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MEASURES OF VARIABILITY

Range The range of a data set is defined to be the difference between the highest and lowest
value in the data set.
R = Highest Value Lowest Value
Mean Deviation measures the average deviation of the values from the arithmetic mean. It
gives equal weight to the deviation of every observation.
MD for ungrouped Data: Where MD = Mean Deviation
xx x = a particular data
MD = n x = sample mean
n = total no. of observations

MD for grouped Data:


Where x = midpoint or class mark
f xx
MD = x = mean
n
n = total no. of observations

VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION


- Used when the mean is the preferred measure of central tendency.
- Shows whether or not the scales are grouped closely around the mean of the distribution.
- (SD) most important and useful measure of dispersion.
- (SD) widely used in research and in drawing inferences from samples to populations
Variance & SD for grouped data
Population


2 2
2 (xM ) (xM )
o= o=
n n o2
Where = variance of population
2
s = variance of sample
Sample o = SD of a population


(x x )2 (x x )2 s = SD of a sample
s 2= s=
n1 n (n1)

Shortcut formula
x


2
( x 2 )
s2 =

For grouped data


2
2 +( x x ) +( xx )2
s= s=
n1 (n1)

Shortcut formula

s 2=
nf + x 2 fx
n(n1)
s=

n f x 2 fx
n( n1)

Examples:
School A: 77, 84, 91, 98, 105
B: 106, 140, 175, 196, 238
C: 98, 98, 98, 98, 98
School A:

x x x (x x )2

77 14 196
84 7 49
91 0 0
98 7 49
105 14 196
x=455 x x = 42 ( xx )2=490

42 490
MD = s 2= =122.5
5 4

x 455
MD = 8.40 x =
n = 5
=91 s= 122.5 = 11.07
School B:
x x x (x x )2

106 65 4225
140 31 961
175 4 16
196 25 625
238 7 6489
x=855 x x = 19 ( xx )2=10,316

192 2 10,316
MD = s= =2579
5 4

x 855
MD = 8.40 x =
n = 5
=171 s= 2579 = 50.78
School C:

x x x 0
MD = 5
98 0
98 0 x
MD = 0 x =
n =
98 0
98 0
98 0
x=490 x x = 0

MEASURES OF VARIABILITY/DISPERSION

Class f x fx x x f x x xx (x x )2 f ( x x )2

61-63 2 62 124 8.93 17.86 -8.93 79.74 159.48


64-66 5 65 325 5.93 29.65 -5.93 35.16 175.80
67-69 12 68 816 2.93 35.16 -2.93 8.58 102.96
70-72 5 71 355 0.07 0.35 0.07 0.005 0.03
73-75 8 74 592 3.07 24.56 3.07 9.42 75.36
76-78 5 77 385 6.07 30.35 6.07 38.84 194.20
79-81 3 80 240 9.07 27.21 9.07 82.26 246.78
f = 40 f = 2,837 f xx = 165.14

f ( x x )2 = 930.61

fx 2837 165.14
x = = = 70.43 MD= = 4.13
n 40 40

2 936.61
s= =24.02
39

s= 24.02 = 4.90

STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION


- A normal distribution can be converted into a standard normal distribution by obtaining
the z-value.
Where z = value
x
z= o x = value of any particular observation
= mean of distribution

Examples:
1. The average PAG-IBIG salary loan for RES pharmacy Inc. Employees is P 23,000. If the
debt is normally distributed with a standard deviation of P 2,500, find the probability that
the employee owes less than P18,500.
= P 23,000
x P 18,500 P 23,000
o = P 2,500
z= o 2,500
x = P 18,500
z = between
2. Find the area under the normal distribution curve 1.8 z = 0 and z = 1.85.
P (0 < z < 1.85) = 0.4678
= 46.78%

3. Between 0 and z =0-1.151.85


P (-1.15 < z < 0) = 0.3749
= 37.49%

0 1.85
4. To the right of z = 1.15 P (z > 1.15) = 0.5 0.3749
= 0.65%

5. Left of z = -1.85 0 1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


= 0.0322

6. Left of z = -1.85 0 1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


= 0.0322

7. Left of z = -1.85 0 1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


= 0.0322

8. Left of z = -1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


0 1.85 = 0.0322

9. Left of z = -1.85 0 1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


= 0.0322

10. Left of z = -1.85 0 1.85 P (z < -1.85) = 0.5 10.4678


= 0.0322

0 1.85

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNTING


- Guiding rule for finding the no. of ways to accomplish a task.
m x n = mn ways
Examples:
1. 1 2 3 4 = 16 ways
12 13 14 21 31 41 23 24 34 32 42 43 11 22 33 44
2. How many 3 digit numbers can be form from the digits 1,2,3,4,5 if any no. can be repeated.
n1 x n2 x n3 =outcomes

5 x 5 x 5 = 125 possible outcomes


3. The club members are going to elect their officers. If there are 4 candidates for the president, 3
for vice president and 2 for secretary, in how many ways can the officers be represents?
4 x 3 x 2 = 24 ways
4. In how many ways can the Ms. Universe, the 1 st runner up and the 2nd runner up be chosen
from 10 finalists?
10 x 9 x 8 = 720 ways
5. An executive plan to buy a car. When he goes to a car dealer, he is informed that there are 3
brands available. Each of the 3 brands has 4 models and each of the models has 3 colours. Based
on the information, in how many ways can executive choose the car?
3 x 4 x 3 = 36 ways
6. Consider the numbers 2, 3, 5, & 7. If repetition is not allowed how many 3 digit numbers can
be formed such that:
a. they are all odd 3 x 2 x 3 = 18 ways
b. they are all even 3 x 3 x 1 = 6 ways
c. greater than 500 2 x 3 x 2 = 12 ways