3.2.4 Initial member sizing 32
3.3 Material properties of the structure 32
3.3.1 Concrete 32
3.3.2 Reinforcement 33
3.4 Loading to be applied on the structures 33
3.4.1 Dead and Imposed (Live) loads 33
3.4.2 Lateral loads 33
3.4.2.1 Selection of wind speed for high rise buildings in
Sri Lanka 34
3.4.2.2 Wind load calculation 35
3.5 Structural forms for case study 35
3.5.1 40 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube
(Model No 01:- 40 TUBE) 35
3.5.2 40 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube
(Model No 02:- 40 SHEAR) 38

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3.5.3 35 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube
(Model No 03:- 35 TUBE) 41
3.5.4 35 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube
(Model No 04:- 35 SHEAR) 44
3.5.5 30 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube
(Model No 05:- 30 TUBE) 46
3.5.6 30 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube
(Model No 06:- 30 SHEAR) 49
3.5.7 25 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube
(Model No 07:- 25 TUBE) 51
3.5.8 25 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube
(Model No 08:- 25 SHEAR) 53
3.5.9 20 Storeyed building modelled with perimeter tube
(Model No 09:- 20 TUBE) 55
3.5.10 20 Storeyed building modelled without perimeter tube
(Model No 10:- 20 HEAR) 58
3.6 Summary 60

Chapter 4
Computer modelling and case study
4.1 Computer modelling 61
4.2 Load cases and combinations 61

Chapter 5
Results and observation
5.1 40 storey building 63
5.1.1 Deflection 63
5.1.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 64
5.1.3 Wind induced acceleration 64
5.1.4 Summary of analysis result 64
5.2 35 storey building 65
5.2.1 Deflection 65
5.2.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 66
5.2.3 Wind induced acceleration 66
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5.2.4 Summary of analysis result 66
5.3 30 storey building 67
5.3.1 Deflection 67
5.3.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 68
5.3.3 Wind induced acceleration 68
5.3.4 Summary of analysis result 68
5.4 25 storey building 69
5.4.1 Deflection 69
5.4.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 70
5.4.3 Wind induced acceleration 70
5.4.4 Summary of analysis result 70
5.5 20 storey building 71
5.5.1 Deflection 71
5.5.2 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period 72
5.5.3 Wind induced acceleration 72
5.5.4 Summary of analysis result 72
5.6 Summary 73

Chapter 6
Conclusion and future work
6.1 Conclusion 74
6.2 Future work 75

References 76

Appendices
Appendix A
A.1 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 40
storeyed building 78
A.2 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 35
storeyed building 80
A.3 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 30
storeyed building 82

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A.4 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 25
storeyed building 84
A.5 Calculations Selection of structural dimensions of 25
storeyed building 85

Appendix B
B.1 Calculations Determination of number of lifts 87
B.2 Calculations Sizing of stairway 89

Appendix C
Wind load calculation 90

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List of figures

Figure 2.1 Structural systems for concrete buildings 8


Figure 2.2 Interior Structural Forms in High Rise Buildings 9
Figure 2.3 Exterior Structural Forms in High Rise Buildings 10
Figure 2.4 Flat slabs with drop panels and shear walls 13
Figure 2.5 Flat slabs with drop panels and shear walls 13
Figure 2.6 Shear Wall-Frame Interactions 14
Figure 2.7 Exterior braced tube: (a) schematic elevation; (b) plan 18
Figure 2.8 Moment resisting frame with lateral loads 25
Figure 2.9 SAP analysis window of the moment resisting frame 27
Figure 2.10 Height vs. drift in 10 storey moment resisting frame 28
Figure 3.1 Wind zones in Sri Lnka 34
Figure 3.2 Layout of the 40 Storey building with perimeter tube 36
Figure 3.3 Layout of the 40 Storey building without perimeter tube 39
Figure 3.4 Layout of the 35 Storey building with perimeter tube 41
Figure 3.5 Layout of the 35 Storey building without perimeter tube 44
Figure 3.6 Layout of the 30 Storey building with perimeter tube 47
Figure 3.7 Layout of the 30 Storey building without perimeter tube 49
Figure 3.8 Layout of the 25 Storey building with perimeter tube 51
Figure 3.9 Layout of the 25 Storey building without perimeter tube 54
Figure 3.10 Layout of the 20 Storey building with perimeter tube 56
Figure 3.11 Layout of the 20 Storey building without perimeter tube 58
Figure 4.1 Wind directions and selected locations to get results 62
Figure 5.1 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
40 TUBE, 40 SHEAR) 63
Figure 5.2 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
40 TUBE, 40 SHEAR) 63
Figure 5.3 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
35 TUBE, 35 SHEAR) 65

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Figure 5.4 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
35 TUBE, 35 SHEAR) 65
Figure 5.5 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
30 TUBE, 30 SHEAR) 67
Figure 5.6 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
30 TUBE, 30 SHEAR) 67
Figure 5.7 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
25 TUBE, 25 SHEAR) 69
Figure 5.8 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
25 TUBE, 25 SHEAR) 69
Figure 5.9 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.2Gk+1.2Qk+1.2Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
20 TUBE, 20 SHEAR) 71
Figure 5.10 Height vs Displacement at location A for the load combination
1.0Gk+1.4Wk for X direction and Y direction (Models
20 TUBE, 20 SHEAR) 71

x
List of tables

Table 2.1 Human perception levels 24


Table 2.2 Drift calculation results for 10 storey moment resisting frame 26
Table 2.3 Drift results from SAP 2000 analysis 27
Table 3.1 Grade of concrete and their properties, as per BS8110 33
Table 3.2 Recommended basic wind speed for Sri Lanka 34
Table 3.3 Regional wind speeds - VR (AS/NZS 1170.2: 2002) 43
Table 5.1 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 40 storey
building 64
Table 5.2 Wind induced acceleration for 40 storey building 64
Table 5.3 Summary of Analysis Results of 40 storey building 64
Table 5.4 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 35 storey
building 66
Table 5.5 Wind induced acceleration for 35 storey building 66
Table 5.6 Summary of Analysis Results of 35 storey building 66
Table 5.7 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 30 storey
building 68
Table 5.8 Wind induced acceleration for 30 storey building 68
Table 5.9 Summary of Analysis Results of 30 storey building 68
Table 5.10 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 25 storey
building 70
Table 5.11 Wind induced acceleration for 25 storey building 70
Table 5.12 Summary of Analysis Results of 25 storey building 70
Table 5.13 Natural period of frequency and fundamental period of 20 storey
building 72
Table 5.14 Wind induced acceleration for 20 storey building 72
Table 5.15 Summary of Analysis Results of 20 storey building 72
Table C.1 Calculation of wind force per unit area 40 storey building 93
Table C.2 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 40
storey building 95
Table C.3 Calculation of wind acceleration 40 storey building 96
Table C.4 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 40 storey building
(for wind acceleration) 98
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Table C.5 Calculation of wind force per unit area 35 storey building 99
Table C.6 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 35
storey building 101
Table C.7 Calculation of wind acceleration 35 storey building 102
Table C.8 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 35 storey building
(for wind acceleration) 104
Table C.9 Calculation of wind force per unit area 30 storey building 105
Table C.10 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 30
storey building 107
Table C.11 Calculation of wind acceleration 30 storey building 108
Table C.12 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 30 storey building
(for wind acceleration) 110
Table C.13 Calculation of wind force per unit area 25 storey building 111
Table C.14 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 25
storey building 113
Table C.15 Calculation of wind acceleration 25 storey building 114
Table C.16 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 25 storey building
(for wind acceleration) 116
Table C.17 Calculation of wind force per unit area 20 storey building 117
Table C.18 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations as point loads in 20
storey building 118
Table C.19 Calculation of wind acceleration 20 storey building 119
Table C.20 Calculation of wind loads on grid locations in 20 storey building
(for wind acceleration) 121

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