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1. What are the functions of clutch?

To permit engagement or disengagement of a gear when the vehicle is stationary
and the engine is running.
To transmit the engine power to the rear wheels smoothly without shocks to the
transmission system while the vehicle is in motion.
To permit the encaging of gears when the vehicle is in motion without damaging
the gear wheels.

2. Why multi-plate clutches are used in automobiles?

As compared to single plate clutch, these are smoother and easier to operate due
to their assembly of friction surfaces contact.

3. Compare the advantages of multi-plate clutches over single plate clutches.

Increased torque transmission capacity.
The diameter is reduced as it has more friction surface with reduces the size of
the clutch assembly.
Highly reliable
Suitable for heavy vehicles.

4. What is the special springs used in diaphragm clutch?

Belleville springs

5. How is dog and spline clutch disengaged?

The sleeve is moved back on the splined shaft to have no contact with the driving

6. What do you mean by fluid flywheel?

The member which couples the driving member with driven member through a media
of fluid is known as fluid coupling.

7. What is the function of a gear box?

Gear box is a speed and torque changing device.

8. List out the various resistance to motion.

(a) Air resistance
(b) Gradient resistances
(c) Miscellaneous resistance

9. What is double clutching technique used?

Even though there is no measure to allow easy meshing of gears, double clutching
technique must be acquired for shifting gears properly.
10. What is the function of Synchromesh unit in a gear box?
To simply the operations of changing gears without the occurrence of clashes and
their consequent damage, a synchromesh gear box is used in different types of motor

11. What is the function of a synchronizer in a gear box?

The synchronizer helps to synchronize the speeds of the two gears to be engaged
without necessary of faster running gear to slow down.

12. Write down the methods of operating automatic gear box.

(a) Hydramatic transmission
(b)Torque converter transmission

13. State the phenomenon of torque multiplication.

Then the oil is thrown back by the impeller into the turbine at the outer edge
continuously. The repeated pushing of the turbine blades makes the torque on the
turbine to increase called phenomenon of torque multiplication.

14. What is an overdrive? Where it is exactly located?

Overdrive is a device which is used to step up the gear ratio in the car.It is mounted in
between transmission and propeller shaft.

15. What are the advantages of overdrives?

(a) It allows a lower engine speed to maintain the car at highway speed.
(b) This system saves fuel.
(c) Wear on the engine and accessories are reduced.

16. State the various functions of propeller shaft.

(a)It transmits rotary motion of the gearbox output shaft to the differential and then
through the axle shafts to the wheels.
(b)It transmits motion at an angle which is varying frequently
(c )It allows some changes in length between gear box and rear axle.

17. What are the basic functions of differential unit?

(a) Straight ahead travel
(b) Turning
(c) One wheel on a muddy surface

18. List down the types of live rear axles.

(a) Semi-floating
(b) Three-quarter floating
(c ) Full-floating

19. Mention any four requirements of a clutch.

(a) Transmission of torque
(b) Gradual engagement
(c ) Vibration damping (d) Size of the clutch

20. What is the purpose of using springs in a disc clutch plate?

The springs are provided to withstand the shock and torsional effects during operation
of the clutch, hence known as torsion springs.


1. Classify wheels.
Disc wheel
Wire wheel
Split wheel
Light alloy wheel

2. Write down the types of tread patterns in tyres.

Rib pattern
Lug pattern
Rib-and-lug pattern
Block pattern

3. What is meant by the term tread?

The tread is an external rubber layer preventing the carcass from wear and
external damage which are produced by the road surface.

4. Name the various materials used in manufacturing of tyres.

Glass fibre

5. What are the inspecting methods used in tyres?

Visual inspection
Thorough inspection

6. Mention the various causes of tyre wear.

Incorrect inflation
Incorrect caster, camber or toe-in
Excessive road speed
Worn out kingpins
Presence of air
7. List out the various factors to be maintained in tyres.
Proper inflation
Running a flat tyre
Extra casing and inner tube
Alignment of wheels

8. How is cross ply are designated?

A cross ply tyre is not designated by alphabetical letters to indicate the cross-ply.

9. Define tube vulcanizing.

The process of repairing a punctured tube is known as tube vulcanizing.

10. What is meant by camel block?

Fresh tread material known as camel block is placed around the tread and put in
retreading machine and clamped.

11. How steering geometry is defined?

Steering geometry is the angular representation and obtaining relationship between
the front wheels.

12. Define camber and caster.

When the front of the vehicle is viewed, the angle between the centre line of the tyre
and the vertical line is called as camber.
Tilting of kingpin axis either forward or backward from the vertical line is known as

13. What is kingpin inclination?

The angle between the vertical line and centre of the or steering axle when viewing is
carried out from the front of the vehicle is called as king pin inclination.
14. What are the principles of suspension system?
The weight of the wheels
Reduction of rolling or pitching of the body to a minimum design and attachment
of the springs.
Absorbing satisfactorily larger and also the smaller road impacts with the help of
a single springing device.

15. Classify suspension system.

Front end suspension system- Independent front suspension
-Rigid axle front suspension
Rear end suspension-Longitudinal leaf spring rear suspension
Transverse leaf spring rear suspension
Coil spring rear end suspension

16. State the purposes of a master cylinder.

The required hydraulic pressure is built up to operate the system.
It maintains a constant volume of fluid in the system.
To bleed or force air out of the brake line and wheel cylinder,a pump is used.

17. What are the advantages of grilling brakes?

They can easily be adjusted without jacking up the vehicle.
The driver effort can be minimized.
It uses a mechanical comparator.
It provides a self-centering effort.

18. State pascals law.

It states that the total pressure acting on the transmission system is equal to the
sum of pressures acting in all directions without any losses.

19. What are the purposes of shock absorbers?

To control the vibrations on springs
To provide comfortable ride
To act flexible and to be rigid enough.
To resist the unnecessary motion of the spring.

20. What is meant by torsion bar?

A torsion bar is a steel bar which is operated by both twisting and absorbing shear
stress only.

Part B
Unit-3: Transmission Systems

1. Explain the construction and operation of any two clutches in detail.

2. Explain the construction and operation of any two gearboxes in detail.
3. Explain the working of a fluid flywheel with a neat sketch.
4. Explain the working of a torque converter with a neat sketch.
5. Write short notes on overdrives, propeller shaft,slip joints and differential.

Unit-4: Steering, Brakes and Suspension systems

1. What is the need for wheel alignment? Explain the Wheel Alignment Parameters.
2. Explain the various types of steering gear boxes with neat sketches.
3. Explain the various suspension systems available in automobiles.
4. Explain the braking systems in automobiles.What is diagonal braking system?
5.Explain Anti-lock braking system.
6.Explain EBD and traction control.