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Wireline Services Catalog

The services in this catalog are grouped


by their applications. Each service is
briefly described and its measurement
and mechanical specifications listed.
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*Mark of Schlumberger 2015 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.

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Schlumberger
3750 Briarpark Drive
Houston, Texas 77042
slb.com
Copyright 2015 Schlumberger. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transcribed
in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and
recording, without the prior written permission of the publisher. While the information
presented herein is believed to be accurate, it is provided as is without express or
implied warranty. Specifications are current at the time of printing. Temperature
ratings are for the internal tool components.
14-FE-0074
An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to denote a mark of Schlumberger.
Othercompany, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.
Cover photograph of the Discoverer Enterprise courtesy of Transocean.

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Contents
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Health, Safety, and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Health, Safety, and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
HSE Management System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
HSE Policy Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Surface Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Surface acquisition and imaging systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Data delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
InterACT* global connectivity, collaboration, and information service . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Data formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Telemetry systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Field units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Optimum Service LandCarrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Universal Payload Medium Service Land Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
18,000- and 26,000-lbf offshore units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Wireline high-tension conveyance systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Integrated wireline conveyance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Well Conveyance Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Conveyance in the hostile conditions of high pressure andhigh temperature . . . . 17
Strengthening cable capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Improving surface equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Enhancing telemetry and downholetool power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
TuffLINE* torque-balanced composite wireline cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
UltraTRAC* and UltraTRAC Mono* all-terrainwireline tractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
TuffTRAC* and TuffTRAC Mono* casedholeservices tractors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
MaxTRAC* downhole wireline tractor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Drillpipe-assisted wireline deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
LWF* logging-while-fishing service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
TLC* tough logging conditionssystem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Depth measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Logging Platforms and Suites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Scanner Family* rock and fluid characterization services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Openhole Scanner services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Cased hole Scanner services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Platform Express* integrated wireline logging tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
ThruBit* through-the-bit logging services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Multi Express* slim multiconveyance formation evaluation platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Xtreme* HPHT well logging platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
SlimXtreme* slimhole HPHT well logging platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
IPL* integrated porosity lithology service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
ABC* analysis behind casing services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Carbonate Advisor* petrophysics and productivity analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
DecisionXpress* petrophysical evaluation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
DeepLook-EM* crosswell electromagnetic imaging service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
PS Platform* production services platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

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Dielectric Dispersion Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Dielectric Scanner* multifrequencydielectricdispersion service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Resistivity Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Rt Scanner* triaxial induction service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Induction tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
AIT* array induction imager tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Platform Express array induction imager tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Hostile Environment Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
SlimXtreme Array Induction Imager Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Laterolog tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
ARI* azimuthal resistivityimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
HRLA* high-resolution laterolog array tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
High-Resolution Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Microresistivity tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
MicroSFL* spherically focused resistivity tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Micro-Cylindrically Focused Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Powered Caliper Device with microlog tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
CHFR-Plus* and CHFR-Slim* casedholeformationresistivity tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Nuclear Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Gamma ray tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Spectral gamma ray tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
NGS* natural gamma ray spectrometry tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Hostile Environment Natural Gamma Ray Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Litho Scanner* high-definition spectroscopy service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
ECS* elemental capture spectroscopy sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Neutron porosity tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
CNL* compensated neutron logging tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Highly Integrated Gamma Ray Neutron Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
SlimXtreme Compensated Neutron Porosity Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
CHFP* cased hole formation porosity service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Array Porosity Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
APS* accelerator porosity sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Hostile Environment Accelerator Porosity Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
RSTPro* reservoir saturation tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Density tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Three-Detector Lithology Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Litho-Density* Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Hostile Environment Lithology Density Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
MR Scanner* expert magnetic resonance service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
CMR-Plus* combinable magnetic resonance tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Acoustic Logging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Sonic Scanner* acoustic scanning platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
ThruBit Dipole* through-the-bit acoustic service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
DSI* dipole shear sonic imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Monopole acoustic tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Digital Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
SlimXtreme Sonic LoggingTool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

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Dipmeter and Imaging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Quanta Geo* photorealistic reservoir geology service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
FMI-HD* high-definition formation microimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
FMI* fullbore formation microimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
UBI* ultrasonic borehole imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
OBMI* oil-base microimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Drilling and Directional Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
GPIT general purpose inclinometry tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Seismic Imaging Tools and Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Q-Borehole* integrated borehole seismic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
VSI* versatile seismicimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
SWINGS* seismic navigation and positioning system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
TRISOR* acoustic sourcecontrol element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Q-Borehole integrated borehole seismic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
DeepLook-CS* crosswell seismic imaging service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
CSI* combinable seismicimager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Q-Borehole Explorer* high-output, wide-bandwidth truck vibrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Other land seismic sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Marine seismic sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Formation Testing and Sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
MDT Forte* and MDT Forte-HT* rugged and high-temperature modular formation
dynamicstesters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
MDT* modular formation dynamics tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Saturn* 3D radial probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Quicksilver Probe* focused fluidextraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
InSitu Fluid Analyzer* real-time downhole fluid analysis system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Composition* and InSitu CO2* sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu GOR* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Color* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Density* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Viscosity* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Fluorescence* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu pH* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
InSitu Resistivity* sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Pressure and temperature sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Fluid profiling characterization of reservoir fluid properties variation . . . . . . . . . . . 154
InSitu Pro* real-time quality control andinterpretation software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
Advanced MDT tester modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Dual-Packer Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Dual-Probe Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Flow-Control Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
Pumpout Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161
LFA* live fluid analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
CFA* composition fluid analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
MDT tester low-shock sampling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
MDT tester Multisample Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

Contents v

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PressureXpress-HT* high-temperature reservoir pressure service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
PressureXpress* reservoir pressure while logging service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
SRFT* slimhole repeat formation tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
CHDT* cased hole dynamics tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
XL-Rock* large-volume rotary sidewall coring service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174
MSCT* mechanical sidewall coring tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
CST* chronological sample taker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
Well Integrity Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179
Isolation Scanner* cement evaluation service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Cement bond logging tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
SlimXtreme Sonic LoggingTool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Cement bond log from Digital Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Cement bond log from Hostile Environment Sonic Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Slim Cement Mapping Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Memory Slim Cement Bond Logging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
USI* ultrasonic imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
EM Pipe Scanner* electromagnetic casing inspection tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Corrosion monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
UCI* ultrasonic casing imager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Production Logging Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Flow Scanner* horizontal and deviated well production logging system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
PS Platform production services platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
RSTPro reservoir saturation tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
WFL* water flow log from the RSTPro reservoir saturation tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
RSTPro tool with silica activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
CPLT* combinable production logging tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Combinable Gamma Ray Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Phase Velocity Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
FloView* holdup measurement tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Multiple-Isotope Spectroscopy Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Perforating Services and Accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
SPAN Rock* stressed rock perforating analysis andSchlumberger premium charges . . 211
PowerJet Nova* extradeep penetrating shaped charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
PowerJet Omega* deep penetrating perforating shaped charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
PFrac Nova* perforating charge for optimizing stimulation treatment . . . . . . . . . . . 212
PowerFlow* slug-free big hole shaped charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Perforating explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
Gun systems and charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Capsule gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Enerjet* expendable strip gun system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
Pivot Gun* through-tubing perforating gun system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214
PowerSpiral* spiral-phased capsule perforating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Hollow carrier perforating gun systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
HSD* high shot density perforating gun system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Fractal* multistage stimulation perforating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Frac Gun multistage fracture stimulation perforating gun system . . . . . . . . . . 216

vi Wireline Services Catalog

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PURE* clean perforations system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Detonation systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Secure2* RF-safe electronic detonator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
S.A.F.E.* slapper-actuated firing equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
ASFS* addressable-switch firing system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Perforating accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Casing collar locator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
UPCT* universal perforating and correlation tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
PGGT* powered gun gamma tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
WPP* wireline perforating platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Wireline Oriented Perforating Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Through-tubing perforating positioning devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Magnetic Positioning Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Spring Positioning Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Wireline Perforating Anchor Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Cutters and colliding tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
PowerCutter* precision tubular cutter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
Punchers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232
Well Intervention Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
ReSOLVE* instrumented wireline intervention service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
High-force linear actuator tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Selective universal shifting tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Nonexplosive setting tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Milling tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Casing Packer Setting Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Gauge ring and junk basket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
PosiSet* mechanical plugback tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Auxiliary Measurements and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Caliper log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
Auxiliary Compression Tension Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Environmental Measurement Sonde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
FPIT* free-point indicator tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
CERT* correlated electromagnetic retrieval tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

Contents vii

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Introduction

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Introduction

During the early 1900s Conrad and with the companys 15 product lines, the in cased wells, including measurements
Marcel Schlumberger experimented GeoMarket regions provide a powerful that until recently were available only
with surface electrical measurements as conduit through which information in openhole environments. On a larger
a way of defining the Earths subsurface and know-how flow to the customers, scale, efficient decision making for
structure. In 1927 they performed their and through which Schlumberger full-field enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
experiment in an oil well in France for engineers and geoscientists maximize projects progresses from measurements
the Pechelbronn Oil Company. technological synergies over the entire for determining feasibility to pilot
The result was the first electrical life of the field. projects for understanding the complex
log, and it showed conclusively that geo- The importance of the timely flow interaction of injected agents with
logic formations penetrated by the drill of information is especially true in the existing reservoir fluids in the ever-
could be identified by electrical mea- oil and gas industry, where critical changing downhole environment.
surements. The electric log gave eyes to decisions hinge upon the availability of Production logging, cement and
the oil finders, who previously could rely data. Data acquired by Schlumberger corrosion evaluation, and nuclear
only on drill cuttings and coresamples. is made available to operators in real measurements made after casing has
In the years since that historicevent time by using the Internet and satellite been set are increasingly used to identify
in France, Schlumberger has become communication networks. Decisions problems and monitor well performance.
the worlds leading supplier of technol- made on the basis of these data can be The comprehensive Schlumberger line
ogy, integrated project management, implemented quickly and efficiently. of production services is engineered
and information solutions to custom- As wells proliferate in deeper water for safety, reliability, and performance.
ers working in the oil and gas industry depths with attendant high pressures New perforation systems have also been
worldwide. Employing approximately and high temperatures, the operating developed with a focus on maximizing
123,000 people representing over envelope of logging tools is also being production by engineering shaped
140nationalities and working in more expanded to provide the same reliable charges to shoot deeper in stressed rock
than 85 countries, Schlumberger pro- performance and high-quality data as at downhole pressures and temperatures.
vides the industrys widest range of in conventional wells. Similarly, well The services in this catalog are
products and services from exploration geometries are becoming increasingly grouped according to their applications.
through production. complex. To meet this challenge, A brief description of each service
Schlumberger is organized as an most logging tools in use today can be and its measurement and mechanical
integrated oilfield services company conveyed on drillpipe, coiled tubing, or specifications are included. For
in GeoMarket* regions that provide wireline tractors to address a wide range more information on designing a
customers with a single point of contact of well conditions. logging program to meet your specific
at the local level for field operations and Oil fields around the world are aging, needs, contact your Schlumberger
bring together geographically focused driving an increasing need to evaluate representative.
teams to meet local needs and deliver old wells. Schlumberger provides state-
customized solutions. Working together of-the-art formation evaluation services

Wireline Services Catalog Introduction 3

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Health, Safety, and
the Environment

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Health, Safety, and
the Environment
Schlumberger has a long-standing HSE The HSE Management System model These are continuously improved by
commitment to the highest standards comprises eight interrelated components: conformance checks
for the health and safety of our employ- commitment and leadership on day-to-day standards and
ees, customers, and contractors as well andaccountability procedures (controls)
as to the protection of the environment policies and objectives on the management system
in the communities in which we live
organization and resources (correction)
and work.
through modifications to
contractor and supplier

management the management system


HSE Management System risk management
(improvement).
The Schlumberger HSE Management business processes
System defines the principles by which
performance monitoring and
we conduct our operations worldwide
with regards to health, safety, and the improvement
environment. audits and reviews.

Management communicates the


HSE philosophy to all employees, cus-
tomers, contractors, and third parties
associated with our business, and each
Schlumberger organization must pro-
vide positive evidence of conformance to
thesystem.

Commitment and Leadership and Accountability

Policies and Objectives Improvement

Organization and Resources

Contractor and Supplier Management


Corrections

Risk Management

Business Processes

Performance Monitoring and Improvement Controls

Audits and Reviews

Wireline Services Catalog Health, Safety, and the Environment 7

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HSE Policy Statement
Statement from Paal Kibsgaard, Schlumberger Chief Executive Officer
The long-term business success of Schlumberger depends on our ability to continually improve the
quality of our services and products while protecting people and the environment. Emphasis must be
placed on ensuring human health, operational safety, environmental protection, quality enhancement,
and community goodwill. This commitment is in the best interests of our customers, our employees and
contractors, our stockholders, and the communities in which we live and work.
Schlumberger requires the active commitment to, and accountability for, QHSE from all employees
and contractors. Line management has a leadership role in the communication and implementation of,
and ensuring compliance with, QHSE policies and standards. We are committed to
Protect, and strive for improvement of, the health, safety and security of our people at all times;

Eliminate Quality non-conformances and HSE accidents;

Meet specified customer requirements and ensure continuous customer satisfaction;

Set Quality & HSE performance objectives, measure results, assess and continually improve processes,

services and product quality, through the use of an effective management system;
Plan for, respond to and recover from any emergency, crisis and business disruption;

Minimize our impact on the environment through pollution prevention, reduction of natural resource

consumption and emissions, and the reduction and recycling of waste;


Apply our technical skills to all HSE aspects in the design and engineering of our services and products;

Communicate openly with stakeholders and ensure an understanding of our QHSE policies, standards,

programs and performance. Reward outstanding QHSE performance;


Improve our performance on issues relevant to our stakeholders that are of global concern and on

which we can have an impact, and share with them our knowledge of successful QHSE programs
andinitiatives.
This Policy shall be regularly reviewed to ensure ongoing suitability. The commitments listed are
in addition to our basic obligation to comply with Schlumberger standards, as well as all applicable
laws and regulations where we operate. This is critical to our business success because it allows us
tosystematically minimize all losses and adds value for all our stakeholders.

Paal Kibsgaard
Chief Executive Officer
Last Update on 14 December 2011

8 Wireline Services Catalog

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Surface Systems

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Surface Acquisition and Imaging Systems

All Schlumberger new-generation and three-phase AC) at more than comparable to those from a processing
wireline logging units are equipped 3times the output power of the MAXIS center, and real-time data transmission
with the Enhanced Wireline Acquisition system. In the event of a modular unit via satellite or the communications
Front-End (eWAFE). The eWAFE failure, the field engineer can switch module built into the eWAFE system.
systems modular, versatile, and fully to the built-in backup module with In combination with InterACT* global
redundant architecture improves on minimum downtime. connectivity, collaboration, and infor-
the predecessor MAXIS* multitask The eWAFE system interfaces down- mation service, the eWAFE system
acquisition and imaging system to enable hole tools with the high-end acquisition securely delivers real-time log data
combining and conveying the latest and and data-recording processors of the from remote sites to support timely deci-
most complex array of sensors in the Modular Configuration MAXIS system sion making concerning the reservoir
Schlumberger portfolio. Under the full (MCM) through MaxWell* integrated and well.
configuration, eight programmable, field acquisition software. MaxWell soft-
high-density universal power modules ware provides data acquisition and tool
(UPMs) can simultaneously supply control functionality, real-time playback
several types of power (AC, DC, EMEX, capabilities, wellsite answer solutions

Wireline Services Catalog Surface Systems 11

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Data Delivery

Schlumberger recognizes that the data The wellsite engineer simply uploads install and maintain the system in the
gathered in the field must be transferred graphical or digital data to the InterACT customers office.
to the users as reliably and as quickly as website for remote users to view or The same process used for internal
possible. To this end, Schlumberger has analyze in real time. Formats supported team members easily controls partner
a proven global data delivery network include Digital Log Information Standard access to data. Because the data reside
that securely, reliably, and efficiently (DLIS), Log ASCII Standard (LAS), and centrally in the system database, there
transfers data from remote sites. Data American Standard Code for Information is no need for continual updates and
can be transmitted from the wellsite and Interchange (ASCII) for digital data distribution. Partners access specified
forwarded via e-mail, facsimile, and File and Picture Description System (PDS), data at the operators discretion.
Transfer Protocol (FTP). Schlumberger Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), or
InterACT global connectivity, collabora- many other file types for graphical data.
tion, and information service furthers The embedded log graphics viewer Data formats
real-time data accessibility from a Web provides options to view and manipulate MaxWell integrated field acquisition
browser. InterACT service supports wireline data. For example, wireline and software creates and records three
transfer of real-time wireline, drilling, drilling data can be viewed concurrently industry formats:
and completion data on the same log presentation. DLISCreated by Schlumberger

secure, managed sharing of project


During operations such as reservoir initially as the Log Information
sampling, experts at different loca- Standard (LIS), DLIS is the
data with third parties and partners
tions can collaborate on data viewed or industry standard today for
all project data gathered in one
interpreted in real time for immediate allwellacquisition data.
location, regardless of who produced decision making on critical issues. LAS and ASCIIThis reduced
them. The most difficult part of data
dataset is regularly used for
exchange is sending data from a remote
interpretation conducted on
site. Because local telecommunication
standard PCs and is compatible
InterACT global connectivity, systems in some areas can be unreli-
with customer-proprietary and
able, Schlumberger uses proprietary
collaboration, and transfer protocols to ensure robust
commercially available software.
information service data transfer. Encrypted data are com- Portable document format (PDF)

InterACT global connectivity, collabo- pressed for efficiency, and automatic This file format for electronic
ration, and information service is a link recovery is available if telecommu- images is used for graphical display,
user-friendly, intuitive system that nications breaks occur. This superior manipulation, and printing of data
requires no installation of specialized transfer process means that InterACT curves and imaging logs.
software. From a connection to either service can be used even in areas with Other limited formats can be gener-
the Internet or a local intranet, data unsophisticated communication links. ated upon request.
are downloaded or viewed using inter- InterACT service uses best-in-class
active, customizable graphics viewers security standards for both hardware
on a PC or conveniently on iPhone and software. All data transfer uses
and iPad mobile digital devices by 128-bit Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
using InterACT services app. Real-time encryption. The system meets industry
data can be automatically and continu- security standards, minimizing the risk
ously delivered to and viewed on the of data disclosure. If an intranet-only
users computer or mobile device. solution is preferred, Schlumberger can

12 Wireline Services Catalog

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Telemetry systems cable (AWG 18 and 16 conductors and Low-rate telemetry systemThe
new-generation polymer), EDTS 2.0 Low-Bandwidth Telemetry System
The telemetry system provides the
and EFTB 2.0 use state-of-the-art error (LTS) is the latest addition to extend
interface through which data are
detection and correction protocols to bandwidth coverage to very low data
delivered from the downhole toolstring
ensure highly reliable high-rate data rates for certain services. LTS telemetry
to the surface data acquisition and
transmission with the lowest error rates range from a few hundred bits per
processing system.
rate on cables exceeding 40,000 ft second up to 10 Kbps. LTS operates in
High-rate telemetry systemThe
[12,200m] in length. parallel and transparently to the main
Enhanced Digital Telemetry System
Medium-rate telemetry system EDTS and MTS telemetry systems,
(EDTS) uses an enhanced fast
The Monocable Telemetry System and the related downhole hardware is
tool bus (EFTB) in downhole tools
(MTS) has been specially developed for incorporated in the downhole tool.
to provide data rates up to 2 Mbps
mono cable or coaxial cable operations
for the uplink rate. EDTS and
in cased hole applications. MTS is a
EFTB Versions 2.0 double the data
single-channel quadrature amplitude
transmission bandwidth up to 4 Mbps
modulation (QAM) link with data
and are backward compatible with all
speed rates from 10 to 100 Kbps for the
existing EDTS and EFTB systems. This
uplink rate. MTS comes as a separate
represents a 40% increase in bandwidth
downhole cartridge or is incorporated
compared with the first-generation
in the hardware of a downhole tool
Cable Telemetry System (CTS). Along
using MTS.
with the enhanced wireline hepta

Specifications
EDTC-H Telemetry Cartridge
Temperature rating 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Outside diameter 3.625 in [9.21 cm]

Surface Systems 13

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Field Units

Optimum Service Universal Payload Medium 18,000- and 26,000-lbf


LandCarrier Service Land Carrier offshore units
The Optimum Service Land Carrier The latest generation MediumService Schlumberger heavy-duty modular off-
(OSLC) is used to perform open- or Land Carrier is the Universal Payload shore skid units are used to deploy
cased hole logging operations. The (UPL), which features an eWAFE- standard high-strength cable and
design emphasis for this integrated, equipped (upgradable to fully redun- TuffLINE* 18000 and 26000 torque-
full-service logging carrier minimizes dant eWAFE configuration) medium balanced composite wireline cables.
the overall size of the truck but still service logging cabin that is integrated The OSU-PA and OSU-PB units using
provides full cable capacity by allowing with various chassis by employing TuffLINE 18000 cable can provide
the use of existing large-capacity specifically designed subframes. This instantaneous pull of up to 18,000lbf
winch drum reels (WDRs). The modular design makes it easy to export [80,070 N] for stick prevention and
resulting unit efficiently performs full- the UPL to meet emissions regulations mitigation without a capstan. If oper-
service operations from an inter for different locations. The cabin is ating conditions will result in normal
mediate-size vehicle. The OSLC also fitted onsite on a locally available and logging tension exceeding 13,000 lbf
has excellent off-road capabilities qualified chassis, which avoids delays [57,800N], the OSU-PA or OSU-PB can
through its 64 drive configuration. from lengthy customs clearance and be interfaced with a capstan to pro-
The cabin layout has both the winch emissions compliance determination vide up to 21,500-lbf [95,640-N] pull
operator and engineer facing the rig. for a fully integrated vehicle. North capacity with standard high-strength
The three versions of the OSLC are American integration is conducted in cable. The OSU-N unit interfaced with
equipped with the fully redundant the USA, Southeast Asia (right-hand the 26,000lbf [115,660N] capstan
eWAFE acquisition system and can drive) integration is in Australia, and and TuffLINE 26000 cable can provide
carry a maximum of 28,000 ft [8,500m] all others are in France. The UPL 26,000-lbf pull capacity with more than
of 7-46 standard cable or 26,500 ft replaces the MAXIS Express* Medium 43,000ft [13,100 m] of cable capacity
[8,080 m] of high-power, high-tension Service Land Carrier (MSLC) with on the drum.
hepta cable on the WDR-42 drum. similar specifications: 44 or 42 The OSU-PB and the MONU-B are
OSLC-G is built on the Renault chassis, 16,000 ft [4,880 m] of stan- CE-marked electrohydraulic units
Trucks 64 K 380 chassis meeting dard 7-46 logging cable on the WDR-56 certified for Zone 2 operations.
Euro 5 emissions regulations in drum, and suitable for most openhole
Europe or Euro 3 outside Europe and cased hole operations.
and North America.
OSLC-H is the equivalent North

American truck, compliant with


US EPA 2007 and recent 2010
emissions regulations. It is built on
the Kenworth 64 T800 chassis.
OSLC-F is similar to the OSLC-G.

Built on the Renault 66 K 380


chassis and equipped with Euro 3
engines, its main application is
offroad desert operations.

14 Wireline Services Catalog

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Specifications
OSU-PA and OSU-PB MONU-B Offshore Unit OSU-N Offshore Unit
Offshore Units
Modular components Power pack module (POSU): Power pack module (EHPS): Power pack module (POSU):
Diesel (OSU-PA) Electrohydraulic Redundant, dualelectrohydraulic,
Electrohydraulic (OSU-PB) Logging module (ONCC): baseframe mounted
Logging module (COSU): Offshore NORSOK-compliant cabin Logging module (COSU):
High-tension cabin Winch module (WDDS or WOSU): Ultradeepwater cabin
Winch module (WOSU): Zonerated WDDS with High-tension cabin
High-tension WOSU WDR-59 drum Winch module (WOSU):
with WDR59 drum High-tension WOSU Ultradeepwater WOSU
with WDR-59 drum with WDR-70 drum
High-tension WOSU
with WDR-59 drum
Acquisition system Full-configuration Full-configuration Full-configuration
dual eWAFE system dual eWAFE system dual eWAFE system
Drum capacity WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000 WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000 WDR-70 with TuffLINE 26000
cable:33,000 ft [10,060 m] cable:33,000ft [10,060 m] cable:43,000ft[13,100 m]
WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000
cable:33,000ft[10,060 m]
Pull capacity without capstan WOSU: 18,000 lbf [80,070 N] WDDS: 11,400 lbf [50,710 N] 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
WOSU: 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
Capstan pull capability Zone-rated, deck-mounted dual drum ATEX zone-rated, CE-marked, Zone-rated, deck-mounted dual drum
(WDDC-BB): 24,000 lbf [106,760 N] deck- orderrick-mounted dual drum (WDDC-BC): 26,000lbf [115,660 N]
ATEX zone-rated, CE-marked, deck- (ZPPC):24,000lbf [106,760 N]
orderrick-mounted dual drum
(ZPPC): 24,000 lbf [106,760 N]
Special applications Single or modular deployment Modular deployment Single deployment
DNV 2.7-1, 2.7-2, 2-22 WOSU: DNV 2.7-1, 2.7-2, 2-22 DNV 2.7-1
OSU-PB: CE and ATEX Zone 2 NORSOK and CE Zone 2 Quick-swap winch drum capability

Surface Systems 15

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Wireline High-Tension Conveyance Systems

Integrated wireline tension relief, WellSKATE* low-friction This comprehensive planning tool
well conveyance accessories, and the recommends the optimal conveyance
conveyance SureLOC* electronically controlled system while identifying system
From conventional well environments cable release device (ECRD) as components that exceed specifications.
to ultradeep and highly deviated designed using the Well Conveyance The user can modify operational
wells and where increased pulling Planner means that well trajectories conditions and equipment and also
power is required, Schlumberger and conditions that were not previously specify customer requirements for
provides efficient and reliable wireline wireline accessible no longer have the planner to recompute conveyance
conveyance. The deployment of to automatically resort to alternative capabilities. To avoid the operational
TuffLINE torque-balanced composite methods of conveyance. As necessary, limitations of mechanical weakpoints
wireline cable on an integrated high- wireline deployment can be augmented and previous-generation ECRDs, a
tension conveyance system expands with the use of wireline tractors. SureLOC cable release device is used.
wireline data acquisition capabilities The design can also incorporate a
with unprecedented improvements wide range of WellSKATE low-friction
in safety, efficiency, reliability, and Well Conveyance Planner conveyance accessories to significantly
sticking avoidance, especially for high- Reliable conveyance for both routine decrease the risk of differential sticking
tension operations. The integration and high-tension operations begins by rolling instead of sliding to reduce
of high-strength cable, heavy-duty with calculation of the pulling friction coefficients and by keeping the
modular logging units, an optional capabilities and associated operating toolstring away from the borehole wall.
capstan package providing complete risk by the Well Conveyance Planner.

Sheave hanger

Sheave wheel

TuffLINE cable Winch drum

Optional capstan Offshore unit

Tieback sling

Weakpoint Capstan-free pull capability: 18,000 lbf


Pull capability with capstan:
TuffLINE 26000 cable: 26,000 lbf

SureLOC
cable release device

Antisticking accessories

The integrated wireline high-tension conveyance system provides efficient and reliable deployment.

16 Wireline Services Catalog

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Specifications environment: HPHT, ultradeepwater,
SureLOC Cable Release Device
extended-reach, and complex trajectory
wells. The efficiency gains resulting from
Safe working load SureLOC 8000: 8,000 lbf [35,580 N]
SureLOC 12000: 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
wireline logging of ultradeep wells by
using the integrated conveyance system
Max. tool-release head tension At surface: 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
translate to significant cost savings for
Temperature rating SureLOC 8000: 400 degF [204 degC] the operator.
SureLOC 12000: 500 degF [260 degC]
TuffLINE torque-balanced compos-
Pressure rating SureLOC 8000: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
SureLOC 12000: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
ite wireline cable employs the break-
through technology of polymer-locked
Special applications SureLOC 12000: MP35N HS-resistant alloy
armors to effectively overcome the
fundamental limitations of conven-
tional armored cables. The result is
Conveyance in the hostile Strengthening cable not just high-strength capability, but
conditions of high pressure capabilities also unprecedented improvements in
andhigh temperature When ultradeep wells are logged, their safety. TuffLINE 26000 cable is the
Wireline formation evaluation technol- pressure and temperature are not the industrys highest-strength cable, with
ogy and its conveyance are put to the only concerns: extreme depths limit a safe working load (SWL) of 26,000 lbf
test when logging deep wells. As wells conventional high-strength wireline [115,650 N] and an ends-free break-
get deeper, the pressure and tempera- conveyance because of the high surface ing strength in excess of 40,000 lbf
ture rise, which increases the risks asso- tension that results from increased [178,000 N].
ciated with deployment and operation. drag and the weight of the logging Polymer locking of the inner and
Wells with static bottomhole tempera- cable itself. Deploying logging tools on outer armors balances TuffLINE 18000
tures greater than 302degF [150degC], drillpipe using the TLC* tough logging cables torque in a consistent low state.
bottomhole pressures higher than conditions system can overcome these With only negligible torque buildup
20,000 psi [138MPa], or both conditions limitations, but TLC operations take possible, birdcaging and premature cable
are generally regarded as high pressure, more time and cost more because of breakage are prevented. TuffLINE18000
high temperature (HPHT). However, the reduced efficiency associated cable also incorporates a unique
despite the increased risks and costs of with tripping drillpipe. To solve the polymer-reinforced crush-resistant core.
HPHT operations, the number of deep ultradeep well dilemma, TuffLINE
and ultradeep wells drilled continues 18000 and 26000 composite cables were
to grow worldwide. The challenges that developed as the central element of Improving surface equipment
the depths, pressures, and tempera- the integrated wireline high-tension Improved surface equipment is another
tures of these wells present to forma- conveyance system. From the cable critical component of the integrated
tion evaluation are met by the following through the surface equipment, the conveyance system for deploying
significant technological developments system provides a complete conveyance TuffLINE 18000 and 26000 cables at
in conveyance. solution for every possible extreme well high tension and in HPHT conditions.
Operations with continuous logging
tensions of 13,000 lbf [57,800 N] or
650 lower can deploy TuffLINE cable
High temperature
using a Schlumberger modular heavy-
High pressure
550 duty offshore unit without involving a
capstan, which significantly reduces
Reservoir 450 risk. When logging tension exceeds
temperature, 13,000 lbf or maximum pull tension
degF 350
in excess of 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
is required, an optional dual-drum
capstan can be employed. The dual-
250 drum capstan is a powered multisheave
Conventional conveyance system that is placed
150 between the well and the logging
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 unit to decrease the cable tension
Reservoir pressure, psi below the cable-crushing tension of
Global HPHT conditions pose challenges for wireline deployment and operations. 8,000 lbf [35,580 N] before the cable

Surface Systems 17

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is spooled onto the storage drum. Full amounts of data uphole to the surface. 40,000ft [12,190m]. Combining tools
integration of capstan control with Because of physical limitations, data reduces the number of descents in the
the storage drum provides a safer, transmission telemetry systems have well, saving an average of 12 h or more
seamless operation and enables the proved to be unreliable at extreme well per trip on a deepwater rig.
winch operator to focus on the well depths. When long cables are run in Complementing TuffLINE cables
conditions. The specially designed deep wells, the amount of power and high-capacity electrical power and
high-tension dual-drum system telemetry bandwidth available at the telemetry capabilities, the OSU-PA and
conveying TuffLINE 26000 cable can tool end is limited by the cable conduc- OSU-PB surface units are Det Norske
safely sustain 26,000-lbf tension in tor line resistance. Increasing the well Veritas (DNV) 2.22 certified to pull
the well at conveyance speeds to temperature raises the line resistance to 18,000 lbf. The OSU-N unit com-
15,000ft/h [4,570m/h]. and adversely affects cable transmission bined with the high-tension dual-drum
characteristics, further limiting power capstan system can store 43,000 ft
and telemetry transmission. [13,100 m] of TuffLINE 26000 cable
Unlike standard high-strength and sustain 26,000-lbf tension. All
Enhancing telemetry and cables, TuffLINE 18000 cable has these high-tension heavy-duty units are
downholetool power 18 AWG gauge conductors and equipped with the highly integrated
The extralong cables required for TuffLINE 26000 cable has industry- Enhanced Wireline Acquisition Front-
ultradeep well logging must be capa- leading 16 AWG gauge conductors End (eWAFE) acquisition system to pro-
ble of transmitting sufficient power enabling reliable conveyance of tool vide full redundancy, increased power,
downhole to run high-power, complex combinations longer than 175 ft and enhanced telemetry for deploying
toolstrings while enabling seamless [53 m] and at 4,000-lbf [17,790N] large, seamless tool combinations in
transmission of increasingly larger weight in well depths exceeding ultradeep wells.

Specifications
OSU-PA and OSU-PB MONU-B Offshore Unit OSU-N Offshore Unit
Offshore Units
Modular components Power pack module (POSU): Power pack module (EHPS): Power pack module (POSU):
Diesel (OSU-PA) Electrohydraulic Redundant, dualelectrohydraulic,
Electrohydraulic (OSU-PB) Logging module (ONCC): baseframe mounted
Logging module (COSU): Offshore NORSOK-compliant cabin Logging module (COSU):
High-tension cabin Winch module (WDDS or WOSU): Ultradeepwater cabin
Winch module (WOSU): Zonerated WDDS with High-tension cabin
High-tension WOSU WDR-59 drum Winch module (WOSU):
with WDR59 drum High-tension WOSU Ultradeepwater WOSU
with WDR-59 drum with WDR-70 drum
High-tension WOSU
with WDR-59 drum
Acquisition system Full-configuration Full-configuration Full-configuration
dual eWAFE system dual eWAFE system dual eWAFE system
Drum capacity WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000 WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000 WDR-70 with TuffLINE 26000
cable:33,000 ft [10,060 m] cable:33,000ft [10,060 m] cable:43,000ft[13,100 m]
WDR-59 with TuffLINE 18000
cable:33,000ft[10,060 m]
Pull capacity without capstan WOSU: 18,000 lbf [80,070 N] WDDS: 11,400 lbf [50,710 N] 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
WOSU: 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
Capstan pull capability Zone-rated, deck-mounted dual drum ATEX zone-rated, CE-marked, Zone-rated, deck-mounted dual drum
(WDDC-BB): 24,000 lbf [106,760 N] deck- orderrick-mounted dual drum (WDDC-BC): 26,000lbf [115,660 N]
ATEX zone-rated, CE-marked, deck- (ZPPC):24,000lbf [106,760 N]
orderrick-mounted dual drum
(ZPPC): 24,000 lbf [106,760 N]
Special applications Single or modular deployment Modular deployment Single deployment
DNV 2.7-1, 2.7-2, 2-22 WOSU: DNV 2.7-1, 2.7-2, 2-22 DNV 2.7-1
OSU-PB: CE and ATEX Zone 2 NORSOK and CE Zone 2 Quick-swap winch drum capability

18 Wireline Services Catalog

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TuffLINE
Torque-Balanced Composite Wireline Cable
With high-strength capability, cable cable in a permanent ends-fixed Incorporation of 18 AWG gauge
conveyance remains the most cost- situation, which raises the ends-free connectors in TuffLINE 18000 cable
effective method for deploying tools breaking strength safety margins to an and AWG 16 gauge connectors in
in and out of wells. For increasing unprecedented 9,000lbf [40,000N] for TuffLINE 26000 cable enables the
well depths, trajectory complexity, TuffLINE 18000 cable and 10,000 lbf reliable conveyance of significantly
and toolstring weight, Schlumberger [44,450 N] for TuffLINE 26000 cable larger, seamless tool combinations in
has developed TuffLINE 18000 and above the safe working load. deeper wells.
26000 ultrastrength wireline cables The multilayered core of TuffLINE
for operations with up to 18,000 lbf 18000 cable is crushproof. Cold flow
[80,070N] and 26,000lbf [115,650N] and the permanent deformation it Applications
tension, respectively. TuffLINE 18000 causes are further prevented by the Deepwater and ultradeepwater
and 26000 composite cables employ polymer locking of the armors. Spooling wells
the breakthrough technology of tensions to 13,000 lbf [57,800 N] and Extended-reach and complex
polymer-locked armors to overcome instantaneous pull to 18,000 lbf are trajectory wells
the fundamental limitations of current possible for TuffLINE 18000 cable Deepwater wells with rig-up
armored cables. Polymer locking of without requiring use of a tension- constraints for capstan operations
both the inner and outer armors means relief capstan or having to resort to
Reservoir sampling and pressure
that the cable is torque balanced, time-consuming pipe-conveyed opera-
remaining in a consistent state of tions. TuffLINE 26000 cable can be measurement involving long
low torque to prevent birdcaging and spooled at any tension up to 26,000 lbf station times with long and
premature cable breakage. Polymer because it is deployed with a capstan. heavytoolstrings
locking of the armors prevents rotation
to effectively maintain TuffLINE

Specifications
TuffLINE 18000 Cable TuffLINE 26000 Cable
Ends-fixed breaking strength 28,000 lbf [124,550 N] >40,000 lbf [>178,000 N]
Ends-free breaking strength 27,000 lbf [120,100 N] >36,000 lbf [>160,150 N]
Safe working load 18,000 lbf [80,070 N] 26,000 lbf [115,650 N]
Temperature rating 1 h: 465 degF [241 degC] 1 h: 465 degF [241 degC]
24 h: 240 degF [232 degC] 24 h: 240 degF [232 degC]
Cable OD 0.5 in [1.27 cm] 0.535 in [1.36 cm]
Cable weight In air: 416 lbm/1,000 ft [189 kg/300 m] In air: 524 lbm/1,000 ft [234 kg/300 m]
In freshwater: 331 lbm/1,000 ft [150 kg/300 m] In freshwater: 425 lbm/1,000 ft [190 kg/300 m]
Max. (rms) voltage, V Per helical conductor: 800 Per helical conductor: 780
Center conductor: 1,250 Center conductor: 1,235
Max. current per conductor, A 1.61 2.6

Surface Systems 19

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UltraTRAC and UltraTRAC Mono
AllTerrainWireline Tractors
Delivering the farthest reach in the fitted with wheels from a wide range
UltraTRAC Tractor Configurations industry, the modular UltraTRAC* all- of diameters and proprietary designs
terrain wireline tractor provides the optimized for the well geometry and
highest tractor force available in combi- borehole conditions. Engineered to
nation with reverse tractoring capabil- withstand the impact of perforating
ity, dynamic suspension, and traction gun detonation as well as the vibration
control. The UltraTRAC Mono* tractor generated in rugose boreholes, the
system adds logging-while-tractoring UltraTRAC tractor has low sensitivity to
functionality. Although specifically well conditions.
engineered for openhole operations, The UltraTRAC tractor is a CE certi-
the UltraTRAC tractor performs with fied tool that meets the Low Voltage,
the same reliability in cased hole envi- Machinery, and Pressure Equipment
ronments, making it the ideal tractor Directives of the European Union.
for conveying most wireline openhole The Tractor Planner app for iPad
and cased hole services, especially for devices can be used to identify
deployment on TuffLINE 18000 and UltraTRAC tractor candidates for specific
26000 torque-balanced composite wire- conveyance situations.
2 drive line cables in extended-reach wells
and for heavy payloads.
The traction force applied by the Applications
4 drive bidirectional, high-torque UltraTRAC High-force extended-reach tractor
tractor is precisely controlled from the conveyance:
surface. Sensors incorporated in the Openhole formation evaluation

3 drive
UltraTRAC tractor enable the engineer Openhole formation testing
to monitor tractor response and the
Borehole imaging services
progress of downhole operations as the
automatic radial force regulation and Perforating

dynamic suspension systems continu- Cement and corrosion evaluation


4-drive ously configure the tractor in real time ReSOLVE* instrumented wireline
tandem
for optimal performance. intervention service
In addition to versatility in the
number and configuration of the drive Nonexplosive plug setting
sections, a tandem sub can be added High-force axial shifting
to increase functionality by enabling Selective shifting with a universal
6-drive independent surface control of the shifting tool (UST)
tandem drive above the tandem sub from those Milling
below. The drive section arms extend
ABC* analysis behind casing services
variably and independently to span hole
diameters up to 15 in [38 cm] and are Production logging

8-drive
tandem

20 Wireline Services Catalog

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Mechanical Specifications
UltraTRAC Tractor UltraTRAC Mono Tractor
Output Openhole logging Openhole logging while tractoring
Cased hole perforating, logging, intervention Cased hole perforating, logging while tractoring, intervention
Maximum speed 3,200 ft/h [975 m/h] 2,400 ft/h [730 m/h]
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Hole sizemin. 3.6 in [9.1 cm] 3.6 in [9.1 cm]
Hole sizemax. 15 in [38.1 cm] 15 in [38.1 cm]
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Length Drive sections: 2 to 8 Drive sections: 2 to 6
Min. (2 drives): 15.35 ft [4.68 m] Min. (2 drives): 23.45 ft [7.15 m]
8 drives: 39.19 ft [11.94 m] 6 drives: 46.32 ft [14.12 m]
Max. pull per drive section 400 lbf [1,780 N] 400 lbf [1,780 N]
Max. force 3,200 lbf [14,230 N] 2,400 lbf [10,675 N]
Power, cable requirements AC, heptacable DC, multiconductor cable (mono and hepta)
Depending on wheel size
Depending on the configuration and excluding the 2.8-ft [0.85-m] logging head. The incorporated casing collar locator (CCL), head tension cell, addressable cable-release device,
and shock absorber are standard features that do not add extra length.

Surface Systems 21

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TuffTRAC and TuffTRAC Mono
CasedHoleServices Tractors
The modular TuffTRAC* and TuffTRAC more than 45% conversion efficiency.
TuffTRAC Mono Tractor Configurations Mono* cased hole services tractors The tractor achieves a maximum speed
employ reverse tractoring and traction of 3,200 ft/h [975 m/h] at relatively low
control capability through full control power usage.
of the radial force applied by the tractor To increase safety and reliability,
arms to operate with improved maneu- the TuffTRAC tractor incorporates
verability and reduced slippage. Because a head tension cell, electrical cable
this force applied by the tractor arms is release, casing collar log (CCL), and
independent of borehole size, the tractor addressable perforating safety switch.
drives can achieve the same tractoring Other standard safety components
force in borehole IDs from 3.4 to 10.6 in include a multiple-use shock absorber
[8.6 to 26.9cm]. The tractors low sensi- and fail-safe opening system.
tivity to borehole conditions allows it to The TuffTRAC tractor is CE certi-
deploy any Schlumberger cased hole ser- fied for Low Voltage, Machinery, and
vice, including perforating and plug set- Pressure Equipment Directives.
ting. The TuffTRAC Mono tractor adds The Tractor Planner app for iPad
logging-while-tractoring functionality. devices can be used to identify
The two-drive configuration of UltraTRAC tractor candidates for
the TuffTRAC tractor is the shortest specific conveyance situations.
tractor availableonly 14.2 ft [4.3 m]
in length. The Tractor Planner app for
iPad devices can be used to identify Applications
candidate TuffTRAC tractors. Up to Perforating operations
six modular drive sections can be run Plug setting
as needed to push heavy loads. The Production logging
Two drive tractors low power requirements
sections ABC analysis behind casing services
reduce stress on auxiliary systems,
eliminating the necessity for stops to Cement and corrosion evaluation
Three drive cool down, and its wheels optimize Mechanical intervention operations
sections surface electrical power to achieve

Mechanical Specifications
Four drive TuffTRAC Tractor TuffTRAC Mono Tractor
sections
Output Cased hole perforating, Cased hole perforating, logging, log-
logging, and intervention ging while tractoring, and intervention
Four-drive Maximum speed 3,200 ft/h [975 m/h] 2,400 ft/h [730 m/h]
tandem
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Hole sizemin. 3.4 in [8.6 cm] 3.4 in [8.6 cm]
Hole sizemax. 10.6 in [26.9 cm] 10.6 in [26.9 cm]
Outside diameter 3.125 in [7.94 cm] 3.125 in [7.94 cm]
Six-drive Length Drive sections: 2 to 8 Drive sections: 2 to 6
tandem Min. (2 drives): 11.4 ft [3.5 m] Min. (2 drives): 18.2 ft [5.5 m]
3 drives: 14.2 ft [4.3 m] 3 drives: 21.1 ft [6.4 m]
Max. pull per drive section 300 lbf [1,330 N] 300 lbf [1,330 N]
Max. force 2,400 lbf [10,680 N] 1,800 lbf [8,010 N]
Power, cable requirements AC, heptacable DC, multiconductor cable
(mono and hepta)
Depending on the configuration and excluding the 2.8-ft [0.85-m] logging head. The incorporated CCL, head tension cell, addressable
cable-release device, and shock absorber are standard features that do not add extra length

22 Wireline Services Catalog

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MaxTRAC
Downhole Wireline Tractor
The MaxTRAC* downhole wireline of the cam, which causes the toolstring
tractor employs an inchworm to move forward. This action is
mechanism to extend the reach of synchronized with the other sondes in
wireline logging services in highly the toolstring. The reciprocating action
deviated and horizontal wells. Its of the sondes produces continuous
grip design, high expansion ratio, and motion of the conveyed tools.
compatibility with the telemetry system The Tractor Planner app for iPad
of the logging tools enables it to traverse devices can be used to identify
a wide range of completions in both MaxTRAC tractor candidates for spe-
cased and open holes while logging cific conveyance situations.
is conducted to acquire production
loggingdata.
The integral three-arm grip of Applications
the tractor runs it centralized. A Conveyance in highly deviated
minimum of two tractor sondes are andhorizontal wells
run for standard operations. Up to four Logging operations in perforated
sondes can be combined for additional casing, slotted liners, gravel-pack
flexibility in difficult well conditions. screens, and in-gauge barefoot
The tractor sonde uses a spring-loaded completions
cam to grip the casing in one direction. Perforating
The sonde then pulls the grip section
Production logging
backward against the locking direction

Specifications
MaxTRAC Tractor
Output Downward motion of logging tools
Tractoring speed Standard with 500-lbm [227-kg] load:
1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Max. with 300-lbm [136-kg] load: 2,500 ft/h [762 m/h]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability
Logging while tractoring Tools using PS Platform* production services platform
telemetrysuch as the RSTPro* and SCMT* tools
No logging while tractoring Combinable with most other tools
Combinable with perforating services
Special applications Maximum dogleg severity: 45 per 100 ft [30 m]
in 7-in [17.78-cm] casing
30 per 100 ft in 4-in [11.43-cm] casing

Surface Systems 23

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Drillpipe-Assisted
Wireline Deployment
LWF logging-while-fishing The fishing tools on the rig floor The CSES provides a complete
are then removed from the wireline, cable seal up to 5,000-psi [34MPa]
service and the tool is repowered to prepare differential pressure. All standard tools
LWF* logging-while-fishing service for engagement of the overshot and are rated to 20,000 psi [138 MPa].
saves time and reduces cost by enabling tool. The speed of the operation now The TLC system enables conducting
the resumption of logging operations increases because tripping drillpipe is operations in otherwise impossible con-
during fishing. In most cases, employ- quicker than threading cable through ditions. A key component of TLC system
ing LWF service eliminates the condi- drillpipe. When the stuck tool is operations is thorough prejob planning
tioning trip required before relogging reached, engagement is less likely to that accounts for tool compressional
because the fishing job is converted to damage the tool because the reestab- and tensile strengths (especially for
a drillpipe-assisted log that completes lished electrical communication allows induction and sonic tools), hole and
the original descent in the wellbore. monitoring tension at the tool in addi- casing sizes, drillpipe internal diameter
LWF service can be used with most tion to the usual drillers method. and conditions, and well conditions.
stuck wireline tools. Operations begin Once the tool is freed, logging is con- Because of the longer operational
by preparing the wireline for cut-and- ducted on the TLC tough logging condi- time related to deployment on the TLC
thread fishing. The connected rope tions system to continue the recording system, special considerations apply
sockets on the cable ends are housed of continuous or stationary logs. when well temperatures exceed 350degF
in a load-bearing protective torpedo [174 degC]. The logging program must
to reestablish both the mechanical be planned to reduce logging time at
connection and electrical communica-
tion with the stuck toolstring. The tool
TLC tough logging high temperatures. Wireline tools are
typically rated to 350 degF, and all higher
overshot and drillpipe are threaded conditionssystem temperature tools use a Dewar flask
over the cable until the placement The TLC tough logging conditions to delay the well-generated heat from
depth is reached for the Cable Side system makes it possible to deploy reaching the electronic components.
Entry Sub (CSES). tools for wireline logging in highly Temperature limits are specified for
The CSES is placed to provide an deviated or horizontal wells and also a holding time beyond which damage
overlapping, continuous log, with the in hostile environments and deep occurs to tool electronics.
maximum continuous log interval wells. Wireline tools are mechanically
equal to the distance between the connected beneath the drillpipe using
casing shoe and rig floor. The wireline the Downhole Wet Connector Head
passes through the CSES to the outside (DWCH) and run in to a predetermined
of the drillpipe to prevent wireline latch point. The Pump-Down Wet
damage during logging. A downhole Connector Head (PWCH) is then
cable-severing device is also installed threaded through the CSES and
to allow retrieval of the wireline if the pumped down to latch in the DWCH
drillpipe becomes stuck while logging. to provide an electrical connection.

24 Wireline Services Catalog

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Depth Measurement

Depth measurement is critical for Cable and tool friction, especially The depth and tension subsystems
wireline operations. An integrated depth when calipers are open, cause elastic of the IDW feature alarms and winch
dual-wheel spooler (IDW) provides downhole cable stretch not detected shutdown for specified safe operating
calibrated absolute depth measurement by the IDW at surface. Friction always zones of depth and tension, respec-
recorded on two independent wheels opposes the movement of tool and tively. The upper and lower limits of
kept constantly in contact with cable. cable, so stretch is highest when the the safety zones are called setpoints
A fastest wheel logic combined with tool is moving up and negligible when and are provided for four conditions:
wheel slippage automatic detection the tool is moving down. Because log low tension
ensures depth accuracy at all times. data is recorded while moving up, the high tension
Other downhole measurements are tool is physically deeper than what the
top of well
valuable, but they must be secured IDW records on the way up but correctly
at the most precise point possible positioned on the way down. The bottom of well.

below the Earths surface. Decision difference between the log-up and log-
Winch operation is shut down auto-
makers rely on precise depths for down tensions is used to compute the
matically when any of the limits estab-
mapping geologic intervals, designing elastic stretch, and a positive correction
lished by these setpoints are exceeded.
completion procedures, and conducting is applied to the depth before logging
other related operational and financial up begins. As the friction progressively
procedures. If the depth measurement decreases while logging up, the tool
is incorrect, incorrect geologic and returns to the same zero point when
economic decisions could result. back at surface.

Surface Systems 25

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Logging Platforms
and Suites

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Scanner Family
Rock and Fluid Characterization Services
Scanner Family* rock and fluid char-
acterization services scan both radially
and orthogonally at multiple depths
of investigation to provide a true 3D
image of the reservoir. Because the
Scanner* services overcome conven-
tional measurement limitations, the
tools scan formation volumes to pro-
vide new insight into the challenges
of formation heterogeneity, anisotropy,
and asymmetry. With the ability to
measure both in open and cased holes
comes the ability to better understand
the reservoir.

Openhole Scanner services


Litho Scanner* high-definition
spectroscopy service measures both
inelastic and capture gamma ray Dielectric
spectra to deliver an expanded set of Scanner
Sonic
key elemental weight fractions with Scanner
higher precision and accuracy than
previously possible. Determining
total organic carbon (TOC) solely EM Pipe
from these direct measurements Scanner
Litho
avoids the biases introduced by con- Scanner
ventional models and the wait for
laboratory analysis.
Rt Isolation
Dielectric Scanner* multifrequency Scanner
Scanner
dielectric dispersion service mea-
sures permittivity and conductivity
for the determination of water-filled Flow
porosity (hence water saturation Scanner
within the total porosity), water
salinity, and textural effects. In car-
bonates, Dielectric Scanner analysis
of rock texture delivers a continuous
in situ measurement of the Archie
mn exponents instead of relying on
estimates or waiting for laboratory MR
core analysis; in shaly sands, pro- Scanner
cessing provides a continuous log of
the cation exchange capacity (CEC).

Wireline Services Catalog Logging Platforms and Suites 29

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Sonic Scanner* acoustic scanning Cased hole Scanner services Applications
platform measures compressional Elemental measurements and quan-
Isolation Scanner* cement evaluation
and shear slownesses with multiple titative mineralogy including TOC log
service combines classic pulse-echo
borehole-compensated monopole for lithology and salinity-independent
technology with a new ultrasonic
and crossed-dipole transducers. The hydrocarbon saturation
techniqueflexural wave imaging
radial and axial measurements of the
to accurately evaluate any type of Hydrocarbon volume in carbonates,
stress-dependent properties of the
cement, from traditional slurries and shaly or low-resistivity sands, and
rocks are the basis of a comprehen-
heavy cements to the latest light- heavy oil reservoirs
sive geomechanical characterization,
weight cements. Cement channels are Location and identification
including classifying formations as
pinpointed, and the tools azimuthal of trapped fluids
isotropic or anisotropic, along with
and radial coverage readily differenti-
determination of the type and cause Quantification of drilling
ates low-density solids from liquids to
of the anisotropyintrinsic or stress process impact
distinguish lightweight cements from
induced from the drilling process. Characterization of rock stresses
contaminated cement and liquids.
Logging with Sonic Scanner platform andlong-term formation integrity
Casing centralization is imaged in
can be conducted in both open and
high resolution, and corrosion and Resistivity and resonance measure-
cased holes.
drilling-induced wear are mapped ments in thin and low-resistivity
MR Scanner* expert magnetic reso-
and quantified. beds, regardless of formation dip
nance service profiles fluid volumes Flow Scanner* horizontal and devi- Confirmation of zonal isolation,
and saturations to provide direct
ated well production logging sys- channel identification, and infor-
hydrocarbon characterization in any
tem deploys multiple minispinners mation oncasing-within-casing
environment, including rugose bore-
and arrays of electrical and optical centralization ina wide range
holes, varied formation resistivities
probes to produce real-time multi- ofcement weights
and water salinities, heavy- and oil-
phase velocity and holdup profiles. Three-phase production logging
base muds, low-contrast pay, and
The result is an unambiguous real- invertical and deviated wells
thin formations.
time production log in nonvertical
Rt Scanner* triaxial induction Corrosion damage evaluation in
wells, regardless of phase mixing or
service calculates vertical and recirculation. single and multiple casing strings
horizontal resistivity (Rv and Rh, EM Pipe Scanner* electromagnetic
respectively) from direct measure-
casing inspection tool uses noninva-
ments while simultaneously solv-
sive electromagnetic measurements
ing for formation dip at any well
to evaluate the integrity of well
deviation. The result is enhanced
casings by locating, identifying, and
estimates of hydrocarbon and water
quantifying damage and corrosion.
saturations, especially for lami-
Because the slim-diameter tool eas-
nated, anisotropic, or faulted forma-
ily passes through the tubing shoe,
tions. In addition, formation dip and
corrosion is measured in production
azimuth are calculated for struc-
casing without having to pull the
tural interpretation.
completion tubing.

30 Wireline Services Catalog

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Openhole Scanner Services
Measurement Specifications
Litho Scanner Service Dielectric Scanner Service Sonic Scanner Platform MR Scanner Service Rt Scanner Service
Output Elemental yields, elemental Relative dielectric Compressional and shear t, T1, T, and diffusion distributions; Rv , Rh , AIT* tool resistivity
weightfractions, TOC, permittivity and conductivity full waveforms, cement bond lithology-independent total logs, spontaneous potential,
dry-weight mineral at four frequencies quality waveforms, anisotropy porosity; bound- and free-fluid dip,azimuth
concentrations, characterization volumes; hydrocarbon-corrected
matrix properties permeability; pore-size distribution
Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] Bound-uid logging: Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Basic NMR profiling:
1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
T radial profiling:
900 ft/h [274 m/h]
High-resolution logging:
400 ft/h [122 m/h]
T1 radial profiling:
300 ft/h [91 m/h]
Saturation profiling:
250 ft/h [76 m/h]
Range of measurement 1 to 10 MeV (At highest frequency) Standard shear slowness: Porosity: 1 to 100 pu na
Permittivity: 1 to 100 <1,500 us/ft [<4,920 us/m] T distribution: 0.4 ms to 3.0 s
Conductivity: 0.1 to T1 distribution: 0.5 ms to 9.0 s
3,000mS
Vertical resolution 18 in [45.72 cm] 1 in [2.5 cm] <6 ft [<1.82 m] processing Main antenna: 18 in [45.72 cm] na
resolution for 6-in [15.24-cm] High-resolution antenna:
sampling rate 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Accuracy na (At highest frequency t for up to 14-in [35.56-cm] Total NMR porosity: 1-pu standard na
andcorresponding to hole size: 2 us/ft deviation, three-level averaging
0.002ft/ft [0.002-m/m] [6.56us/m] or 2% at 75 degF [24 degC]
water-filled porosity) t for >14-in [>35.56cm] NMR free-uid porosity: 0.5-pu
Permittivity: 1% or 0.1 hole size: 5 us/ft standard deviation, three-level
Conductivity: 1% or 5 mS [16.40us/m] or 5% averaging at 75 degF [24 degC]
Depth of investigation 7 to 9 in [17.78 to 22.86 cm] To 4 in [10 cm] Typical presentation of Main antenna: 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, AIT tool: 10, 20, 30, 60, and
up to 7 borehole radii and 4.0 in [3.81, 5.84, 6.86, 90in [25.40, 50.80, 76.20,
and 10.16 cm] 152.40,and 228.60 cm]
High-resolution antenna:
1.25 in [3.18 cm]
Mud type or weight None None None Mud resistivity: 0.05 ohm.m Determined during
limitations jobplanning
Combinability Combinable with most Conveyance on wireline, Fully combinable with Combinable with most tools Bottom-only tool, combinable
openhole tools TLC tough logging other tools with Platform Express*
Conveyance on wireline, conditions system, integrated wireline logging
TLC*tough logging conditions or tractor tool and most openhole tools
system, or tractor
Special applications Articulated pad for MRF* method station logging
rugoseboreholes Rugose boreholes and
thick mudcake
na = not available
A tool planner is used to estimate the precision of the elemental concentrations and interpreted properties for a given environment, with the recommended logging speed depending on the required precision.
1-in resolution depending on frequency
From measurement point 8.2 ft [2.5 m] above the bottom of the tool
Main antenna only; stacking may be required. MR Scanner service logs have been acquired in 0.02-ohm.m environments with minor loss of precision.

Logging Platforms and Suites 31

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Openhole Scanner Services
Mechanical Specifications
Litho Scanner Service Dielectric Scanner Service Sonic Scanner Platform MR Scanner Service Rt Scanner Service
Temperature rating Version A: 284 degF [140 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Version C: 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5.5 in [13.97 cm] 5.5 in [13.97 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 5.875 in [14.92 cm] 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 24 in [60.96 cm] 22 in [55.88 cm] 22 in [55.88 cm] No limit 20 in [50.8 cm]
Outside diameter 4.5 in [11.4 cm] 4.77 in [12.12 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] Sonde: 5 in [12.70 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm]
Cartridge: 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length Version A: 14 ft [4.27 m] 11.27 ft [3.44 m] 41.28 ft [12.58 m] 32.7 ft [9.97 m] 19.6 ft [5.97 m]
Version C: 9 ft [2.74 m] (including isolation joint)
Basic toolstring (near
monopoles only): 22 ft [6.71 m]
Weight Version A: 366 lbm [166 kg] 262 lbm [119 kg] 844 lbm [383 kg] 1,200 lbm [544 kg] 404 lbm [183 kg]
Version C: 290 lbm [132 kg] (including isolation joint)
Basic toolstring:
413 lbm [187 kg]
Tension 55,000 lbf [244,652 N] 50,000 lbf [222,411 N] 35,000 lbf [155,690 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 25,000 lbf [111,205 N]
Compression 22,500 lbf [100,085 N] 4,400 lbf [19,572 N] 3,000 lbf [13,340 N] 7,900 lbf [35,140 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N]
na = not available
With bow spring
Does not include required standoff
8,000 lbf [35,586 N] with TLC system stiffener kit

Cased Hole Scanner Services


Measurement Specifications
Isolation Scanner Service Flow Scanner System EM Pipe Scanner Tool
Output Solid-liquid-gas map of annulus material, Oil, gas, and water holdups; Electromagnetic thickness, casing ID, casing
hydraulic communication map, acoustic oil, gas, and water velocities; properties, high- and low-frequency images,
impedence, flexural attenuation, rugosity relativebearing; caliper corrosion summary report
image, casing thickness image, internal
radius image
Logging speed Standard resolution: 2,700 ft/h [823 m/h] 1,800, 3,600, 5,400, and 7,200 ft/h Electromagnetic computed thickness (single
High resolution: 563 ft/h [172 m/h] [549, 1,097, 1,646,and2,195 m/h] and double strings): 3,600-ft/h [1,097m/h]
inspection pass for mandrel data
Imaging (single string): 1,800-ft/h [549-m/h]
standard-resolution inspection pass; 300ft/h
[91-m/h] high-resolution diagnostic pass
Range of measurement Min. casing thickness: Borehole coverage: 95% in Max. metal thickness:
0.15 in [0.38 cm] 6-in- [15.24-cm-] ID casing 1.5 in [3.81 cm] at 8.75 Hz
Max. casing thickness:
0.79 in [2.01 cm]
Vertical resolution High resolution: 0.6 in [1.52 cm] na Attenuation < 60 dB: 1%
High speed: 6 in [15.24 cm] Electromagnetic thickness:15%
Accuracy Acoustic impedance: 0.2 Mrayl (resolution); Three-phase holdup: 10% Casing ID: 0.05 in
0 to 3.3 Mrayl = 0.5 Mrayl; >3.3 Mrayl =
15% (accuracy)
Flexural attenuation for 0.3-in [18-mm]
casing thickness: 0.5 dB/cm (resolution),
0.01 dB/cm (accuracy)
Depth of investigation Casing and annulus Velocity: 10%
Mud type or weight Conditions simulated Min. salinity for electrical probe measurement: Any borehole fluid
limitations beforelogging 1,000ppm at 212 degF [100 degC]
Combinability Bottom-only, combinable Combinable with PS Platform All PS Platform platform services
with most wireline tools platform and most cased Multiple-tool answer products
Telemetry: fast transfer bus holetools
(FTB) or enhanced FTB (EFTB)
Special applications HS service HS service NACE compliant for HS and CO resistance
na = not applicable
Corrosion report for single casing strings

Measurement depends on casing geometry, properties, and chrome content.

Resolution depends on the accuracy of casing electrical conductivity (sigma). The usual method is to use API specifications in a good

casing section and adjust conductivity to match the nominal value, which has a typical 12.5% range (Oil Country Tubular Goods,
API Spec 5CT, Specification for Casing and Tubing).
8-mm calibration target

Casing ID (dci) < 6 in and tool eccentered = [30% (dci 2.2 in)]

Investigation of complete annulus width depends on the presence of third-interface echoes.


Max. mud weight depends on the mud formulation, sub used, and casing size and weight, which are simulated before logging.

32 Wireline Services Catalog

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Cased Hole Scanner Services
Mechanical Specifications
Isolation Scanner Service Flow Scanner System EM Pipe Scanner Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. Casing: 412 in 278 in [7.30 cm] 2 in (ID > 2.313 in)
Borehole sizemax. Casing: 13 in 9 in [22.86 cm] Electromagnetic thickness: 13 in
Outside diameter IBCS-A: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 2.125 in [5.4 cm]
IBCS-B: 4.472 in [11.36 cm] High-temperature (>302 degF
IBCS-C: 6.657 in [16.91 cm] [>150 degC]) operation:
IBCS-D: 8.736 in [22.19 cm] 2.25 in [5.72 cm]
Length Without sub: 19.73 ft [6.01 m] Flow Scanner system tool: 19.7 ft [6.0 m]
IBCS-A sub: 2.01 ft [0.61 m] 11.6 ft [3.54 m]
IBCS-B sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 m] With basic measurement
IBCS-C sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 m] sonde, swivel, and head:
IBCS-D sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 cm] 26.2 ft [7.99 m]
Weight Without sub: 333 lbm [151 kg] 108 lbm [49 kg] 110 lbm [50 kg]
IBCS-A sub: 16.75 lbm [7.59 kg]
IBCS-B sub: 20.64 lbm [9.36 kg]
IBCS-C sub: 23.66 lbm [10.73 kg]
IBCS-D sub: 24.55 lbm [11.13 kg]
Tension Sub max.: 2,250 lbf [10,000 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] Fishing: 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression Sub max.: 12,250 lbf [50,000 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 3,000 lbf [13,340 N]
Min. pass-through restriction: 4 in [10.16 cm]
Min. pass-through restriction: 1.813 in [4.61 cm]

Logging Platforms and Suites 33

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Platform Express
Integrated Wireline Logging Tool
The Platform Express* integrated provided by the single-axis accelerom-
wireline logging tool is a revolutionary eter for sensor measurements enables
milestone in wireline logging. Com accurate depth matching of all sensors
pared with the traditional triple- even if the tool cannot move smoothly
HGNS combo, the Platform Express tool while recording data. The resistivity,
logs faster and more cost effectively density, and microresistivity measure-
because it requires significantly less ments are high reso lution. Logging
time from rig-up to delivery of the speed is 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h], which
final answer. The Platform Express is twice the speed at which a standard
tool is less than half the length of triple-combo is run.
the triple-comborequiring less PressureXpress* reservoir pressure-
ratholeand it weighs about half while-logging service can be combined
as much. By using integrated sensors with the Platform Express tool to
and innovative technology to improve efficiently obtain accurate pressure
pad contact, the Platform Express profiles and mobility measurements
tool delivers high-resolution imaging on the first logging run. The two tools
measurements that are depth matched data are integrated in real time by the
and speed corrected in real time. PressureXpress Advisor* pretest quality
The Platform Express toolstring indicator to produce a more complete
includes either the AIT* array induc- interpretation of the reservoir.
tion imager tool or High-Resolution
Azimuthal Laterolog Sonde (HALS) as
the resistivity tool. The Three-Detector Applications
HRMS Lithology Density (TLD) tool and Micro- DecisionXpress* petrophysical
Cylindrically Focused Log (MCFL) evaluation system
are housed in the High-Resolution Reservoir delineation
Mechanical Sonde (HRMS) powered Hydrocarbon saturation
caliper. Above the HRMS are a compen- determination and imaging
sated thermal neutron and gamma ray
Movable-hydrocarbon
in the Highly Integrated Gamma Ray
Neutron Sonde (HGNS) and a single- determination
axis accelerometer. Location of porous and

Numerous innovative features are permeablezones


integrated in the Platform Express Gas detection
toolstring. The specially designed Porosity analysis
TLD skid reduces hole rugosity effects
Lithology determination
HALS AIT
through improved pad application.
The integrated hardware and software Well-to-well correlation

of the sensors improves system reli- Thin-bed analysis


ability. The real-time speed correction

34 Wireline Services Catalog

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Measurement Specifications
Platform Express Tool
Output HGNS: Gamma ray, neutron porosity, tool acceleration
HRMS: Bulk density, photoelectric factor (PEF), borehole caliper, microresistivity
HALS: Laterolog resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), mud resistivity (Rm)
AIT tool: Induction resistivity, SP, Rm
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Mud weight or type limitations None
Combinability Bottom-only toolstring, combinable with most tools above
Special applications Good-quality data in sticky or rugose holes
Measurements close to the bottom of the well

Platform Express Tool Component Specifications


HGNS HRMS HALS AIT-H and AIT-M Tools
Output Gamma ray, neutron porosity, Bulk density, PEF, Laterolog, Induction resistivity,
tool acceleration borehole caliper, resistivity, Rm SP, Rm
microresistivity
Range of Gamma ray: 0 to 1,000 gAPI Bulk density: 1.04 to 3.3 g/cm3 0.2 to 40,000 ohm.m 0.1 to 2,000 ohm.m
measurement Neutron porosity: 0 to 60 pu PEF: 0.9 to 10
Caliper: 22 in [55.88 cm]
Vertical resolution Gamma ray: 12 in [30.48 cm] Bulk density: 18 in [45.72 cm] Standard resolution: 1, 2, and 4 ft
Porosity: 12 in [30.48 cm] in 6-in [15.24-cm] borehole 18 in [45.72 cm] [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
High resolution:
8 in [20.32 cm]
in 6-in [15.24-cm]
borehole
Accuracy Gamma ray: 5% Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), 1 to 2,000 ohm.m: 5% Resistivities: 0.75 ms/m
Porosity: 0 to 20 pu = 1 pu 0.025 g/cm3 (repeatability) (conductivity) or 2%
30 pu = 2 pu Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (accuracy), (whichever is greater)
45 pu = 6 pu 0.05 in [0.127 cm] (repeatability)
Depth of Gamma ray: 24 in [61.0 cm] Density: 5 in [12.70 cm] 32 in [81 cm] (varies AO/AT/AF10: 10 in [25.40 cm]
investigation Porosity: 9 in [ 23 cm] with formation and AO/AT/AF20: 20 in [50.80 cm]
(varies with hydrogen mud resistivities) AO/AT/AF30: 30 in [76.20 cm]
index of formation) AO/AT/AF60: 60 in [152.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF90: 90 in [228.60 cm]
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 4.77 in [12.11 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm]
Length 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 12.3 ft [3.75 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 313 lbm [142 kg] 221 lbm [100 kg] AIT-H: 255 lbm [116 kg]
AIT-M: 282 lbm [128 kg]
AO = 1-ft [0.30-m] vertical resolution, AT = 2-ft [0.61-m] vertical resolution, AF = 4-ft [1.22-m] vertical resolution

Logging Platforms and Suites 35

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ThruBit
Through-the-Bit Logging Services
ThruBit* through-the-bit logging ser- Density tool measures formation
vices provide a full wireline measure- bulk density, photoelectric fac-
Drillpipe ment suite from a small-diameter tor (PEF), and borehole size. Raw
quad- or triple-combo toolstring. This measurement processing includes a
Wireline dropoff unique conveyance platform enables correction algorithm that preserves
and retrieval tool overall density accuracy across a
acquiring logs in wells that are difficult
to access, including extended-reach wide range of borehole sizes, mud
wells where the tools can be pumped types, and mud weights. The tools
No-go collar
down. With a diameter of only 218 in, scintillation detectors are housed in
Hangoff sub the entire logging suite is sufficiently an articulated pad for better contact
slim to pass through the center of most with the formation, which maintains
drillpipe, jars, collars, and out the open- measurement quality in deviated
ing of the Portal* bit. The open bore- and rugose holes. A single-arm cali-
hole is then logged on wireline or as the per also helps press the tool against
Portal bit drillpipe is tripped out of the hole, mak- the formation while it measures
ing it possible to log geometrically com- holesize.
plicated wells with greater reliability, ThruBit Dipole* through-the-bit
Batteries at reduced risk, and in less time than acoustic service obtains both mono-
alternative conveyance techniques. pole and dipole waveforms along
The logging tools of the ThruBit with Stoneley wave acquisition. A 3D
Telemetry, memory,
services suite can also be run as indi- anisotropy algorithm transforms the
gamma ray tool vidual components: compressional, fast- and slow-shear,
Telemetry, memory, and gamma and Stoneley slowness measure-
ray device provides communica- ments with respect to the borehole
tions and memory functions for the axes. The resulting referenced aniso-
entire logging string. The gamma tropic moduli are used to classify the
ray detector measures naturally formation as isotropic or anisotropic
occurring gamma rays in the for- and determine whether anisotropy
mation as a correlation basis and is intrinsic or caused by drilling-
Neutron tool
qualitative evaluation of clay con- induced stress.
tent. The multiaxis accelerometer Spectral gamma ray tool measures
Density tool monitors tool orientation, motion, the total gamma ray spectra for
and vibration. Borehole inclination resolution into potassium, thorium,
Caliper and temperature are also measured. and uranium. These three most
Array induction tool has five median common components of naturally
depths of investigation and three occurring radiation in sands and
vertical resolutions. The induction shales are used to distinguish fea-
tool also incorporates a mud resis- tures, determine clay type, identify
tivity sensor for making corrections radioactivity in sands, and help in
and analyzing borehole fluids. determining total organic carbon
Induction array (TOC) content.
Neutron tool operates in both open-
tool
hole and cased hole environments ThruBit services provide unpar-
to obtain thermal neutron porosity alleled operational flexibility for
measurements. Corrections can be either conventional wireline logging
made for borehole temperature and or through-the-bit conveyance in
pressure and environmental factors memory mode. Where conventional
such as hole size, mud type, mud wireline logging is not advisable or
weight, salinity, and tool standoff. not possible in vertical or horizontal

36 Wireline Services Catalog

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wells, ThruBit services both reduce In wells where a gravity descent is Applications
risk and deliver high-quality data. The not possible, the logging toolstring is Openhole logging in
hole can be reamed and conditioned pumped down to the end of the drillstring
using the Portal bit. The logging suite and positioned for conducting memory Horizontal and high-angle wells
is then run through the drillstring on mode logging while tripping out. Unconventional plays
wireline, and when it reaches the end In either horizontal or vertical wells, Unstable boreholes
of the drillstring it is positioned on a the logging toolstring can be retrieved Poor-quality boreholes (washed
hangoff sub so that the logging sensors before the drillpipe is completely out, rugose, or tortuous)
are passed through the Portal bit and returned to surface to facilitate imple-
Reservoir quality and completion
extend into the open hole. The wireline mentation of completion operations. At
is disconnected and retrieved, and the all times during deployment and logging, quality data for completion optimi-
logging string is used to log in memory the driller maintains complete control of zation in unconventional plays
mode as the pipe is tripped out. the drillstring. Circulation and rotation
are conducted as needed, and full pres-
sure control is maintained at surface.

Measurement Specifications
ThruBit Logging Services
Output Telemetry, memory, and gamma ray tool: gamma ray, three-axis acceleration, borehole temperature
Array induction tool: induction resistivity, mud resistivity, optional SP
Neutron tool: thermal neutron porosity
Density tool: bulk density, PEF, borehole caliper
ThruBit Dipole service: Compressional and shear t, full waveforms, anisotropy characterization
Spectral gamma ray tool: gamma ray; corrected gamma ray for uranium; potassium, thorium, and uranium curves
Logging speed Telemetry, memory, and gamma ray; neutron, density, induction, and ThruBit Dipole service: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Gamma ray: 0 to 1,000 gAPI
Resistivity: 0.1 to 2,000 ohm.m
Neutron: 0 to 60 pu
Bulk density: 1.04 to 3.3 g/cm
PEF: 0.9 to 10
Caliper: 18 in [45.72 cm]
ThruBit Dipole service: ts < 200 us/ft [656 us/m]
Monopole: tc and ts < 170 us/ft [558 us/m]
Vertical resolution Gamma ray: 12 to 24 in [30.48 to 60.96 cm]
Resistivity: 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 m]
Neutron: 12 to 15 in [30.48 to 38.10 cm]
Bulk density: 9 to 12 in [22.86 to 30.48 cm]
ThruBit Dipole service: <44-in [<1.12-m] processing resolution for 6-in [15.24-cm] sampling rate
Accuracy Gamma ray: 5% gAPI
Resistivity: 1 ohm.m or 2%, whichever is greater for the 60-in [152.40-cm] measurement
Neutron tool: 1 pu or 5% of the porosity, whichever is greater
Bulk density: 0.02 g/cm
PEF: 0.15
Caliper: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
t: 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m] or 2% for 8-in [22.22-cm] hole size
Th: 3.2 ppm or 5% of reading
U: 1 ppm or 5% of reading
K: 0.5% (weight) or 10% of reading
Depth of investigation Gamma ray: 12 in [30.48 cm]
Resistivity: 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 in [25.40, 50.80, 76.20, 152.40, and 228.60 cm]
Neutron: 10 in [25.40 cm]
Bulk density: 2 in [5.08 cm]
PEF: 4 in [10.16 cm]
t: 3 in [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability All ThruBit services tools
Special applications
Limited availability, contact your Schlumberger representative.

Logging Platforms and Suites 37

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Mechanical Specifications
ThruBit Logging Services
Temperature rating Triple-combo: 302 degF [150 degC]
Quad-combo: 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [10.16 cm]
ThruBit Dipole service: 5 in [14.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. Telemetry, memory, and gamma ray and induction array tool: 14 in [35.56 cm]
Neutron and density tools: 16 in [40.64 cm]
ThruBit Dipole service: 8 in [22.22 cm]
Outside diameter 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
Length Telemetry, memory, and gamma ray tool: 73.6 in [186.9 cm]
Array induction tool: 185 in [470 cm]
Neutron: 74 in [188 cm]
Density tool: 128 in [325 cm]
ThruBit Dipole service: 349 in [444 cm]
Monopole waveform sonic: 234.6 in [596 cm]
Spectral gamma ray tool: 70.125 in [178.1 cm]
Weight Telemetry, memory, and gamma ray tool: 45 lbm [20.4 kg]
Array induction tool: 94 lbm [42.6 kg]
Neutron tool: 63 lbm [28.6 kg]
Density tool: 94 lbm [42.6 kg]
ThruBit Dipole service: 132 lbm [105 kg]
Monopole waveform sonic: 114 lbm [52 kg]
Spectral gamma ray tool: 38 lbm [17.2 kg]
Tension Depends on the configuration and application
Compression Depends on the configuration and application
350 degF [177 degC] by special request

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Multi Express
SlimMulticonveyance
FormationEvaluationPlatform
The Multi Express* slim multiconvey- Applications
ance formation evaluation platform Hydrocarbon saturation
delivers industry-standard log quality and movable hydrocarbon
with the greater efficiency of a small- determination
diameter, compact logging string.
Identification of porous
Additional efficiency is provided
through memory logging capability and permeable zones
and conveyance flexibility in open Gas detection

hole or through drillpipe, with deploy- Lithology determination


ment on wireline or coiled tubing. Well correlation
Designed with centralizers and
CBM logging
bow springs that collapse to 2.25in
[5.72cm] OD for slimhole and alter- Air-filled borehole logging

native conveyance options, the Slimhole logging to 3 in [7.62 cm]


Multi Express platform integrates a Through-drillpipe conveyance
comprehensive set of tools:
Coiled tubing in real-time mode
telemetry gamma neutron tool

Litho-Density* tool

sonic tool

spherically focused resistivity tool

dual induction formation

resistivity tool
audio temperature tool.

The Multi Express platform's mea-


surement suite provides answers in
a wide variety of downhole environ-
ments. The articulated pad of the
Litho-Density tool reduces hole rugos-
ity effects through improved pad Combo for
application. Full characterization for Triple-combo air-filled
coalbed methane (CBM) wells means holes
that their characteristically low den-
sity and photoelectric effect (PEF) are
accurately read. In air-filled boreholes,
the combination of audio tempera-
ture and epithermal neutron mea-
surements obtains reliable porosity
measurements.

Quad-combo

Logging Platforms and Suites 39

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Measurement Specifications
Multi Express Platform
Output Telemetry gamma neutron tool: gamma ray, thermal neutron porosity (fluid-filled holes),
epithermal neutron porosity (air-filled holes), casing collar log, head tension
Litho-Density tool: bulk density, PEF, borehole caliper
Sonic tool: t (compressional and shear in fast formations), cement bond log (CBL), and Variable Density* log (VDL)
SFL* spherically focused resistivity tool: shallow focused laterolog resistivity (Rxo), spontaneous potential (SP)
Dual induction formation resistivity tool: induction resistivity, mud resistivity (Rm)
Audio temperature tool: borehole temperature, high-frequency audio measurement in air-filled holes
Logging speed Triple-combo and air combo: 4,500 ft/h [1,372 m/h]
Quad-combo with sonic: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
High resolution: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Gamma ray: 0 to 500 gAPI
Thermal neutron porosity: 2 to 100 pu
Bulk density: 1.0 to 3.1 g/cm3
PEF: 0.3 to 6
Caliper: 2.25 to 14.5 in [5.72 to 36.83 cm]
t: 42 to 155 us/ft [138 to 508 us/m]
Deep and medium resistivity and SFL tool: 0.2 to 2,000 ohm.m
Temperature: 13 to 194 degF [25 to 90 degC]
Audio: 44 kHz 2 kHz
Vertical resolution Gamma ray: 12 in [30.48 cm]
Thermal and epithermal neutron porosity: 12 and 24 in [30.48 and 60.96 cm]
Bulk density and PEF: 12 and 18 in [30.48 and 45.72 cm]
Caliper: 2 in [5.08 cm]
t: 6 and 24 in [15.24 and 61 cm] for borehole compensated (BHC), 24 in for slowness-time-coherence (STC)
CBL: 6 in [15.24 cm]
VDL: 2 in [5.08 cm]
Deep and medium resistivity: 2 to 4 ft [0.61 to 1.22 m]
SFL tool: 18 in [45.72 cm]
Accuracy Gamma ray: 5%
Thermal neutron porosity: 0.5 pu for <10 pu, 5% of reading for 10 to 50 pu (accuracy);
16Ci source: 0.55 pu at 10 pu, 1.1 pu at 30 pu, 2.8 pu at 45 pu,
8Ci source: 0.78 pu at 10 pu, 1.56 pu at 30 pu, 3.9 pu at 45 pu (precision)
Epithermal neutron porosity: 0.5 pu for <10 pu, 7.5% of reading for 10 to 50 pu (accuracy);
16C source: 0.55 pu at 11 pu, 1.1 pu at 30 pu, 2.2 pu at 45 pu,
8Ci source: 0.77 pu at 10 pu, 1.6 pu at 30 pu, 3.3 pu at 45 pu (precision)
Bulk density: 0.015 g/cm3 in liquid, 0.02 g/cm3 in air (accuracy); 0.011 g/cm3 at 2.7 g/cm3 (precision)
PEF: 0.1 below 1, 10% above 1 (accuracy); 0.055 for Pe < 1, 5.5 % for Pe > 1 (precision)
Caliper: 0.2 in [5.08 cm] for 3.5 to 9.875 in [8.89 to 25.08 cm] (accuracy); 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (precision)
t: 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m]
CBL: 10% (accuracy), 2% (precision)
Temperature: 70-ms response time, 1.4 degF [2.5 degC] (precision)
Depth of investigation Gamma ray: 8 in [20.32 cm]
Thermal and epithermal neutron porosity: 10 in [25.4 cm] at 20 pu
Bulk density: 4 to 6 in [10.16 to 15.24 cm]
t, CBL, and VDL: 3 in [7.62 cm]
Deep resistivity: 70 in [178 cm]
Medium resistivity: 30 in [76 cm]
SFL tool: 12 to 15 in [30.48 to 38.10 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability PS Platform production services platform, SCMT slim cement mapping tool
Special applications Small-diameter boreholes
Alternative conveyance

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Mechanical Specifications
Multi Express Platform
Temperature rating 221 degF [105 degC]
Pressure rating 8,000 psi [55 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3.0 in [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12.75 in [32.39 cm]
Outside diameter 2.25 in [5.72 cm]
Length Triple-combo: 53 ft [16.1 m]
Air combo: 47 ft [14.3 m]
Quad-combo: 67 ft [20.4 m]
Weight Max. each tool component: 90 lbm [41 kg]
Tension Triple-combo: 15,000 lbf [66,720 N]
Sonic: 5,750 lbf [25,580 N]
Compression 1,600 lbf [7,120 N]

Logging Platforms and Suites 41

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Xtreme
HPHT Well Logging Platform
The Xtreme* high-pressure, high-tem- Hostile Environment Lithology
perature well platform provides mea- Density Sonde (HLDS) measures
surements for formation evaluation in formation bulk density and photo-
HPHT, hostile environments through electric factor using full spectral
HTGC the use of rugged, reliable sensors data from a two-detector array.
HNGS that deliver high-quality data. Rated Hostile Environment Sonic Logging
to 500 degF [260 degC] and 25,000psi Tool (HSLT) delivers robust forma-
HAPS
[172 MPa], sensors featuring the lat- tion borehole-compensated (BHC)
est technology are integrated into one or depth-derived borehole compen-
wireline string that can log wells as sated (DDBHC) slowness with full
deep as 30,000 ft [9,100 m]. A full waveform recording. It also pro-
range of tool accessories, set of com- vides cement bond and Variable
prehensive measurements, and job Density logs in cased holes.
planner software further facilitate the Hostile Environment Induction
measurement of critical formation
Imager Tool (HIT) provides the
evaluation data in challenging logging
same high-quality resistivity mea-
environments.
surements as the standard AIT
The Xtreme platform consists of
tool. Real-time measurement of
the following components:
mud resistivity complements the
Hostile Environment Integrated
computation of tool standoff for
Telemetry and Gamma Ray Cart precise borehole environmental
ridge (HTGC) includes an acceler correction.
ometer cartridge that supports
real-time speed correction for all
HLDS
Xtreme platform measurements Applications
and monitors the bottomhole In situ formation resistivity (Rt)
temperature. with array induction
Hostile Environment Natural Formation evaluation and
Gamma Ray Sonde (HNGS) provides lithologyidentification
measurements of total gamma ray,
Borehole geometry
gamma ray corrected for uranium,
as well as individual concentrations High wellbore pressures

HSLT of thorium, uranium, and potassium andtemperatures


in the formation.
Hostile Environment Accelerator

Porosity Sonde (HAPS) uses a


neutron generator to provide neu-
tron porosity with environmen-
tally corrected formation capture
cross section for clay indication,
grain-size estimation, and salinity
computation.
HIT

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Mechanical Specifications
HTGC HNGS HAPS HLDS HSLT HIT
Temperature rating 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 5 in [14.92 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.38 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit 21 in [53.34 cm] 20 in [50.8 cm] 20 in [50.8 cm] 20 in [50.8 cm]
Outside diameter 3.75 in [9.53 cm] 3.75 in [9.53 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 3.5 in [8.89 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm]
Length 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 11.7 ft [3.57 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 12.58 ft [3.83 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] 29.2 ft [8.90 m]
Weight 265 lbm [120 kg] 276 lbm [125 kg] 400 lbm [181 lbm] 402 lbm [182 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg] 625 lbm [283 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] BHC HSLS-W sonde: 6,000 lbf [26,690 N]
2,870 lbf [12,770 N]
DDBHC HSLS-Z sonde:
1,650 lbf [7,340 N]
Holding time at 500 degF 12 h 10 h 4h 5h 5h 12 h
Makeup length
BHC sonde
In logging conditions with tool powered

Hostile Environment Accelerator Porosity Sonde Measurement Specifications


HAPS
Output Neutron porosity, formation sigma, tool standoff
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1097 m/h]
Range of measurement Neutron porosity: 0 to 60 pu
Vertical resolution 14 in [35.56 cm]
Tool standoff: not applicable
Accuracy <7 pu: 0.5 pu
7 to 30 pu: 7%
30 to 60 pu: 10%
Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m]
Depth of investigation 7 in [17.78 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications HS service

Hostile Environment Lithology Density Sonde Measurement Specifications


HLDS
Output Formation density, PEF, caliper
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Density: 2 to 3 g/cm3
Porosity: 0 to 60 pu
PEF: 1 to 6
Caliper: 16 in [40.64 cm]
Vertical resolution Density, porosity, and PEF: 15 in [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Density: 0.01 g/cm3
PEF: 6%
Caliper: 0.25 in [0.64 cm]
Depth of investigation Density, porosity, and PEF: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Density and PEF sensitive to barite
Special applications HS service

Logging Platforms and Suites 43

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Hostile Environment Sonic Logging Tool Measurement Specifications
HSLT
Output Compressional integral traveltime (t)
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 40 to 180 us/ft [131 to 590 us/m]
Vertical resolution 12 in [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m]
Depth of investigation 3 in [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications HS service

Hostile Environment Induction Imager Tool Measurement Specifications


HIT
Output 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and 90-in [25.40-, 50.80-, 76.20-,
152.40-, and 228.60-cm] resistivity
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Resistivity 0.1 to 2,000 ohm.m
Vertical resolution 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
Accuracy 0.75 mS/m or 2% (whichever is greater)
Depth of investigation AHT10: 10 in [25.40 cm]
AHT20: 20 in [50.80 cm]
AHT30: 30 in [76.20 cm]
AHT60: 60 in [152.40 cm]
AHT90: 90 in [228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Some salt-saturated muds may be outside the induction
tool operating range
Special applications HS service

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SlimXtreme
Slimhole HPHT Well Logging Platform
The SlimXtreme* slimhole HPHT well Variable Density cement bond qual-
logging platform provides reliable ity logs can be recorded to evaluate
formation evaluation data in hostile cemented casing. The CBL features
drilling environments. The integra- a 1-ft [30-cm] receiver measure-
tion of durable sensors rated to high ment for cement bond evaluation in
pressures and temperatures, slimhole extremely fast formations.
design, and a full range of accessories SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool
results in high-quality data for real- (QLDT) measures formation density
time wellsite answers. The advanced and photoelectric factor using full
engineering of the 3-in [7.62-cm] spectral data from a three-detector
SlimXtreme platform profile combines array. The QLDT controls the elec-
AIT tool resistivity, digital borehole- tronics of a bowspring-type caliper
compensated sonic, bulk density, ther- (QSCS), which provides eccentral-
mal neutron porosity, and gamma ray ization force as well as a caliper
tools for one trip into the borehole. measurement in both up and down
High-speed logging is at 3,600 ft/h logging directions.
[1,097 m/h], with standard mode at SlimXtreme Compensated Neutron
1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]. The component
Porosity Tool (QCNT) delivers the
tools use advanced wireline digital
same high-quality, environmentally
telemetry rated to the same pressure
corrected porosity data as those from
and temperature as the complete
the traditional CNL* compensated
SlimXtreme platform and capable of
neutron logging tool.
data transmission through wireline
SlimXtreme Telemetry and Gamma
cables as long as 36,000 ft [10,970 m].
SlimXtreme Array Induction Imager
Ray Cartridge (QTGC) includes an
integrated accelerometer to provide
Tool (QAIT) has five depths of
real-time speed correction for all
investigation, and its three vertical
measurements by the SlimXtreme
resolution measurements are of the
platform. The cartridge also
same high quality as those recorded
performs real-time monitoring of
with conventional AIT tools. The
the mud temperature.
tool output is fully corrected for
borehole and environmental effects,
so the computed values of water Applications
resistivity and saturation, invasion
profile, and true and invaded zone
Quad-combo formation evaluation in
resistivities provide a good charac- Slimhole wells
terization of the reservoir. Real-time Extreme pressure and
measurement of mud resistivity temperature environments
complements the computation of Multilateral wells
tool standoff for precise borehole
environmental correction. Extended-reach wells
SlimXtreme Sonic Logging Tool
Reentry wells
(QSLT) is a monopole tool that Contingency through-drillpipe

uses a digital algorithm for detect- (minimum 3.5-in [8.89-cm] inside


ing first arrival to deliver robust diameter [ID]) logging
BHC formation slowness (3 to 5 ft Drillpipe-conveyed logging
[0.91 to 1.52 m] or 5 to 7 ft [1.52
to 2.13 m]). CBL, attenuation, and

Logging Platforms and Suites 45

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Measurement Specifications
QAIT QSLT QLDT QCNT QTGC
Output 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and Compressional and Bulk density, porosity, Thermal neutron Formation gamma ray
90-in [25.40-, 50.80-, shear t, porosity, photoelectric factor (PEF) porosity (uncorrected,
76.20-, 152.40- and waveforms, and environmentally
228.60-cm] deep Variable Density corrected, or alpha
induction resistivities, log waveforms processed)
SP, mud resistivity
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.1 to 2,000 ohm.m 40 to 400 us/ft [131 to Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm 0 to 2000 gAPI
1,312 us/m] PEF: 1 to 6
Caliper: 9.5 in [24.13]
Vertical resolution 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.30, Compressional t: Density: 15 in [38.10 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm]
0.61, and 1.22 m] 2 ft [0.61 m] (standard),
6in [15.24 cm]
short spacing
Shear t: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Cement bond log: 3 ft [0.91 m]
(amplitude), 5ft [1.52 m]
(Variable Density log)
Accuracy 0.75 us/m t: 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m] Bulk density: 0.15 g/cm 0 to 20 pu: 1 pu 5%
(conductivity) (accuracy), 0.014 g/cm 30 pu: 2 pu
or 2% (whichever (repeatability) 45 pu: 6 pu
is greater) Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm]
(accuracy), 0.05 in [0.127 cm]
(repeabability)
Depth of investigation AO/AT/AF10: 3 in [7.62 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 9 in [23 cm] 24 in [60.96 cm]
10 in [25.40 cm] (varies with hydrogen
AO/AT/AF20: index of formation)
20 in [50.80 cm]
AO/AT/AF30:
30 in [76.20 cm]
AO/AT/AF60:
60 in [152.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF90:
90 in [228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight Salt-saturated muds None Sensitive to barite Thermal measurements None
limitations usually outside the not possible in air- or
operating range gas-filled wellbores
ofinductiontools
Special applications Slim wellbores, HPHT

Mechanical Specifications
QAIT QSLT QLDT QCNT QTGC
Temperature rating 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3 in [9.84 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in [50.80 cm] 8 in [20.32 cm] 9 in [22.86 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] No limit
Outside diameter 3 in [7.62 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Length 30.8 ft [9.39 m] 23 ft [7.01 m] 14.7 ft [4.48 m] 11.9 ft [3.63 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m]
With inline centralizer:
29.9 ft [9.11 m]
Weight 499 lbm [226 kg] 270 lbm [122 kg] 253 lbm [115 kg] 191 lbm [87 kg] 180 lbm [82 kg]
Holding time at 8 h 5h 5 h 8 h 8 h
500degF[260 degC]
In logging conditions with tool powered

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IPL
Integrated Porosity Lithology Service
IPL* integrated porosity lithology Litho-Density photoelectric density
service is a nuclear measurement logging tool is deployed as the
string. It provides an integrated LDS sonde to measure formation
measurement of various petrophysical bulk density and photoelectric
parameters of the formation, such factor. The gamma ray source and
as neutron porosity, bulk density, two detectors are pad mounted.
photoelectric factor, and gamma ray Magnetic shielding and high-
as well as gamma ray components. speed electronics ensure excellent
The acquisition electronics allow measurement stability. The LDS
running the individual components records the full-pulse-height gamma
of the toolstring as stand-alone tools. ray spectra from both detectors and
The integrated string comprises the processes them into windows. Bulk
following sensors: density and photoelectric cross
Hostile Environment Natural section are derived conventionally
Gamma Ray Sonde (HNGS) features from the windows counts with
a set of detectors with increased enhanced quality control.
sensitivity that provides a better sta-
tistical response to the formation
gamma rays. The result is improved Applications
spectral analysis over that of previ- Evaluation of formation porosity
ous tools. The improvement in mea- and lithology
surement also results from the use Evaluation of formation bulk
of two detectors instead of one. The density and photoelectric factor
HNGS can log at a faster speed than Determination of total formation
other tools that measure formation gamma ray and uranium-corrected
natural gamma ray emissions. Its gamma ray
500 degF [260 degC] temperature
Gas identification
rating makes it suitable for opera-
tions in hot borehole environments. Formation sigma

APS* accelerator porosity sonde

uses an electronic pulsed neutron


generator source instead of
a chemical source. The large
yield of the neutron source
enables the use of epithermal
neutron detection and borehole
shielding. As a result, porosity mea
surement is affected only minimally
by the borehole environment and
formation characteristics, such
as lithology and salinity. Five
detectors provide information for
porosity evaluation, gas detection,
shale evaluation, improvement of
vertical resolution, and borehole
correction. The measurements can
be performed in both cased and
open holes.

Logging Platforms and Suites 47

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Measurement Specifications
IPL Service
Output Formation bulk density, PEF, gamma ray, porosity, caliper
Logging speed Min. 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement See measurement specifications for individual tools
Vertical resolution See measurement specifications for individual tools
Accuracy See measurement specifications for individual tools
Depth of investigation See measurement specifications for individual tools
Mud type or weight limitations HNGS: In potassium chloride (KCl) mud,
the KCl content must be known. Density and
PEF readings are affected by barite.
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
IPL Service
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm]
Outside diameter 4.5 in [11.43 cm]
Length 40.5 ft [12.34 m]
Weight 845 lbm [383 kg]

IPL Service Component Mechanical Specifications


HNGS APS Sonde LDS
Temperature rating 500 degF [260 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [11.75 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 21 in [53.34 cm] 21 in [53.34 cm]
Outside diameter 3.75 in [9.53 cm] 3.625 in [9.40 cm] 4.5 in [11.43 cm]
Length 11.7 ft [3.57 m] 13 ft [3.96 m] 11 ft [3.35 m]
Weight 276 lbm [125 kg] 222 lbm [101 kg] 292 lbm [132 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]

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ABC
Analysis Behind Casing Services
Since first logging an openhole well
in 1927, Schlumberger has used
advanced technology to acquire essen-
tial reservoir data. Today the same
high-quality formation evaluation mea-
surements can be made in cased holes.
ABC analysis behind casing services
satisfy three primary requirements for
operators:
Obtaining essential well log data

under any conditionsIf the well


DSI transmitter being drilled has, or is expected
and isolation joint
to have, hole stability problems,
the operators may prefer to case
the well as soon as it is drilled.
Formation evaluation, which
until recently could be performed
only in open hole, can now be
performed in cased hole.
Finding and evaluating bypassed

payLarge amounts of bypassed


hydrocarbons exist in old wells. It
is considerably more cost effective,
and often more environmentally
RSTPro friendly, to explore for those hidden
hydrocarbons in old wells rather
CHFP Sonic than to drill new wells.
CHFR-Slim Scanner Optimizing reservoir manage-
mentFormation evaluation mea-
surements made in representative
old wells in a reservoir, whether
one time or a time-lapse series, can
greatly assist efficient management
CHFR-Plus of the reservoir.
ABC services evaluation of forma-
tion petrophysical properties such as
formation density, porosity, and acous-
tic properties in cased wells is even
more significant in wells for which
primary evaluation data were lost, of
poor quality, or never acquired. In
old wells, an operator may want to
reevaluate the formation with mea-
surements that were unavailable at
the time the well was drilled. ABC
services enable applying the latest
CHDT formation evaluation technology in
wells that were drilled decades ago.

Logging Platforms and Suites 49

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It is no longer necessary to drill new CHFP* cased hole formation porosity DSI* dipole shear sonic imager,
wells in existing fields solely for the service makes accurate formation coupled with the BestDT* automated
purpose of data gathering. porosity and sigma measurements sonic waveform processing, provides
ABC services do not end with opti- in cased wells. Instead of a chemical accurate formation compressional
mal data acquisition. The data are source, CHFP service uses an elec- and shear slowness measurements
processed and interpreted to provide a tronic neutron source in combination in cased wells. BestDT processing
total solution for efficient operations, with borehole shielding and focus- is based on optimally designed
enhanced production, and extension ing to obtain porosity measurements frequency filters and advanced
of the economic life of an asset. ABC that are affected only minimally by signal processing. This method
services can provide comprehensive borehole environment, casing stand- significantly attenuates casing
formation evaluation under most con- off, and formation characteristics arrivals to facilitate the clean
ditions. Because they are a suite of such as lithology and salinity. extraction of formation slowness.
services rather than a single platform, CNL compensated neutron logging CHDT* cased hole dynamics tester
measurements can be chosen on the tool has traditionally been run as is used to determine formation pres-
basis of objectives, type of formation, a porosity indicator in cased wells. sure in old or new cased wells. It
type of completion, borehole environ- Although it provides a good estima- also provides efficient, cost-effective
ment, lithology, reservoir dynamics, tion of formation porosity in most fluid sampling without the inher-
and the availability of primary evalua- conditions, the unfocused nature of ent risks of standard sampling tech-
tion data. the CNL tool does not allow correc- niques. The innovative CHDT tool
ABC services are as follows: tion for environmental effects, such seals against the casing and uses
CHFR-Plus* cased hole forma- as thickness of casing and cement, or a flexible drill shaft to penetrate
tion resistivity tool makes direct, effects resulting from the position of through the casing and cement into
deep-reading formation resistivity the tool and casing in the borehole. the formation. The use of explosives
measurements through casing and For the highest possible accuracy, is eliminated. Down hole sensors
cement. The concept of measur- CHFP service is the measurement measure formation pressure, pres-
ing resistivity through casing is not of choice. sure transients, and formation fluid
new, but recent breakthroughs in CHFD* cased hole formation den- resistivity. Combining the CHDT tool
downhole electronics and electrode sity service makes accurate forma- with various modules of the MDT*
design have made these challeng- tion density measurements in cased modular formation dynamics tester
ing measurements possible. Now wells. A chemical gamma ray source enables enhanced fluid identifica-
the same basic measurements can and three-detector measurement tion, contamination monitoring, and
be compared for open and cased system are used to make measure- high-quality sampling.
holes, thereby eliminating the errors ments in a wide range of casing and
caused by comparing different types borehole sizes. The density mea-
of measurements. The CHFR-Slim* surement made by the three-detec- Applications
slimhole tool version operates in cas- tor system is corrected for casing Evaluation of bypassed pay
ing from 278 to 7 in. and cement thickness. Evaluation of old wells with new
RSTPro reservoir saturation tool measurements
Sonic Scanner acoustic scanning
makes both formation sigma and platform acquires borehole-compen- Reevaluation of existing fields
C/O ratio measurements. In forma- sated long- and short-spaced mono- Primary formation evaluation
tions with high-salinity formation pole, cross-dipole, and cement bond
water, the sigma measurement has in cased wells
quality measurements. In addition
been used for several decades to Complement to logging-while-
to these axial and azimuthal mea-
determine the saturations. Now the surements, the fully characterized drilling (LWD) data
C/O ratio measurement can accu- tool radially measures the formation Alternative to openhole data acqui-
rately evaluate formation water for both near-wellbore and far-field sition under difficult well conditions
saturation in moderate- to high- slowness. A 3D anisotropy algorithm Evaluation of wells drilled with casing
porosity formations. Time-lapse makes it possible to characterize Reservoir monitoring
measurements of formation water formations as isotropic or anisotro-
saturation can be used to monitor Fluid contact movement, saturation
pic, along with the type and cause
the performance of a well or reservoir of the anisotropy. and pressure changes, and depletion
over time. and injection

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Measurement Specifications
CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim Tools RSTPro Tool CHFP Service CHFD Service Sonic Scanner Platform DSI Imager CHDT Tester
Output Formation resistivity Inelastic and capture yields Neutron porosity, Bulk density Compressional and shear t, Compressional and shear Formation pressure, fluid
of various elements, C/O ratio, formation sigma full waveforms, cement bond t, waveforms, Variable mobility, formation fluid samples
formation capture cross section measurement quality quality waveforms, anisotropy Density waveforms
(sigma), neutron porosity characterization
Logging speed Stationary: ~1 min/station Inelastic mode: 100 ft/h [30.5 m/h] 900 ft/h [274 m/h] 900 ft/h [274 m/h] Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] Stationary
Effective logging speed: (formation dependent)
240 ft/h [73 m/h] Capture mode: 600 ft/h [183 m/h]
Sigma mode: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 1 to 100 ohm.m Porosity: 0 to 60 pu Porosity: 0 to 60 pu 2 to 3 g/cm3 Standard shear slowness: Standard shear slowness: 0 to 20,000 psi

Logging Platforms and Suites


<1,500 us/ft [<4,920 us/m] 700 ms/ft [2,296 ms/m] [0 to 138 MPa]
Max. slowness (S-DSI):
1,200 ms/ft [3,937 ms/m]
Vertical resolution 4 ft [1.22 m] 15 in [38.10 cm] 14 in [35.56 cm] 18 in [45.72 cm] <6-ft [<1.82-m] processing 3.5-ft [1.1-m] processing Point measurement
resolution for 6-in [15.24-cm] resolution for 6-in
sampling rate [15-cm] sampling rate
Accuracy 10% Based on hydrogen index Porosity: <7 pu = 1 pu 0.05 g/cm3 t for up to 14-in [35.56 -cm] hole t : 2 ms/ft [6.6 ms/m] CQG gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa]
of formation 7 to 30 pu = 10% size: 2 us/ft [6.56 us/m] or 2% + 0.01% of reading) (accuracy),
30 to 60 pu = 15% t for >14-in [>35.56-cm] hole 0.008 psi [55 Pa] at 1.3-s gate
Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m] size: 5 us/ft [16.40 us/m] or 5% time (resolution)
Depth of investigation Similar to deep laterolog, 10 in [20.54 cm] 7 in [18 cm] 5 in [12.70 cm] Typical presentation of 9 in [22.86 cm] Drilled depth: 6 in [15.24 cm]
up to 32 ft [9.75 m], up to 7 borehole radii
depending on environment
Mud type or weight None None None Cement thickness None None None
limitations < 1.75 in [4.44 cm]
Combinability Gamma ray, casing Combinable with tools using Combinable with most Combinable with most Fully combinable with Combinable with Combinable with most toolstrings,
collar locator the PS Platform platform telemetry toolstrings toolstrings other tools most tools another CHDT tool, MDT tester
system, CPLT tool, Combinable modules
GammaRay Sonde (CGRS)
Special applications HS service HS service
Stations are recorded every 4 ft [1.22 m]. Two resistivity measurements, 2 ft [0.61 m] apart, are made simultaneously at each station.
Measurements above 100 ohm.m may be possible based on environment.
For an infinitely thick bed
Depends on casing and cement thickness

Mechanical Specifications
CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim Tools RSTPro Tool CHFP Service CHFD Service Sonic Scanner Platform DSI Imager CHDT Tester
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 257 degF [125 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
With flask: 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]

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With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. CHFR-Plus: 4 in [11.43 cm] 2 in [6.03 cm] 5 in [12.70 cm] 6 in [16.83 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 5 in [12.70 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm]
CHFR-Slim: 2 in [5.72 cm]
Casing sizemax. CHFR-Plus: 9 in [24.45 cm] 9 in [24.45 cm] 13 in [33.97 cm] 13 in [33.97 cm] 22 in [55.88 cm] 13 in [33.97 cm] 9 in [24.45 cm]
CHFR-Slim: 7 in [17.78 cm]
Outside diameter CHFR-Plus: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] RST-C: 1.71 in [4.34 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] 4.77 in [12.11 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] 4.25 in [10.80 cm]
CHFR-Slim: 2.125 in [5.40 cm] RST-D: 2.51 in [6.37 cm]
Min. ID: 2.4 in [6.10 cm]

51
Carbonate Advisor
Petrophysics and Productivity Analysis
Carbonate Advisor* petrophysics and The three steps of the integrated At each step, customized log displays
productivity analysis integrates a workflow are the determination of and crossplots facilitate quality con-
comprehensive suite of petrophysical lithology and porositysimultane- trol, parameter selection, and graphical
logging measurements to quantita- ously integrating measurements zonation. Within hours of data acquisi-
tively determine reservoir producibility sensitive to rock matrix properties, tion, a continuous log of the analyzed
in carbonate formations. Unlike sand- such as Litho Scanner high-defi- carbonate formation is produced.
stones, with their well-characterized nition spectroscopy service, ECS*
correlations of porosity, permeability, elemental capture spectroscopy
and other reservoir properties, the Application
sonde, photoelectric factor (PEF),
heterogeneous pore systems of and neutron capture spectroscopy,
Quantitative producibility and
carbonate rocks defy routine petro- with measurements sensitive to textural analysis for carbonate
physical analysis. Carbonate Advisor both the rock matrix and contained reservoirs
analysis accurately evaluates carbonate fluids, such as density and neu-
formations by accounting for reservoir tron porosity, and measurements
heterogeneity on a multiplicity of sensitive primarily to the fluids
scalesof the grains, the pores, and and pore space, such as nuclear
the textures. magnetic resonance (NMR) porosity
The systematic analytical framework and bound-fluid volume
of Carbonate Advisor analysis uses the pore type and permeability
pore geometry to sequentially interre-
partitioning the total porosity into
late logging data to producibility. The
eight pore system classes based on
evaluation centers on characterization
pore-throat sizes, revealing the influ-
and size partitioning of the pore geom-
ence of the pore geometry, which is
etry by using texture-sensitive borehole
not well correlated with mineralogy
logs, such as MR Scanner expert mag-
in carbonates, unlike in sandstones
netic resonance service and borehole
relative permeability and satu-
imaging. This advanced methodology
leverages pore geometry analysis to con- rationusing a powerful for-
firm the identification of petrophysical ward model to account for the
rock types (mineralogy and pore system radial variation of resistivity, from
class), determine fluid saturations, and both array induction and array
estimate permeabilities and relative laterolog measurements, resulting
permeabilities. from borehole fluid invasion
during drilling.

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DecisionXpress
Petrophysical Evaluation System
The DecisionXpress petrophysical eval- Delivered with the data, the stand- Applications
uation system provides nearly auto- alone PC-based viewer application Casing, drilling-ahead, and side-
matic processing of data from modern provides rapid data visualization and tracking decisions
spectroscopy and Platform Express log- reprocessing capabilities, again with
Planning for mechanical and
ging tools to enable fast, objective, and minimal user input. The resulting pet-
reliable log interpretation. rophysical evaluations are securely percussion sidewall coring
This advanced petrophysical eval- delivered through Web-based InterACT Designing pressure measurement

uation is developed with only mini- global connectivity, collaboration, and and reservoir fluid sampling
mal user input from the integration information service. Answer products operations
of all the formation, borehole, and are available within minutes of data Drillstem testing
quality control measurements of the acquisition, as data are processed lin- Completion strategies
Platform Express integrated wireline early for each depth level, starting with
Sensitivity analysis
logging tool and ECS elemental cap- mineralogy and matrix properties and
ture spectroscopy sonde. The accuracy proceeding through the computation
of the spectroscopy measurements is of matrix-corrected porosity, perme-
relatively insensitive to mud weight, ability, and fluid saturations. Unlike
most fluid types, and borehole size conventional processing, answer prod-
and rugosity. SpectroLith* lithology ucts from the DecisionXpress system
processing of the ECS sonde mea- are accurate and reliable for most
surements of elemental concentra- siliciclastic reservoirs worldwide, with-
tions employs empirical relationships out requiring manual customization
derived from an extensive proprietary of parameter definitions for specific
core chemistry and mineralogy data- environments.
base to determine quantitative lithol-
ogy and matrix properties data. The
unique DecisionXpress system combi-
nation of elemental concentration logs
and outputs from SpectroLith process-
ing forms a robust foundation for the
highly accurate, consistent derivation
of mineralogy and matrix parameters.

Logging Platforms and Suites 53

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DeepLook-EM
Crosswell Electromagnetic Imaging Service
The DeepLook-EM* crosswell elec- Applications
tromagnetic imaging service directly Fluid front monitoring
measures formation resistivity between
Bypassed pay identification
wells to produce a reservoir-scale
resistivity image. The two wells in Reservoir simulation optimization
which the transmitter and receiver Enhanced reservoir
tools of DeepLook-EM service are run characterization
can be separated by up to 3,280 ft Drilling optimization
[1,000 m], depending on the con-
straints of the well environments,
formations, and resistivity contrasts.
A global positioning system is used for
synchronized communication of the
tools, which are deployed on standard
wireline equipment.
Generating a magnetic moment
more than 100,000 times that of stan-
dard induction tools, the transmitter
tool of DeepLook-EM service induces
electrical currents to flow in the for-
Transmitter mation. The currents induce a sec-
ondary magnetic field that is detected
by the four-coil array of the receiver
tool. The data are inverted for forma-
tion resistivity using a baseline model
constructed with the Petrel* E&P
software platform.

DeepLook-EM Service Interwell Distances


Transmitter Well Receiver Well Well Spacing, ft [m]
Open hole Open hole 3,280 [1,000]
Open hole Steel casing 1,640 [500]
Open hole Chromium casing 2,953 [900]
Chromium casing Chromium casing 1,312 [400]
Chromium casing Steel casing 984 [300]

Receiver

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Measurement Specifications
DeepLook-EM Service
Output Resistivity images
Logging speed Transmitter: 2,0005,000 ft/h [6001,520 m/h]
Receiver: Stationary
Range of measurement 51,000 Hz
Vertical resolution >14.75 ft [>4.5 m]
Depth of investigation See DeepLook-EM Service Interwell Distances table
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability
Special applications Crosswell logging

Mechanical Specifications
DeepLook-EM Service Transmitter DeepLook-EM Service Receiver
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Well sizemin.
Open hole 4.5 in [11.43 cm] 2.5 in [6.35 cm]
Cased hole 4.5 in [11.43 cm] 2.5 in [6.35 cm]
Well sizemax.
Open hole No limit No limit
Cased hole 13.75 in [34.93 cm] No limit
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
Length 32.4 ft [9.88 m] Four receivers: 73.8 ft [22.5 m]
Weight 410 lbm [186 kg] 416 lbm [189 kg]
Tension 18,000 lbf [80,070 N] 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
Compression 10,000 lbf [44,450 N] na
na =
not available

Logging Platforms and Suites 55

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PS Platform
Production Services Platform
The PS Platform production services Additional services can be combined Typical PS Platform production log-
platform performs in vertical, with the basic PS Platform platform: ging platform toolstrings are configured
horizontal, or any angle of borehole PS Platform Inline Spinner (PILS) for the well position and number of
deviation to provide three-phase flow can be used in high-flow-rate envi- production phases:
profiles and production monitoring or ronments to determine fluid velocity. Vertical well configuration
diagnostic information. Measurement UNIGAGE* pressure gauge system Single- or two-phase production
capability is in both real-time and
(PUCS) is run if data from two pres- or single-phase injection: Basic
memory modes.
sure gauges (Sapphire and quartz toolstring with optional PGMS
The following tools and their
gauges) are required. Three-phase production: Basic
measurements constitute the basic
GHOST* gas holdup optical sensor toolstring with GHOST tool and
platform string:
Platform Basic Measurement Sonde
tool uses optical sensing technology PGMS
to directly detect and quantify gas High-angle or horizontal well
(PBMS) houses the gamma ray and
in multiphase flows. configuration
casing collar locator (CCL) for cor-
FloView Plus* holdup measurement
relation and also measures pressure Single-phase production: Basic
(with either a Sapphire* or quartz tool for highly deviated and hori- toolstring
pressure gauge) and temperature. zontal wells is an imaging tool that
Two- or three-phase production:
Flow-Caliper Imaging Sonde (PFCS)
helps identify the flow regime and
Basic toolstring with FloView Plus
measures holdup.
measures the average fluid velocity, or GHOST tool
RSTPro reservoir saturation tool
water and hydrocarbon holdups, and
bubble counts from four indepen- provides sigma, carbon/oxygen
dent probes. It also provides dual- (C/O) ratio, water flow, three-phase Applications
axis (x-y) caliper mea surements holdup, and spectrometry logging. Three-phase production logging
and relative-bearing measurements. SCMT slim cement mapping tool is
Vertical and deviated wells
The bubble count image is used to a 11116-in [4.29-cm] sonic tool that
Formation stimulation evaluation
identify the first fluid entry. produces an eight-segment cement
map and conventional 3-ft [0.91m] Depth correlation
Gradiomanometer* specific gravity

profile tool (PGMS) measures the CBL and 5-ft [1.52-m] Variable Reservoir and production
average density of the wellbore fluid, Density log displays. monitoring
from which the water, oil, and gas PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Transient analysis
holdups are derived. Accelerometer Tool (PMIT) makes internal casing Short periods of multiple-layer
measurements provide deviation cor- or tubing condition measurements testing
rection for the measured fluid density. from multiple caliper measurements
around the casing or tubing.

56 Wireline Services Catalog

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PBMS

PGMS

PUCS-A

CCL-N GHOST-A

PMIT-A
PILS-A

RST-C

FloView Plus

PFCS

SCMT-BB

Logging Platforms and Suites 57

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Measurement Specifications
PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool RSTPro Tool SCMT Tool
Output Gamma ray, CCL, pressure Fluid velocity, caliper Fluid density Gas holdup, bubble size, Sigma, porosity, C/O ratio, CBL amplitude, Variable
(Sapphire or CQG* crystal quartz caliper, relative bearing spectrometry, WFL* water Density log, cement map
gauge), temperature, relative flow log, TPHL* three-phase
bearing, tool acceleration fluid holdup log
Logging speed Depends on the Variable Depends on the Depends on the Depends on the 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
application application application application
Range of measurement Sapphire gauge: 1 to 10,000 psi Spinner: 0.5 to 200 rps 0 to 2.0 g/cm3 Gas holdup: 0 to 100% Sigma: 0 to 60 cu [0 to 6.0/m] VDL window length:
[6,895 Pa to 69 MPa] Caliper: 2 to 11 in Caliper: 2 to 9 in Capture mode: 0 to 60% 1,200 ms
High-pressure Sapphire gauge: [5.08 to 27.94 cm] (diameter) [5.08 to 22.86 cm] (uncorrected) Firing center accuracy:
1,000 to 1,500 psi [6.9 to 103 MPa] 20 kHz
CQG gauge: 14.5 to 15,000 psi
[0.1 to 103 MPa]
Temperature: Ambient to
302 degF [150 degC]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement Point of measurement 15 in [38.10 cm] Point of measurement 15 in [38.10 cm] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]
Cement map: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Accuracy Sapphire gauge: 6 psi Caliper: 0.2 in [5.1 mm] 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), Gas holdup between 2% and Based on formation, casing, CBL: 2% (repeatability)
[41,370 Pa] (accuracy), (accuracy), 0.04 in [1.0 mm] 0.002 g/cm3 (resolution) 98%: 1% (otherwise without and borehole characteristics
0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution) on diameter (resolution) probe protector: 5%, with
High-pressure Sapphire gauge: probe protector: 7%)
13 psi [89,632 Pa] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.20 in [5.1 mm]
0.2 psi [1,379 Pa] at 1-s gate
time (resolution)
CQG gauge: (1 psi [6,894 Pa] +
0.01% of reading) (accuracy),
0.01 psi [69 Pa] at 1-s gate time
(resolution)
Temperature: 1.8 degF [1 degC]
(accuracy), 0.01 degF [0.018 degC]
(resolution)
Depth of investigation Borehole Borehole Borehole Borehole 10 in [25.40 cm] CBL and cement map:
Casing to cement bond
Mud type or weight None None Measurement not valid None None None
limitations in horizontal wells
Special applications Exceeds NACE standards
for HS resistance

Mechanical Specifications
PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool RSTPro Tool SCMT Tool
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [6.03 cm] 2 in [6.03 cm] 2 in [6.03 cm] 2 in [5.08 cm] RST-C: 11316 in [4.60 cm] 2 in [6.03 cm]
RST-D: 2 in [7.30 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit 11 in [27.94 cm] No limit 9 in [22.86 cm] RST-C: 7 in [19.37 cm] 7 in [17.78 cm]
RST-D: 9 in [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 1.71 in [4.34 cm] RST-C: 1.71 in [4.34 cm] 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
RST-D: 2.51 in [6.37 cm]
Length 8.27 ft [2.52 m] 5.14 ft [1.57 m] 4.8 ft [1.46 m] 7.1 ft [2.16 m] RST-C: 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 11 ft [3.35 m]
RST-D: 22.2 ft [6.77 m]
Weight 38.3 lbm [17.4 kg] 19.7 lbm [8.9 kg] 29.5 lbm [13.4 kg] 28.4 lbm [12.9 kg] RST-C: 101 lbm [46 kg] 50 lbm [23 kg]
RST-D: 208 lbm [94 kg]
For high-temperature applications, ask your Schlumberger representative for the individual tool specifications.
Minimum tubing size

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Dielectric Dispersion
Logging

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Dielectric Scanner
MultifrequencyDielectricDispersion Service
Dielectric Scanner multifrequency Applications
dielectric dispersion service provides Direct measurement of water
continuous, high-resolution measure- volume independent of water
ment of the variation of formation resistivity (Rw) at a depth of
dielectric properties as a function of investigation to 4in [10 cm],
frequency. Radial interpretation of solving for
each frequency provides permittivity
and conductivity, which are input to a Residual hydrocarbon volume
petrophysical model to obtain water- in produced reservoirs
filled porosity (hence water satura- Hydrocarbon volume in low-
tion within the total porosity), water resistivity or low-contrast shaly
salinity, and textural effects. Pressure, and laminated sand formations
temperature, and the permittivity and Hydrocarbon volume and
conductivity of the borehole mudcake mobility in heavy oil reservoirs
are also measured to correct for envi- Water salinity
ronmental effects.
In carbonates, Dielectric Scanner Continuous Archie mn exponent log
services analysis of textural effects from rock texture measurements
provides a continuous in situ mea- in carbonates for determining
surement the Archie mn exponents saturations beyond the invaded zone
instead of requiring their estimation CEC to account for the effect of
or a wait for laboratory core analysis. clay volume in siliciclastics
In shaly sands, processing provides a High-resolution water-filled porosity
continuous log of the cation exchange for thin-bed analysis
capacity (CEC), accounting for the
effect of the clay volume.
The articulated pad of Dielectric
Scanner service improves contact with
the formation in rugose boreholes, a
condition that previous mandrel-type
electromagnetic propagation tools
weresensitive to.

Wireline Services Catalog Dielectric Dispersion Logging 61

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Measurement Specifications
Dielectric Scanner Service
Output Relative dielectric permittivity and conductivity at four frequencies
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Permittivity: 1 to 100
at highest frequency Conductivity: 0.1 to 3,000 mS
Vertical resolution 1 in [2.5 cm]
Accuracy at highest frequency Corresponding to 0.002-ft3/ft3 [0.002-m3/m3] water-filled porosity
Permittivity: 1% or 0.1
Conductivity: 1% or 5 mS
Depth of investigation To 4 in [10 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Conveyance on wireline, TLC tough logging conditions system, or tractor
Special applications Articulated pad for rugose boreholes
1-in resolution depending on frequency

Mechanical Specifications
Dielectric Scanner Service
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Outside diameter 4.77 in [12.12 cm]
Borehole sizemin. 5.5 in [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22.0 in [55.88 cm]
Min. restriction 5.25 in [13.34 cm]
Length 11.27 ft [3.44 m]
Weight 262 lbm [119 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,411 N]
Compression 4,400 lbf [19,572 N]
8,000 lbf [35,586 N] with stiffener kit for the TLC system

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Resistivity Logging

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Rt Scanner
Triaxial Induction Service
Rt Scanner triaxial induction service Although the intervals are at lower
calculates vertical and horizontal resis- vertical resolution than dip from an
tivity (Rv and Rh, respectively) from image tool or dipmeter, measure-
direct measurements while simultane- ments from Rt Scanner service are
ously solving for formation dip at any sufficiently robust to provide criti-
well deviation. Making measurements cal structural information and detect
at multiple depths of investigation in major events, such as bed boundaries
three dimensions ensures that the and unconformities or faults crossing
derived resistivities are true 3D mea- the borehole.
surements. The enhanced hydrocarbon Along with advanced resistivity and
and water saturation estimates com- structural information, Rt Scanner
puted from these measurements result service delivers standard AIT array
in a more accurate reservoir model induction imager tool measurements
and reserves estimates, especially for for correlation with existing field logs.
low-resistivity laminated, anisotropic, The tools innovative single-piece
or faulted formations. design requires the addition of only a
Compact, one-piece Rt Scanner caliper and the GPIT* general purpose
service has multiple triaxial arrays, inclinometry tool to the toolstring to
each containing three collocated coils operate. Rt Scanner service is also
measuring at various depths into the fully combinable with most openhole
formation. Rv and Rh are calculated services and the Platform Express
at each of the triaxial spacings. Short integrated wireline logging tool, adding
single-axis receivers and collocated only 7 ft [2m] to the length of a triple-
triaxial receivers are used to fully combo Platform Express tool when
characterize the borehole signal and replacing the AIT resistivity tool.
remove the borehole effect.
Rt Scanner service also simulta-
neously measures formation dip and Applications
azimuth for making advanced correc- Quantification of laminated or
tions for the effects of bed boundar- low-resistivity formations
ies and formation dip. Accurate dip Corrected resistivity for shoulder
and azimuth measurements can be beds at any dip
obtained for a wide range of borehole Determination of water
conditions and formation environ- saturation, Sw
ments, including at any well angle to
Geometric reservoir modeling
the formation layers, in air-filled bore-
holes, and in the presence of invasion. Structural analysis

Layer dip is computed at 10- to 50-ft Completion design and facilities


[3- to 15-m] intervals. optimization

Wireline Services Catalog Resistivity Logging 65

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Measurement Specifications
Rt Scanner Service
Output Rv, Rh, AIT tool logs, spontaneous potential, dip, azimuth
Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Depth of investigation AIT: 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 in [25.40, 50.80, 76.20, 152.40,
and 228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Determined during job planning
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with
Platform Express tool and most openhole tools
Special applications

Mechanical Specifications
Rt Scanner Service
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in [50.8 cm]
Outside diameter 3.875 in [9.84 cm]
Length 19.6 ft [5.97 m]
Weight 404 lbm [183 kg]
Tension 25,000 lbf [111,205 N]
Compression 6,000 lbf [26,690 N]
Does not include required standoff

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Induction Tools

Induction logging tools accurately mea- Platform Express array


sure open borehole formation conduc-
tivity as a function of both well depth
induction imager tool
and radius into the formation at differ- The AIT-H tool is designed expressly
ent borehole conditions and environ- for the Platform Express integrated
ments. Various tools cater to special wireline logging tool. It is approxi-
operating environments, including slim mately one-half the length of the
wells and hostile, HPHT environments. AIT-B and AIT-C tools, yet provides
Wireline array induction tools use the same high-quality measurement.
an array induction coil that operates The tool is used primarily in stan-
at multiple frequencies. Software dard logging conditions of pressure
focusing of the received signals gen- to 15,000psi [103MPa] and tem-
erates a series of resistivity logs with perature to 257degF [125degC]. The
different depths of investigation. more recent AIT-M tool provides the
Multichannel signal processing pro- same measurements with a tempera-
vides robust, stable tool responses ture rating of 302degF [150degC].
with enhanced radial and vertical
resolution and correction for environ-
mental effects. Quantitative 2D imag-
Hostile Environment
ing of formation resistivity is possible Induction Imager Tool
because of the large number of mea- The HIT is a component of the Xtreme
surements made. The images repre- platform for logging hostile envi-
sent bedding and invasion features ronment wells. Even under severe
clearly and quantitatively. Advanced temperature and pressure condi-
invasion description parameters are tions, the induction measurement
used to describe the presence of tran- quality matches that of the standard
sition zones and annuli. The quantita- AITtools.
tive information about invasion can
be converted to a 2D image of water
saturation Sw, which can be plotted in SlimXtreme Array
color at the wellsite. Induction Imager Tool
The QAIT tool is used with the
SlimXtreme platform to log slim
AIT array induction wellbores under severe environmen-
imager tool tal conditions. The slim tool diam-
The standard AIT-B and AIT-C tools eter is also useful for logging through
are used in moderate-environment severedoglegs.
wellbore conditions to measure the
true resistivity of geologic forma-
tions. The AIT toolss measurement
of conductivity as a function of both
depth and distance from the borehole
revolutionized induction logging by
increasing the depth of investigation
of the measured signal concurrent
with reducing the vertical resolution
QAIT AIT-C AIT-BA
from 4 to 2 ft [1.22 to 0.61m] and to 1ft
[0.30 m] in smooth wellbores.

Resistivity Logging 67

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Applications
Reservoir delineation
Determination of Rt
Determination of Sw
Hydrocarbon identification
and imaging
Determination of movable

hydrocarbons
Invasion profiling

Thin-bed analysis

Measurement Specifications
AIT-B and AIT-C AIT-H and AIT-M HIT QAIT
Output 10-, 20-, 30-, 60-, and 90-in [25.40-, 50.80-, 76.20-, 152.40-, and 228.60-cm] deep induction resistivities, SP, Rm
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.1 to 2,000 ohm.m
Vertical resolution 1, 2, and 4 ft [0.30, 0.61, and 1.22 m]
Accuracy Resistivities: 0.75 us/m (conductivity) or 2% (whichever is greater)
Depth of investigation AO/AT/AF10: 10 in [25.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF20: 20 in [50.80 cm]
AO/AT/AF30: 30 in [76.20 cm]
AO/AT/AF60: 60 in [152.40 cm]
AO/AT/AF90: 90 in [228.60 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Salt-saturated muds usually outside the operating range of induction tools
Combinability Combinable with most services Platform Express tool Xtreme platform SlimXtreme platform
Special applications High temperature Slim wellbores
HS service HPHT
AO = 1-ft [0.30-m] vertical resolution, AT = 2-ft [0.61-m] vertical resolution, AF = 4-ft [1.22-m] vertical resolution

Mechanical Specifications
AIT-B and AIT-C AIT-H AIT-M HIT QAIT
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 257 degF [125 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.38 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in [50.80 cm] 20 in [50.80 cm] 20 in [50.80 cm] 20 in [50.80 cm] 20 in [50.80 cm]
Outside diameter 3.875 in [9.84 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Length 33.5 ft [10.21 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 16 ft [4.88 m] 29.2 ft [8.90 m] 30.8 ft [9.39 m]
Weight 575 lbm [261 kg] 255 lbm [116 kg] 282 lbm [128 kg] 625 lbm [283 kg] 499 lbm [226 kg]
Tension 16,500 lbf [73,400 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
Compression 2,300 lbf [10,230 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 2,000 lbf [8,900 N]
Without SP sub

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Laterolog Tools

ARI azimuthal Applications


resistivityimager Determination of Rt
The ARI* azimuthal resistivity imager Deviated and horizontal

combines standard laterolog measure- well evaluation


ments with a 12-channel azimuthal Thin-bed analysis
resistivity image and a high-resolution Rt measurements free
deep resistivity measurement. The ofGrningeneffects
resistivity image has 100% borehole
Short-radius wells
coverage and complements high-
resolution borehole images from the
FMI* fullbore formation microimager
by differentiating between natural High-Resolution Azimuthal
deep fractures and shallow, drilling- Laterolog Sonde
induced cracks. Azimuthal resistivity The HALS uses a central azimuthal
measurements also enable the detec- array of electrodes to produce deep
tion of nearby conductive beds in and shallow resistivity images and an
horizontal wells. image of the electrical standoff for
the Platform Express integrated wire-
Applications line logging tool. A computed focusing
scheme increases the accuracy of the
Determination of Rt measurement and enables the simul-
Deviated and horizontal taneous computation of standard and
wellevaluation high-resolution curves by changing
HALS
Azimuthal resistivity evaluation the focusing conditions.

Applications
HRLA high-resolution
Determination of Rt
laterolog array tool

Resistivity logs and azimuthal


The HRLA* high-resolution laterolog images with 1-ft [0.30-m]
array tool provides five independent, verticalresolution
actively focused, depth- and resolution-
Thin-bed analysis
matched measurements that can resolve
the true formation resistivity in thinly Fracture identification and
HRLA
bedded and deeply invaded formations. characterization
Unprecedented combinability results Deviated and horizontal well
from the through-wired tool design. The evaluation
absence of a current return at surface Grningen-corrected resistivity
as well as no required use of a bridle
Evaluation of heterogeneous
greatly improves wellsite efficiency.
reservoirs
Borehole profiling

Invasion characterization for

permeability indication
Identification of fluid contacts
ARI

Resistivity Logging 69

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Measurement Specifications
ARI Imager HRLA Tool HALS
Output Deep laterolog, shallow laterolog, Deep laterolog, shallow laterolog, High-resolution deep laterolog,
high-resolution deep laterolog, high-resolution resistivity, diameter of high-resolution shallow laterolog,
Grningen laterolog, azimuthal invasion, resistivity images, mud resistivity resistivity images, mud resistivity
resistivity, resistivity images
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.2 to 100,000 ohm.m Rm = 1 ohm.m: 0.2 to 0.2 to 40,000 ohm.m
100,000 ohm.m
Rm = 0.02 ohm.m: 0.2 to
20,000 ohm.m
Vertical resolution Deep and shallow laterolog: 12 in [30.48 cm] Standard resolution: 18 in [45.72 cm]
29-in [73.66-cm] beam width in 6-in [15.24-cm] borehole
High-resolution laterolog: High resolution: 8 in [20.32 cm]
8-in [20.32-cm] beam width in 6-in [15.24-cm] borehole
Accuracy 1 to 2,000 ohm.m: 5% 1 to 2,000 ohm.m: 5% 1 to 2,000 ohm.m: 5%
2,000 to 5,000 ohm.m: 10% 2,000 to 5,000 ohm.m: 10%
5,000 to 100,000 ohm.m: 20% 5,000 to 100,000 ohm.m: 20%
Depth of investigation 40 in [101.6 cm] (varies with 50 in [127.0 cm] 32 in [81.3 cm] (varies with
formation and mud resistivities) formation and mud resistivities)
Mud type or weight limitations Rm < 5 ohm.m Conductive mud systems only Conductive mud systems only
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Bottom component of
Platform Express tool
HRLA performance specifications are for 8-in borehole.
Median response at 10:1 contrast of true to invaded zone resistivity

Mechanical Specifications
ARI Imager HRLA Tool HALS
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 257 degF [125 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm] 5 in [12.70 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm] 16 in [40.64 cm] 16 in [40.64 cm]
Outside diameter 3 in [9.21 cm] 3 in [9.21 cm] 3 in [9.21 cm]
7 in [18.41 cm]
Length 33.25 ft [10.13 m] 24.1 ft [7.34 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 579 lbm [263 kg] 394 lbm [179 kg] 221 lbm [100 kg]
Tension 3,000 lbf [13,345 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N]
9,400 lbf [41,810 N]
Compression 2,000 lbf [8,900 N] With fin standoff: 3,600 lbf [16,010 N] 2,400 lbf [10,675 N]
With rigid centralizers: 7,800 lbf [34,700 N] With four rigid centralizers:
9,400 lbf [41,810 N]
ARI tool is available in two sizes to fit different borehole sizes.

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Microresistivity Tools

Microresistivity tools measure the in mudcake thickness and borehole


resistivity of the invaded zone Rxo. geometry. The 3-in [7.62-cm] depth of
Micro-normal and -inverse measure- investigation also makes the measure-
ments are made for permeability ment insensitive to mudcake up to
indication. 0.4 in [1 cm] thick, and correction
can be made for thicker mudcake. The
measurement of mudcake thickness
MicroSFL spherically is input to quality control processes
focused resistivity tool for the TLD and other tools sensitive
The MicroSFL* spherically focused to standoff.
resistivity tool (MSFL) achieves the
very shallow depth of investigation
necessary to measure formation
Powered Caliper Device
resistivity close to the borehole wall with microlog tool
through its electrode spacing arrange- The Powered Caliper Device (PCD)
ment in combination with control of with microlog tool consists of a
the bucking current. The MicroSFL hydraulic sonde containing two cali-
tool also provides an indication of the per arms and a microlog pad. The
mudcake thickness hmc and a real- microlog pad is mounted on the larger
time synthetic microlog generated caliper arm, which eccenters the tool.
from the micro-normal (MNOR) and The smaller caliper arm is mounted
micro-inverse (MINV) measurements. opposite the large arm and is used
as a borehole rugosity indicator. The
microlog micro-normal and micro-
Micro-Cylindrically inverse measurements are used to
Focused Log indicate permeability. MCFL
The Micro-Cylindrically Focused Log
(MCFL) and Three-Detector Lithology Applications
Density (TLD) tools are collocated on MSFL
the Platform Express integrated wire-
Rxo measurement
line logging tool. The MCFL consists Invasion correction of deep

of a narrow, wear-resistant metallic resistivity measurements


pad and provides three basic mea- Detection of permeable zones
surements: Rxo, hmc, and the mudcake Quantitative estimate of water
resistivity Rmc. saturation in the flushed zone
The MCFL has several advantages (Sxo) (movable oil) PCD
over previous devices for measuring
Evaluation of sand-shale
invaded zone resistivity. The MCFL
uses a dual-focusing method to cre- laminations (sand count)
ate cylindrical equipotential surfaces Measurement of hole diameter

that are the optimal shape for the Indication of hole rugosity
cylindrical borehole and mudcake and
make the tool insensitive to variations

Resistivity Logging 71

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Mechanical Specifications
MicroSFL Tool MCFL PCD with Microlog
Output Resistivity of the invaded zone Resistivity of the invaded zone Micro-normal, micro-inverse,
two calipers (single axis)
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0.2 to 1,000 ohm.m 0.2 to 2,000 ohm.m Short arm: 1.25 in [3.18 cm]
Hole diameter: 22 in [55.9 cm]
Vertical resolution 2 to 3 in [5.08 to 7.67 cm] 0.70 in [1.78 cm] Micro-normal: 2 in [5.08 cm]
Micro-inverse: 1 in [2.54 cm]
Accuracy 2 ohm.m 5% Caliper: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Depth of investigation 0.7 in [1.78 cm] 3.0 in [7.62 cm] Micro-normal: 1.5 in [3.8 cm]
Micro-inverse: 0.5 in [1.3 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Oil-base mud Oil-base mud Oil-base mud
Combinability Combinable with most tools Housed with the TLD in the Combinable with most tools
High-Resolution Mechanical
Sonde of the Platform Express tool
Special applications Provides eccentric positioning for
other services that require it

Mechanical Specifications
MicroSFL Tool MCFL PCD with Microlog
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [13.97 cm] Without bow spring: 515 in [13.21 cm] Without microlog pad: 6 in [16.51 cm]
With bow spring: 6 in [15.24 cm] With microlog pad: 7 in [22.23 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 17 in [44.45 cm] 16 in [40.64 cm] 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter Caliper closed: 4.625 in [11.75 cm] Without pad: 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
4.77 in [12.11 cm] With slim pad: 5 in [12.70 cm]
With standard pad: 6.25 in [15.87 cm]
Length 12.3 ft [3.75 m] 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 17.25 ft [5.26 m]
Weight 313 lbm [142 kg] 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 345 lbm [156 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 8,800 lbf [39,140 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]

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CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim
CasedHoleFormationResistivity Tools
The CHFR-Plus cased hole formation between the electrodes and the casing
resistivity tool and CHFR-Slim slimhole is optimized by the design of the
tool provide deep-reading resistivity electrodes, which scrape through small
measurements from behind steel amounts of casing scale and corrosion.
casing. The tools induce a current that Because the electrodes are in direct
travels in the casing, where it flows contact with the casing, the CHFR-Plus
both upward and downward before and CHFR-Slim tools are not limited
returning to the surface along a path to operations in conductive borehole
similar to that employed by openhole fluids and operate in wells with oil,
laterolog tools. Most of the current oil-base mud, or gas in the casing. The
remains in the casing, but a very small typical low-resistivity (1- to 5-ohm.m)
portion escapes to the formation. cements used in well construction do
Electrodes on the tools measure the not have a significant effect on cased
potential difference created by the hole resistivity measurement.
leaked current, which is proportional
to the formation conductivity.
Typical formation resistivity values Applications
are about 109 times the resistivity value Measuring resistivity behind
of the steel casing. The measurement casing in new or old wells
current escaping to the formation Reservoir monitoring
causes a voltage drop in the casing Locating bypassed hydrocarbons
segment. Because the resistance of
Determining residual oil
casing is a few tens of microohms and
the leaked current is typically on the saturation and identifying
order of few milliamperes, the potential gas/oil/water contacts
difference measured by the CHFR-Plus Contingency logging in wells

and CHFR-Slim tools is in nanovolts. where openhole logs cannot


Measurement is performed while be run
the CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim tools Reevaluating existing fields
CHFR-Slim
are stationary to avoid the noise
introduced by tool movement. Contact

CHFR-Plus

Resistivity Logging 73

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Measurement Specifications
CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim Tools
Output Formation resistivity
Logging speed Stationary: 1 min/station
Range of measurement 1 to 100 ohm.m
Vertical resolution 4 ft [1.2 m]
Accuracy 3% to 10%
Depth of investigation 7 to 32 ft [2.1 to 9.75 m]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Gamma ray, CCL
Special applications HS service
Stations are recorded every 4 ft [1.22 m]. Two resistivity measurements, 2 ft [0.61 m] apart are made simultaneously by redundant electrodes at each
station. The resulting effective logging speed is 240 ft/h [73 m/h].
Measurement of resistivities greater than 100 ohm.m may be possible based on the environment.
For an infinitely thick bed

Mechanical Specifications
CHFR-Plus Tool CHFR-Slim Tool
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 4 in 2 in (min. ID: 2.4 in [6.10 cm])
Casing sizemax. 9 in 7 in
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
Length 48 ft [14.63 m] 37 ft [11.28 m]
Weight 683 lbm [310 kg] 253 lbm [115 kg]
Tension 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 2,400 lbf [10,675 N] 1,000 lbf [4,448 N]

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Nuclear
Measurements

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Gamma Ray Tools

Gamma ray tools record naturally


occurring gamma rays in the forma-
tions adjacent to the wellbore. This
nuclear measurement indicates the
radioactive content of the formations.
Effective in any environment, gamma
ray tools are the standard device used
for the correlation of logs in cased and
open holes.

Applications
Depth determination
Depth correlation within the well CGRS
and between wells
Lithology identification

Qualitative evaluation of shaliness

Qualitative evaluation of radioactive

mineral deposits
Cased hole perforating

depthcontrol SGT-N
Positioning for openhole

samplingtools

HTGC
HGNS

QTGC

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Measurement Specifications
Highly Integrated Hostile Environment Scintillation Gamma SlimXtreme Telemetry Combinable Gamma
Gamma Neutron Telemetry and Gamma Ray Tool (SGT) and Gamma Ray Ray Sonde (CGRS)
Sonde (HGNS) Ray Cartridge (HTGC) Cartridge (QTGC)
Output Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Formation gamma ray Gamma ray activity
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] Up to 3,600 ft/h
[1,097m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 1,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in [60.96 cm] 24 in [60.96 cm] 24 in [60.96 cm] 24 in [60.96 cm] 24 in [60.96 cm]
Mud type or None None None None None
weight limitations
Combinability Part of Platform Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with Combinable with CPLT
Express tool most tools most tools most tools tool, RSTPro tool
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
HGNS HTGC SGT QTGC CGRS
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [12.38 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm] 11316-in [4.61-cm]
seating nipple
Borehole sizemax. No limit for gamma ray No limit No limit No limit No limit
measurement
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3.75 in [9.53 cm] 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3.0 in [7.62 cm] 11116 in [4.29 cm]
Length 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 10.7 ft [3.26 m] 5.5 ft [1.68 m] 10.67 ft [3.25 m] 3.2 ft [0.97 m]
Weight 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 265 lbm [120 kg] 83 lbm [38 kg] 180 lbm [82 kg] 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 37,000 lbf [164,580 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [103,210 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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Spectral Gamma Ray Tools

Spectral gamma ray tools provide Hostile Environment


insight into the mineral composition
of formations. The total gamma ray
Natural Gamma Ray Sonde
spectra measured is resolved into the The increased sensitivity of the HNGS
three most common components of set of detectors improves the tools
naturally occurring radiation in sands statistical response to the formation
and shalespotassium, thorium, and gamma rays to produce a better spec-
uranium (K, Th, and U, respectively). tral analysis than that of previous
These data are used to distinguish tools. The improvement in measure-
important features of the clay or sand ment also results from the use of two
around the wellbore. The clay type detectors instead of one. The HNGS
can be determined, and sand can be can log at a faster speed than other
identified as radioactive. The deposi- tools that measure the formation
tion of radioactive salts behind the natural gamma ray emissions. Its
casing by the movement of water can 500 degF [260 degC] temperature
also be identified. rating makes it suitable for operations
in hot borehole environments.

NGS natural gamma ray Applications


spectrometry tool Cation exchange capacity studies
The NGS* natural gamma ray spec-
Reservoir delineation
trometry tool uses five-window spec-
Detailed well-to-well correlation
troscopy to resolve the total gamma ray
spectra into K, Th, and U curves. The Definition of facies and
standard gamma ray and the gamma depositional environment
ray minus the uranium component are Igneous rock recognition
also presented. The computed gamma
Recognition of other radioactive
ray or Th curve can be used to evalu-
ate the clay content where radioactive materials
minerals are present. Estimated uranium and potassium
potentials
Lithologic analysis log input
HNGS

Nuclear Measurements 79

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Measurement Specifications
NGS Tool HNGS
Output Gamma ray; corrected gamma ray for uranium; Gamma ray; corrected gamma ray for uranium;
potassium, thorium, and uranium curves potassium, thorium, and uranium curves
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 2,000 gAPI 0 to 2,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 8 to 12 in [20.32 to 30.48 cm] 8 to 12 in [20.32 to 30.48 cm]
Accuracy K: 0.4% (accuracy), 0.25% (repeatability) K: 0.5% (accuracy), 0.14% (repeatability)
Th: 3.2 ppm (accuracy), 1.5 ppm (repeatability) Th: 2% (accuracy), 0.9 ppm (repeatability)
U: 2.3 ppm (accuracy), 0.9 ppm (repeatability) U: 2% (accuracy), 0.4 ppm (repeatability)
Depth of investigation 9.5 in [24.13 cm] 9.5 in [24.13 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations In KCl muds, KCl content must be known In KCl muds, KCl content must be known
Combinability Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools

Mechanical Specifications
NGS Tool HNGS
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit
Outside diameter NGT-C: 3 in [9.21 cm] 3 in [9.53 cm]
NGT-D: 3 in [9.84 cm]
Length 8.6 ft [2.62 m] 11.7 ft [3.57 m]
Weight NGT-C: 165 lbm [75 kg] 276 lbm [125 kg]
NGT-D: 189 lbm [86 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]

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Litho Scanner
High-Definition Spectroscopy Service
Litho Scanner high-definition spec- In shale gas reservoirs the in situ
troscopy service employs dual spectral TOC is a direct quantification of the
acquisition as the basis for accurate kerogen in place. In shale oil reservoirs,
elemental weight fractions, miner- comparing the in situ TOC with NMR
alogy, and lithologyincluding a measurements easily differentiates
stand-alone, quantitative, in situ deter- the movable hydrocarbon from the
mination of total organic carbon (TOC). nonmovable kerogen in place without
The decay of the gamma ray signal over requiring the use of a multisolver
time can also be simultaneously mea- model. In both shale gas and shale oil
sured to determine the average ther- reservoirs, the matrix density provided
mal neutron capture cross section, or by Litho Scanner service is used as a
sigma (), for characterizing fluids in reference to quantify additional density
the pore space. The service combines a porosity in the kerogen content.
high-output pulsed neutron generator Combinable with most openhole
(PNG), unique cerium-doped lantha- services and conveyed on wireline,
num bromide (LaBr3:Ce) crystal, and drillpipe, or tractor, 4.5-in-OD
specialized high-performance electron- Litho Scanner service also delivers
ics for acquisition and processing to 4times better precision than current
measure both inelastic and capture technology at a higher speed and
spectra for an expanded set of key ele- with outstanding high-temperature
ments in a wide variety of rock forma- performance from the LaBr3:Ce
tions at higher precision and accuracy scintillator. No detector cooling
than possible from previous-generation system is needed, and the high
spectroscopy tools in both open and spectral quality is maintained even
cased holes. during lengthy logging operations at
In carbonates the measurement of the rated tool temperature of 350degF
magnesium from the uncontaminated [177 degC].
inelastic spectrum is highly useful for
clearly distinguishing between calcite
and dolomite. The improved sulfur Applications
measurement similarly supports the Detailed quantitative mineralogy
quantification of anhydrite from calcite. in complex lithologies
In situ TOC is computed by Real-time element measurements
subtracting the amount of inorganic and robust quantitative lithology
carbon (IC) associated with carbonate Ca, Fe, Mg, and S for carbonate
minerals from the total inelastic lithology
measurement of carbon. Thus the
LithoScanner services TOC consists of Al, Fe, and Si for siliciclastic
the carbon contributions of all organic lithology
matter present in the formation: Al, Ca, Fe, K, and Si for uncon-
kerogen, oil, bitumen, filtrate, gas, coal, ventional reservoirs
etc. Presented as a continuous wellsite Continuous in situ TOC log
log, instead of individual laboratory Kerogen volume in shale oil
measurements, the TOC output is andshale gas reservoirs
based solely on direct measurements
by Litho Scanner service, which makes Weight-percent oil in heavy oil
it independent of the environment reservoirs and oil sands
andreservoir.

Nuclear Measurements 81

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Independent measurement of oil Matrix properties for petrophysical Quick, accurate bulk mineralogy
volume evaluation and TOC inputs to sCore*
Identification of low-resistivity Accurate density porosity lithofacies classification scheme
pay used to target intervals with
Neutron mineralogy correction
superior reservoir and completion
Identification of oil zones in Mud-independent photoelectric quality in the Mangrove*
freshwater, mixed, and unknown factor engineered stimulation design in
salinity reservoirs
Dielectric permittivity and sigma the Petrel E&P software platform
Better delineation of the oil/ Element logs for well-to-well cor- Metals for mining exploration: Cu,
water contact in low-permeability
relation and sequence stratigraphy Gd, Ni, and Ti
reservoirs
Cased hole formation evaluation
Formation fluid sigma
behind casing
Gas identification
Identification of bypassed zones
Baseline to monitor fluid move-
Wireline measurements as a
ment for enhanced oil recovery
complement to LWD
(EOR)

Measurement Specifications
Litho Scanner Service
Output Elemental yields, elemental weight fractions, TOC, dry-weight
mineralconcentrations, formation sigma, matrix properties
Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 1 to 10 MeV
Vertical resolution 18 in [45.72 cm]
Depth of investigation 7 to 9 in [17.78 to 22.86 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most openhole tools
Conveyance on wireline, TLC tough logging conditions system,
or tractor
Special applications
A tool planner is used to estimate the precision of the elemental concentrations and interpreted properties such as matrix density
for a given environment, with the recommended logging speed depending on the required precision.

Mechanical Specifications
Litho Scanner Service
Temperature rating Version A: 284 degF [140 degC]
Version C: 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5.5 in [13.97 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 24 in [60.96 cm]
Outside diameter 4.5 in [11.4 cm]
Length Version A: 14 ft [4.27 m]
Version C: 9 ft [2.74 m]
Weight Version A: 366 lbm [166 kg]
Version C: 290 lbm [132 kg]
Tension 55,000 lbf [244,652 N]
Compression 22,500 lbf [100,085 N]
With bow spring

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ECS
Elemental Capture Spectroscopy Sonde
The ECS elemental capture matrix properties (from elements)
spectroscopy sonde uses a standard matrix grain density
16Ci [59.2 1010-Bq] americium
matrix thermal and epithermal
beryllium (AmBe) neutron source and
neutron
a large bismuth germanate (BGO)
detector to measure relative elemental matrix sigma.
yields based on neutron-induced
capture gamma ray spectroscopy. The
primary elements measured in both Applications
open and cased holes are for the DecisionXpress integrated
formation elements silicon (Si), iron petrophysical analysis
(Fe), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), titan Clay fraction independent of
ium (Ti), gadolinium (Gd), chlorine gamma ray, spontaneous potential,
(Cl), barium (Ba), and hydrogen (H). and density neutron
Wellsite processing uses the Carbonate, gypsum or anhydrite,
254-channel gamma ray energy spec- QFM, pyrite, siderite, coal, and
trum to produce dry-weight elements, salt fractions for complex-
lithology, and matrix properties. The reservoir analysis
first step involves spectral deconvo-
Matrix density and matrix neutron
lution of the composite gamma ray
energy spectrum by using a set of ele- values for more accurate porosity
mental standards to produce relative calculation
elemental yields. The relative yields are Sigma matrix for cased and open-

then converted to dry-weight elemen- hole sigma saturation analysis


tal concentration logs for the elements Mineralogy-based permeability
Si, Fe, Ca, S, Ti, and Gd using an oxides estimates
closure method. Matrix properties and Quantitative lithology for
quantitative dry-weight lithologies are rock properties modeling and
then calculated from the dry-weight pore pressure prediction from
elemental fractions by SpectroLith seismicdata
lithology processing for spectroscopy
Geochemical stratigraphy (chemo
tools using empirical relationships
derived from an extensive core chem- stratigraphy) for well-to-well cor-
istry and mineralogy database. relation
The outputs of SpectroLith lithology Enhanced completion and drilling

processing are fluid recommendations based on


dry-weight lithology fractions
clay versus carbonate cementation
(from elements) Coalbed methane bed delineation,

total clay producibility, and in situ reserves ECS


estimation
total carbonate

anhydrite + gypsum from
S and Ca
QFM (quartz + feldspar + mica)
pyrite
siderite
coal
salt

Nuclear Measurements 83

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Measurement Specifications
ECS Sonde
Output Elemental yields, dry-weight elemental fractions,
dry-weight SpectroLith lithology, matrix properties
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 600 keV to 8 MeV
Vertical resolution 18 in [45.72 cm]
Accuracy 2% coherence to standards computed
Depth of investigation 9 in [22.86 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Automatic wellsite petrophysical interpretation
Elemental statistical uncertainty at nominal conditions (1,800-ft/h logging speed, resolution degradation factor of 5, 16,000-cps count rate,
and closure normalization factor of 3): Si 2.16%, Ca 2.19%, Fe 0.36%, S 1.04%, Ti 0.10%, and Gd 3.48 ppm.

Mechanical Specifications
ECS Sonde
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
500 degF [260 degC] (internal flask, CO cooling)
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure housing: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in [50.80 cm]
Outside diameter 5.0 in [12.70 cm]
High-pressure housing: 5.5 in [13.97 cm]
Length 10.15 ft [3.09 m]
Weight 305 lbm [138 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 20,000 lbf [88, 960 N]

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Neutron Porosity Tools

Compensated neutron tools measure measures neutron porosity. The HGNS


the hydrogen index of downhole for- contains sensors for neutron porosity
mations. The measurements are con- determination and makes gamma ray
verted to porosity values, which in and tool acceleration measurements.
combination with density tool mea- Starting from the same neutron poros-
surements provide an indication of ity measurement principle as for the
lithology and gas in zones of interest. standard CNL tool, the HGNS applies
Some compensated neutron tools pro- speed correction to the measure-
vide thermal and epithermal measure- ments, which also benefit from the
ments. Thermal measurements require enhanced reliability characteristics of
a liquid-filled borehole. Epithermal the Platform Express tool.
measurements can be made in air- or
gas-filled boreholes.
SlimXtreme Compensated
Neutron Porosity Tool
CNL compensated neutron The SlimXtreme Compensated Neu
logging tool tron Porosity Tool (QCNT) provides
The CNL compensated neutron logging the same high-quality, environmen- CNL
tool contains a radioactive source that tally corrected thermal neutron poros-
bombards the formation with fast neu- ity data as the standard CNL tool. The
trons. The neutrons are slowed, primar- 3-in [7.62-cm] diameter tool is rated
ily by hydrogen atoms in the formation. for up to 8 h of continuous logging at
Detectors count the slowed neutrons 500 degF [260 degC] and 30,000 psi
deflected back to the tool. Because [207MPa].
the CNL tool responds primarily to the
hydrogen content of the formation, the
measurements are scaled in porosity CHFP cased hole formation
units. Both epithermal (intermediate porosity service
energy) neutrons and thermal (slow) CHFP cased hole formation poros-
neutrons can be measured depending ity service makes accurate formation CHFP
on the detector design. The CNL tool porosity and sigma measurements
uses two thermal detectors to produce in cased wells. The combination of a
a borehole-compensated thermal neu- pulsed neutron generator with bore-
tron measurement. The DNL* dual- hole shielding and focusing obtains
energy neutron logging tool (CNT-G) porosity measurements that are
has two thermal and two epithermal affected only minimally by the bore-
detectors that make separate energy hole environment. Epithermal neu-
measurements for gas detection and tron detection virtually eliminates the
improved reservoir description. effects of thermal neutron absorbers
and formation and borehole salinity,
as well as sensitivity to matrix density,
Highly Integrated Gamma tool standoff, and temperature. HGNS QCNT-A
Ray Neutron Sonde
The Highly Integrated Gamma Ray
Neutron Sonde (HGNS) is the com-
ponent of the Platform Express inte-
grated wireline logging tool that

Nuclear Measurements 85

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Applications
Porosity determination
Lithology identification
Gas detection
Correlation in cased wells
Option to pump slim tools
down drillpipe

Measurement Specifications
CNL Tool HGNS QCNT CHFP Service
Output Thermal neutron porosity Thermal neutron porosity Thermal neutron porosity Neutron porosity,
(uncorrected, environmentally (uncorrected, environmentally (uncorrected, environmentally formation sigma,
corrected, or alpha processed) corrected, or alpha processed), corrected, or alpha processed) measurement quality
CNT-G: Epithermal neutron porosity formation gamma ray,
tool acceleration
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] Recommended: 900 ft/h [274 m/h]
High resolution: 900 ft/h [247 m/h] Max.: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 60 pu [0 to 60% uncorrected Porosity: 0 to 50 pu
porosity]
Vertical resolution 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 14 in [35.6 cm]
Accuracy 0 to 20 pu: 1 pu 0 to 20 pu: 1 pu 0 to 20 pu: 1 pu Porosity: 1 pu for 0 to 10 pu
30 pu: 2 pu 30 pu: 2 pu 30 pu: 2 pu 2 pu for 10 to 25 pu
45 pu: 6 pu 45 pu: 6 pu 45 pu: 6 pu 3 pu for 25 to 40 pu
4 pu for >40 pu
Sigma: 1 cu for <20 cu
Depth of investigation 9 in [23 cm] (varies with hydrogen index of formation) 7 in [18 cm]

Mud type or weight Thermal measurements not possible in air- or gas-filled wellbores None
limitations
Combinability Combinable with most tools Part of Platform Express tool Combinable with most tools Combinable with most toolstrings
Special applications Slim wellbores
Short-radius wells
Tubing-conveyed logging
On tractor
Depends on casing and cement thickness, with deployment in casing thickness from 0.205 to 0.545 in [5.21 to 13.84 mm] and correction for combined cement and casing thickness up to 1.5 in [3.8 cm]

Mechanical Specifications
CNL Tool HGNS QCNT CHFP Service
Temperature rating 400 degF [204 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 20 in [50.80 cm] 16 in [40.64 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm] 9 in [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter Without bow-spring eccentralizer: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm]
3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Length 7.25 ft [2.21 m] 10.85 ft [3.31 m] 11.9 ft [3.63 m] 12.94 ft [3.94 m]
Weight 120 lbm [54 kg] 171.7 lbm [78 kg] 191 lbm [87 kgm] 222 lbm [101 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 37,000 lbf [164,580 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N] 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]

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Array Porosity Measurements

APS accelerator Hostile Environment


porosity sonde Accelerator Porosity Sonde
The APS accelerator porosity sonde The Hostile Environment Accelerator
delivers both epithermal and thermal Porosity Sonde (HAPS) is a compo-
neutron measurements by using an nent of the Xtreme high-pressure, high
electronic pulsed neutron generator temperature well logging platform. It
(PNG) instead of a conventional provides APS sonde measurements in
radioactive chemical source. The HPHT environments. The installation
combination of the large neutron yield of a conventional APS sonde inside
from the PNG and detector shielding a thermal Dewar flask makes HAPS
incorporated in the tool results in operations possible at bottomhole tem-
measurements that are relatively peratures up to 500degF [260degC].
insensitive to the borehole environment
and formation characteristics, such as
lithology and salinity. Applications
Five detectors provide accurate Formation evaluation in open hole
information for conducting porosity and behind casing
evaluation, gas detection, shale evalu- Accurate neutron porosity
ation with greater vertical resolution, measurement in environments
and borehole correction. APS sonde with thermal neutron absorbers
measurements can be performed in Accurate hydrogen index
both open and cased holes. measurement
A proprietary algorithm computes
Clay analysis
an equivalent thermal neutron porosity
from the hydrogen index and sigma Gas detection

measurements by the APS sonde. Identification of thin pay zones


Because the calculation is derived
using physics and modeling, it is free
of the biases typically introduced by
empirical techniques. The equivalent
thermal neutron porosity from the APS
sonde represents the measurement
that would be obtained by a traditional
thermal neutron tool using an
americium beryllium (AmBe) source.
The APS sondes thermal neutron APS
porosity measurement provides conti-
nuity for comparison with conventional
logs while reducing security and envi-
ronmental concerns associated with
chemical radioactive neutron sources.

Nuclear Measurements 87

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Measurement Specifications
APS Sonde HAPS
Output Hydrogen index, thermal neutron porosity, Neutron porosity index,
formation sigma formation sigma
Logging speed Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
High resolution: 900 ft/h [274 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/h [274 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 60 pu [0 to 60% uncorrected porosity] Porosity: 0 to 60 pu [0 to 60% uncorrected porosity]
Vertical resolution 14 in [35.56 cm] 14 in [35.56 cm]
Accuracy <7 pu: 0.5 pu <7 pu: 0.5 pu
7 to 30 pu: 7% 7 to 30 pu: 7%
30 to 60 pu: 10% 30 to 60 pu: 10%
Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m] Sigma: 1 cu [0.1/m]
Depth of investigation 7 in [17.78 cm] 7 in [17.78 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None None
Combinability Combinable with most services Combinable with most services
If combined with ECS sonde, If combined with ECS sonde,
the APS sonde must be run below it the HAPS sonde must be run below it

Mechanical Specifications
APS Sonde HAPS
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.75 cm] 5 in [14.92 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm] 21 in [53.34 cm]
Outside diameter 3.625 in [9.21 cm] Without bow spring: 4 in [10.16 cm]
Length 13 ft [3.96 m] 16 ft [4.88 m]
Weight 222 lbm [101 kg] 400 lbm [181 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [22,410 N] 50,000 lbf [22,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N] 15,000 lbf [66,720 N]

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RSTPro
Reservoir Saturation Tool
The unique dual-detector spectrometry Applications
system of the through-tubing RSTPro Formation evaluation behind
reservoir saturation tool measures the casing
gamma rays that result from inelastic
Sigma, porosity, and C/O measure-
scattering, thermal neutron capture,
and neutron activation during the ment inone trip inthe wellbore
same trip in the well. Processing of the Water saturation evaluation in old

inelastic and capture spectra provides wells where modern openhole logs
the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio, which have not been run
is used to determine the formation oil Measurement of water velocity
saturation independent of formation inside casing, irrespective of well-
water salinity that is low or unknown. bore angle (production logging)
If the salinity of the formation water Measurement of near-wellbore
is high, the sigma mode measurement water velocity outside the casing
of the formation thermal neutron cap- (remedial applications)
ture cross section is used to calcu-
Formation oil volume from C/O
late formation oil saturation in the
saline water environment. The mea- ratio, independent of formation
surements can also be used to detect water salinity
and quantify the presence of injection Flowing wells (in combination

water of a different salinity from that of with an external borehole holdup


the connate water. sensor)
The RSTPro tool is used with the Capture yields (H, Cl, Ca, Si, Fe, S,
PS Platform production services plat- Gd, and Mg)
form. The tool is available in two sizes Inelastic yields (C, O, Si, Ca,
to address a range of casing sizes and and Fe)
applications and the issues associated
TPHL three-phase borehole
with wellbores under static or flowing
conditions: 111 16-in [4.34-cm] RST-C holdup
and 2-in [6.37-cm] RST-D tools. The PVL* phase velocity log

RST-D tool has the added advantage of Borehole salinity


shielded detectors; the near detector is SpectroLith processing lithology
shielded from the formation and the far indicators
detector is shielded from the borehole.

11116-in RST-C 212-in RST-D

Nuclear Measurements 89

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Measurement Specifications
RSTPro Tool
Output Inelastic and capture yields of various elements, carbon/oxygen ratio, formation capture cross section
(sigma), porosity, borehole holdup, water velocity, phase velocity, SpectroLith processing
Logging speed Inelastic mode: 100 ft/h [30 m/h] (formation dependent)
Capture mode: 600 ft/h [183 m/h] (formation and salinity dependent)
Sigma mode: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 60 pu
Vertical resolution 15 in [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Based on hydrogen index of formation
Depth of investigation 10 in [20.54 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with the CGRS and tools that use the telemetry system
of the PS Platform production services platform
See tool planner application for advice on logging speed

Mechanical Specifications
RST-C RST-D
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150C]
With flask: 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in [4.60 cm] 2 in [7.30 cm]
With flask: 2 in [5.72 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in [24.45 cm] 9 in [24.45 cm]
With flask: 9 in [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter 1.71 in [4.34 cm] 2.51 in [6.37 cm]
With flask: 2 in [5.40 cm]
Length 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 22.2 ft [6.76 m]
With flask: 33.7 ft [10.27 m]
Weight 101 lbm [46 kg] 208 lbm [94 kg]
With flask: 243 lbm [110 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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Density Tools

Density tools provide measurements


of formation density, formation pho-
toelectric factor, and borehole diam-
eter. The density data are used to
calculate porosity and determine the
lithology. The combination of density
and CNL tool data is used to indicate
the presence of gas.

Three-Detector Lithology
Density
The high-resolution measurements
of the Platform Express integrated
wireline logging tool include the
Three-Detector Lithology Density
(TLD) tool, which is housed in the
High-Resolution Mechanical Sonde
(HRMS). The TLD measures forma-
tion density and formation photo
electric factor. Part of the TLD
measurement is called a backscatter
density measurement because it uses
a third detector located close to the
source. Mudcake density, mudcake
photoelectric factor, and mudcake
thickness are computed using a recur-
sive inversion scheme that is based
on a large set of data points. This
approach provides compensated den-
sity and photoelectric factor in non-
barite mud and compensated density
in barite mud.

LDS-C

HRMS

HLDS

QLDT-B

Nuclear Measurements 91

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Litho-Density Sonde are similar to those of the LDS but Applications
adapted for hostile environment Porosity determination
The Litho-Density photoelectric density
logging. It is rated to a temperature of
logging sonde (LDS) component of Lithology analysis and
500 degF [260 degC] and pressure of
the IPL integrated porosity lithology identification of minerals
25,000psi [172MPa]. The HLDS uses
service measures the formation bulk Gas detection
a pad-mounted gamma ray source and
density and photoelectric factor. It has
two detectors to make three primary Hydrocarbon density determination
a pad with a gamma ray source and
measurements: formation density, Shaly sand interpretation
two detectors. Magnetic shielding and
long- and short-spacing photoelectric
high-speed electronics ensure excellent Rock mechanical properties
factor, and hole diameter.
measurement stability. The LDS records calculations
the full-pulse-height gamma ray spectra Determination of overburden
from both detectors and processes
them into windows. Bulk density and
SlimXtreme Litho-Density pressure
photoelectric cross section are derived Tool Synthetic seismogram for correlation

conventionally from the windows counts The SlimXtreme Litho-Density Tool with seismic data
with enhanced quality control. (QLDT) is designed for operation in
slim and hostile environments with
temperature and pressure ratings of
Hostile Environment 500 degF and 30,000 psi [207 MPa],
Lithology Density Sonde respectively. It measures density and
The Hostile Environment Lithology photoelectric factor using full spectral
Density Sonde (HLDS) is a component data from a three-detector array. The
of the Xtreme HPHT well logging formation density is determined using
platform. Its design and operation an extended spine-and-ribs algorithm.

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Measurement Specifications
TLD LDS HLDS QLDT
Output Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF, caliper Bulk density, porosity, PEF
Logging speed Standard: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h) Standard: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
High resolution: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/h [274 m/h] High resolution: 900 ft/h [274 m/h]
High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] High speed: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Bulk density: 1.04 to 3.3 g/cm3 Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm3 Bulk density: 2 to 3 g/cm3 Bulk density: 1.3 to 3.05 g/cm3
PEF: 0.9 to 10 PEF: 1 to 6 PEF: 1 to 6 PEF: 1 to 6
Caliper: 22 in [55.88 cm] Caliper: 16 in [40.64 cm] Caliper: 16 in [40.64 cm] Caliper: 9.5 in [24.13 cm]
Vertical resolution Density: 18 in [45.72 cm] Density: 15 in [38.10 cm] Density: 15 in [38.10 cm] Density: 15 in [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.01 g/cm3 (accuracy), Bulk density: 0.015 g/cm3 (accuracy),
0.025 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability) 0.014 g/cm3 (repeatability)
Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (accuracy), Caliper: 0.1 in [0.25 cm] (accuracy),
0.05 in [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in [0.127 cm] (repeatability) 0.05 in [0.127 cm] (repeatability)
Depth of investigation 5 in [12.70 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite Sensitive to barite
Combinability Part of Platform Express tool, Combinable with most tools Combinable with most tools Part of SlimXtreme platform,
combinable with most tools combinable with most tools
Special applications Spectral processing of formation HPHT HPHT
gamma ray measurement Spectral processing of formation Slim wellbores
gamma ray measurement Short-radius wells
Tubing-conveyed logging
On tractor
At 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] in nonbarite mud
Average values (depth of investigation depends on density)

Mechanical Specifications
TLD LDS HLDS QLDT
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm] 21 in [53.34 cm] 18 in [45.72 cm] 9 in [22.86 cm]
Outside diameter 4.77 in [12.11 cm] 4.5 in [11.43 cm] 3.5 in [8.89 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Length 12.26 ft [3.74 m] 11 ft [3.35 m] 12.58 ft [3.83 m] 14.7 ft [4.48 m]
Weight 314 lbm [142 kg] 292 lbm [132 kg] 402 lbm [182 kg] 253 lbm [115 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 30,000 lbf [133,450 N] 50,000 lbm [222,410 N]
Compression Without stiffener and locked 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 5,000 lbf [22,240 N] 17,000 lbf [75,620 N]
flex head: 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]
With stiffener and locked:
flex head: 8,000 lbf [35,590 N]

Nuclear Measurements 93

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Nuclear Magnetic
Resonance Logging

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MR Scanner
Expert Magnetic Resonance Service
MR Scanner expert magnetic reso- This detailed profile view of the
nance service uses multifrequency reservoir fluid contents is insensitive
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to borehole condition and fluid salin-
measurements in a gradient field ity and independent of conventional
design to investigate multiple depths formation evaluation measurements,
of investigation in a single pass. The such as resistivity and density logs. The
measurement depths of the main combination of MR Scanner services
antenna, ranging from 1.5 to 4 in [3.81 diffusion-editing acquisition methods
to 10.16 cm], are maintained regard- and MRF* magnetic resonance fluid
less of hole size, deviation, shape, characterization produces robust,
or temperature. The deep DOIs advanced fluid characterization,
beyond the zone of formation dam- especially in the challenging environ-
agemake it easy to identify and ments of low-resistivity, low-contrast
avoid data-quality problems associ- pay and hydrocarbon-bearing fresh-
ated with rugose boreholes, mudcake water formations.
thickness, and fluids invasion.
The measurement sequence of
MRScanner service produces a detailed Applications
evaluation of the near-wellbore region: Radial profile of fluid volumes
oil and water saturation
and saturations
Direct hydrocarbon characteriza-
total and effective porosity for the

determination of pore volume and tion, independent of formation


storage capacity water resistivity and also achiev-
able in low-resistivity, low-contrast
bulk volume irreducible water
pay zones and thin beds
for the determination of water-
Formation evaluation, including
production rate
thin beds, regardless of borehole
crude oil T distribution for the
2 rugosity or mudcake thickness
determination of oil viscosity
Thin-bed evaluation with high-
and to assist in standard T2 log
interpretation vertical-resolution measurements
Continuous logging of oil
brine T distribution corrected for
2 viscosity for perforation and
hydrocarbon effects to improve
pore size analysis completion optimization
Determination of fluid storage
hydrocarbon-corrected Timur-

Coates permeability for the volume based on lithology-


determination of producibility independent porosity
Residual oil saturation in water-
T for use when T is not available
1 2 base muds and residual water
(e.g., logging vuggy porosity or
light hydrocarbons). saturation in oil-base muds

Wireline Services Catalog Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging 97

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Measurement Specifications
MR Scanner Service
Output T1, T2, and diffusion distributions, lithology-independent total porosity,
bound- and free-fluid volumes, hydrocarbon-corrected permeability,
pore-size distribution
Logging speed Bound-fluid logging: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Basic NMR profiling: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
T2 radial profiling: 900 ft/h [274 m/h]
High-resolution logging: 400 ft/h [122 m/h]
T1 radial profiling: 300 ft/h [91 m/h]
Saturation profiling: 250 ft/h [76 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 1 to 100 pu
T2 distribution: 0.4 ms to 3.0 s
T1 distribution: 0.5 ms to 9.0 s
Vertical resolution Main antenna: 18 in [45.72 cm]
High-resolution antenna: 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Accuracy Total NMR porosity: 1-pu standard deviation, three-level averaging at 75 degF [24 degC]
NMR free-fluid porosity: 0.5-pu standard deviation, three-level averaging at 75 degF [24 degC]
Depth of investigation Main antenna: 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, and 4.0 in [3.81, 5.84, 6.86, and 10.16 cm]
High-resolution antenna: 1.25 in [3.18 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Mud resistivity: 0.05 ohm.m
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Station logging for MRF characterization
Rugose boreholes and thick mudcake
From measurement point 8.2 ft [2.5 m] above the bottom of the tool

Main antenna only; stacking may be required. Logs have been acquired in 0.02-ohm.m environments with minor loss of precision.

Mechanical Specifications
MR Scanner Service
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5.875 in [14.92 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outside diameter 5 in [12.70 cm]
Cartridge: 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length 32.7 ft [9.97 m]
Weight 1,200 lbm [544 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 7,900 lbf [35,140 N]
In good borehole conditions

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CMR-Plus
Combinable Magnetic Resonance Tool
The CMR-Plus* combinable mag- Applications
netic resonance tool makes NMR Lithology-independent porosity
measurements of the buildup and forstorage quantification
decay of the polarization of hydro- Pore-size distribution for reservoir
gen nuclei (protons) in the liquids
rock quality
contained in the pore space of rock
Bound- and free-fluid volume
formations. One primary measure-
ment of the CMR-Plus tool is the indicators of reservoir
total formation porosity. Borehole producibility
NMR measurement is unaffected by Identification of thin, permeable

solid materials, so the measurement beds in laminated reservoirs


is not sensitive to matrix type and Hydrocarbon identification,
therefore lithology independent. The especially in low-contrast, low-
total porosity can be partitioned into resistivity pay zones
the spectrum of pore sizes present, Determination of hydrocarbon
which provides information on the
pore volume for reserve
irreducible water saturation. Perme-
calculations
ability can be estimated from the
Improved irreducible water
free-fluid to bound-fluid ratio and the
shape of the pore-size distribution. saturation estimates for reducing
NMR measurement is also useful for or eliminating water production
fluid identification because it is a Comparison with neutron, density,

hydrogen index measurement, and and data from the MDT modular
various fluids have different hydrogen formation dynamics tester for
index values as well as polarization porosity, lithology, and fluid
characteristics. NMR data can be pro- determination
cessed to yield formation fluid proper- Critical information for setting
ties such as gas and oil saturation and pipe, determining coring and
oil viscosity. testing needs, and optimizing
completion and fracture programs
Integrated solutions of CMRPlus

tool logging and PowerSTIM*


well optimization service,
combining petrophysical expertise
and reservoir knowledge with
completion design, execution,
andevaluation
Salt-saturated muds, deviated and

horizontal holes, large (no limit)


and small (to 5 78-in [14.92-cm])
boreholes
Increased efficiency of formation

testing program in combination


with the MDT tester

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging 99

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Measurement Specifications
CMR-Plus Tool
Output Transverse relaxation time (T) distribution, total porosity, free- and bound-fluid volumes, permeability determined
with Schlumberger-Doll Research (SDR) and Timur-Coates equations, capillary bound porosity, small-pore bound
porosity, quality control curves and flags
MRF magnetic resonance fluid characterization station log: Saturation; oil, gas, and water volumes; oil viscosity;
water and oil T distributions; hydrocarbon-corrected permeability; oil and water log-mean T distributions
Logging speed Bound-fluid mode: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Short time constant for the polarizing process (T) environment: 2,400 ft/h [731 m/h]
Long T environment: 800 ft/h [244 m/h]
Range of measurement Porosity: 0 to 100 pu
Minimum echo spacing: 200 us
T distribution: 0.3 ms to 3.0 s
Nominal raw signal-to-noise ratio: 32 dB
Vertical resolution Static: 6-in [15.24-cm] measurement aperture
Dynamic (high-resolution mode): 9-in [22.86-cm], three-level averaging
Dynamic (standard mode): 18-in [45.72-cm] vertical resolution, three-level averaging
Dynamic (fast mode): 30-in [76.20-cm] vertical resolution, three-level averaging
Accuracy Total CMR porosity standard deviation: 1.0 pu at 75 degF [24 degC], three-level averaging
CMR free-fluid porosity standard deviation: 0.5 pu at 75 degF [24 degC], three-level averaging
Depth of investigation Blind zone (2.5% point): 0.50 in [1.27 cm]
Median (50% point): 1.12 in [2.84 cm]
Maximum (95% point): 1.50 in [3.81 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Station logging for MRF magnetic resonance fluid characterization method

Mechanical Specifications
CMR-Plus Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure version: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. Without integral bow spring: 5 in [14.92 cm]
With integral bow spring: 7 in [20.00 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit, but must be eccentered
Outside diameter Without bow spring: 5.3 in [13.46 cm]
With bow spring: 6.6 in [16.76 cm]
Length 15.6 ft [4.75 m]
Weight Without bow spring: 374 lbm [170 kg]
With bow spring: 413 lbm [187 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]

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Acoustic Logging

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Sonic Scanner
Acoustic Scanning Platform
The Sonic Scanner acoustic scanning The Sonic Scanner platform also
platform provides a true 3D repre- provides a discriminated cement
sentation of the formations surround- bond log (DCBL), which is obtained
ing the borehole by scanning both simultaneously with the behind-casing
orthogonally and radially. The latest acoustic measurements. The 3- and 5-ft
acoustic technology is used to acquire [0.91- and 1.52-m] bond logs and bond
borehole-compensated monopole with quality measurements are independent
long and short spacings, cross-dipole, of fluid and temperature effects and
and cement bond quality measure- do not require calibration. Additional
ments. In addition to making axial Sonic Scanner platform capabilities
and azimuthal measurements, the are imaging with greatly improved
fully characterized tool radially mea- resolution in comparison with surface
sures the formation for both near- seismic and using Stoneley waves for
wellbore and far-field slowness. The a quick estimation of permeability and
typical depths of investigation are 2 to to build a continuous mobility profile in
3 times the borehole diameter. sands and carbonates.
The wide frequency spectrum used
by the Sonic Scanner platform captures
data at a high signal-to-noise ratio, Applications
regardless of the formation slowness, Identify formation heterogeneity
and eliminates the need for multiple through anisotropy detection
logging passes. The combination of a Improve 3D seismic analysis
longer azimuthal array than on con- and seismic tie-ins
ventional acoustic tools13 stations Provide input to fluid substitution
with 8 azimuthal receivers eachand
Evaluate well placement
multiple transmitter-receiver spacings
enables the measurement of a radial and stability through stress
monopole profile across the near-well- regime identification and
bore altered zone. pore pressure determination
A 3D anisotropy algorithm is used Characterize the reservoir

to transform compressional, fast- and for gas zones, mobility, and


slow-shear, and Stoneley slowness mea- open fractures
surements made by the Sonic Scanner Guide selective perforating
platform with respect to the borehole for sand control
axes to referenced anisotropic moduli. Optimize hydraulic fracturing
The formation can then be classified
Evaluate cement bond quality
as isotropic or anisotropic, along with
determining the type and cause of the
anisotropyintrinsic or stress induced
from the drilling process.

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Measurement Specifications
Sonic Scanner Platform
Output Compressional and shear t, full waveforms, cement bond quality waveforms, anisotropy characterization
Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Standard shear slowness: <1,500 us/ft [<4,920 us/m]
Vertical resolution <6 ft [<1.82 m] processing resolution for 6-in [15.24-cm] sampling rate
Accuracy t for up to 14-in [35.56-cm] hole size: 2 us/ft [6.56 us/m] or 2%
t for >14-in [>35.56-cm] hole size: 5 us/ft [16.40 us/m] or 5%
Depth of investigation Typical presentation of up to 7 borehole radii
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Fully combinable with other tools

Mechanical Specifications
Sonic Scanner Platform
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 3.625 in [9.21 cm]
Length 41.28 ft [12.58 m] (including isolation joint)
Basic toolstring (near monopoles only): 22 ft [6.71 m]
Weight 844 lbm [383 kg] (including isolation joint)
Basic toolstring: 413 lbm [187 kg]
Tension 35,000 lbf [155,690 N]
Compression 3,000 lbf [13,340 N]

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ThruBit Dipole
Through-the-Bit Acoustic Service
The uniquely conveyed ThruBitDipole* A 3D anisotropy algorithm is
through-the-bit acoustic service pro- used to transform compressional,
vides a detailed acoustic representa- fast- and slow-shear, and Stoneley
tion of the formations surrounding the slowness measurements with respect
borehole for horizontal or difficult- to the borehole axes to referenced
to-access wells. The latest acoustic anisotropic moduli. The formation
technology is used to acquire borehole- can then be classified as isotropic or
compensated monopole, cross-dipole, anisotropic, along with determining
and Stoneley wave measurements. the type and cause of the anisotropy
ThruBit Dipole services receiver intrinsic or stress induced from the
section has an array of 12 receiver drilling process.
stations spaced 4 in [10.16cm] apart.
The receiver array is 70.2 in [1.78m]
from the monopole transmitter Applications
and 78 in [1.98 m] from the dipole Geophysics
transmitters. Each receiver station Velocity calibration, time-depth
consists of two pairs of wideband conversion
piezoelectric hydrophones aligned Improved 3D seismic analysis
with the dipole transmitters. Summing and seismic tie-ins
the signals recorded by one pair of
hydrophones provides the monopole Synthetic seismograms
waveform, whereas finding the Identifcation of formation
difference between them cancels the heterogeneity through
monopole signal and provides the dipole anisotropy detection
waveform. When a dipole transmitter is Petrophysics
fired, the hydrophone pair diagonally in Porosity estimation
line with the transmitter is used. Four
sets of 12 waveforms can be acquired Lithology and clay identification
from the four basic operating modes Gas identification
fired in sequence. Stoneley wave measurement
The transmitter section houses two Fracture evaluation
sets of transmitters and a mechanical
isolation assembly to prevent direct Permeability (mobility)
flexural wave transmission through the Geomechanics

tool body of ThruBit Dipole service. A Well placement and stability


piezoelectric monopole transmitter is evaluation based on stress
fired at standard frequency or a specific regime identification and pore
low-frequency pulse for Stoneley pressure determination
wave acquisition. The two collocated, Optimized hydraulic fracturing
perpendicular, piezoceramic bender
element dipole transmitters fire a Guidance for selective
wideband frequency spectrum to perforating for sand control
capture dipole data at a high signal-to-
noise ratio.

Acoustic Logging 105

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Measurement Specifications
ThruBit Dipole Service
Output Compressional and shear t, full waveforms,
anisotropy characterization
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Standard shear slowness: <200 us/ft [<656 us/m]
Vertical resolution <44-in [<1.12-m] processing resolution
for 6-in [15.24cm] sampling rate
Accuracy t for <8-in [22.22-cm] hole size:
2 us/ft [6.6us/m] or 2%
Depth of investigation t: 3 in [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Fully combinable with ThruBit services logging strings
Special applications
Limited availability, contact your Schlumberger representative.

Mechanical Specifications
ThruBit Dipole Service
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5.75 in [14.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 8.75 in [22.22 cm]
Casing OD range 4 to 5 in [11.43 to 13.97 cm]
Outside diameter 2.125 in [5.4 cm]
Length 29.11 ft [8.87 m]
Weight 132 lbm [60 kg]
Tension 25,000 lbf [111,210 N]
Compression Depends on the configuration and application

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DSI
Dipole Shear Sonic Imager
The DSI dipole shear sonic imager of wideband-piezoelectric hydrophones
combines monopole and dipole sonic aligned with the dipole transmitters.
acquisition capabilities. The trans- Summing the signals recorded by one
mitter section contains a piezoelec- pair of hydrophones provides the mono-
tric monopole transmitter and two pole waveform, whereas differentiat-
electrodynamic dipole transmitters ing them cancels the monopole signal
perpendicular to each other. An and provides the dipole waveform.
electric pulse at sonic frequencies is When adipole transmitter is fired, the
applied to the monopole transmitter hydrophone pair diagonally in line with
to excite compressional- and shear- the transmitter is used. Four sets of
wave propagation in the formation. eight waveforms can be acquired from
For Stoneley wave acquisition a spe- the four basic operating modes fired
cific low-frequency pulse is used. The insequence.
dipole transmitters are also driven at A special dipole mode enables
low frequency to excite the flexural recording both the inline and cross Isolation joint
wave around the borehole and obtain line (perpendicular) waveforms for
borehole shear measurements in both each dipole mode. This mode, called
soft- and hard-rock formations. both cross receivers (BCR), is used for
The tool is made up of three sec- anisotropy evaluation.
tionsacquisition cartridge, receiver The optional S-DSI modification
section, and transmitter section. An to the DSI imager uses a special slow
isolation joint is placed between the sleeve to extend the slowness measure-
transmitter and receiver sections to ment to 1,200 us/ft [3,937us/m] from
prevent direct flexural wave transmis- the standard 700 us/ft [2,296us/m].
sion through the tool body. As part of the suite of ABC analysis
The receiver section has an array behind casing services, the DSI
of eight receiver stations spaced 6 in imager can also provide accurate
[15.24 cm] apart and 9 ft [2.74 m] compressional and shear slowness
from the monopole transmitter, 11 ft measurements through casing by
[3.35 m] from the upper dipole trans- using recently developed acquisition
mitter, and 11.5 ft [3.50 m] from strategies and BestDT automated
the lower dipole transmitter. Each sonic waveform processing.
receiver station consists of two pairs

Transmitter

Receiver section
and cartridge

Acoustic Logging 107

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Applications Measurement Specifications
Geophysics DSI Imager
Velocity calibration, time/depth Output Compressional and shear t, waveforms,
conversion Variable Density log waveforms
Synthetic seismograms Logging speed Max.: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Amplitude variation with offset Range of measurement Standard shear slowness: 700 us/ft [2,297 us/m]
S-DSI max. slowness: 1,200 us/ft [3,937 us/m]
(AVO) calibration Max. slowness in casing:
Shear seismic interpretation 250 to 350 us/ft [820 to 1,148 us/m]
Anisotropy Vertical resolution 3.5-ft [1.07-m] processing resolution
for 6-in [15.24-cm] sampling rate
Petrophysics
Accuracy t: 2 us/ft [6.56 us/m]
Porosity estimation (also in Depth of investigation 9 in [22.86 cm]
cased hole) Mud type or weight limitations None
Lithology and clay identification Combinability Fully combinable with other tools
Gas identification Special applications
Stoneley wave measurement Actual acquisition speed depends on the number of acquisition modes used and the data sampling rate.

Fracture evaluation
Permeability (mobility) Mechanical Specifications
Geomechanics
DSI Imager
Pore pressure Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Wellbore stability Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Fracture design Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm]
Sand strength Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm]
Casing OD range 5 to 20 in [13.97 to 50.80 cm]
Sonic imaging
Outside diameter 3 in [9.21 cm]
Sonic imaging with borehole acous
Length 51 ft [15.54 m] (including isolation joint)
tic reflection survey (BARS)
Weight 900 lbm [408 kg]
Very long spacing tool Tension 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]
(using spacers)
3,500 lbf [15,570 N]
Reflection analysis Compression 1,550 lbf [6,890 N]
Highly dipping beds S-DSI: 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
Horizontal wells
(apparent dip > 45)
Well placement with respect
to cap rock

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Monopole Acoustic Tools

Acoustic, or sonic, tools provide a SlimXtreme Sonic


measurement of the formation inte-
gral travel time (t) in a variety of
LoggingTool
environments. Acoustic logs recognize The SlimXtreme slimhole, HPHT well
secondary, or vugular, porosity in hard- logging platform addresses the growth
rock sediments. Acoustic tools can be and challenges of HPHT drilling
run in conjunction with density and activity. The monopole SlimXtreme
compensated neutron tools in bad Sonic Logging Tool (QSLT) delivers a
borehole conditions to measure poros- robust formation slowness using first-
ity, and this third porosity is also used motion detection, borehole compen-
to identify complex lithology. Certain sation, and slowness-time-coherence
sonic tools can measure shear t in (STC) semblance techniques. A 6-in
very slow formations. [15.24cm] high-resolution measure-
ment identifies thin-bed slowness. A
tool extension provides a long-spacing
Digital Sonic Logging Tool sonic measurement in unconsolidated
The Digital Sonic Logging Tool (DSLT) formations. Measure ment of CBL
is made up with a Sonic Logging Sonde amplitudes and VDL waveforms is
(SLS) and the Digital Sonic Logging supported in cased wells.
Cartridge (DSLC), which uses the digi-
tal telemetry system, to provide either Applications
compressional t measurements or
cement bond log (CBL) and Variable
Formation porosity from
Density log (VDL) measurements compressional slowness
Shear slowness from STC for
and digital waveform recording and
display. The conventional sonic mea- hardrocks
surements are borehole-compensated Formation mechanical properties

(BHC) (3 to 5ft [0.91- to 1.52-m]) from shear slowness


transit time and long-spacing depth- Correlation to surface seismic data
derived BHC (DDBHC) (8- to 12-ft with synthetic seismograms
[2.43- to 3.65m]) transit time. These
Well placement with respect
measurements are made by combin-
ing an HSLS-W or HSLS-Z sonde, tocap rock
Sonic waveforms for fracture
respectively, with the DSLC. For high-
pressure and high-temperature appli identification
cations, the same measurements are CBL and VDL for cased hole

available from the Hostile Environ cement evaluation


ment Sonic Logging Tool (HSLT).

DSLT QSLT-A

Acoustic Logging 109

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Measurement Specifications
DSLT and HSLT with BHC or DDBHC Sonde QSLT
Output All sondes: Compressional t Compressional and shear t, porosity, waveforms
SLS-C, SLS-D, and SLS-E: and Variable Density log waveforms
3-ft [0.91-m] CBL, Variable Density log waveforms
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 40 to 200 us/ft [131 to 656 us/m] 40 to 400 us/ft [131 to 1,312 us/m]
Vertical resolution
Compressional t 2 ft [0.61 m] Standard: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Short spacing: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Shear t SLS-F 8 to 10 ft [2.43 to 3.05 m] or 10 to 12 ft 2 ft [0.61 m]
[3.05 to 3.66 m]: 2 ft [0.61 m]
Cement bond log Amplitude: 3 ft [0.91 m] Amplitude: 3 ft [0.91 m]
Variable Density log: 5 ft [1.52 m] Variable Density log: 5 ft [1.52 m]
Accuracy t: 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m] t: 2 us/ft [6.6 us/m]
Depth of investigation 3 in [7.62 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None None
Combinability Combinable with most services Combinable with most services
Special applications Run on wireline, drillpipe conveyed, or
coiled tubing conveyed

Mechanical Specifications
DSLT HSLT QSLT
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.75 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 18 in [45.72 cm] 18 in [45.72 cm] 8 in [20.32 cm]
Outside diameter 3 in [9.21 cm] 3 in [9.84 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Length SLS-D: 18.73 ft [5.71 m] With HSLS-W sonde: 23 ft [7.01 m]
SLS-F: 23.81 ft [7.26 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] With inline centralizer:
29.9 ft [9.11 m]
Weight SLS-D: 273 lbm [124 kg] With HSLS-W sonde: 270 lbm [122 kg]
SLS-F: 353 lbm [160 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg]
Tension 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 13,000 lbf [57,830 N]
Compression 1,650 lbf [7,340 N] With HSLS-W sonde: 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]
2,870 lbf [12,770 N]
With HSLS-Z sonde:
1,650 lbf [7,340 N]

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Dipmeter and
Imaging Services

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Quanta Geo
Photorealistic Reservoir Geology Service
Quanta Geo photorealistic reservoir Image interpretation is fully powered
geology service redefines imaging by the Techlog* wellbore software
in oil-base mud (OBM) with new platform. The wide range of applications
measurement physics enabled by a enables geologists to readily perform
simplified electrode geometry and tasks such as distinguishing channels
innovative mechanical design to and measuring their orientation. New
deliver superb resolution and nearly 2D and 3D visualization methods fill
total circumferential coverage in in gaps to provide 360 coverage in
8-in boreholes. The resulting micro- larger boreholes and generate virtual
resistivity images are a true visual core slab images. Workflow results from
representation of the formation geol- processing with the Techlog platform
ogy, unaffected by the characteristic are ready to use in the Petrel E&P
nonrepresentative artifacts, incom- software platform to refine models and
plete coverage, and low resolution support informed decision making.
of images from conventional OBM-
adapted imagers.
The innovative sonde significantly Applications
improves image resolution and clarity High-resolution imaging in bore-
by measuring the applied AC current holes with nonconductive fluids
at each of 192 microelectrodes distrib- and OBM
uted among 8 pads for greatly height- deviated and horizontal wells
ened sensitivity to both vertical and irregular and rugose boreholes
lateral features. Because QuantaGeo
Sedimentology and sequence
service independently applies each
pad to the borehole wall instead of stratigraphy
using the pad arms as centralizers, Structural and geomechanical

inconsistent pad application is mini- analysis and modeling


mized in inclined wells and poor hole Thin-bed detection and evaluation
conditions and Quanta Geo service Complement to coring and
can acquire primary data during the formation tester programs
tools descent. Downlogging reduces
the frequency and severity of stick-
and-slip events and their effects on
image quality while efficiently provid-
ing comprehensive information early
in the logging program to save rig time
and additional runs.

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Measurement Specifications
Quanta Geo Service
Output Formation images and dip
Logging speed 0.2-in sampling: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
0.1-in sampling: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Sampling rate: 0.1 in [0.25 cm]
Borehole coverage: 98% in 8-in [20.32-cm] borehole
Formation resistivity: 0.220,000 ohm.m
Resolution Vertical resolution: 0.24 in [6 mm]
Horizontal resolution: 0.13 in [3 mm]
Accuracy Caliper: 0.1 in [0.26 cm]
Deviation: 0.2
Azimuth: 2
Depth of investigation 0.2 in [5 mm]
Mud type or weight limitations Nonconductive mud systems such as oil-base mud
Combinability Fully combinable, top and bottom
Special applications Downlogging and uplogging
Horizontal wells

Mechanical Specifications
Quanta Geo Service
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating Standard: 25,000 psi [173 MPa]
High pressure: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 17 in [43.18 cm]
Outside diameter Tool: 4.5 in [11.43 cm]
Arms section: 6.5 in [16.51 cm]
Length 31.2 ft [9.5 m]
Weight 696 lbm [316 kg]
Tension 27,000 lbf [122,300 N]
Compression 11,000 lbf [48,900 N]

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Quanta Geo Engines
Quanta Geo Quanta Geo Discovery Quanta Geo Quanta Geo Quanta Geo
Z90 Filter Wizard 360 Virtual Core Virtual Slab Inversion
Im(Z)
Re(Z)
m

Zm
Zb

Zf

Z90
Next >

Techlog
wellbore Quanta Geo Interpretation
software
program Wellbore Fracture Structural Sedimentology Rock Sand Porosity Sidewall
Geomechanics Analysis Analysis & Stratigraphy Type Count Analysis Coring Advisor

Stress Faults Depositional Optimal


orientation Orientation architecture Rock Net Porosity sampling
Surfaces type heterogeneity
Failure Density 3rd & 4th order to gross Core-log
conditions Structural dip sequences depth tie

Hard data

Reservoir Fracture eXpandBG* Facies Petrophysical


Geomechanics Modeling Near-Well Model Modeling Modeling

Reservoir
model
ready Mangrove* Structural
UFN modeling Modeling

Visualization and interpretation of Quanta Geo services images are performed using apps in the Techlog wellbore software
platform to produce hard data that improves the accuracy of reservoir models in the Petrel E&P software platform.

Dipmeter and Imaging Services 115

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FMI-HD
High-Definition Formation Microimager
The FMI-HD* high-definition forma- is imaged in one run. Even in environ-
tion microimager takes high-definition ments with Rt /Rm ratios as high as
imaging to a new level of clarity. The 200,000:1, the FMI-HD microimager
visibility and interpretability of small obtains clear, representative images of
features is significantly increased for the formation geology.
all environmental conditionseven
across extreme variations in forma-
tion resistivity or resistivity anisot- Applications
ropy between the formation and mud Structural analysis and modeling
(Rt /Rm). This means that environ- 3D near-wellbore and interwell
ments that cannot be clearly imaged structural modeling
with conventional microresistivity Structural cross sections
imaging technology can now be seen
in great detail, including wells drilled Detection and determination of
with salt-saturated muds or high- faults, folds, and unconformities
resistivity reservoirs. True, accurate structural dip
The FMI-HD high-definition inalmost any formation
formation microimager builds on the Naturally fractured reservoir
well-proven microresistivity imaging characterization and modeling
design of the industry-standard FMI Discrete fracture network
fullbore formation microimager. (DFN) modeling
Completely new electronics provide
a step-improvement in operating Direct visual quantification of
range, reliability, and image quality. fracture orientation and density
Enhanced parallel signal processing Quantification of fracture
and high-resolution analog-to-digital aperture and fracture porosity
conversion improve the tools signal-to- Secondary porosity evaluation in
noise ratio to increase the sensitivity to carbonate and igneous reservoirs
fine contrasts in formation resistivity. Quantification of matrix and
The result is an increase in image vuggy fractions of porosity
definition by a factor of four.
The microresistivity image of Partitioning of isolated,
the borehole wall is created from connected, and fracture-
the current measured by the tools connected vuggy porosity
array of 192 buttons on four pads. Direct visual identification
Microresistivity changes related to ofmacroporosity and
lithologic and petrophysical varia- nonporous nodules
tions in the rock, which are con- Estimation of permeability
veyed mainly by the high-resolution and variable cementation
current component, are interpreted exponent m
on the image in terms of rock texture, Thin-bed detection and evaluation
stratigraphic and structural features
including dip, and fractures. Layer delineation for high-
Automatic signal processing resolution deterministic
optimization of the FMI-HD micro- petrophysical evaluation
imager eliminates manual setting of Fast quantification of interval
the tool parameters. Wellsite opera- net-to-gross ratio and net pay
tions are streamlined as the entire Direct visualization of beds
dynamic range of formation resistivity down to millimeter scale

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Reservoir characterization workflow Qualitative vertical profiles of Information about the reservoir
Direct visual or automatic grain size and stacking pattern before core analysis is available
textural classification of facies Paleocurrent directions Depth matching for sidewall
and rock types Geomechanics core samples and wireline
Realistic population of formation testers
Determination of principal
reservoir bodies with stress directions
petrophysical parameters
Calibration of mechanical earth
Recognition of anisotropy, model (MEM)
permeability barriers, and
Mud weight selection
permeability paths
Complement to coring and formation
Sedimentology and sequence
tester programs
stratigraphy
Depth matching and orientation
Deterministic or stochastic
for whole cores
modeling of reservoir bodies
Reservoir description for
Definition and characterization
intervals not cored
of sedimentary bodies and their
boundaries

Measurement Specifications
FMI-HD Microimager
Output Formation images and dip
Logging speed Image mode: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Dipmeter mode: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Sampling rate: 0.1 in [0.25 cm]
Borehole coverage: 80% in 8-in [20.32-cm] borehole
Vertical resolution Horizontal resolution: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Vertical resolution: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Accuracy Caliper: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Deviation: 0.2
Azimuth: 2
Depth of investigation High-frequency component (image details): 0.39 in [1 cm]
Low-frequency component (for calibration to resistivity logs): 30 in [76.2 cm]
Mud type of weight limitations Water-base mud (max. mud resistivity = 50 ohm.m)
Oil-base mud under specific conditions
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications Horizontal wells
For oil-base mud, contact your Schlumberger representative.

Mechanical Specifications
FMI-HD Microimager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.87 cm]
5 in [14.92 cm] in good hole conditions using a kit
Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm]
Outside diameter 5 in [12.70 cm]
Length 25.43 ft [7.75 m]
Weight 443 lbm [201 kg]
Tension 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Compression 8,000 lbf [35,580 N]

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FMI
Fullbore Formation Microimager
The FMI fullbore formation micro The combination of measuring
imager provides an electrical button diameter, pad design, and high-
borehole image generated from up to speed telemetry system produces a
192 microresistivity measurements. vertical and azimuthal resolution of
Special focusing circuitry ensures 0.2 in [0.51 cm] for the FMI imager.
that the measuring currents are This means that the dimensions of
forced into the formation, where a feature larger than 0.2 in can be
they modulate in amplitude with the estimated from the image. The size
formation conductivities to produce of features smaller than 0.2 in is
low-frequency signals rich in petro estimated by quantifying the current
physical and lithological information flow to the electrode. Fine details such
and a high-resolution component that as 0.002in [0.051-mm] wide fractures
provides the microscale information filled with conductive fluids are visible
used for imaging and dip interpretation. in images from the FMI imager.
Image calibration is achieved through The answers provided by the FMI
calibration with low-frequency, deeper imager help in understanding the
resistivity measurements available reservoir structure, identify and
from the tool signal or input from other evaluate sedimentary features and
resistivity measurements, such as from fractures, visualize rock texture, and
the AIT array induction imager tool complement coring programs. FMI
or ARI azimuthal resistivity imager. imager data are increasingly used
Image normalization further increases for geomechanical analysis of the
the completeness and reliability of reservoir. Drilling-induced features
this versatile tool for geological and such as breakouts are readily
reservoir characterization. identified. In combination with stress
field analysis, FMI imager information
is used to control wellbore stability
problems by guiding design of the
mud program.

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Applications Rock texture Geomechanics
Structural geology Qualitative vertical grain-size Identification and analysis
Structural dips, even in fractured profile ofdrilling-induced features
and conglomeratic formations Determination of carbonate Calibration data for mechanical
Detection and determination texture earth model (MEM)
of faults Detection and evaluation Mud weight selection
Sedimentary features
ofsecondary porosity Reservoir characterization workflow

Determination of sedimentary Detection and evaluation Deterministic modeling


dips offracture systems ofreservoir bodies
Complement to coring and formation
Paleocurrent directions Guidance for the distribution
tester programs ofstochastically modeled
Definition and characterization
of sedimentary bodies and their Depth matching and orientation reservoir bodies
boundaries for whole cores Realistic population of reservoir
Recognition of anisotropy, Reservoir description for intervals bodies with petrophysical
permeability barriers, and not cored parameters
permeability paths Information about the reservoir
Recognition and evaluation before core analysis is available
ofthinly bedded reservoirs Depth matching for sidewall core
samples and MDT tester settings

Measurement Specifications
FMI Microimager
Output Formation dip, borehole images
Logging speed Image mode: 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Dipmeter mode: 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement Sampling rate: 0.1 in [0.25 cm]
Borehole coverage: 80% in 8-in [20.32-cm] borehole
Vertical resolution Spatial resolution: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Vertical resolution: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Accuracy Caliper: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Deviation: 0.2
Azimuth: 2
Depth of investigation 1 in [2.54 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Water-base mud (max. mud resistivity = 50 ohm.m)
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications Horizontal wells

Mechanical Specifications
FMI Microimager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.87 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 21 in [53.34 cm]
Outside diameter 5 in [12.70 cm]
Length 24.42 ft [7.44 m]
Weight 433.7 lbm [197 kg]
Tension 12,000 lbf [53,380 N]
Compression 8,000 lbf [35,580 N]
5 in [14.92 cm] in good hole conditions using a kit

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UBI
Ultrasonic Borehole Imager
The UBI* ultrasonic borehole imager in highly deviated wells. Processing
produces high-resolution acoustic software available both in MaxWell
images of the wellbore in water-base integrated field acquisition software
or oil-base mud. The images are used and at Data Services Hubs further
to identify dipping beds, fractures, enhances the images by correcting
and other features intersecting the amplitude and transit-time informa-
borehole. Critical information on tion for the effects of logging speed
borehole stability and breakouts can variations and tool eccentering and by
be derived from the accurate borehole applying noise filtering. The images
cross section measured by the tool. are oriented with inclinometer data
The UBI imager has a transducer from the combinable GPIT general
that is mounted on an Ultrasonic purpose inclinometry tool and then
Rotating Sub (USRS). The transducer enhanced by dynamic normalization
emits ultrasonic pulses and measures for easy visual interpretation.
the transit time and amplitude of
the resulting echo. The transducer
assembly is available in a variety of Applications
sizes to match the complete range of Fracture identification including
normal openhole sizes. The transducer drilling-induced fractures
subassembly is also selected to Differentiation of closed and open
optimize the distance traveled by the fractures (in combination with the
ultrasonic pulse in the borehole fluid, OBMI* oil-base microimager)
which reduces attenuation in heavy Borehole profiling and calculation
fluids and maintains a good signal-to- of cement volume
noise ratio.
Stress analysis and borehole
The UBI tool is relatively insen-
sitive to eccentralizationup to stability studies
0.25in [0.63cm]and provides clean Mud weight selection

images that are easy to interpret, even Structural and bedding analysis

Interchangeable
rotating subs

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Measurement Specifications
UBI Imager
Output Borehole images, amplitude, and transit time in analog
and digital imagery
Logging speed 425 to 2,125 ft/h [130 to 648 m/h]
(depends on desired resolution)
Range of measurement 4 to 12 in [12.38 to 32.70 cm]
Vertical resolution 0.2 in [0.51 cm] at 500 kHz
0.4 in [1.02 cm] at 250 kHz
0.6 in [1.52 cm] at 250 kHz
1.0 in [2.54 cm] at 250 kHz
Azimuthal sampling: 2.0 or 2.6
Accuracy Borehole radius: 0.12 in [3 mm] (absolute)
Resolution: 0.003 in [0.075 mm] at 500 kHz
Depth of investigation Borehole wall
Mud type or weight limitations High mud weights (>15 ppg) can cause significant
signal attenuation
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
UBI Imager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.38 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12 in [32.70 cm]
Outside diameter Without sub: 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Length 21 ft [6.40 m]
Weight 377.6 lbm [171 kg] (with 7-in [17.78-cm] USRS-B sub)
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 11,000 lbf [48,930 N]

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OBMI
Oil-Base Microimager
The OBMI oil-base microimager Applications
extends microresistivity imaging to Structural analysis
the environment of nonconductive,
invert-emulsion mud systems. The Structural dip determination
increasing use of oil- and synthetic- Fracture and fault detection
base mud systems to limit drilling Stratigraphic analysis
risks and improve efficiency poses Characterization of
many challenges for formation sedimentary deposits
imaging. Even a thin film of
nonconductive mud is essentially Stratigraphic dip determination
an opaque curtain, preventing Thin-bed detection
conventional microresistivity imagers Core analysis
from measuring the formation. The Depth matching
presence of nonconductive mudcake
or mud filtrate further complicates Orientation
the situation. The OBMI imager meets Missed interval coverage
these challenges by integrating unique Compartmentalization and
technology with simple resistivity permeability analyses
logging principles to produce an image High-resolution net pay count
that enables virtual visualization of
Sample and formation test
the reservoir.
The short-normal resistivity prin- positioning
ciple employed is inherently quantita- Detection of drilling-induced

tive and does not require calibration features


with another log. Petrophysicists Detection and measurement
frequently use the Rxo measurement of features too small for
from the OBMI imager to discrimi- conventional logs
nate sand and shale beds as thin as Detection of anisotropic features
1.2 in [3.05cm]. Geologists use OBMI
Differentiation of structural
imager logging to recognize bedding
and other sedimentary features as and stratigraphic features
small as 0.4in [1.02cm], the tool mea- Flexibility in choosing mud

surement aperture. Open and closed systems


fractures smaller than 0.4 in have also Quantitative measurement
been successfully imaged. of invaded zone resistivity
The OBMI2* integrated dual oil-base
microimagers use two OBMI sondes at
a 45 offset to double the hole coverage.
High-pressure, high-temperature
and slimhole versions of the OBMI
imager are available on a limited basis.

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Measurement Specifications
OBMI Imager
Output High-resolution, oriented formation images, dual-axis caliper
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 32% coverage in 8-in [20.32-cm] borehole
Vertical resolution 0.4-in [1.02-cm] nominal image resolution
1.2-in [3.05-cm] petrophysical resolution
Accuracy 20%
Depth of investigation 3.5 in [8.89 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Operates in any oil-, diesel-, or synthetic-base mud
Combinability Top and bottom combinable
Slim OBMI and OBMI2 imagers: bottom-only
Special applications Wireline or TLC tough logging conditions system

Mechanical Specifications
OBMI Imager
Temperature rating 320 degF [160 degC]
350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
25,000 psi [173 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. Standard: 7 in [17.78 cm]
Slim OBMT-E: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 16 in [40.64 cm]
Caliper: 17 in [44.45 cm]
Outside diameter Standard: 5.75 in [14.60 cm]
Slim OBMT-E: 5.25 in [13.33 cm]
Length 17 ft [5.18 m]
Weight 310 lbm [137 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression Standard: 10,000 lbf [44,482 N]
Slim OBMT-E: 8,000 lbf [35,590 N]
Limited availability

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Drilling and
Directional
Services

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GPIT
General Purpose Inclinometry Tool
The GPIT general purpose inclinom- Applications
etry tool provides inclinometer mea- Borehole azimuth
surements. Tool orientation is defined
Borehole deviation
by three parameters: tool deviation,
tool azimuth, and relative bearing. Borehole relative bearing
The GPIT tool uses both a three-axis Tool azimuth information
inclinometer and a three-axis magne- Deviation and direction of uncased
tometer to make measurements for wellbores for plotting
determining these parameters.
Direction and orientation measure
The basic principle of downhole
inclinometer measurements is to ments for various dipmeters
accurately define the tool system axis Orientation of USI* ultrasonic

with respect to the Earths gravity imager tool images with respect
(G) and magnetic field (F). Because to the wellbore
both vectors are well defined within
the Earth system, a relation can be
established between the tool and
Earth systems. The magnetometer
determines Fx, Fy, and Fz, and the
inclinometer determines Ax, A y, and
A z for the acceleration due to G.
MaxWell integrated field acquisition
software computes deviation, azimuth,
and relative bearing from these values.
When the GPIT tool is used in an
open wellbore, the tools above and
below it must have nonmagnetic
housings. In cased hole the tool can
be used only for deviation and relative-
bearing measurements.

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Measurement Specifications
GPIT Tool
Output Borehole azimuth, deviation and relative bearing,
toolazimuth
Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 360
Vertical resolution 6 in [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Azimuth: 2 (for deviation between 5 and 175)
Deviation: 0.2
Depth of investigation Not applicable
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most services, anywhere in the
logging string (tools immediately above and below
musthave nonmagnetic housings)
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
GPIT Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.75 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outside diameter 3.625 in [9.21 cm]
Length 4 ft [1.22 m]
Weight 55 lbm [25 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 16,700 lbf [74,280 N]

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Seismic Imaging
Tools and Services

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Q-Borehole
IntegratedBorehole Seismic System
The Q-Borehole* integrated borehole The operating efficiency of the VSI
seismic system optimizes all aspects imager is enhanced by
of borehole seismic services, during rapid mechanical deployment
wireline operations and while drilling. very little time between stations

short shot-cycle time during

VSI versatile seismicimager remote source surveys (walkaway,


The VSI* versatile seismic imager uses offsetVSP)
Q-Technology* point-receiver seismic real-time quality control and data

hardware and software and advanced processing.


wireline telemetry for efficient data
delivery from the borehole to the sur-
face. Each sensor package delivers Applications
high-fidelity wavefields through the use Integrated processing for
of three-axis geophone accelerometers, interpretation of borehole
which are acoustically isolated from andsurface seismic data
the main body of the tool. The number Images for reservoir definition
of sensors, intersensor spacing, con-
Images ahead of the bit
nection type (either stiff or flexible),
and tool diameter are field configu- 3D VSPs

rable to ensure the maximum versatility Pore pressure predictions


of the array. The design focus of the Planning for well placement
VSI imager on data fidelity and quick
Simultaneous surface and bore-
adaptation to changing survey needs
avoids the compromise in data quality hole seismic recording for high-
that typically results from efficiency definition images
limitations. The result is sharper, more Shear wave processing and analysis

accurate images and reduced operating Microseismic monitoring during


logistics, which are fundamental ele- hydraulic fracturing
ments for achieving complex surveys in
a cost-effective manner and with timely
delivery of answer products.

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Measurement Specifications
VSI Imager
Output Seismic waveform produced by acoustic
reflections from bed boundaries
Logging speed Stationary
Seismic waveform recording: 0.5-, 1-, 2-, or 4-ms
output sampling rate
Array capability Up to 40 shuttles
Sensor package
Length 11.4 in [28.96 cm]
Weight 6.4 lbm [2.9 kg]
Sensor Geophone accelerometer (GAC-D)
Sensitivity >0.5 V/g 5%
Sensor natural frequency 25 Hz
Flat bandwidth in acceleration: 2 to 200 Hz
Dynamic range >105 dB at 36-dB gain
Distortion <90 dB
Digitization 24-bit analog-to-digital converter
Combinability Bottom-only combinable
Special applications Conveyance on wireline, TLC system, or tractor
Through drillpipe

Mechanical Specifications
VSI Imager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating Standard: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High pressure: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 3 in [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter Standard: 3 in [8.57 cm]
Slim: 2 in [6.35 cm]
Length Up to 1,040 ft [317 m] for 20 shuttles
Weight Up to 2,200 lbm [998 kg]
Tension 18,000 lbf [80,070 N]
Compression Standard: 5,000 lbf [22,240 N]
With stiffener: 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Coupling
Anchoring force 246 lbf [1,170 N] in 3-in [7.62-cm] hole
214 lbf [915 N] in 6-in [15.24-cm] hole
255 lbf [1,130 N] in 12-in [31.75-cm] hole
160 lbf [951 N] in 17-in [43.18-cm] hole
Sensor package coupling force 64 lbf [285 N]
Coupling force/sensor weight ratio 10:1

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SWINGS seismic
navigation and
positioning system
The SWINGS* seismic navigation and
positioning system is used to accurately
deploy seismic source equipment and
control source vessel position. It is com-
patible with the integrated Q-Borehole
seismic system. SWINGS system capa-
bilities include borehole seismic con-
figurations encompassing complex 3D
VSP geometries and seismic measure-
ment while drilling to optimize borehole
seismic operations while providing a
consistently high level of service quality.
The SWINGS system continually
relays source position, fix quality, and
other data to the rigside logging unit,
where they are displayed graphically. Specifications of this portable and Application
The submeter accuracy of the global robust system include
positioning system (GPS) provides Accurate source deployment

twin internal 12-channel GPS and positioning for all borehole
source determination within 10 to 16ft
[3 to 5 m]. The source position is passed receivers seismicsurveys
to MaxWell integrated field acquisition pressure transducer interface

software at every shot for immediate forgun pressure monitoring


recording with the seismic trace headers ultrahigh-frequency (UHF)
to eliminate any delay in merging telemetry link
navigation and seismic data. dedicated display at the helm.

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 133

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TRISOR acoustic analog signals carried on conventional
umbilicals. The direct interface to the
sourcecontrol element acquisition software allows monitor-
The TRISOR* acoustic source control ing surface and downhole operations
element for the integrated borehole from one integrated QC panel, which
seismic system was developed from the eliminates shot number mismatches
industry-leading WesternGeco TRISOR and ensures accurate recording and
marine seismic source controller to reporting of source positioning and
provide the same stable, noise-free dig- downhole data.
ital signatures with advanced source Gun synchronization accuracy of
control and quality control (QC). the TRISOR element is typically 0.1 ms.
TRISOR control delivers the clean, con- Continuous monitoring of the QC data
sistent signals necessary for advanced significantly reduces the possibility of
borehole seismic applications, and the continuing a survey if there is an equip-
consistent signals also enable fast auto- ment malfunction. Safety is also intrin-
tuning for more efficient operations sic to operations with the TRISOR
and more powerful source strength. element because the guns cannot be
In-sea electronics control each gun fired while out of the water, and the
and are connected by a ruggedized eth- TRISOR element defaults to automatic
ernet cable for digital communication power-down mode if the cable becomes
with the surface acquisition system disconnected or leakage is detected.
of the VSI imager. This configuration Other features are as follows:
avoids the corruption that may occur to
Depth sensor at sourceThe source

depth is logged with each shot, but


Measurement Specifications if the measured source depth is not
TRISOR Acoustic Source Control Element in a specified range, the source is
Gun time break (TB) sensor 12-bit resolution at 0.1-ms sampling
prevented from firing.
Gain: 24 to 24 dB Pressure sensor at sourceThe

NFH 16-bit resolution at 0.25-ms sampling source pressure is logged with each
Gain: 24 to 24 dB shot. The pressure sensor prevents
Depth sensor 12-bit with one sample per shot source signature variations caused by
Accuracy: 1.5% variations of source pressure.
Pressure sensor 12-bit with one sample per shot Calibrated near-field hydrophone
Accuracy: 2%
(NFH)The integrated NFH pro-
Auxiliary measurements Electronics current, temperature, pressure, humidity vides a superior signal compared with
conventional hydrophones for sig-
Mechanical Specifications nificantly improved source-signature
deconvolution.
TRISOR Acoustic Source Control Element
Temperature rating Operating: 5 to 131 degF [15 to 55 degC]
Storage: 40 to 158 degF [40 to 70 degC] Applications
Max. recommended operating 33 ft [10 m] Borehole seismic applications that
depth below sea level
require a high-quality, consistent
source signature with calibrated
amplitude
Shot-by-shot source signature

deconvolution
Effective Q-factor derivation from

source to downhole sensor by using


the near-field signature to generate
calibrated far-field signature

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Q-Borehole integrated Applications
borehole seismic system Borehole calibration of surface
The dedicated synchronization equip- seismic
ment of the Q-Borehole system enables Optimized reconciliation of log with

conducting simultaneous surface and borehole and surface seismic data


borehole seismic acquisition with Merged navigation records and
WesternGeco Q-Land* and Q-Marine* consistency of seismic source
point-receiver seismic systems and andwavelet between borehole
the Q-Seabed* multicomponent sea- and surface seismic data for
bed seismic system. The VSI vertical enhanced and faster processing
seismic imager is integrally controlled and interpretation
by the surface acquisition process Borehole data to optimize surface
to provide a transparent acquisition seismic acquisition through tuning
process and eliminate the need for
additional survey time. The result is
high-resolution seismic data around
the well.

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DeepLook-CS
Crosswell Seismic Imaging Service
DeepLook-CS* crosswell seismic Applications
imaging service uniquely combines Reservoir characterization
wellbore sonic sources and receivers to
Bypassed pay identification
provide up to 100 times the resolution
of conventional surface seismic. With Enhanced oil recovery

these high-resolution reservoir images, CO2 sequestration


operators now have the information Waterflooding monitoring
they need to engage truly proactive
Unconventional gas
development strategies and optimize
production throughout the entire life Heavy oil and thermal operations

cycle of the reservoir.


Crosswell imaging employs a seis-
mic source and receivers, both placed
in wells at the depth of the reservoir.
To image reservoir intervals with a
vertical resolution of 5 ft [1.5 m], the
DeepLook-CS service passes specially
engineered sonic energy through
the zone of interest, from source to
receiver. The piezoelectric source is
normally operated while moving for
fast acquisition. Velocity, reflection,
and other sonic properties are mea-
sured to provide structural and physi-
cal characteristics of the zone in both
the horizontal and vertical directions.

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DeepLook-CS Service Interwell Distance
Source Well Receiver Well Well Spacing, ft [m]
Cased hole Cased hole 1003,280 [301,000]
Open hole Open hole 1003,280 [301,000]
Depends on noise, completion, and formation attenuation characteristics.

Mechanical Specifications
DeepLook-CS Service Piezoelectric Source DeepLook-CS Service Hydrophone Receiver Array
Temperature rating, degF [degC] 302 [150] 350 [177]
Pressure rating, psi [MPa] 10,000 [69] 10,000 [69]
Well sizemin., in [cm]
Open hole 4.5 [11.5] 2.25 [5.7]
Cased hole 4.5 [11.5] 2.25 [5.7]
Well sizemax., in [cm]
Open hole No limit No limit
Cased hole No limit No limit
Outside diameter, in [cm] 3.5 [8.9] 1.6875 [4.2]
Length, ft [m] 17.2 [5.24] Twenty levels, 5-ft spacing: 118 [36]
Twenty levels, 10-ft spacing: 218 [66.4]
Mud type or weight limitations No fluid restrictions No fluid restrictions
Frequency range, Hz 1002,000 1004,000
Eight hydrophones per level

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CSI
Combinable SeismicImager
The CSI* combinable seismic imager the recorded seismic data. The CSI
is a three-axis borehole seismic imager is self-combinable using stiff
acquisition tool for open- and cased or flexible interconnects, and it is also
hole applications. The CSI imager fully combinable with other logging
is designed to physically isolate the tools. Deployment can be on wireline,
sensor components from the heavy tool TLC tough logging conditions system,
body during seismic acquisition. The or wireline tractor.
small size and low mass of the sensor
module and the strong anchoring force
Applications
of the tool ensure optimal acoustic
coupling, even in soft formations, Time-depth determination
which guarantees the high quality of Vertical seismic profiles (VSPs)

Measurement Specifications
CSI Imager
Output Seismic waveform produced by acoustic
reflections from bed boundaries
Logging speed Stationary
Seismic waveform recording: 1-, 2-, or 4-ms output
sampling rate
Array capability Up to 4 tools
Sensor package
Length 24.4 in [61.98 cm]
Weight 19.9 lbm [9 kg]
Sensor Geophone accelerometer (GAC-A)
Sensitivity >0.5 V/g 5%
Sensor natural frequency 25 Hz
Flat bandwidth in acceleration: 2 to 200 Hz
Dynamic range 90 dB
Distortion <60 dB
Digitization 16 bit
Combinability Combinable with most tools
Special applications Conveyance on wireline, TLC system, or tractor

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Mechanical Specifications
CSI Imager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4.9 in [12.45 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 19 in [48.26 cm]
With extension: 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4 in [11.75 cm]
Without standoff: 4 in [10.16 cm]
Length 17.8 ft [5.42 m]
Weight 271 lbm [123 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,240 N]
Compression 4,400 lbf [19,570 N]
Coupling
Anchoring force 630 lbf [2,800 N] in 5-in [12.70-cm] hole
719 lbf [3,200 N] in 10-in [25.40-cm] hole
1,124 lbf [5,000 N] in 19-in [28.26-cm] hole
Sensor package coupling force 240 lbf [1,067 N]
Coupling force/sensor weight ratio 10:1

Seismic Imaging Tools and Services 139

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Q-Borehole Explorer
High-Output, Wide-Bandwidth Truck Vibrator
The new Q-Borehole Explorer* truck
vibrator meets the challenges of
borehole seismic acquisition in deeper
and more complex formations while it
also improves the safety, data quality,
and efficiency of conventional truck-
based vibrators.
Using the low-frequency-enhanced
MD Sweep* maximum-displacement
transmission method, the truck
vibrator delivers the high-output, wide-
bandwidth, low-distortion vibroseis
signal required for modern borehole
seismic operations. MD Sweep
transmission efficiently achieves full
power at the displacement limit of
the Q-Borehole Explorer truck vibrator for land operations using the Applications
by optimally adjusting the drive rate Q-BoreholeExplorer truck. The truck All US land borehole seismic
and force level at the beginning of the vibrator is US highway compliant, applications requiring a high-
sweep. Tests demonstrate that this and its eight-wheel drive and ground output, wide-bandwidth, low-
sweep design can add up to half an clearance provide excellent off- distortion vibroseis source
octave of full-power, low-frequency road agility. Four drive axles evenly
Look-ahead and acoustic impedance
bandwidth over that possible using distribute vehicle weight for stability
conventional sweeps. and low ground pressure on station. (AI) inversion applications requiring
The truck vibrators design is The result is excellent ground coupling, strong, low-frequency energy down
optimized for both on- and off-road which in combination with optimized to deep targets
mobility. Trailer transport to and hydraulic flow to the vibrator actuator
from the wellsite is not necessary delivers strong, low-frequency energy.

Mechanical Specifications
Q-Borehole Explorer Truck
Vehicle length 438 in [11.13 m]
Vehicle wheelbase 265 in [6.73 m]
Vehicle width 101 in [2.56 m]
Vehicle height 151 in [3.84 m]
Vehicle gross weight 59,000 lbm [27,000 kg]
Hold-down weight 54,000 lbm [24,500 kg]
Peak hydraulic force 60,000 lbf [267,000 N]
Baseplate clearance, moving 13 in [33 cm]
Maximum vehicle speed 70 mi/h [113 km/h]
Emission compliance Deck and vehicle engines:
California and US EPA continental standards
Ambient operating temperature 30 to 130 degF [34 to 54 degC]
Subject to local regulations and road conditions

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Other land seismic sources
Schlumberger provides land borehole
seismic sources suitable for all types
of terrain.
In open terrain, the vibrator source
provides the best productivity with the
frequency range and strength controlled
to meet survey requirements.
In difficult or wet terrain where
access by vibrator vehicles is restricted,
the buried airgun, positioned below the
weathered zone, provides a consistent
broad-bandwidth source that is ideal for
zero- and fixed-offset survey geometries.
The slim housing provides ease of hole
drilling, deployment, and retrieval.
Dynamite is a lightweight, high-band-
width source that is ideal for moving
source geometries such as walkaway
lines in difficult or wet terrain.

Applications
Fixed and moving source
geometries for VSP surveys
Sources for all types of terrain

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Marine Seismic Sources

Schlumberger offers a range of standard Applications


marine seismic sources of different VSP surveys: zero offset, offset,
strengths. Sources are designed to walkaway, 3D, and SeismicVISION*
output predictable and consistent seismic-while-drilling service
source signatures. All sources have been
Subsalt imaging
fully characterized through recording
of far-field signatures. Spectral outputs Shallow-water surveys

are characterized for deployment depth, Deepwater and deep wells


operating pressure, and array volume. Calibration of complex surveys:
All sources are mechanically qualified to anisotropy and amplitude variation
ensure safety and reliability. When used with offset (AVO)
with the TRISOR acoustic source control
Repeatability and wavelet matching
element, full QC of array performance
isavailable. for time-lapse surveys
All borehole seismic applications

requiring high-quality, consistent


source signatures with calibrated
amplitude

Seismic Source Recommendations


Checkshot Single gun
Checkshot, deep well Two- or three-gun cluster
VSP Two- or three-gun cluster
VSP, offset or walkaway, deep well Single or dual six-gun array
VSP, offset, walkaway or 3D, ultradeep well Single or dual six-gun array or surface seismic vessel

Example Seismic Source Specifications


Source Source Depth, Capacity, Firing Pressure, Zero-Peak Peak-Peak Primary to
ft [m] in3 [L] psi [MPa] Amplitude, Amplitude, Bubble Ratio
bar.m bar.m
Single gun 16.4 [5] 150 [2.5] 2,000 [14] 3.0 5.3 4.4
Two-gun cluster 9.8 [3] 300 [4.9] 2,000 [14] 5.2 9.2 7.5
Three-gun cluster 16.4 [5] 450 [7.4] 2,000 [14] 6.7 12.2 12.2
Three-gun cluster, large 16.4 [5] 750 [12.3] 2,000 [14] 8.3 14.8 15.1
Dual Delta six-gun array 16.4 [5] 1,200 [19.7] 2,000 [14] 14.0 23.1 21.5
HyperCluster* low-frequency 16.4 [5] 1,500 [24.6] 3,000 [20] 18.4 29.0 22.6
airgunsource

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Formation Testing
and Sampling

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MDT Forte and MDT Forte-HT
Rugged and High-Temperature
Modular Formation Dynamics Testers
The extensively qualified MDT Forte* The innovative modular design of Bysealing against the borehole wall
rugged modular formation dynamics the MDT Forte and MDT Forte-HT to isolate an interval of the formation,
tester and MDT Forte-HT* rugged high- testers means that the tester compo- the dual packers significantly
temperature tester are a complete nents are readily customizable to meet improve the effectiveness of pressure
redesign and reengineering of the operational requirements: measurement and fluid sampling
workhorse MDT modular formation Telemetry system with greatly in low-permeability, laminated, or
dynamics tester for sampling and expanded capabilities means that fractured formations.
formation testing. By extending the the length of the toolstrings is lim- Advanced sealing technology of the
reliability, efficiency, and applicability ited primarily by the cable strength O-rings of the MDT Forte-HT tester
of the MDT tester platform while and well conditions. Using extended feature carbon nanotube technology.
minimizing operational risk, the tool combinations to meet multiple The engineered material provides
MDTForte and MDT Forte-HT testers objectives in one trip results in sig- the strength to withstand downhole
are run with Quicksilver Probe* nificant efficiency gains and cost effects and ensure extended
focused fluid extraction and the savings. sealing performance to capture and
Saturn* 3D radial probe to deliver Next-generation Axton* dynamically confidently retain HPHT samples.
robust downhole fluid analysis (DFA)
compensated single quartz gauge Advanced Pumpout Modules, rated
using the InSitu Fluid Analyzer*
has an operating range to 410 degF from standard conditions through
system, fluid sampling, and transient
[210degC] and 31,500 psi [217MPa]. extra-extrahigh pressure provide an
testing to meet the challenges of
Calibration to 30,000psi [207 MPa] increased flow area and enhance
todays oilfield operations.
and 374 degF [190 degC] or to run time, resistance to plugging, and
Extensive qualification testing of the
20,000 psi [138 MPa] and 392degF solids handling.
design, components, and entire tester
[200 degC] ensures consistent pres- Multisample Modules are used to
systems proves that the MDT Forte and
sure metrology performance with collect and subsequently transport
MDT Forte-HT testers tolerate excessive
the same accuracy and resolution high-quality samples of formation
vibration at all stages of use: from low-
expected in standard conditions. fluids for PVT analysis. The Single-
frequency shaking during transit to high-
High-temperature InSitu Density* Phase Multisample Changer (SPMC)
impact shock and vibration downhole at
extreme temperatures. The redesigned reservoir fluid density sensor helps is HPHT rated and pressure compen-
electronics system incorporates surface- manage the challenges of sampling sating for single-phase sampling.
mounted components on a ruggedized formation fluids from HPHT reservoirs
chassis that overcomes the conventional by monitoring contamination levels in
fragility of electronics when operating addition to indicating compositional
in tough logging conditions. Qualified grading and fluid gradients.
for 100 cumulative operating hours Dual-Packer Module comprises two

at temperatures up to 400 degF inflatable packer elements with an


[204degC], the testers are ideally suited asymmetrical design that reduces
for operations in the most challenging the risk of sticking and fishing, with
environments, such as deep water, downtime further reduced through
drillpipe conveyance, HPHT wells, and greater durability, longer replacement
remote operations. cycles, and more stations per run.

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Applications Identification of compositional Reservoir simulation (equation-
Challenging environments: deep grading ofstate [EOS] modeling)
water, remote operations, drillpipe Formation fluid sampling Asphaltene gradient determination

conveyance, high temperature, Sample assurance: single phase and and heavy-ends EOS modeling
high pressure, and harsh operating purity Identification of volatile oil
conditions Identification of compartments andgascondensate
Formation pressure measurement andlateral sealing boundaries Determination of gas/oil ratio (GOR)

Accurate determination of pressure Formation permeability and condensate/gas ratio (CGR)


gradients and fluid contacts and permeability anisotropy In situ stress determination

Reservoir fluid characterization measurements


through DFA

Measurement Specifications
MDT Forte Tester MDT Forte-HT Tester
Output Formation pressure; ultralow-contamination fluid samples; downhole fluid analysis; flowline
pressure, resistivity, and temperature; permeability and permeability anisotropy; in situ stress
Logging speed Stationary Stationary
Range of measurement Quartz gauge: 750 to 15,000 psi [5 to 103 MPa] Axton gauge: 0 to 30,000 psi [207 MPa] to 374degF
Resistivity: 0.01 to 20 ohm.m [190 degC] and 0 to 20,000 psi [138 MPa] to
Temperature: 40 to 350 degF [40 to 177 degC] 392 degF [200 degC]
Resistivity: 0.01 to 20 ohm.m
Temperature: 40 to 400 degF [40 to 204 degC]
Resolution Quartz gauge: 0.008 psi [55 Pa] at 1.3-s gate time Axton gauge: 0.008-psi [55-Pa] rms at 1-s gate time
Resistivity: 0.001 ohm.m Resistivity: 0.001 ohm.m
Temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC] Temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC]
Accuracy Quartz gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading) Axton gauge: 2.0 psi [13,789 Pa] for typical
Resistivity: 0.01 ohm.m HPHToperational range (>212 degF [>100 degC]
Flowline temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC] and>15,000psi [103 MPa]) and 6.0 psi
[41,368 Pa] for full range
Resistivity: 0.01 ohm.m
Flowline temperature: 0.5 degF [0.2 degC]
Mud type or weight limitations None None
Combinability Fully integrates with Saturn 3D radial probe, Quicksilver Probe focused fluid extraction, and InSitu Fluid Analyzer system
Conveyance on wireline, drillpipe, and UltraTRAC all-terrain wireline tractor
Special applications Downhole fluid analysis at reservoir conditions, interval pressure transient test (IPTT), stress test, mini-DST
Operating range up to 400 degF [204 degC] and default calibration to 392 degF [200 degC] with calibration to higher temperature on request.
Includes fitting error, hysteresis, repeatability, and some allowance for sensor aging; the corresponding percentages of the pressure reading account for the incertitude of the calibration equipment.

Mechanical Specifications
MDT Forte Tester MDT Forte-HT Tester
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000, 25,000, and 30,000 psi 20,000 psi
[138, 172, and 207 MPa] [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 20,000 psi: 558 in [14.41 cm] 5 in [14.41 cm]
25,000 and 30,000 psi: 578 in [14.92 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 in] 22 in [55.88 in]
Outside diameter 20,000 psi: 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
25,000 psi: 5 in [12.70 cm]
30,000 psi: 5.25 in [13.33 cm]
Length Depends upon configuration Depends upon configuration
Weigh Depends upon configuration Depends upon configuration
Shock and vibration Electronic shock rating: 250 g Electronic shock rating: 250 g
Vibration transmissibility: 3.0 g, 10 to 450 Hz Vibration transmissibility: 3.0 g, 10 to 450 Hz
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,700 N] 160,000 lbf [711,700 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
Tester only, not including probe
At 15,000 psi and 320 degF; the compression rating is a function of temperature and pressure.

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MDT
Modular Formation Dynamics Tester
The MDT modular formation dynam- Single-Probe Module (MRPS) con-
ics tester measures reservoir pressure sists of the probe assembly (i.e.,
quickly and accurately, collects repre- packer and telescoping backup pis-
sentative fluid samples from multiple tons), pressure gauges, fluid resistiv-
layers, and provides permeability and ity and temperature sensors, and
anisotropy data through a variety of 20-cm3 [0.005-galUS] pretest cham-
interval pressure transient tests. The ber. The MRPS contains both a strain
MDT tester can also be used to conduct gauge and the accurate, high-reso-
a mini-frac test to obtain the minimum lution, quick-response CQG crystal
in situ horizontal stress in several lay- quartz gauge. The volume, rate, and
ers. Its modular design and combinabil- drawdown of the pretest chamber MRPC
ity with Quicksilver Probe focused fluid can be controlled from the surface
extraction, the InSitu Fluid Analyzer and adjusted depending on the for-
system, and almost all Schlumberger mation characteristics.
measurement systems make the Modular Sample Chambers (MRSC)
MDTtester readily customizable to meet module is available in three sizes:
specific objectives. The MDT tester con- 1, 2.75, and 6 galUS [3.8, 10.4, and
tinues to evolve, incorporating newly 22.7L]. The 1- and 2.75galUS cham-
available measurement technologies to bers are available in H2S and stan-
always feature state-of-the art downhole dard service versions.
devices for reservoir evaluation and
managementneeds.
The basic MDT tester modules are Applications
as follows: Formation pressure measurement
Electronic Power Module (MRPC) and fluid gradient estimation
converts power from the surface to Formation fluid sampling and down- MRPS
power for the tool modules. hole fluid analysis
Hydraulic Power Module (MRHY)
Pretest drawdown mobility values
contains an electric motor and pump (permeability/viscosity)
to provide hydraulic power for setting
Permeability and permeability
and retracting the single- and dual-
probe modules. The MRHY has an anisotropy determination away
accumulator that enables automatic from the well
retraction of the probes if electric In situ stress determination

power fails, which prevents potential


stuck tool situations.

MRHY

MRSC

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Standard MDT Tester Measurement Specifications
Accuracy Resolution Range
Logging speed Stationary Stationary Stationary
Strain gauge 10 psi [68,947 Pa] 0.1 psi [689 Pa] 0 to 10,000 psi [0 to 69 MPa]
20 psi [137,895 Pa] 0.2 psi [1,379 Pa] 0 to 20,000 psi [0 to 138 MPa]
CQG gauge (2 psi [13,789 Pa] 0.008 psi [55 Pa] at 1.3-s gate time 750 to 15,000 psi [5 to 103 MPa]
+ 0.01% of reading)
Resistivity 5% of reading 0.001 ohm.m 0.01 to 20 ohm.m
Flowline temperature 1.0 degF [0.5 degC] 1.0 degF [0.5 degC] 67 to 392 degF [55 to 200 degC]
Includes calibration fitting error, hysteresis, repeatability, and some allowance for sensor aging;
the corresponding percentages of the pressure readings account for the incertitude of the calibration equipment.

Basic MDT Tester Modules Mechanical Specifications


MRPC MRHY MRSC MRPS
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm] 5 in [14.29 cm] 5 in [14.29 cm] Standard: 5 in [14.29 cm]
Large-hole kit: 8 in [21.59 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 11 in [29.21 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit No limit No limit Standard: 14 in [35.56 cm]
Large-hole kit: 19 in [48.26 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm] Standard: 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Large-hole kit: 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Super-large-hole kit: 10.5 in [26.67 cm]
Length 4.98 ft [1.52 m] 8.42 ft [2.57 m] 8.04 ft [2.45 m] 6.25 ft [1.91 m]
Weight 160 lbm [73 kg] 275 lbm [125 kg] 225 lbm [102 kg] 200 lbm [91 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N] 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N] 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
HS service Yes Yes Yes Yes
These ratings reduce the dependence on using a quartz gauge.
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. These ratings apply to all MDT tester modules except the Dual-Packer Module (MRPA).
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

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Saturn
3D Radial Probe
With a total surface flow area of The improvement in testing effi-
79.44 in2a 1,200% increase over ciency over conventional probes is dis-
the largest conventional single-probe tinct at mobilities of 500 mD/cP, with
formation testerthe Saturn 3D the performance gap expanding as the
radial probe extends formation testing mobility decreases. At 10 mD/cP the
to previously inaccessible fluids and Saturn probe is an enabling technology
reservoir environments: because even an extralarge-diameter
low-permeability formations conventional probe can be challenged
heavy oil
to move the formation fluid.
The proprietary rubber technology
unconsolidated formations
used in the probe assembly provides
near-critical fluids additional flexibility for sealing in
rugose boreholes. rugose hole conditions in combination
with the probes self-sealing suction
The Saturn 3D radial probe can ports. The probe assembly also cir-
perform pressure tests efficiently and cumferentially supports the formation
conclusively at mobilities as low as to enable sampling in unconsolidated
0.01 mD/cP. With minimal storage formations without the risk of plugging
volume effects and greatly reduced or formation collapse.
susceptibility to supercharging, the
Saturn probe brings unprecedented
pressure-testing capability to very Applications
tight formations. Formation fluid sampling
The drain assembly of the Saturn Downhole fluid analysis
3D radial probe positions four self-
Formation pressure measurement
sealing suction ports at 90 intervals
against the borehole wall to pull fluid Fluid-gradient determination
circumferentially from the reservoir, Far-field permeability
instead of funneling it to the single measurement and anisotropy
access point of a conventional probe. determination
Because fluid is extracted across a Well testing design optimization
large reservoir volume, flow is read-
ily induced and sustained for viscous
fluids and in low-mobility formations
or uncemented matrix. Filtrate is
quickly removed to draw in uncontam-
inated formation fluid for downhole
fluid analysis (DFA) and sampling.

Formation Testing and Sampling 149

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Measurement Specifications
Saturn Probe
Output Ultralow-contamination formation fluids, formation pressure, fluid mobility,
downhole fluid analysis, permeability anisotropy
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Gauges specified for the operation and formation conditions
Resolution Gauges specified for the operation and formation conditions
Accuracy Gauges specified for the operation and formation conditions
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Fully integrates with MDT modular formation dynamics tester
and InSitu Family* measurements sensors
Special applications Low-permeability formations, heavy oil, near-critical fluids,
unconsolidated formations, and rugose boreholes
Includes fitting error, hysteresis, repeatability, and some allowance for sensor aging; the corresponding percentages
of the pressure reading account for the incertitude of the calibration equipment

Mechanical Specifications
Saturn Probe
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure version: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Ultrahigh-pressure version: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 7-in version: 778 in [20.0 cm]
9-in version: 978 in [25.08 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 7-in version: 9 in [24.13 cm]
9-in version: 14 in [36.83 cm]
Max. hole ovality 20%
Outside diameter Tool body: 4.75 in [12.06 cm]
7-in version drain assembly: 7 in [17.78 cm]
9-in version drain assembly: 8.75 in [22.23 cm]
Length 5.7 ft [1.74 m]
With Modular Reservoir Sonde and Electronics (MRSE): 12.4 ft [3.78 m]
Weight 7-in version: 385 lbm [175 kg]
9-in version: 485 lbm [220 kg]
Tension Depends on wellbore pressure and temperature
Compression Depends on wellbore pressure and temperature
In air, fully assembled on a mandrel

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Quicksilver Probe
Focused FluidExtraction
Quicksilver Probe* focused fluid extrac- Applications
tion acquires reservoir fluids samples Formation pressure measurement
that, in many cases, have levels of fil- and fluid gradient estimation
trate contamination below measurable
Formation fluid sampling
limits. In addition, the time required
on station is significantly reduced Downhole fluid analysis

compared with conventional openhole Fluid profiling characterization


sampling operations. Other enhance- of reservoir fluid properties and
ments over single-probe methods are quantification of their variation
a reduced risk of differential sticking
and more reliable laboratory results for
PVT analysis.
The innovative focused probe fea-
tures concentric packers with guard
and fluid-acquisition flowlines to
efficiently separate mud filtrate con-
tamination from virgin reservoir fluid
during the fluid-extraction process.
Beyond setting new standards in
fluid purity and extraction speed,
Quicksilver Probe focused fluid
extraction makes downhole fluid
analysis possible even in miscible oil-
base mud. Fluid properties can be
accurately measured at reservoir con-
ditions without contamination effects.
Comparison between reservoir layers
yields information concerning zonal
connectivity and fluid compartmen-
talization that cannot be measured by
other logs.

Formation Testing and Sampling 151

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Measurement Specifications
Quicksilver Probe Extraction
Output Extracted ultralow-contamination formation fluids; flowline pressure,
resistivity, and temperature
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement CQG gauge: 750 to 15,000 psi [5 to 103 MPa]
25,000-psi high-pressure Quartzdyne gauge: 0 to 25,000 psi [0 to 172 MPa]
Axton gauge: 0 to 30,000 psi [207 MPa] to 374 degF [190 degC]
and0to20,000psi[138MPa] to 392 degF [200 degC]
Resistivity: 0.01 to 20 ohm.m
Temperature: 67 to 400 degF [55 to 204 degC]
Resolution CQG gauge: 0.008 psi [55 Pa] at 1.3-s gate time
25,000-psi high-pressure Quartzdyne gauge: 0.01 psi/s [69 Pa/s]
Axton gauge: 0.008-psi [55-Pa] rms at 1-s gate time
Resistivity: 0.001 ohm.m
Temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC]
Accuracy CQG gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading)
25,000-psi high-pressure Quartzdyne gauge: 0.02% of full range
Axton gauge: 2.0 psi [13,789 Pa] for typical HPHT operational range
(>212 degF [>100 degC] and >15,000 psi [>103 MPa])
and 6.0 psi [41,368 Pa] for full range
Resistivity: 5% of reading
Flowline temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Fully integrates with MDT modular formation dynamics tester and InSitu Family
measurement sensors
Special applications Downhole fluid analysis at reservoir conditions
Operating range up to 400 degF [204 degC] and default calibration to 392 degF [200 degC] with calibration to higher temperature on request.
Includes fitting error, hysteresis, repeatability, and some allowance for sensor aging; the corresponding percentages of the pressure reading
account for the incertitude of the calibration equipment

Mechanical Specifications
Quicksilver Probe Extraction
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High-pressure version: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 14 in [35.56 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
While sampling: 5 in [12.70 cm]
High-pressure version: 5.25 in [13.34 cm]
Length Probe module: 8.48 ft [2.58 m]
Weight 308 lbm [140 kg]
High-pressure version: 351 lbm [159 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

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InSitu Fluid Analyzer
Real-Time Downhole Fluid Analysis System

The InSitu Fluid Analyzer system grating spectrometer has 16 channels oscillates in two perpendicular modes
is used to acquire InSitu Family focused on the 1,600- to 1,800nm range, within the fluid. Simple physical models
downhole quantitative fluid properties where reservoir fluid has characteristic describe the resonance frequency and
measurements for real-time downhole absorptions that reflect molecular quality factor of the sensor in relation to
fluid analysis (DFA): structure. Measurement of the Vis-NIR the fluid density. Dual-mode oscillation
hydrocarbon composition spectrum by the two spectrometers is is superior to other resonant techniques
(C1, C2, C3C5, and C6+) used for the DFA of fluid hydrocarbon because it minimizes the effects of
gas/oil ratio (GOR)
composition, water content, and mud pressure and temperature on the sensor
filtrate contamination. The CO2 content through common mode rejection, which
live-oil density and viscosity
is determined from the spectrometer further improves the accuracy of the
CO2 measurements by the InSitu CO2* measurement. The measurement is
pH of water (aquifer, connate, reservoir fluid CO2 sensor. made under flowing conditions, and the
injection, or water-base mud resonator is resistive to corrosive fluids.
[WBM] filtrate)
InSitu GOR sensor
reservoir fluid color
From the enhanced composition mea- InSitu Viscosity sensor
free-gas detection
surement, the InSitu GOR* reservoir The InSitu Viscosity* reservoir fluid
downhole fluorescence (dew fluid sensor determines the GOR and viscosity sensor measures viscosity
precipitation in retrograde gas condensate/gas ratio (CGR) from the under flowing conditions with either
condensates) vaporizations of the hydrocarbon and a dual-mode microresonator rod or a
flowline pressure and temperature CO2 components at standard conditions vibrating wire. Which technology is used
(regime of sample chamber, not for flashing a live fluid. depends on the downhole and reservoir
the probe) conditions.
resistivity of reservoir water
InSitu Color sensor
oil-base mud (OBM) filtrate
With optical filters improved for InSitu Fluorescence sensor
contamination. high-temperature performance, the The InSitu Fluorescence* reservoir
InSitu Color* reservoir fluid color sen- fluid fluorescence sensor detects free
sor uses the extended measurement gas bubbles and retrograde conden-
InSitu Composition and range of the 20-channel filter array sate liquid dropout for single-phase
InSitu CO2 sensors spectrometer to determine fluid color. assurance while conducting DFA and
Because quantified DFA is based The reliability of the measurement sampling. Fluid type is also identified.
on optical absorption spectroscopy, is supported by continuous real-time The resulting fluid phase information
the InSitu Composition* reservoir autocalibration, application of a con- is especially useful for defining the
fluid composition measurement uses tamination algorithm that uses all the difference between retrograde con-
the first downhole deployment of a spectrometer channels, and a coated- densates and volatile oils, which can
laboratory-grade grating spectrometer window detection flag for enhanced QC. have similar GORs and live-oil densi-
in addition to the conventional filter The color measurement supports fluid ties. Because the fluorescence mea-
array spectrometer. The filter array identification, determination of asphal- surement is also sensitive to liquid
spectrometer measures wavelengths in tene gradients, and pH measurement. precipitation from a condensate gas
the visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) when the flowing pressure falls below
range from 400 to 2,100 nm across the dewpoint, it can be used to monitor
20channels that indicate the color and InSitu Density sensor phase separation in real time to ensure
molecular vibration absorptions of the The InSitu Density reservoir fluid density the collection of representative single-
reservoir fluid and also show the main measurement is based on the resonance phase samples.
absorption peaks of water and CO2. The characteristics of a vibrating rod that

Formation Testing and Sampling 153

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InSitu pH sensor
The InSitu pH* reservoir fluid pH sen-
Fluorescence detector
sor measures the water pH by inject-
ing dye into the formation fluid being Pressure and Density and
pumped through the flowline of the temperature gauge viscosity sensors
InSituFluidAnalyzer system. The pH is
calculated with 0.1-unit accuracy from
the relevant visible wavelengths of the Flowline

dye signal measured by an optical fluid


analyzer. Making the measurement at
reservoir conditions avoids the irrevers- Resistivity sensor
ible pH changes that occur when sam- Grating spectrometer
ples are brought to the surface, as acid
gases and salts come out of solution Filter array spectrometer
with reduced temperature and pressure
and routine laboratory flashing of the
sample. The InSitu pH sensor mea- InSitu Fluid Analyzer system integrates multiple InSitu Family reservoir fluid measurements
sures fluids across the entire flowline andsensors.
cross section, which makes it more
robust than potentiometric methods of
measurement, which are compromised
flowline pump. The DFA measurements Applications
within the flowline can then be accu- Reservoir fluid characterization
when oil and mud foul electrode sur-
rately translated back to virginal reser-
faces. Direct pH measurements with Identification of compartments
voir conditions by employing well-known
dye also avoid the limitations of resis- andlateral sealing boundaries
equation-of-state (EOS) algorithms.
tivity measurement in monitoring con- Quantification of compositional
tamination, which requires a sufficient grading
resistivity contrast between the filtrate Fluid profiling character Strategy development for corrosion
and formation water.
ization of reservoir fluid and scale
properties variation Sample assurance: single phase
InSitu Resistivity sensor Fluid profiling characterization based andpurity
The InSitu Resistivity* reservoir fluid on the InSitu Fluid Analyzer system Reservoir simulation (EOS
resistivity sensor measures the fluid measurements provides the distri- modeling)
in the flowline using the same proven bution of fluid properties across the Improved-accuracy determination
technology employed in Schlumberger reservoir, beyond what a traditional of pretest gradients and fluid
formation testing tools. With the sampling program can achieve. The contacts
InSitu Resistivity sensor included in quantified accuracy of InSitu Family
Asphaltene gradient determination
the DFA assembly, it is possible to measurements expands DFA appli-
monitor resistivity during dual-packer cation from a single well to multi- Differentiation of biogenic

sampling operations in WBM. ple-well analysis, defining reservoir andthermogenic dry gas
architecture across the entire field. Identification of volatile oil
Quantification of the variation of fluid andgascondensate
Pressure and properties at higher resolution than Determination of GOR and CGR
temperature sensors conventional sampling and analysis is
The high-resolution pressure and key to identifying and differentiating
temperature sensors incorporated in compositional grading, fluid contacts,
Schlumberger formation testing tools and reservoir compartments.
are used in the InSitu Fluid Analyzer For integrated analysis, compre-
system. Direct measurement of pressure hensive InSitu Pro* real-time quality
and temperature is essential to identify control and interpretation software
the position in the PVT envelope where combines the results of pressure and
the other fluid properties, such as den- fluids analysis from multiple data
sity, are measured, especially when the sources.
sensors are placed downstream of the

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Measurement Specifications
InSitu Fluid Analyzer System
Output Hydrocarbon composition, GOR, live-oil density and viscosity, CO, pH of water, reservoir fluid color, free-gas
detection, downhole fluorescence, flowline pressure and temperature, resistivity, OBM contamination
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement InSitu Density sensor: 0.05 to 1.2 g/cm
InSitu Viscosity sensor: 0.2 to 300 cP
Resolution InSitu Density sensor: 0.001 g/cm
Accuracy InSitu Density sensor: 0.012 g/cm
InSitu Viscosity sensor: 10% for wire, 12% for rod
Depth of investigation na
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Fully integrates with the MDT, MDT Forte, and MDT Forte-HT testers; Saturn 3D radial probe;
QuicksilverProbefocused fluid extraction; and InSitu Pro software
Special applications Real-time downhole fluid analysis
na = not applicable

Mechanical Specifications
InSitu Fluid Analyzer System
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.24 cm]
Borehole sizemax. Determined by probe or packer
Outside diameter Determined by probe or packer
Length 10.43 ft [3.18 m]
Weight 368 lbm [167 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]

Formation Testing and Sampling 155

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InSitu Pro
RealTime Quality Control
and Interpretation Software
The InSitu Pro software is used for Because operators and Schlumberger Applications
detailed analysis and reporting of pre- engineers share the InSitu Pro software Real-time monitoring, QC, and
test, sampling, and downhole fluid access for powerful data analysis, all interpretation of pretest, fluid
analysis (DFA) station data, both in users efficiently view the same data and sampling, and DFA data for both
real time and postacquisition. It is com- presentations in real time for their oper- wireline and LWD formation
patible with Quicksilver Probe focused ation. Detailed interpretation can also testingservices
fluid extraction, MDT modular for- be conducted after the job to combine
Production strategy guidance
mation dynamics tester, InSitu Fluid reservoir fluid information with petro-
Analyzer system, PressureXpress reser- physical data. through the determination
voir pressure-while-logging service, and InSitu Pro software has three main of fluid types and contacts
PressureXpress-HT high-temperature modules: and the swift identification
reservoir pressure service. Data analysis ofcompartmentalization
pressure module for conducting
by InSitu Pro software also supports Postjob data integration from
comprehensive QC and analysis
fluid profiling comprehensive charac- ofpretests multiple data sources, evaluation,
terization of reservoir fluid properties interpretation, and reporting
fluids module for conducting QC
and quantification of their variation.
and viewing DFA and sampling data
For real-time monitoring and QC,
integration module for combining
data can be received via InterACT global
connectivity, collaboration, and informa- pressure and fluid analysis results
tion service directly at the operators from all available stations with
office or a Schlumberger iCenter* secure other petrophysical and correlation
networked collaborative environment. logs in an integrated depth display.

The comprehensive depth view from InSitu Pro software combines the results of pressure and fluids analysis
from multiple data sources.

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Advanced MDT Tester Modules

Dual-Packer Module the 3.2-ft interval, the area of the iso-


lated interval of the borehole is about
The Dual-Packer Module (MRPA) con-
3,000 times larger than the area of
sists of two inflatable packer elements
the borehole wall isolated by the MDT
that seal against the borehole wall
testers Single-Probe Module (MRPS).
to isolate an interval, improving the
For fluid sampling, the large area
effectiveness of pressure measurement
results in flowing pressures that are
and fluid sampling in low-permeability,
only slightly below the reservoir pres-
laminated, or fractured formations.
sure, which avoids phase separation
The MDT Pumpout Module (MRPO) is
even for pressure-sensitive fluids such
used to inflate the packers with fluid.
as gas condensates or volatile oils.
High-performance packers are run
In low-permeability formations, high
with the MRPA to expand the oper-
drawdown usually occurs with the
ating envelope for the MDT tester,
probe, whereas fluid can be withdrawn
with a temperature rating to 410 degF
from the formation using the MRPA
[210 degC] and compatibility with
with minimum pressure drop through
both water- and oil-base mud systems.
the larger flowing area. In finely lami-
The superior elasticity and improved
nated formations, the MRPA can be
durability of the high-performance
used to straddle permeable streaks
packers enable performing more
that would be difficult to locate with
stations per run and lessen packer
a probe. In fractured formations, the
replacement. The asymmetrical packer
MRPA can usually seal the interval
design reduces sticking and bulging
whereas a probe could not.
potential. Operational reliability is
For pressure transient testing,
further enhanced by the autoretract
following a large-volume flow from
mechanism (ARM), which applies a
the formation, the resulting pressure
longitudinal tensile force to assist in
buildup has a radius of investigation
retracting the packers after deflation,
of 50 to 80ft [15 to 24 m]. Depending
in turn minimizing drag. At tempera-
on the application, interval pressure
tures below 225 degF [107 degC], the
transient testing (IPTT) provides
elements retain sufficient elasticity for
advantages over a conventional drill-
operation without the ARM.
stem test (DST). It is environmen-
For operations in H2S environ-
tally friendly because no fluids flow
ments, the Dual-Packer Module is
to the surface, and it is cost effective
available in a NACE-compliant ver-
because many zones can be tested in
sion for sampling up to 50% H2S in
a short time.
hole sizes from 578 to 958 in.
The MRPA can be used to create a
The length of the test interval
micro-hydraulic fracture that can be
between the packers is 3.2 ft [0.98m]
pressure tested to determine the min-
and can be extended to 5.2, 8.2, or
imum in situ stress magnitude. The
11.2 ft [1.58, 2.5, or 3.41 m] by using
fracture is created by pumping well-
2- and 3-ft [0.61- and 0.91-m] spac-
bore fluid into the interval between
ers with large-diameter mandrels. For
the inflatable packer elements.

Formation Testing and Sampling 157

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Dual-Packer Module Packers Mechanical Specifications
Packer Outside Hole Size Hole Size Temperature Pressure Differential Type Recommended Number of Settings
Diameter, Min., Max., Rating, Rating, Pressure Rating,
in [cm] in in degF [degC] psi [MPa] psi [MPa]
SIP-A3-5in 5 [12.70] 5.875 7.5 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 4,500 [31] Symmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 6-in hole
SIP-A3A-5in 5 [12.70] 5.875 7.5 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 4,500 [31] Asymmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 6-in hole
IPCF-H2S-500 5 [12.70] 5.875 7.5 350 [177] 20,000 [138] TBQ Asymmetrical TBQ
SIP-A3-6.75in 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Symmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.75-in hole
SIP-A3A-6.75in 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Asymmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.75-in hole
IPCF-PAS-700 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Symmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.5-in hole
IPCF-PA-700 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Asymmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.5-in hole
IPCF-PC-700 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 4,500 [31] Asymmetrical 5 settings at 4,500 psi in 8.5-in hole
IPCF-BA-700 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 410 [210] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Asymmetrical 3 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.5-in hole
IPCF-H2S-700 7 [17.78] 7.875 9.625 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Asymmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 8.5-in hole
SIP-A3A-8.5in 8.5 [21.59] 9.875 14 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 3,000 [21] Asymmetrical 10 settings at 3,000 psi in 12.25-in hole
SIP-A3A-10in 10 [25.40] 11 17.5 350 [177] 20,000 [138] 2,100 [14] Asymmetrical 7 settings at 2,100 psi in 14.4-in hole
At the specified pressure and hole size
To be qualified

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Dual-Probe Module cannot separate vertical from hori-
zontal mobility, nor can it avoid the
In combination with the SingleProbe
effects of near-wellbore alteration.
Module (MRPS), the DualProbe
For a layer less than 2 ft [0.61 m]
Module (MRDP) provides measure-
thick, the combination of the dual-
ments for determining both the verti-
probe and single-probe modules can
cal and horizontal mobility unaffected
straddle the layer to determine if the
by near-wellbore permeability altera-
layer is a pressure barrier.
tions. Analysis of a pretest pressure
transient from only a single probe

Mechanical Specifications
MRDP
Temperature rating 392 degF [200 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 7 in [19.37 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 13 in [33.65 cm]
Outside diameter 6 in [15.24 cm]
Length 6.75 ft [2.06 m]
MRDP-BA, MRDP-BB, MRDP-BC,
and MRDP-BX: 8.6 ft [2.62 m]
Weight 298 lbm [135 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
HS service Yes
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. These ratings apply to all MDT tester modules except the MRPA.
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

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Flow-Control Module not have to be constant. The rate of
fluid withdrawal is measured. The total
The Flow-Control Module (MRFC) is
volume of withdrawn fluid is limited to
used to control the withdrawal of fluid
1 L [0.26galUS], which is 50 times the
from the formation for specific pressure
volume of the pretest chamber in the
transient tests that are typically done
MRPS. Following withdrawal of a 1-L
in combination with the Single-Probe
volume, the module can be emptied
Module (MRPS) and Dual-Probe
and used for repeated withdrawals.
Module (MRDP). The withdrawal
The module can be used to provide
of fluid can be accomplished at a
an extended pretest volume when
selected rate or pressure that does
combined with the single probe.

Mechanical Specifications
MRFC
Temperature rating 392 degF [200 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length 7.58 ft [2.31 m]
Weight 250 lbm [113 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
HS service Yes
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. These ratings apply to all MDT tester modules except the MRPA.
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

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Pumpout Module Fluid is withdrawn from the
formation and pumped into the wellbore
The Pumpout Module (MRPO) is used
fluid system until an acceptably low
to flow fluids from the reservoir at a
percentage of drilling fluid filtrate
controlled flowing pressure. Pressure
contamination is achieved. The LFA
control is required to avoid the separa-
analyzer is used to measure the level of
tion of phases (i.e., gas or solids sepa-
filtrate contamination. The fluid is then
rating from oil, or liquid condensing
diverted to a sample chamber, where it
from gas). Representative fluid samples
is preserved for later analysis.
require a single-phase fluid.
The fluid exits the MRPO at a
Pressure control is accomplished
pressure equalized to the wellbore
by varying the duty cycle (i.e., motor
hydrostatic pressure. The rate at
voltage) or motor speed. The engineer
which the fluid flows depends upon
changes the duty cycle or motor speed
the difference between the wellbore
until the flowing pressure, as measured
pressure and the flowing pressure. The
by the pressure gauge (located where
minimum to maximum pumpout flow
the fluid enters the tool), is safely
range can be from 0.08 to 32.8 cm3/s
above the pressure at which the phases
[0.0013 to 0.52 galUS/min]. The
separate. The LFA* live fluid analyzer,
maximum differential pressure is
CFA* composition fluid anal yzer,
4,100 psi [28 MPa] for the standard
or both these modules are used in
displacement unit and 11,700 psi
combination with the MRPO to detect
[81 MPa] for the extra-extrahigh-
phase separation.
pressure displacement unit.

Mechanical Specifications
MRPO
Temperature rating 392 degF [200 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length 10.63 ft [3.24 m]
Weight 340 lbm [154 kg]
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
HS service Yes
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. These ratings apply to all MDT modular formation dynamics tester modules
excepttheDual-Packer Module (MRPA). The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 161

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LFA live fluid analyzer near-infrared wavelengths is used to
determine the percentage of oil-base
Both the Pumpout Module (MRPO)
mud filtrate in oil. The LFA analyzer
and LFA live-fluid analyzer are
also measures methane content and
required in the MDT tester toolstring
hydrocarbon content. From the ratio
for fluid sampling. The LFA analyzer
of the two, the gas/oil ratio (GOR) is
measures the percentage of drilling
calculated using a measurement made
fluid filtrate mixed with the forma-
on oil above the bubblepoint.
tion fluid as a function of time. This
In addition to measuring contami-
measurement is the basis for making
nation, the LFA analyzer detects the
real-time decisions on when to stop
presence of gas if the flowing pressure
discarding the fluid to the wellbore and
is below the bubblepoint. The engineer
capture the sample in a chamber. The
is alerted to slow the pumping rate to
filtrate percentage is determined with
raise the pressure above the bubble-
a 10-channel optical spectrometer.
point to avoid phase separation. The
Specific near-infrared wavelengths are
presence of a distinct gas phase is
used to determine the percentage of
detected with an optical refractometer.
water-base filtrate in oil or of oil-base
filtrate in water. A range of visible and

Mechanical Specifications
LFA Live Fluid Analyzer
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length 6.17 ft [1.88 m]
Weight 187 lbm [85 kg]
HS service Yes
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.

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CFA composition Computation of the GOR or its
inverse, the condensate/gas ratio
fluid analyzer (CGR), of the flowline fluid extends the
The addition of the CFA composition range of GOR measurement to about
fluid analyzer to the MDT tester per- 30,000 ft3/bbl from the LFA analyzers
forms real-time compositional analysis maximum GOR of 2,500.
of sampled retrograde gases, conden- In a hydrocarbon-bearing formation
sates, and volatile oils. The module has the CFA analyzer is used to character-
two detectors, a fluorescence device ize the fluid with respect to depth.
and an optical spectrometer. If liq- Conducting compositional analysis at
uids drop out from the gas phase, the various depths can provide composi-
dew that forms can be detected by tional grading within the oil column
an increase in the fluorescence level. below the gas zone. This information
The fluorescence detector ensures is valuable for reservoir engineers but
that the sample is above the dewpoint was previously difficult to obtain.
and in single-phase condition for gas The CFA analyzer can be used in
sampling. The optical spectrometer is combination with the LFA analyzer
based on principles similar to those to provide a total of 20 optical chan-
of the LFA analyzer. However, the nels downhole for real-time assurance
spread of the optical density channels of single-phase conditions, detection
enables the tool to measure the optical of contamination, and measurement of
density at the peaks corresponding composition.
to methane (C1), ethane to pentane
group (C2 to C5), heavier hydrocarbon
molecules (C6+), carbon dioxide, and
water to quantitatively measure their
downhole concentrations.

Mechanical Specifications
CFA Analyzer
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Length 5.1 ft [1.55 m]
With handling caps: 6.6 ft [2.01 m]
Weight 161 lbm [73 kg]
HS service Yes
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available upon request.

Formation Testing and Sampling 163

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MDT Tester Low-Shock Sampling

Conducting low-shock sampling with of the cylinder. Beneath the piston in pressure. When the valve at the top
the MDT modular formation dynamics the cylinder is water. Because there of the cylinder was opened, a sudden
tester limits the pressure drawdown is an opening at the bottom, the water pressure reduction occurred. The
during fluid extraction and sampling. pressure in the cylinder is equal to the reduction was typically sufficiently large
This approach helps avoid crossing wellbore hydrostatic pressure. Sample to induce phase separation, resulting in
the bubblepoint pressure, which would capture begins by opening the valve an unrepresentative sample. It could
induce a two-phase condition in the at the top and pumping fluid into the even cause a shock so large that the
flowline and the sample chambers. The bottle rather than to the wellbore. formation would collapse, resulting in a
successful collection of representative The entering fluid pushes the piston loss of seal and the entry of drilling fluid
pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) down and causes the water to exit to to the tool.
samples also requires low filtrate con- the wellbore. Because the pump is The Dual-Packer Module (MRPA)
tamination, which is determined by pushing fluid to the wellbore, there is can be used in low-shock sampling to
using the LFA live fluid analyzer. no change in the flowing pressure fol- further reduce the pressure drawdown
The sample chambers and bottles lowing opening of the valve. With this caused by the area of flow.
consist of a cylinder with a valve at innovative technique, low-shock sam- In addition to enabling single-phase
the top and opening at the bottom and pling minimizes pressure disruption. sample recovery, low-shock sampling
contain a sliding piston. While the fluid Previous methods of sampling did not avoids breaking down the formation
is pumped from the formation to the employ an opening at the bottom of the while sampling in unconsolidated
wellbore, the valve at the top is closed chamber. Before sampling, the internal reservoirs, which would cause the
and the piston is positioned at the top pressure was close to the atmospheric mobilization and flow of sand grains.

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MDT Tester Multisample Module

The MDT tester Multisample Module agitation component is used to restore


(MRMS) can retrieve six representa- samples to reservoir conditions of up
tive formation fluid samples on a single to 25,000psi [172MPa] and 400 degF
trip into the well. Two types of sample [204degC] prior to sample transfer or
bottles can be used in the MRMS: analysis. Heating to the reservoir tem-
Multisample Production Sample perature is required for revaporizing
Receptacle (MPSR) condensed liquids in gas condensate
Single-Phase Multisample
samples, and heating to 180 degF
[82degC] is required for recombining
Chamber (SPMC).
wax precipitants.
The MRMS may be fitted with any The SPMC maintains the sample
combination of MPSR and SPMC bot- pressure at or above the reservoir
tles. A maximum of five MRMS mod- pressure despite the reduction in tem-
ules (i.e., a total of 30 bottles) can be perature at the surface. The SPMC
combined in one toolstring. must be used to prevent asphaltene
The MPSR bottle has a 450-cm3 solids from precipitating in oil sam-
[0.12-galUS] volume and is approved ples because the precipitation of
for transport by the US Department asphaltenes can be irreversible. The
of Transportation (DOT). It can be opening pressure on MPSR samples
heated to 200 degF [93 degC] for is much lower than the reservoir pres-
recombining the sample but is not sure because of the reduction in tem-
suitable for long-term storage. The perature at the surface. Gas, liquid,
SPMC has a 250-cm3 [0.07-galUS] vol- and solid phases separate within the
ume and can be heated to 400 degF MPSR bottle, and the sample cannot
[204 degC]. It is also DOT transport- be validated, transferred, or analyzed
able. Upon retrieval, an integrated until it has been recombined.

Mechanical Specifications
MRMS
Temperature rating 392 degF [200 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 5 in [14.29 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 22 in [55.88 cm]
Outside diameter 5 in [12.70 cm] (max.)
Length 13.19 ft [4.02 m]
Weight 465 lbm [211 kg] (max.)
Tension 160,000 lbf [711,710 N]
Compression 85,000 lbf [378,100 N]
25,000-psi [172-MPa] and 30,000-psi [207-MPa] versions are available on request.
At 15,000 psi [103 MPa] and 320 degF [160 degC]. These ratings apply to all MDT tester modules except the Dual-Packer Module (MRPA).
The compressive load is a function of temperature and pressure.

Formation Testing and Sampling 165

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PressureXpress-HT
High-Temperature Reservoir Pressure Service
PressureXpress-HT* service extends with the industrys longest holding time:
the efficiency and accuracy of 14 h at 450 degF [232degC]. Even with
PressureXpress reservoir pressure flasking, the slim-diameter, streamlined
while logging service to high-tem- profile of PressureXpress-HT service
perature environments. Specifically greatly reduces the risk of tool sticking.
engineered for pressure and mobil- The dynamically controlled pres-
ity testing, as compared with conven- sure-pretest system incorporated in
tional multifunction formation tester PressureXpress-HT service enables
tools that also collect fluid samples, precise, real-time control of volume
PressureXpress-HT service provides and drawdown rates across a wide
exceptional pressure measurement mobility range. A pressure limit can
quality and significantly reduces the be set as necessary. The enhanced
time and risk involved with testing. pretest system makes pressure test-
With a flasked tool design and the ing possible in formations where con-
superior thermal stability of the quartz ventional hydraulic technology cannot
gauge eliminating the need for gauge measure accurately because it allows
temperature stabilization, highly accu- ultrasmall pretest volumes and mini-
rate reservoir pressure and mobility mal flowline storage volume. The pres-
measurements are typically made in sure differential for drawdown is up
less than a minute. PressureXpress-HT to 8,000 psi [55 MPa]. A dedicated
service is also compatible with most wellbore pressure gauge can be used
openhole services to deliver pressure to develop procedures and algorithms
measurements on the first logging run. to overcome the supercharging effect
Innovative tool architecture enables that commonly occurs in many low-
the superior thermal stability of the permeability applications. Multiple
quartz gauge and extended holding pretests can be performed at a given
time. By combining these capabilities depth to verify the accuracy of a pres-
with the precision of electromechani- sure measurement without having to
cal pretest control, PressureXpress-HT cycle the tool, or they can be per-
service provides accurate gradients formed at multiple depths to produce
and overall data quality not achiev- a profile of pressure versus depth.
able by either conventional standard The resulting pressure profile can be
or high-temperature formation tes- converted directly to the density of the
ter tools. The location of the HPHT formations continuous fluid phase for
Quartzdyne gauge in a flasked section use in defining fluid contacts.
isolates it from changes in borehole To select the candidate zones
temperature and eliminates the need for successful reservoir pressure
for temperature stabilization of the and fluid mobility measurement,
gauge, thus significantly improving PressureXpress Advisor* pretest
overall operational efficiency. quality indicator uses real-time data
These simple, effective design from the logging string that the service
changes and an extended qualification is run on. For pressure and gradient
process that tests the entire tool system analysis, InSitu Pro real-time quality
as well as individual components, control and interpretation can be
electronics boards, and subassemblies performed. A concise wellsite report
deliver exceptional tool performance is generated, with optional display of
in challenging conditions. Extended other log data.
single-trip survey programs are possible

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Applications Heat-management-optimized design Identification of depleted zones in
Accurate, fast pressure and for performing extended surveys at a wider mobility range
mobility measurements from high- the industry-leading holding time of Measurement of reservoir fluid

temperature and low-permeability 14 h at 450 degF [232 degC] density with gradients and gas/oil/
environments Pressure profiles and mobility water contacts
Measurements from the first
measurements to combine
logging run, in tool combinations with petrophysical, seismic,
with most wireline logging services and conventional log data for
developing a static reservoir model

Measurement Specifications
Output Formation pressure, fluid mobility
Logging speed Stationary
Set and retract time: 15 s
Range of measurement Max. measured overbalance: 8,000 psi [55 MPa]
Pretest volume: 0.1 to 37 cm
Pretest rate: 0.02 to 2 cm/s
Resolution Quartzdyne gauge: 0.01 psi [29 Pa/s]
Secondary Sapphire* gauge: 0.4 psi [276 Pa] at 1 Hz
Flowline temperature: 0.18 degF [0.1 degC]
Accuracy Quartzdyne gauge: (0.02% of full scale + 0.01% of reading)
Secondary Sapphire gauge: (5 psi [34 kPa] + 0.01% of reading)
Flowline temperature: 3.6 degF [2 degC]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with SlimXtreme platform and most openhole tools
Special applications High-temperature operations, slim wellbores

Mechanical Specifications
Temperature rating 450 degF [232 degC] for 14 h
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [12.07 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 14.5 in [36.83 cm]
Outside diameter Tool: 3.75 in [9.53 cm]
Tool with bumpers or probe section without bumpers: 4.0625 in [10.32 cm]
Length 30.2 ft [9.2 m]
Weight 730 lbm [310 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 22,000 lbf [97,860 N]
For operations > 400 degF [204 degC], contact your Schlumberger representative for information on required operating procedures.

Formation Testing and Sampling 167

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PressureXpress
Reservoir Pressure While Logging Service
PressureXpress reservoir pressure PressureXpress Advisor pretest
while logging service collects pressure quality indicator analyzes real-time
and fluid mobility measurements dur- data from the Platform Express
ing the first logging run, bringing new integrated wireline logging tool to
efficiency to formation pressure test- select candidate zones for successful
ing. This streamlined service signifi- reservoir pressure and fluid mobil-
cantly reduces both the time and risk ity testing. For pressure and gradi-
of employing conventional multifunc- ent analysis, interpretation can be
tion pressure testers that perform pre- performed with InSitu Pro real-time
tests by taking formation fluid samples. quality control and interpretation
The dynamically controlled pres- software. A concise wellsite report
sure-pretest system integrated in is generated, along with an optional
PressureXpress service enables pre- display of other log data.
cise control of volume and drawdown
rates over a wide mobility range, which
makes pressure testing possible in Applications
many formations where conventional Formation pressure and mobility
technology cannot function. For low- measurements on the first run
permeability rock, the standard probe Determination of reservoir fluid
can be replaced with one of several density, contacts, and gradients
optional probes with effective inlet Mobility and permeability
areas up to 7.5 in2 [48.4 cm2]. A pres- measurement to aid the selection
sure drawdown limit can also be set. of sampling points
The pretest assembly is not linked to
Identification of depleted zones,
the hydraulic anchoring system and is
therefore not susceptible to leaks, tool thief zones, and zones to avoid
movement, or other hydraulic affects during fracture stimulation
on testing. Multiple pretests can be operations
performed at a given depth to verify
the accuracy of a pressure measure-
ment without having to cycle the tool.
Pretests performed at multiple depths
are used to produce a pressure profile,
which can be converted directly to the
density of the formations continuous
fluid phase.

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Measurement Specifications
PressureXpress Service
Output Formation pressure, fluid mobility (permeability/viscosity), fluid density
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Max. measured overbalance:
XPT-B: 6,500 psi [44.8 MPa]
XPT-C: 8,000 psi [55 MPa]
Resolution Sapphire gauge: 0.04 psi [276 Pa]
CQG gauge: 0.005 psi [34 Pa] at 1-s gate time
Quartzdyne gauge: 0.01 psi/s [69 Pa/s]
Temperature: 0.01 degF [0.005 degC]
Accuracy Sapphire gauge: 5 psi [34 kPa]
CQG gauge: (2 psi [14 kPa] + 0.01% of reading)
Quartzdyne gauge: (0.02% of full scale + 0.01% of reading)
Temperature: 1.0 degF [0.5 degC]
Depth of investigation Probe extension beyond packer surface: 0.45 in [1.14 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with Platform Express tool
Special applications

Mechanical Specifications
XPT-B XPT-C
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 320 degF [160 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
With CQG gauge: 15,000 psi [103 MPa] With CQG gauge: 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4.75 in [12.07 cm] 4.75 in [12.07 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 14.5 in [36.83 cm] 14.5 in [36.83 cm]
Outside diameter Tool: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] Tool: 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Probe section:3.875 in [9.84 cm] Probe section:3.875 in [9.84 cm]
Length 21.31 ft [6.49 m] 21.54 ft [6.57 m]
Weight 450 lbm [204 kg] 451 lbm [205 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N] 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 22,000 lbf [97,860 N] 22,000 lbf [97,860 N]

Formation Testing and Sampling 169

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SRFT
Slimhole Repeat Formation Tester
The SRFT* slimhole repeat for- Sample chambers are available in
mation testerwith a 3.375-in two sizes: 450 cm3 [0.12 galUS] and
[8.57cm]ODbrings wireline forma- 238 galUS [9 L]. An optional water
tion tester services to small-diameter cushion is used to reduce the shock
boreholes. It can also be run in wells resulting from pressure drawdown
where conventional tools cannot oper- when a sample chamber is opened
ate because of abrupt changes in angle, for sampling.
swelling formations, hole restrictions,
and other drilling problems.
The SRFT tester can be repeatedly Applications
set and retracted during a single trip Formation pressure measure-
in the well. The CQG crystal quartz ment in slim holes, short-radius
gauge is used to provide quick, accu- horizontal wells, and unstable
rate pressure measurements. One seg- orrestricted wells
regated sample can be recovered in a Fluid sampling in slim holes,
sample bottle that is DOT approved short-radius horizontal wells,
for transport. Alternatively, two fluid andunstable or restricted wells
samples can be recovered from two
different depths.

Measurement Specifications
SRFT Tester
Output Pressure measurement, fluid samples
Logging speed Stationary measurements
Range of measurement 0 to 20,000 psi [0 to 138 MPa] at up to
350 degF [177 degC]
Accuracy CQG gauge:
Accuracy: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading)
Resolution: 0.02 psi [138 Pa] at 1-s gate time
Strain gauge: 5,000-, 10,000-, and 20,000-psi
[34-, 69-, and 138-MPa] ranges
Accuracy: 0.1% of full scale
Resolution: 0.001% of full scale
Special applications Slim or restricted holes

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Mechanical Specifications
SRFT Tester
Standard Probe and Piston Telescoping Pistons (SRTP) Large-Hole Kit (SRLH)
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4.125 in [10.48 cm] 4.8 in [12.19 cm] 6.5 in [16.51 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 6.3 in [16.00 cm] 7.8 in [19.81 cm] 9.8 in [24.89 cm]
Outside diameter Fully retracted: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] Fully retracted: 3.375 in [8.57 cm] Fully retracted: 4.5 in [11.43 cm]
Fully extended: 6.5 in [16.51 cm] Fully extended: 8.0 in [20.32 cm] Fully extended: 10.0 in [25.40 cm]
Length 22.23 ft [6.77 m] 22.23 ft [6.77 m] 22.23 ft [6.77 m]
Weight 455 lbm [206 kg] 455 lbm [206 kg] 455 lbm [206 kg]
Tension 35,000 lbf [155,690 N] 35,000 lbf [155,690 N] 35,000 lbf [155,690 N]
Compression 3,900 lbf [17,350 N] 3,900 lbf [17,350 N] 3,900 lbf [17,350 N]
Minimum borehole size is dependent on the borehole conditions and whether the SRFT tester is run on cable or pipe.
If an SRFT tester with telescoping pistons is set in a hole smaller than recommended, the larger section of the telescoping pistons will touch the borehole. Standoffs should be used in this case.

Sample Chamber Specifications


SRSU-AA with MPSR-BA SRSC-AA Water Cushion (SRSW-AA)
Capacity 450 cm3 [0.12 galUS] 2.375 galUS [9.0 L] 2.375 galUS [9.0 L]
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Length 4.45 ft [1.36 m] 9.31 ft [2.84 m] 9.11 ft [2.78 m]
Weight 106 lbm [48 kg] 97 lbm [44 kg] 91 lbm [41 kg]
Special applications DOT-approved MPSR HS service HS service
HS service Optional water cushion for SRSC-AA
PVT samples
The SRSU is only the carrier and also provides water cushion for the MPSR.
Rated to 20,000 psi [138 MPa] for both internal and external pressure.
The SRSW filled with water weighs 111 lbm [50 kg].

Formation Testing and Sampling 171

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CHDT
Cased Hole Dynamics Tester
The technologically advanced CHDT sampling, enhanced fluid identification,
cased hole dynamics tester, a compo- and contamination monitoring, which
nent of the ABC analysis behind cas- were previously possible only for
ing services suite of services, makes openhole applications. In combination
multiple pressure measurements and with the other through-casing
collects fluid samples from behind formation evaluation tools in the ABC
a cased wellbore. Developed with services suiteCHFR-Plus cased hole
support from the Gas Technology formation resistivity tool, RSTPro reser
Institute (GTI), the CHDT tester has voir saturation tool, CHFD cased hole
the unique ability to drill through a formation density service, CHFP cased
cased borehole and into the forma- hole formation porosity service, Sonic
tion, acquire multiple pressure mea- Scanner acoustic scanning platform,
surements, recover high-quality fluid and DSI dipole shear sonic imagerthe
samples, and then plug the hole made CHDT tester delivers comprehensive
in the casing to restore pressure integ- reservoir analysis behind casing.
rityin a single trip. The restoration
of pressure integrity saves the costs
associated with conventional plug-set- Applications
ting runs, cement-squeeze operations, Evaluation of old wells for bypassed
pressure tests, and scraper runs as hydrocarbons
well as the rig costs associated with Development of critical economic
these operations. data for well evaluation
The tool seals against the casing Reduced risk alternative to open-
and uses a flexible drill shaft to hole formation testing under
penetrate both the casing and cement difficult conditions
and into the formation. As the drill
Pressure monitoring during water,
penetrates the target, the integrated
instrument package simultaneously steam, and CO2 injection
monitors pressure, fluid resistivity, and Identification of collector zones

drilling parameters. This additional in gas storage wells


information about the casing/cement/ Stress testing and leakoff
formation interfaces enables real-time evaluation in cased holes
quality control of the operation. Production and injection through
The CHDT tester is combinable known-diameter drillholes
with MDT tester modules in 658in
[16.83cm] and larger casing. The
module combinations are used to
perform high-quality single-phase

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Measurement Specifications
CHDT Tester
Output Behind-casing pressure measurement, PVT and conventional fluid samples, fluid mobility
Logging speed Stationary
Accuracy CQG gauge: (2 psi [13,789 Pa] + 0.01% of reading) (accuracy),
0.008 psi [55 Pa] at 1.3-s gate time (resolution)
Depth of drillhole 6 in [152 mm] (max. from casing)
Drillhole diameter 0.281 in [7.137 mm]
Pretest volume 6.1 in3 [100 cm3]
Limitations Max. casing thickness: 0.625 in [1.59 cm] in 13-in casing
Combinability MDT tester modules, another CHDT tester, most other tools
Special applications Up to six holes drilled and plugged per run
HS service
Fluid identification (resistivity and LFA live fluid analyzer)
Combinable with MDT tester modules in 6-in [16.83-cm] and larger casing
Formation and casing dependent

Mechanical Specifications
CHDT Tester
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Max. underbalance: 4,000 psi [27 MPa]
Plug rating: 10,000 psi [69 MPa] (bidirectional)
Casing sizemin. 5 in [13.97 cm]
Casing sizemax. 9 in [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter 4.25 in [10.79 cm]
Length Pressure measurement only: 34.1 ft [10.4 m]
Optional sample chamber: 9.7 ft [2.96 m]
Weight Depends on configuration
Tension Depends on configuration
Compression Depends on configuration

Formation Testing and Sampling 173

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XL-Rock
Large-Volume Rotary Sidewall Coring Service
XL-Rock* large-volume rotary sidewall the optimal settings for every core point.
coring service closes the gap between Powered by an in-house hydraulic motor,
core plugs from continuous conven- XL-Rock service efficiently recovers
tional core and wireline-conveyed high-quality cores across a wide variety
rotary sidewall cores by retrieving of lithologies, from hard, brittle igneous
up to fifty 1.5-in-OD by 2.5- to 3.5-in- rocks to friable sandstones, carbonates,
long sidewall core samples in a single and shale plays.
descent. These large-volume core sam- Operational risk is greatly reduced
ples deliver a rock volume equivalent for XL-Rock service. Not only is it the
to or larger than that of conventional shortest rotary sidewall coring tool
core plugs. The industrys standard in the market today, at only 37 ft in
sample size is matched or exceeded length, but the shaft attached to the
for routine (RCAL) and most special core bit has a special built-in safety
core analysis (SCAL) measurements feature to enable controlled release of
with delivery in less time and at lower the core bit if the bit becomes stuck
cost than conventional coring. At more in the formation. Compatibility with
than 3 times the rock volume of stan- the ECRD also greatly increases the
dard 0.92-in-diameter sidewall cores, amount of pull allowed on the wireline
XL-Rock sidewall core samples recover cable, further reducing the chance of
a sufficient volume of rock to extract a stuck tool.
three triaxial minicores for full analy-
sis of completion quality, which previ-
ously required conventional coring. In Applications
addition, XL-Rock service provides the Geomechanics
flexibility to core multiple intervals in Relative permeability
the same descent, which is not possible Mineralogy: X-ray diffraction,
with conventional coring. scanning electron microscopy,
Ruggedized electronics provide isotopes
additional capabilities in retrieving
Petrographic description
the larger rock samples. Compatibility
with the latest Schlumberger telemetry Source rock and oil

systems accesses features such as the characterization


GPIT general purpose inclinometry tool Log calibration: grain density,
and standard electronically controlled resistivity m and n exponents,
release device (ECRD) that were nuclear magnetic resonance
previously reserved for sophisticated (NMR) T2 cutoff, mineralogy
logging toolstrings. The ability to record andtotalorganic carbon (TOC),
gamma ray measurements in the and mechanical properties to
background both saves time otherwise acoustic logs
spent on correlation and improves the Grain-size analysis
depth accuracy of every core. Physical
Reservoir storage capacity
drilling parameters, such as weight
on bit, are under real-time control to Reservoir flow capacity

ensure that XL-Rock service is coring at Capillary pressure characteristics

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Measurement Specifications
XL-Rock Service
Output Sidewall core samples
Logging speed Stationary
Avg. coring time: 38 min per sidewall core
Range of measurement Sidewall core size:
1.5-in [3.81-cm] diameter 2.5-in [6.35-cm] long (50 per descent)
1.5-in diameter 3.0-in [7.62-cm] long (50 per descent)
1.5-in diameter 3.5-in [8.89-cm] long (44 per descent)
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications Conveyance on wireline, drillpipe with the TLC tough logging conditions system, and coiled tubing
Lithology dependent

Mechanical Specifications
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating Standard: 25,000 psi [173 MPa]
High pressure: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 7.5 in [19.05 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 19 in [49.53 cm]
Outside diameter 6.5 in [16.51 cm]
Length 36.5 ft [11.2 m]
Weight (in air) 970 lbm [440 kg]
Tension 22,900 lbf [101,860 N]
Compression 12,500 lbf [55,600 N]
Can be run at 400 degF [204 degC] with a Dewar flask
At the coring bit assembly

Formation Testing and Sampling 175

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MSCT
Mechanical Sidewall Coring Tool
The standard configuration of the rotary Applications
MSCT mechanical sidewall coring tool Lithology analysis
recovers 50 core samples. Optional
Secondary porosity analysis
configurations for recovering 75 core
or 20 core-catcher (dictated by core- Porosity and permeability

catcher capacity) samples are available. determination


Each sample is isolated for positive Confirmation of hydrocarbon shows
identification, and a summary output at Determination of clay content
surface lists all samples with the exact
Determination of grain density
depth and time that each was taken.
The real-time display at the logging Lithology determination

unit confirms proper tool operation Detection of fracture occurrence


and sample acquisition. The MSCT
tool is run in combination with a
gamma ray tool to correlate with
openhole logs for accurate, real-time
depth control of the coring points.

Measurement Specifications
MSCT Tool
Output Sidewall core samples
Logging speed Stationary
Coring time (avg.): 3 to 5 min per core
Range of measurement Core size: 2 in [50.8 mm] long 0.92 in
[23.4 mm] diameter
Depth of core sample Core length: 1.5 or 1.75 in [38.1 or 44.4 mm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Special applications
The MCFU-AA is used for 50 cores per descent and the MCCU is used for 20 cores per descent.

Mechanical Specifications
MSCT Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating Standard: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
High pressure: 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.87 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 19 in [48.26 cm]
Outside diameter 5.375 in [13.65 cm]
Length 31.29 ft [9.54 m]
Weight 750 lbm [340 kg]
Tension 22,900 lbf [101,860 N]
Compression 12,500 lbf [55,600 N]
The MSCT-A can be run at 400 degF [204 degC] with a Dewar flask (UDFH-KF).
Successful jobs have also been performed at 425 degF [218 degC].
With the standoffs removed, the MSCT tool can be stripped down to 5 in [12.70 cm] and run in 5-in [14.92-cm] holes.
The sonde weighs 580 lbm [263 kg].

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CST
Chronological Sample Taker
The CST* chronological sample taker The guns vary in the number of bul-
can collect up to 90 core samples in lets per gun. Bullet designs are avail-
one trip using a series of core recovery able for optimal core recovery in various
bullets. This percussion-type gun is ranges of formation consolidation. The
accurately depth positioned by using recovered samples are usually large
an SP or gamma ray log. A surface- enough for conducting core analysis.
controlled, electrically ignited powder
charge fires a hollow cylindrical bul-
let into the formation at each sample Applications
depth. Each bullet is attached by two Porosity measurement
retaining wires to the gun; these are Permeability estimate
used to retrieve the bullet and core. Lithology identification
The wires have a breaking strength of
Grain size, density, and shape
approximately 1,800 lbf [8,000 N] to
release the gun from the core bullet, indication
which prevents a stuck core resulting Hydrocarbon identification

in a stuck CST sample taker. Oil, gas, and water volume estimates

Measurement Specifications
CST Sample Taker
Output Sidewall cores
Logging speed Stationary
Mud type or weight limitations Hydrostatic pressure and formation characteristics determine
charge selection
Combinability Usually run with PGGT* powered gun gamma tool for correlation
Up to 3 guns can be used to collect a maximum of 90 core samples
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
CST Sample Taker
Temperature rating Explosive charges: 280 degF [138 degC]
for 1 h or 450 degF
[232 degC] for 1 h
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [10.48 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 25 in [63.50 cm]
Outside diameter 3.375 to 5.25 in [8.57 to 13.33 cm]
Length 6.83 to 17.08 ft [2.08 to 5.21 m]
Weight 125 to 406 lbm [57 to 184 kg]
Tension 50,000 lbf [222,410 N]
Compression 23,000 lbf [102,310 N]
Depends on the gun, see CST Sample Taker Specifications

Formation Testing and Sampling 177

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CST Sample Taker Specifications
CST-AA CST-BA CST-C CST-DA CST-G CST-G60N CST-G60P CST-G60Y
Core samples 30 30 30 30 30 60 60 60
Temperature rating 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 280 degF [138 degC] 280 degF [138 degC] 280 degF [138 degC] 280 degF [138 degC] 280 degF [138 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 8 in [21.59 cm] 8 in [21.59 cm] 8 in [21.59 cm] 8 in [21.59 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 6in [15.55 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 25 in [63.50 cm] 25 in [63.50 cm] 25 in [63.50 cm] 25 in [63.50 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm]
Outside diameter 5.25 in [13.33 cm] 4.5 in [11.43 cm] 5.25 in [13.33 cm] 4.5 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4 in [10.16 cm] 4.375 in [11.11 cm]
Length 9.08 ft [2.77 m] 7.92 ft [2.41 m] 7.86 ft [2.39 m] 11.42 ft [3.48 m] 9.50 ft [2.89 m] 17.08 ft [5.21 m] 17.08 ft [5.21 m] 16.71 ft [5.09 m]
Weight 262 lbm [119 kg] 229 lbm [104 kg] 200 lbm [91 kg] 326 lbm [148 kg] 175 lbm [79 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg] 308 lbm [140 kg]

CST Sample Taker Specifications


CST-GY CST-J CST-U CST-V CST-W CST-Y CST-Z
Core samples 30 25 24 21 12 21 30
Temperature rating 280 degF [138 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC] 450 degF [232 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 6 in [15.56 cm] 4 in [10.46 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 4 in [12.07 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 8 in [21.59 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12 in [31.75 cm] 10 in [25.40 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 12 in [31.75 cm] 25 in [63.50 cm]
Outside diameter 4.375 in [11.11 cm] 3.375 in [8.57 cm] 4.375 in [11.11 cm] 4.375 in [11.11 cm] 4.375 in [11.11 cm] 4.375 in [11.11 cm] 5.25 in [13.33 cm]
Length 9.50 ft [2.89 m] 12.92 ft [3.93 m] 6.83 ft [2.08 m] 7.60 ft [2.32 m] 8.08 ft [2.46 m] 7.60 ft [2.32 m] 11.42 ft [3.48 m]
Weight 175 lbm [79 kg] 187 lbm [85 kg] 125 lbm [57 kg] 168 lbm [76 kg] 148 lbm [67 kg] 168 lbm [76 kg] 406 lbm [184 kg]

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Well Integrity
Evaluation

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Isolation Scanner
Cement Evaluation Service
Isolation Scanner cement evaluation (SLG). Thirdinterface reflection
service combines classic pulse-echo echoes arising from the annulus/
technology with a new ultrasonic formation interface yield additional
techniqueflexural wave imaging characterization of the cased hole
to accurately evaluate any type of environment:
cement, from traditional slurries and acoustic velocity (P or S) of the
heavy cements to the latest light- annulus material
weight cements. This innovative position of the casing within the
method provides real-time informa-
borehole or a second casing string
tion on cement jobs in a wider range
geometrical shape of the wellbore.
of conditions than previously possible
with conventional technologies. Vertical sampling is selectable to
In addition to confirming the as low as 0.6 in [1.52 cm], and the
effectiveness of a cement job for zonal azimuthal resolution has a maximum
isolation, Isolation Scanner service of 10. Because acoustic impedance
pinpoints any channels in the cement. and flexural attenuation are indepen-
The tools azimuthal and radial coverage dent measurements, their combined
readily differentiates low-density solids analysis provides borehole fluid prop-
from liquids to distinguish lightweight erties, not requiring a separate fluid-
cements from contaminated cement property measurement.
and liquids. The service also provides
detailed images of casing centralization
and identifies corrosion or drilling- Applications
induced wear through measurement Differentiate high-performance
of the inside diameter and thickness of lightweight cements from liquids
the casing. Map annulus material as SLG
Flexural wave imaging is used
Assess hydraulic isolation
by Isolation Scanner service as a
significant complement to pulse-echo Image channels and defects

acoustic impedance measurement. in annular isolating material


It relies on the pulsed excitation Visualize position of casing
and propagation of a casing flexural in the borehole
mode, which leaks deep-penetrating Assess annulus beyond casing/
acoustic bulk waves into the annulus. cement interface
Attenuation of the first casing
Determine casing internal
arrival, estimated at two receivers,
is used to unambiguously determine diameter and thickness
the state of the material coupled Determine depth for sidetracking

to the casing as solid, liquid, or gas and casing milling

Wireline Services Catalog Well Integrity Evaluation 181

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Measurement Specifications
Isolation Scanner Service
Output Solid-liquid-gas map of annulus material, hydraulic communication map, acoustic impedence,
flexural attenuation, rugosity image, casing thickness image, internal radius image
Logging speed Standard resolution (6 in, 10 sampling): 2,700 ft/h [823 m/h]
High resolution (0.6 in, 5 sampling): 563 ft/h [172 m/h]
Range of measurement Min. casing thickness: 0.15 in [0.38 cm]
Max. casing thickness: 0.79 in [2.01 cm]
Vertical resolution High resolution: 0.6 in [1.52 cm]
High speed: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Acoustic impedance: 0 to 10 Mrayl (range); 0.2 Mrayl (resolution);
0 to 3.3 Mrayl = 0.5 Mrayl, >3.3 Mrayl = 15% (accuracy)
Flexural attenuation: 0 to 2 dB/cm (range), 0.05 dB/cm (resolution), 0.01 dB/cm (accuracy)
Depth of investigation Casing and annulus up to 3 in [7.62 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations Conditions simulated before logging
Combinability Bottom only, combinable with most wireline tools
Telemetry: fast transfer bus (FTB) or enhanced FTB (EFTB)
Special applications HS service
Investigation of annulus width depends on the presence of third-interface echoes. Analysis and processing beyond cement evaluation can yield additional answers through additional outputs,
including the Variable Density log of the annulus waveform and polar movies in AVI format.
8-mm calibration target
Differentiation of materials by acoustic impedance alone requires a minimum gap of 0.5 Mrayl between the fluid behind the casing and a solid.
For 0.3-in [8-mm] casing thickness
Max. mud weight depends on the mud formulation, sub used, and casing size and weight, which are simulated before logging.

Mechanical Specifications
Isolation Scanner Service
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 4 in (min. pass-through restriction: 4 in [10.16 cm])
Casing sizemax. 13 in
Outside diameter IBCS-A: 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
IBCS-B: 4.472 in [11.36 cm]
IBCS-C: 6.657 in [16.91 cm]
IBCS-D: 8.736 in [22.19 cm]
Length Without sub: 19.73 ft [6.01 m]
IBCS-A sub: 2.01 ft [0.61 m]
IBCS-B sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 m]
IBCS-C sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 m]
IBCS-D sub: 1.98 ft [0.60 m]
Weight Without sub: 333 lbm [151 kg]
IBCS-A sub: 16.75 lbm [7.59 kg]
IBCS-B sub: 20.64 lbm [9.36 kg]
IBCS-C sub: 23.66 lbm [10.73 kg]
IBCS-D sub: 24.55 lbm [11.13 kg]
Sub max. tension 2,250 lbf [10,000 N]
Sub max. compression 12,250 lbf [50,000 N]
Limits for casing size depend on the sub used. Data can be acquired in casing larger than 9 in with low-attenuation mud (e.g., water, brine).

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Cement Bond Logging Tools

Cement bond tools measure the bond The QSLT can also make a short-
between the casing and the cement spacing (1-ft [0.30-m]) CBL measure-
placed in the annulus between the ment for cement evaluation in fast
casing and the wellbore. The mea- formations. The two transmitters and
surement is made by using acoustic six receivers of the QSLT sonde have
sonic and ultrasonic tools. In the case transmitterreceiver spacings of 1,
of sonic tools, the measurement is 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, and 5 ft [0.30, 0.91, 1.07,
usually displayed on a cement bond 1.22, 1.37, and 1.52 m] to compute the
log (CBL) in millivolt units, decibel following:
attenuation, or both. Reduction of the standard 3-ft CBL and 5-ft VDL
reading in millivolts or increase of the measurements
decibel attenuation is an indication of borehole-compensated (BHC)
better-quality bonding of the cement
attenuation from the 3.5- and
behind the casing to the casing wall.
4.5-ft-spacing receivers
Factors that affect the quality of the
near-pseudoattenuation from the
cement bonding are
cement job design and execution
3-ft-spacing receivers
short-spacing attenuation from the
as well as effective mud removal
compressive strength of the
1-ft-spacing receiver for cement
bond measurement in fast forma-
cement in place
tions that may affect the standard
temperature and pressure
3-ft spacing.
changes applied to the casing
after cementing
epoxy resin applied to the outer Cement bond log from
wall of the casing. Digital Sonic Logging Tool
The Digital Sonic Logging Tool (DSLT)
uses the Sonic Logging Sonde (SLS)
SlimXtreme Sonic to measure the cement bond ampli-
LoggingTool tude and provide a VDL display for
The SlimXtreme Sonic Logging Tool evaluation of the cement bond qual-
(QSLT) is a digital sonic tool for ity of a cemented casing string. VDL
DSLT
evaluating the cement bond quality or x-y waveform display of the sonic
of cemented casing in high-pressure signal is presented in conjunction with
and high-temperature slim holes. The the bond index and amplitude signal. Memory Slim
QSLT provides conventional openhole The DSLT is also used in the open QSLT
CBL Tool
sonic measurements, standard CBL borehole environment for conventional SCMT
amplitude and Variable Density log sonic measurements of BHC (3- to 5-ft)
(VDL), and attenuation measure- transit time and long-spacing
ments, which are less affected by the depth-derived BHC (DDBHC) (9- to HSLT
borehole environmental conditions. 11-ft [2.74 to 3.35-m]) transit time.

Well Integrity Evaluation 183

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Cement bond log from the zone of interest for cement evalu- tool simultaneously records gamma ray,
ation. The SCMT is capable of running casing collar location, pressure, tem-
Hostile Environment through most tubings to evaluate the perature, and waveforms in a single pass,
Sonic Logging Tool casing below. In new wells the SCMT is with the waveforms fully digitized down-
The Hostile Environment Sonic an excellent tool for evaluating casing hole. More than 40 h of combined tool
Logging Tool (HSLT) provides the that is 758 in [19.36 cm] or less. running time is possible, including 16 h
same measurements of the cement The SCMT features a single trans- of continuous waveform recording time.
bond amplitude and Variable Density mitter, two receivers spaced at 3 and Depth-recording systems are available
log for evaluation of the cement bond 5 ft from the transmitter, and eight for both hazardous and nonhazardous
quality of a cemented casing string as segmented receivers 2 ft [0.61 m] from environments.
the QSLT in standard-diameter wells the transmitter. The output of the near The Memory Slim CBL Tool can be
at high pressure and high temperature. (3-ft) receiver is used for CBL and run with other PS Platform production
transit-time measurement. The out- logging tools for complete well and
put of the far (5-ft) receiver is used reservoir evaluation in one descent.
Slim Cement Mapping Tool for the VDL measurement. The eight The tools and sensors can be conveyed
segmented receivers generate a radial in the borehole by drillpipe, coiled tub-
The Slim Cement Mapping Tool image of the cement bond variation. ing, slickline, or unintelligent tractor.
(SCMT) is a through-tubing cement Software for the PS Platform platform
evaluation tool combinable with the is used to perform onsite data process-
PS Platform production logging platform
for a variety of well diagnostics. The
Memory Slim Cement Bond ing or any necessary postprocessing
Logging Tool and prepare the log presentation.
two sizes are 11116 in [4.29 cm] for the
standard (302 degF [150 degC]) tem- The Memory Slim Cement Bond
perature rating and 2116 in [5.24 cm] Logging Tool provides through-tubing Applications
with a 392 degF [200 degC] tempera- 3-ft CBL and 5-ft VDL measurements Evaluation of cement quality
ture rating. The SCMT is suitable for with the same accuracy and quality as Determination of zone isolation
running workover operations and in new surface-readout logs. Because of its slim
Location of cement top
wells. SCMT operations provide a clear size, the 11116-in tool can be run into
advantage in workover wells because the zone of interest without having to
there is no need to pull tubing above remove the tubing from the well. The

Measurement Specifications
QSLT DSLT HSLT SCMT-C and SCMT-H Memory Slim CBL Tool
Output 3-ft [0.91-m] CBL and attenuation, 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL, 5-ft [1.52-m] 3-ft [0.91-m] amplitude CBL, 5-ft [1.52-m] 3-ft [0.91-m] CBL, 5-ft [1.52-m]
1-ft [0.30-m] attenuation, 5-ft [1.52-m] With SLS-C and SLS-D: 5-ft [1.52-m] Variable Density log Variable Density log, cement bond variation map Variable Density log, gamma ray, CCL,
Variable Density log Variable Density log traveltime, cement compressive strength

Logging speed 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h] 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]

Vertical resolution Near attenuation: 1 ft [0.30 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m]
CBL: 3 ft [0.91 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m]
VDL: 5 ft [1.52 m] Cement bond variation map: 2 ft [0.61 m]

Depth of investigation CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface CBL: Casing and cement interface
VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation VDL: Depends on bonding and formation

Mud type or weight limitations None None None None None

Combinability Part of SlimXtreme platform Combinable with most tools Part of Xtreme platform, Combinable with PS Platform platform Combinable with PS Platform platform
combinable with most tools

Special applications Logging through drillpipe, tubing, Logging through drillpipe, tubing, Logging through drillpipe, tubing,
and in small casing and in small casing and in small casing
Fast formations Fast formations

Mechanical Specifications
QSLT DSLT HSLT SCMT-C and SCMT-H Memory Slim CBL Tool
Temperature rating 500 degF [260 degC] 302 degF [150 degC] 500 degF [260 degC] SCMT-C: 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
SCMT-H: 392 degF [200 degC]

Pressure rating 30,000 psi [207 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 25,000 psi [172 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]

Casing sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] 5 in [13.97 cm] SCMT-C: 2 in [6.03 cm] 2 in [7.30 cm]
SCMT-H: 2 in [7.30 cm]

Casing sizemax. 8 in [21.91 cm] 13 in [33.97 cm] 13 in [33.97 cm] 7 in [19.37 cm] 7 in [19.37 cm]

Outside diameter 3 in [7.62 cm] 3.625 in [9.21 cm] 3.875 in [9.84 cm] SCMT-C: 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
SCMT-H: 2.06 in [5.23 cm]

Length Without inline centralizer: 23 ft [7 m] With SLS-E: 20.63 ft [6.29 m] 25.5 ft [7.77 m] SCMT-C: 23.45 ft [7.14 m] 23.45 ft [7.15 m]
With inline centralizer: 29.9 ft [9.11 m] With SLS-F: 23.81 ft [7.26 m] SCMT-H: 28.85 ft [8.79 m]

Weight 270 lbm [122 kg] With SLS-E: 313 lbm [142 kg] 440 lbm [199 kg] SCMT-C: 100 lbm [45 kg] 100.2 lbm [45.4 kg]
With SLS-F: 353 lbm [160 kg] SCMT-H: 162 lbm [73 kg]

Tension 13,000 lbf [57,830 N] 29,700 lbf [132,110 N] 20,000 lbf [88,960 N] 5,900 lbf [26,240 N] 5,900 lbf [26,240 N]

Compression 4,400 lbf [19,570 N] 2,870 lbf [12,270 N] 6,000 lbf [26,690 N] 150 lbf [670 N] 150 lbf [670 N]
In air

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USI ultrasonic imager Applications
The USI ultrasonic imager uses a single Cement evaluation
transducer mounted on an Ultrasonic Casing inspection
Rotating Sub (USRS) on the bottom Corrosion detection and
of the tool. The transmitter emits monitoring
ultrasonic pulses between 200 and
700 kHz and measures the received Detection of internal and
ultrasonic waveforms reflected from external damage or deformation
the internal and external casing Casing thickness analysis for
interfaces. The rate of decay of the collapse and burst pressure
waveforms received indicates the calculations
quality of the cement bond at the
cement/casing interface, and the
resonant frequency of the casing
provides the casing wall thickness
required for pipe inspection. Because
the transducer is mounted on the
rotating sub, the entire circumference
of the casing is scanned. This 360
data coverage enables evaluation of
the quality of the cement bond as well
as determination of the internal and
external casing condition. The very
high angular and vertical resolutions
can detect channels as narrow
as 1.2 in [3.05 cm]. Cement bond,
thickness, internal and external
radii, and self-explanatory maps are
generated in real time at the wellsite.

Well Integrity Evaluation 185

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Measurement Specifications
USI Imager
Output Acoustic impedance, cement bonding to casing, internal radius, casing thickness
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement Acoustic impedance: 0 to 10 Mrayl [0 to 10 MPa.s/m]
Vertical resolution Standard: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Accuracy Less than 3.3 Mrayl: 0.5 Mrayl
Depth of investigation Casing-to-cement interface
Mud type or weight limitations Water-base mud: Up to 15.9 lbm/galUS
Oil-base mud: Up to 11.2 lbm/galUS
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications Identification and orientation of narrow channels
8-mm calibration target
Exact value depends on the type of mud system and casing size.

Mechanical Specifications
USI Imager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 20 in [50.80 cm]
Outside diameter 3.375 in [8.57 cm]
Length 19.75 ft [6.02 m]
Weight 333 lbm [151 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 4,000 lbf [17,790 N]
Excluding the rotating sub

USI Imager Rotating Sub Mechanical Specifications


USRS-AB USRS-A USRS-B USRS-C USRS-D USRS-E USRS-F
Outside diameter 3.41 in 3.58 in 4.625 in 6.625 in 8.625 in 9.39 in 11.40 in
[8.66 cm] [9.09 cm] [11.75 cm] [16.83 cm] [21.91 cm] [23.85 cm] [28.96 cm]
Length 9.8 in 9.92 in 9.8 in 8.3 in 8.3 in 9.06 in 9.06 in
[24.89 cm] [25.20 cm] [24.89 cm] [21.08 cm] [21.08 cm] [23.01 cm] [23.01 cm]
Weight 7.7 lbm 7.7 lbm 10.6 lbm 15.0 lbm 18.3 lbm 17.64 lbm 20.06 lbm
[3.5 kg] [3.5 kg] [4.8 Kg] [6.8 kg] [8.3 kg] [8.0 kg] [9.1 kg]
Logging in 20-in casing can be acquired with low-attenuation muds (e.g., water, brine).

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EM Pipe Scanner
Electromagnetic Casing Inspection Tool
The EM Pipe Scanner electromagnetic With a slim 2.125-in [5.4-cm] diam-
casing inspection tool uses noninva- eter, the EM Pipe Scanner tool easily
sive electromagnetic measurements to passes through tubing to evaluate cas-
evaluate the integrity of well casings by ing below the tubing shoe and quantify
locating, identifying, and quantifying metal loss in percentage and aver-
damage and corrosion. age ID of casing ranging from 278- to
Even while running in hole, the 1338-in OD. The tools pad sensors azi-
EM Pipe Scanner tool delivers valu- muthally image casing up to 958-in OD.
able monitoring data, recording a con- The tool is fluid insensitive, operating
tinuous log of the average casing inner in liquid or gas environments.
diameter and total metal thickness
in single or double casing strings at
speeds up to 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]. Applications
This information is used to plan the Quantitative evaluation of corrosion
acquisition mode of the upward pass. damage in single casing strings
For logging in single casing strings, Qualitative evaluation in multiple
the EM Pipe Scanner tool can be run casing strings
in two modes: casing inspection mode Corrosion rate estimates from time-
at 1,800 ft/h [548 m/h] to identify any lapse comparison
potential corrosion issues and then, as
Identification of casing corrosion
required, a slower diagnostic pass to
pinpoint the exact severity and nature behind tubing
of the corrosion. In both modes a low- Casing inspection below tubing

frequency image and high-frequency string


image are produced. A detailed cas- Determination of inner radius
ing summary report (CSR) is output behind scale
for single-string casing surveys, listing
average metal loss, maximum penetra-
tion, and histograms of the data joint
by joint.
The EM Pipe Scanner tool also pro-
vides measurements to evaluate and
identify corrosion in two concentric
completion strings such as casing and
tubing. The coil section of the tool
determines the total-metal electro-
magnetic thickness of both strings
combined but does not resolve the
thickness of each string individually.
Combined interpretation of the low-
frequency thickness image and the
high-frequency discrimination image
enables determination of whether an
observed metal loss is from the inner
tubing wall or elsewhere.

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Measurement Specifications
EM Pipe Scanner Tool
Output Electromagnetic thickness, casing ID, casing properties, high-
andlow-frequency images, corrosion summary report
Logging speed Electromagnetic computed thickness (ETHK) (single and double
strings): 3,600-ft/h [1,097-m/h] inspection pass for mandrel data
Imaging (single string):
1,800-ft/h [549-m/h] standardresolution inspection pass
300-ft/h [91-m/h] highresolution diagnostic pass
Range of measurement Maximum metal thickness: 1.5 in [3.81 cm] at 8.75 Hz
Resolution Attenuation < 60 dB: 1%
Electromagnetic thickness: 15%
Accuracy Casing ID: 0.5 in
Mud type or weight limitations Any borehole fluid
Combinability All PS Platform platform tools
Multiple-tool answer products
Special applications NACE compliant for HS and CO resistance
Corrosion report for single casing strings
Measurement depends on casing geometry, properties, and chrome content.
The resolution depends on the accuracy of casing electrical conductivity (sigma). The usual method is to use API specifications in a good
casing section and adjust conductivity to match the nominal value, which has a typical 12.5% range (Oil Country Tubular Goods, APISpec5CT,
Specificationfor Casing and Tubing)
Casing ID (dci) < 6 in and tool eccentered = [30% (dci 2.2 in)]

Mechanical Specifications
EM Pipe Scanner Tool
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 2 in (ID > 2.313 in)
Casing sizemax. 13 in for electromagnetic thickness
Outside diameter 2.125 in [5.4 cm]
Pad sensor arms 18 coupled
Max. diameter 9-in casing
100% image coverage 7-in casing
Length 19.7 ft [6.0 m]
Weight 110 lbm [50 kg]
Tension Fishing: 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression Fishing: 3,000 lbf [13,340 N]

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Corrosion Monitoring

UCI ultrasonic casing Applications


imager Casing integrity evaluation
The UCI* ultrasonic casing imager Identification, location, and

is an evolution of the USI ultrasonic quantification of casing corrosion


imager. The UCI imager provides all Estimated damage to casing
the answers required to locate, iden- caused by milling, fishing, or
tify, and quantify casing damage or plasticdeformation
corrosion. The design is specifically Internal and external metal loss
engineered for high-azimuthal-resolu-
Internal and external scale buildup
tion images and detailed examination
of both the inner and outer surfaces Location and identification of

of casing ranging from 4 to 1338 in perforated intervals


[11.43 to 33.97 cm], resulting in Identification of holes in casing
improved echo detection. Identification of casing profile
Full azimuthal coverage with a andweight changes
2-MHz focused ultrasonic transducer
Identification of centralizers
is used to analyze the reflections.
Signal arrivals are analyzed to provide andother casing anomalies
the casing thickness and surface con-
dition images, and even small defects
on both internal and external casing
surfaces are quantified. An improved
centralization system ensures
proper centralization even in hori-
zontal wells, and eccentering effects
are reduced through wellsite signal
correction.

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Measurement Specifications
UCI Imager
Output Amplitude image, casing thickness image, internal radius image,
fluid velocity
Logging speed 3,000 ft/h [914 m/h]
High resolution: 400 ft/h [122 m/h]
Range of measurement Min. casing thickness:
In water = 0.15 in [0.38 cm]
In attenuating fluids, including oil-base mud = 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
Vertical resolution High resolution: 0.2 in [0.51 cm]
High speed (3,000 ft/h]: 1.5 in [3.81 cm]
Accuracy Internal radius: 0.04 in [1 mm]
Casing thickness: 4%
Depth of investigation Thickness of casing
Mud type or weight limitations Oil-base mud: No solids
Water-base mud: Solids content < 5%
Combinability Bottom-only tool, combinable with most tools
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
UCI Imager
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Casing sizemin. 4 in [11.43 cm]
Casing sizemax. 13 in [33.97 cm]
Outside diameter USRS-AB: 3.41 in [8.66 cm]
USRS-A: 3.56 in [9.04 cm]
USRS-B: 4.65 in [11.81 cm]
USRS-C: 6.69 in [16.99 cm]
USRS-D: 8.66 in [22.00 cm]
Length Without sub: 19.73 ft [6.01 m]
Weight Without sub: 333 lbm [151 kg]
Tension 40,000 lbf [177,930 N]
Compression 4,000 lbf [17,790 N]
Minimum and maximum casing sizes depend on the sub used.

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PS Platform Multifinger
Imaging Tool
The PS Platform Multifinger Imaging
Tool (PMIT) is a multifinger caliper
tool that makes highly accurate radial
measurements of the inside diameter
of tubing and casing strings. The tool
is available in three sizes to address a
wide range of through-tubing and cas-
ing size applications.
The tool deploys an array of
hard-surfaced fingers, which accu-
rately monitor the inner pipe wall.
Eccentricity effects are minimized by
equal azimuthal spacing of the fingers
and a special processing algorithm.
The PMIT-B and PMIT-C tools incor-
porate powerful motorized centraliz-
ers to ensure effective centering force
even in highly deviated intervals. The
centralizers are equipped with rollers
to prevent casing and tubing damage.
The inclinometer in the tool provides
information on well deviation and tool
rotation. The PMIT-C tool can be fit-
ted with special extended fingers for
logging large-diameter casings. The
PMIT-A is similarly fitted with special
extended fingers for logging casing
through tubing. All versions of the
PMIT can be run in either real-time or
memory mode.

Applications
Identification and quantification
ofcorrosion damage
Identification of scale, wax,

andsolids accumulation
Monitoring of anticorrosion

systems
Location of mechanical damage

Evaluation of corrosion increase

through periodic logs PMIT-C


Determination of absolute inside

diameter PMIT-B
PMIT-A

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Measurement Specifications
PMIT-A PMIT-B PMIT-C
Output Internal casing image Internal casing image Internal casing image
from multiple internal from multiple internal from multiple internal
radius measurements radius measurements radius measurements
Logging speed, ft/h [m/h] Standard: 1,800 [549] Standard: 1,800 [549] Standard: 1,800 [549]
Max.: 6,000 [1,829] Max.: 6,000 [1,829] Max.: 6,000 [1,829]
Minimum measurable Standard or extended fingers: 2 [5.08] 3 [7.62] Standard fingers: 5 [12.7]
casing ID, in [cm] Extended fingers: 8 [20.32]
Maximum measurable Standard fingers: 4.5 [11.43] 7 [17.78] Standard fingers: 10 [25.4]
casing ID, in [cm] Extended fingers: 7 [17.78] Extended fingers: 13 [33.02]
Vertical resolution at 0.082 [2.1] 0.11 [2.8] 0.167 [4.24]
1,800 ft/h [529 m/h], in [mm]
Radial resolution, in [mm] Standard fingers: 0.004 [0.10] 0.005 [0.13] Standard fingers: 0.007 [0.18]
Extended fingers: 0.007 [0.18] Extended fingers: 0.009 [0.23]
Accuracy, in [mm] Standard fingers: 0.030 [0.76] 0.030 [0.76] Standard fingers: 0.030 [0.76]
Extended fingers: 0.042 [1.07] Extended fingers: 0.050 [1.3]
Relative bearing accuracy, 5 5 5
Deviation accuracy at up 5 5 5
to 70 deviation,
Depth of investigation Casing inside surface Casing inside surface Casing inside surface
Borehole fluid limitations None None None
Combinability Real time: combinable with all Real time: combinable with all Real time: combinable with all
PS Platform platform tools PS Platform platform tools PS Platform platform tools
Memory mode: stand alone Memory mode: stand alone Memory mode: stand alone
Bottom-only tool
Extra centralizers required for
casing larger than 9 in
Special applications HS service HS service HS service

Mechanical Specifications
PMIT-A PMIT-B PMIT-C
Temperature rating, degF [degC] 302 [150] 302 [150] PMIT-CA: 302 [150]
PMIT-CB: 350 [177]
Pressure rating, psi [MPa] 15,000 [103] 15,000 [103] PMIT-CA: 15,000 [103]
PMIT-CB: 20,000 [138]
Outside diameter, in [cm] Standard or extended fingers: 2.75 [6.99] Standard fingers: 4 [10.16]
1.6875 [4.29] Extended fingers: 5.5 [13.97]
Fingers 24 40 60
Fingertip radius, in [mm] 0.06 [1.5] 0.05 [1.27] 0.06 [1.52]
Finger width, in [mm] 0.063 [1.6] 0.063 [1.6] 0.063 [1.6]
Length, ft [m] 11.88 [3.62] (with centralizers) 8.86 [2.70] 10.34 [3.15]
Weight, lbm [kg] 56.5 [26] (with centralizers) 87.4 [40] 120 [54]
Tensile strength, lbf [N] 10,000 [44,480] 10,000 [44,480] 10,000 [44,480]
Compressive strength, N [lbf] 1,850 [8,230] 2,500 [11,120] 2,500 [11,120]

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Production
Logging
Services

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Flow Scanner
Horizontal and Deviated Well
Production Logging System
The Flow Scanner horizontal and Applications
deviated well production logging Multiphase flow profiling in
system deploys multiple minispin- nonvertical wells
ners and arrays of electrical and opti-
Identification of fluid and gas
cal probes across the vertical axis of
the wellbore, regardless of hole entry in multiphase wells and
deviation, to produce real-time mul- of liquid entry in gas wells
tiphase velocity and holdup profiles. Detection of fluid recirculation

Unlike conventional production log- Stand-alone, real-time, three-


ging tools, which are designed with phase flow interpretation
a central, single spinner for use in
vertical or nearly vertical wells, the
Flow Scanner system provides a
complete flow analysis of complex
downhole environments, including
highly deviated wells.
As the tool is run eccentralized,
against the wellbore wall, the
innovative electrical probes of the
Flow Scanner system distinguish water
and hydrocarbon holdups. The optical
probes differentiate gas from liquid
holdups to enable the three-phase
measurement. All measurements are
made simultaneously in the same
vertical depth interval. The holdup
profiles are combined with the
multiphase velocity profile calculated
from the measured phase velocities
to determine relative volumetric flow
rates in real time.

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Measurement Specifications
Flow Scanner System
Output Oil, gas, and water holdups; oil, gas,
and water velocities; relative bearing; caliper
Logging speed 1,800, 3,600, 5,400, and 7,200 ft/h
[549, 1,097, 1,646, and 2,195 m/h]
Range of measurement Borehole coverage: 95% in 6-in- [15.24-cm-] ID casing
Vertical resolution Not applicable
Accuracy Three-phase holdup: 10%
Velocity: 10%
Depth of investigation Within the wellbore
Mud type or weight limitations Min. salinity for electrical probe measurement:
1,000 ppm at 212 degF [100 degC]
Combinability Combinable with PS Platform platform
and most cased hole tools
Special applications HS service
In situ spinner calibration requires passes recorded at different logging speeds.

Mechanical Specifications
Flow Scanner System
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [7.30 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in [22.86 cm]
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
High-temperature (>302 degF [>150 degC]):
2.25 in [5.72 cm]
Length Flow Scanner system tool:
11.6 ft [3.54 m]
With basic measurement sonde, swivel, and head:
26.2 ft [7.99 m]
Weight 108 lbm [49 kg]
Max. tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Max. compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
Min. restriction is 1.813 in [4.61 cm].

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PS Platform
Production Services Platform
The integrated PS Platform produc- casing, tubing, or openhole diam-
tion services platform performs in eter with a resolution of 0.04 in
vertical, horizontal, or any angle of bore- [1.0 mm]. This level of sensitivity
hole deviation to provide three-phase enables the examination of corro-
flow profiles and production monitoring sion or defects such as splits or
or diagnostic information. Measurement separation in tubing and casing with
capability is in both real-time and one trip into the wellbore.
memory modes. Gradiomanometer specific gravity
Three-phase flow profiles and res- profile tool (PGMS) measures the
ervoir monitoring information are pro- average density of the wellbore fluid,
vided by the following sensors in the from which the water, oil, and gas
PS Platform platform toolstring: holdups are derived. An accelerome-
Platform Basic Measurement ter measurement provides deviation
Sonde (PBMS) houses the gamma correction for the measured fluid PBMS
ray and casing collar locator for density.
correlation and also measures well GHOST gas holdup optical sensor
pressure and temperature. tool uses four optical probes to mea-
Flow-Caliper Imaging Sonde (PFCS) sure gas and liquid holdups. The PGMS
measures the average fluid veloc- certainty of the three-phase flow
ity, water and hydrocarbon hold- rate determination and accuracy of
ups, and bubble counts from four the final calculation are ensured by
independent electrical probes. The the clear discrimination between
bubble count image is used to iden- liquid and gas that GHOST tool mea-
tify the first fluid entry. This com- surements provide.
pact sondemeasuring only 5.2 ft FloView holdup measurement tool
PILS-A
[1.58 m] longprovides an inte- incorporates four electrical probes
grated set of measurements for flow that can be used to measure water
rate evaluation. The position of the and hydrocarbon holdups and
sensors (only 1.3 ft [40 cm] from the bubble counts in conjunction with
bottom of the toolstring) enables the PFCS electrical probes for
accurate measurement even when greater borehole coverage. This
logging wells with a small sump. additional information is especially
The PFCS is also self-centering and useful in horizontal wells, where
has several spinner and caliper set- flow profiles are essential for
tings that are easily changed at the understanding surface production. FloView and
wellsite to adapt to the range of FloView Plus holdup measurement
FloView Plus
tubular and hole sizes to be tra-
for highly deviated and horizontal
versed during a survey. The tips
wells adds a FloView tool with the
of the centralizer and caliper arm
electrical probes angularly offset
can be equipped with either skids
with respect to the primary FloView
or rollers for smooth conveyance
tool in the toolstring. The FloView
in both open and cased holes.
Plus tool combination of two FloView
Spinner blades are available in
tools provides even better radial res-
different sizes to log the normal GHOST-A
olution that is particularly useful in
range of casing and borehole sizes.
horizontal or highly deviated wells
The centralizer and caliper arm
where segregated flow is suspected. PFCS
provides an x-y measurement of

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PS Platform Inline Spinner (PILS) is UNIGAGE pressure gauge system SCMT slim cement mapping tool

an optional component for measuring (PUCS) provides an optional high-res- can be run in conjunction with the
bidirectional fluid velocity inside the olution pressure measurement. This PS Platform platform for cement
tubing or as a backup spinner, nor- additional measurement capability is bond and Variable Density logs in
mally in higher flow rates. typically used to make transient mea- casing. A radial cement map is also
surements for reservoir characteriza- available in surface-readout mode.
tion and monitoring.

Measurement Specifications
PS Platform Production Logging Platform
Output Flow rate, fluid density, pressure, temperature, water holdup, gas holdup,
caliper, relative bearing, tool acceleration
With SCMT: CBL, VDL, surface-readout radial cement map
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on the application
Range of measurement See individual sensor listing
Accuracy See individual sensor listing
Depth of investigation Wellbore measurements
Mud type or weight limitations Relatively clean fluids
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PS Platform Multifinger Imaging Tool (PMIT)
Special applications Conveyance on drillpipe, tubing, coiled tubing, or slickline

Mechanical Specifications
PS Platform Production Logging Platform
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
PILS: 350 degF [177 degC]
High-temperature and memory (only PBMS, PFCS, and PGMS sensors): 374 degF [190 degC]
High-temperature and surface readout (only PBMS, PFCS, and PGMS sensors): 392 degF [200 degC]
Pressure rating Sapphire gauge: 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
CQG and high-pressure Sapphire gauges: 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [6.03 cm]
Borehole sizemax. PFCS caliper: 11 in [27.94 cm]
Other sensors: No limit
Outside diameter Without rollers: 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
With rollers: 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
High temperature: 2.06 in [5.23 cm]
Length PBMS: 8.27 ft [2.52 m]
PFCS: 5.14 ft [1.57 m]
PGMS: 4.8 ft [1.46 m]
GHOST tool: 7.1 ft [2.16 m]
FloView tool: 6.8 ft [2.07 m]
PILS: 3.1 ft [0.94 m]
UNIGAGE gauge: 4.2 ft [1.28 m]
Weight PBMS: 38.3 lbm [17.4 kg]
PFCS: 19.7 lbm [9.0 kg]
PGMS: 29.5 lbm [13.4 kg]
GHOST tool: 57.7 lbm [26.2 kg]
FloView tool: 16 lbm [7.3 kg]
PILS: 12.5 lbm [5.7 kg]
UNIGAGE gauge: 33 lbm [15 kg]
High-temperature tools include the High-Temperature Basic Measurement Sonde (HBMS) and the High-Temperature Gradio flowmeter tool (HGFT).
These two components provide the same measurements as the PBMS, PGMS, and PFCS.
Min. tubing size
The high-temperature tool (including all sensors) has a length of 23.94 ft [7.30 m] and a weight of 190.2 lbm [86.3 kg].

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Applications Depth correlation
Three-phase production logging Reservoir and production

Vertical, deviated, and monitoring


horizontalwells Time-lapse monitoring

Combined with perforating for Transient analysis

immediate flow rate analysis Short periods of multilayer testing

Stimulation evaluation Cement bond evaluation

Multirate production logging

PS Platform Production Logging Component Measurement Specifications


PBMS PFCS PGMS GHOST Tool
Output Pressure (Sapphire or CQG gauge), Fluid velocity, water holdup, Fluid density, Gas holdup, relative bearing,
temperature, gamma ray, CCL relative bearing, x-y dual caliper acceleration, deviation average caliper
Logging speed Based on application Based on application Based on application Based on application
Range of measurement Sapphire gauge: 1,000 to 10,000 psi Spinner: 0.5 to 200 rps 0 to 2.0 g/cm3 Gas holdup: 0 to 100%
[6.9 to 69 MPa] Caliper: 2 to 11 in [5.08 to 27.94 cm] Caliper: 2 to 9 in [5.08 to 22.86 cm]
High-pressure Sapphire gauge: (diameter)
1,000 to 15,000 psi [6.9 to 103 MPa]
CQG gauge: 14.5 to 15,000 psi [0.1 to 103 MPa]
Temperature: Ambient to 302 degF [150 degC]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement Point of measurement 15 in [38.10 cm] Point of measurement
Accuracy Sapphire gauge: 6 psi [41,370 Pa] (accuracy), Water holdup (Hw): 5%, 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), Gas holdup: 5%
0.1 psi [689 Pa] at 1-s gate time (resolution) 2% for Hw > 90%, 0.002 g/cm3 (resolution) without probe protector,
High-pressure Sapphire gauge: 13 psi [89,632Pa] 10% in oil-continuous phase 7% with probe protector,
(accuracy), 0.2 psi [1,379 Pa] at 1-s gate time Relative bearing: 6 1% for 2% < gas holdup (Hg) < 98%
(resolution) Caliper: 0.2 in [5.1 mm] Relative bearing: 6
CQG gauge: (1 psi [6,894 Pa] + 0.01% of reading) Caliper: 0.25 in [6.3 mm]
(accuracy), 0.01 psi [69 Pa] at 1-s gate time (resolution)
Temperature: 1.8 degF [1 degC] (accuracy),
0.01 degF [0.005 degC] (resolution)
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT
Special applications Exceeds NACE MR0175 standard for HS resistance

PS Platform Production Logging Component Measurement Specifications


FloView Tool PILS UNIGAGE Gauge
Output Water holdup, relative bearing, Fluid velocity Pressure (quartz crystal gauge)
average caliper
Logging speed Based on application Based on application Based on application
Range of measurement Caliper: 2 to 9 in [5.08 to 22.86 cm] Spinner: 0.5 to 100 rps 15 to 15,000 psi [0.1 to 103 MPa]
Accuracy Water holdup: 5%, 2% for Hw > 90%, 1 psi [6,894 Pa] 0.01% full scale (accuracy),
10% in oil-continuous phase 0.01 psi [69 MPa] (resolution)
Relative bearing: 6
Caliper: 0.25 in [6.3 mm]
Combinability Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT Combinable with SCMT tool and PMIT
Special applications Exceeds NACE MR0175 standard Exceeds NACE MR0175 standard Exceeds NACE MR0175 standard
for HS resistance for HS resistance for HS resistance

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RSTPro
Reservoir Saturation Tool
The RSTPro reservoir saturation tool The RSTPro tool can be configured
is compatible with the surface-readout for WFL flow measurement of both
version of the PS Platform production upward and downward flow, inside
logging platform. Only the production casing and behind pipe. This adapt-
logging capabilities of the RSTPro tool ability enables the diagnosis of any
are discussed in this section. flow condition. The tool measures the
The primary use of the RSTPro tool phase velocity of water. In a producing
is formation evaluation behind casing. well it measures the velocity of water
The RSTPro tool provides measure- independent of other produced fluids;
ments of the formation capture cross however, the accuracy of the water
section (sigma), porosity, and carbon velocity measurement is decreased if
and oxygen in one trip in the well- the ratio of the volume of water to
bore. This data combination is useful other produced fluids is low. The phase
for water saturation evaluation in old velocity inside casing can be converted
wells in which modern openhole logs to a quantitative measurement of pro-
have not been run. duction or injection (i.e., barrels per
day or cubic meters per day).
WFL water flow log from
the RSTPro reservoir Applications
saturation tool Detection and quantification of
water flowing in cement channels
The WFL water flow log is used to locate
Identification of water flow in the
and evaluate axial water migration
behind pipe, measure the velocity of annulus between tubing and casing
water flow in both production wells Independent measurement

and water injection wells, and collect ofwater velocity in casing


critical data on internal or behind-pipe
crossflow between zones.

Measurement Specifications
RSTPro Tool for WFL Water Flow Log
Output Velocity of water flowing inside the borehole
or outside the casing
Logging speed Stationary measurements
Range of measurement 3 to 210 ft/min [0.9 to 64 m/min] for
4.9-in [12.45-cm] ID casing
Vertical resolution Depends on water velocity
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation For flow behind casing: 6 in [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with additional gamma ray sensor,
PS Platform platform tools (only surface readout),
RST-C RST-D and CPLT tool
Special applications Inverted RSTPro tool measures downward flow inside
the borehole or outside the casing
HS service

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RSTPro tool with bombardment to identify the location Applications
of gravel-pack sand behind the screen.
silica activation If holes or gaps are found in the pack
Proper placement of gravel-pack
The RSTPro reservoir saturation sand
placement, a remedy can be applied
tool with silica activation can be run Identification of holes or gaps
inexpensively during this phase of the
with the surface-readout version of completion. If the gravel-pack sand was inthe sand pack
the PS Platform platform to provide not placed behind the screen to the Efficient pack correction
information for evaluating the quality proper height, the job can continue
of gravel-pack placement before until it is. A second pass of the RSTPro
placing the well on production. The tool with silica activation can then verify
gamma ray detectors use the nuclear proper placement for a successful job.
reaction response of silica to neutron

Measurement Specifications
RSTPro Tool with Silica Activation
Output Silica-activated gamma ray curve, images of sand placement and deficiencies
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Vertical resolution 15 in [38 cm]
Depth of investigation 10 in [25 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with PS Platform platform (only surface readout), CPLT tool, gamma ray
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
RST-C RST-D
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC] 302 degF [150 degC]
With flask: 400 degF [204 degC] With flask: 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 15,000 psi [103 MPa] 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa] With flask: 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in [4.60 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in [24.45 cm] 9 in [24.45 cm]
Outside diameter 1.71 in [4.34 cm] 2.51 in [6.37 cm]
Length 23.0 ft [7.01 m] 22.2 ft [6.76 m]
Weight 101 lbm [46 kg] 208 lbm [94 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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CPLT
Combinable Production Logging Tool
The CPLT combinable production when the CPLT toolstring is run in
logging tool provides a production open hole. Other uses of the CPLT
profile for a producing wellbore. The tool include monitoring the profile of
profile includes measurements of the injection fluids into an injection well
flow rate, fluid density, temperature, and determining the existence of fluid
and in situ pressure in the wellbore. channeling behind casing.
A three-arm caliper can be included

Measurement Specifications
CPLT Tool
Output Flow rate, fluid density, temperature, pressure, caliper
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on application
Range of measurement Spinner: 0.5 to 100 rps
Density: 0 to 2 g/cm3
Temperature: 13 to 350 degF [25 to 177 degC]
Pressure: 0 to 10,000 psi [0 to 69 MPa]
Caliper: 2 to 18 in [5.08 to 45.72 cm]
Vertical resolution Spinner, temperature, pressure, and caliper:
Point of measurement
Density: 15 in [38.10 cm]
Accuracy Spinner: 0.1 rps
Density: 0.04 g/cm3 (accuracy), 0.004 g/cm3 (resolution)
Temperature: 1.8 degF [1 degC] (accuracy),
0.011 degF [0.006 degC] (resolution)
Pressure: 10 psi [0.07 MPa] (accuracy),
0.1 psi [689 Pa] (resolution)
Depth of investigation Borehole measurement only
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with most production logging services
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
CPLT Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 12532-in [4.52-cm] seating nipple
Borehole sizemax. 18 in [45.72 cm]
Outside diameter With Continuous Flowmeter Sonde CFS-H: 1.6875 in [4.29cm]
With CFS-J: 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
With CFS-K: 2.875 in [7.30 cm]
Length Basic tool body: 15.2 ft [4.6 m]
Weight Basic tool body: 75 lbm [34 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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Combinable
Gamma Ray Sonde
The Combinable Gamma Ray Sonde Application
(CGRS) performs both through-tubing Accurate depth correlation
and -casing gamma ray correlation.
The result is accurate posi tioning
of various production logging tools
on depth with openhole logs. The
CGRS is also used as a third gamma
ray detector in combination with the
RSTPro reservoir saturation tool to
detect high-velocity water movement.

Measurement Specifications
CGRS
Output Gamma ray activity
Logging speed Up to 3,600 ft/h [1,097 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 2,000 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in [60.96 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with CPLT tool, RSTPro tool
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
CGRS
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 11316 in [4.60 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
Length 3.2 ft [0.97 m]
Weight 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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Phase Velocity Sonde

The Phase Velocity Sonde (PVS) is a is determined from the ejection-to-


production logging tool used in con- detector distance and travel time.
junction with the RSTPro reservoir These data are essential for determi-
saturation tool to measure the veloc- nation of the volume of water, oil, or
ity of two separate phases (water and both fluids flowing in the wellbore.
oil) in a flowing horizontal or highly This provides a basis for determining
deviated well. A chemical marker with the flowing profile of a well at down-
a high thermal neutron absorption hole conditions in comparison with
cross section (sigma) that is mis- individual-fluid production at surface
cible only with the phase of interest conditions. The PVS main module can
is injected into the borehole. The be combined with an auxiliary mod-
passage of the marker downstream ule to provide an additional chemical
is detected by the borehole sigma marker reservoir for long jobs.
measurement of the RSTPro tool. The
PVS is capable of measuring upflow
or downflow depending on where it is Application
placed in the toolstring with respect Downhole measurement of a PVL
to the RSTPro tool. The fluid velocity phase velocity log

Measurement Specifications
PVS
Output PVL phase velocity log
Logging speed Stationary
Range of measurement Phase velocity: 4 to 500 ft/min [1.2 to 152 m/min]
Vertical resolution Depends on ejectordetector spacing
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation Borehole
Mud type or weight limitations Produced or injected fluids
Combinability PS Platform production services platform
(only surface readout)

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Mechanical Specifications
PVS
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000 psi [34, 69, or 103 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [6.03 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in [22.86 cm]
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
Length Main and auxiliary modules: 22.39 ft [6.82 m]
Main module: 12.9 ft [3.93 m]
Optional auxiliary module: 9.44 ft [2.88 m]
Weight Main module: 57.7 lbm [26.2 kg]
Auxiliary module: 45.5 lbm [20.6 kg]
Tension 5,000-psi [34-MPa] rating: 12,650 lbf [56,270 N]
10,000-psi [69-MPa] rating: 19,350 lbf [86,070 N]
15,000-psi [103-MPa] rating: 26,000 lbf [115,650 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]
Marker fluid ejection Reservoir volume: 400 cm3 (main), 400 cm3 (auxiliary)
Ejection volume: 10 cm3 1 cm3 (standard),
15 cm3 1.5 cm3 (optional)
Ejection duration: 250 ms (max.)
Ejection recycle time for metering piston: 1 min
Min. tubing size

Production Logging Services 205

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FloView
Holdup Measurement Tool
The FloView tool is used to determine Applications
the percentage of the heavy phase, Accurate water holdup
normally water, in the flow stream
First oil-entry detection
downhole. The tool also measures the
bubble count of the light phase, either From bubble count
gas or oil, in the flow stream. This Works at high water cut
measurement is used to calculate the First water-entry detection for
velocity of the light phase, if in bubble water shutoff (at low water cut)
form, at the point of measurement
Caliper measurement
(i.e., the intrinsic velocity) and is
independent of the velocity measured Differentiation of fresh and

by propeller flowmeters. injected waters

Measurement Specifications
FloView Tool
Output Bubble count, water holdup, caliper
Logging speed Stationary to variable based on application
Range of measurement Caliper: 2 to 9 in [5.08 to 22.86 cm]
Vertical resolution Point of measurement
Accuracy Water holdup (Hw): 5% (2% for Hw > 90%)
Relative oil flow rate: 20%
Depth of investigation Borehole measurement
Mud type or weight limitations Min. salinity of all wellbore fluids:
2,000 ppm at 77 degF [25 degC]
1,000 ppm at 212 degF [100 degC]
700 ppm at 302 degF [150 degC]
Combinability Gamma ray, CPLT tool
Special applications HS service
Valid for bubble size greater than 0.08 in [2 mm] and deviation less than 30

Mechanical Specifications
FloView Tool
Temperature rating 302 degF [150 degC]
Pressure rating DEFT-A and DEFT-AB: 15,000 psi [103 MPa]
DEFT-B: 10,000 psi [69 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [5.08 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 9 in [22.86 cm]
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
Length DEFT-A and DEFT-AB: 6.75 ft [2.06 m]
DEFT-B: 6.08 ft [1.85 m]
Weight 16 lbm [7 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

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Multiple-Isotope
Spectroscopy Tool
The Multiple-Isotope Spectroscopy Tool can be tagged with different isotopes.
(MIST) discriminates between isotopes An important example is formation
that emit gamma rays to provide a clear fracture evaluation. If the pad fluid
analysis of multistage stimulation at and each proppant stage are tagged
the wellsite. The tool detects gamma with different isotopes, a single wire-
ray energies through 14 energy windows line run can log both the extent of the
that range from 180 to 3,000keV. The fracture and the degree of proppant
related counts and energy levels are placement. The real-time availability
integrated by the wellsite computer of the MIST log at the wellsite means
and used to identify the source isotope. that the evaluation is conducted
Isotope identification by the MIST log is immediately.
virtually immediate. Using laboratory-
derived standard spectra, the detector
also discriminates between isotopes Applications
in the formation and isotopes in the Single-pass analysis of multiple
wellbore. fracture jobs
Because the MIST tool discrim- Background-corrected analysis
inates between radioisotopes, it is ofmultiple fracture jobs
used to track downhole processes that

Measurement Specifications
MIST
Output Elemental spectra from individual tracer isotopes
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Vertical resolution 6 in [15.24 cm]
Depth of investigation 6 in [15.24 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Gamma ray, CCL, CPLT tool

Measurement Specifications
MIST-A MIST-B
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 2 in [6.98 cm] 3 in [7.62 cm]
Borehole sizemax. 12 in [30.48 cm] 12 in [30.48 cm]
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm] 2 in [5.08 cm]
Length 14.3 ft [4.36 m] 14.3 ft [4.36 m]
Weight 60 lbm [27 kg] 60 lbm [27 kg]
Tension 10,000 lbf [44,480 N] 10,000 lbf [44,480 N]
Compression 1,000 lbf [4,450 N] 1,000 lbf [4,450 N]

Production Logging Services 207

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Perforating
Services and
Accessories

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SPAN Rock
Stressed-Rock Perforating Analysis
and Schlumberger Premium Charges
SPAN Rock* stressed-rock perforating
analysis is used to specify the optimal
gun system and charges to deliver the
best productivity from a completion.
Simple yet comprehensive modeling
guides the user down a logical path for
perforation design and the prediction
of well productivity. Input parameters
include casing, cement, and rock prop-
erties; wellbore geometry (orientation
and accommodating up to five concen-
tric casing strings); and completion
fluid characteristics. These are matched
with performance and positioning data
for the gun system and charge to predict
perforating performance. Skin can be
analyzed solely as perforation skin or as
the total skin effect.
The resulting accurate prediction of data are measured using pressure PowerJet Nova extradeep
downhole shaped charge penetration vessels to confine rock at reservoir
stress conditions. Strong to weak rocks,
penetrating shaped charges
by SPAN Rock analysis is based on
a unique model built from length sandstones and carbonates, high- and Recent stressed-rock research has
measurements of thousands of shaped low-stress conditions, and different acquired test data at extreme values
charge perforation tunnels in stressed sizes and generations of shaped charges of rock strength for the development
rock. Whereas conventional API RP have been tested to ensure that the of PowerJet Nova* extradeep pene-
19B performance testing shoots shaped broadest possible range of conditions trating shaped charges, the deepest
charges into rock samples or concrete isquantified. penetrating charge in the industry.
at surface conditions, the SPAN Rock The PowerJet Nova family of shaped

PowerJet Nova Shaped Charge Performance Summary


Gun Size, Shot Density, PowerJet Nova Max. Explosive Entrance Stressed-Rock Stressed-Rock Max. Diameter, in
in spf, and Charge Load, g Hole, in Penetration, Penetration
Shotin Shotin
Phasing, in Improvement, %
Liquid Gas
2 6, 60 2006 7.3 0.23 11.5 21.1 2.29 2.31
2.5 6, 60 2506 14 0.33 13.8 25.3 2.78
2.88 6, 60 2906 16.9 0.38 15.4 26.7 3.16 3.32
3.125 6, 60 3106 25.9 0.37 16.8 25.9 3.57
3.375 6, 60 3406 19.9 0.40 17.2 19.9 3.66 3.73
4.5 12, 135/45 4512 20.5 0.36 8.6 26.5 4.91

4.5 5, 72 4505 45 0.40 13.1 41.0 4.74

7 12, 135/45 4505 45 0.41 12.7 44.7 7.28

Improvement over previous-generation equivalent deep penetrating shaped charge


Penetration in Berea sandstone with 8,200-psi uniaxial compressive strength, 5,000-psi axial and radial confining pressure, and 0-psi pore pressure
Penetration in Crab Orchard sandstone with 22,094-psi uniaxial compressive strength, 5,000-psi confining pressure, and 0-psi pore pressure
Not rated for gas

Wireline Services Catalog Perforating Services and Accessories 211

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charges is exclusively designed to pen- The PowerJet Omega shaped Applications
etrate reservoir rock and is the first charge is used with the PURE clean Production or injection wells
shaped charge in the industry that has perforations system and is available
Damaged formations
been extensively tested in this environ- for 2- to 7-in HSD high shot density
ment. API RP 19B Section 1 perfor- perforating gunsystems. Formations requiring reservoir

mance data and stressed-rock testing stimulation


document the significant penetration Stressed rocks
increases delivered by PowerJet Nova PFrac Nova perforating All phases: oil, water, gas
shaped charges. This performance charge for optimizing
translates into up to 50% more forma- stimulation treatment
tion contact for more effective stimula-
The PFrac Nova* charges are the lat-
tion treatments, increased drainage
est generation of PFrac* perforating
contact, and greater productivity.
charges. PFrac Nova charges are ideal
PowerJet Nova charges are avail-
for hydraulic fracturing operations in
able for the PURE* clean perforations
unconventional reservoirs, improving
system for clean perforations as well
perforation tunnel geometry for the
as the current wireline and TCP gun
subsequent application of treatments
systems, with conveyance on wireline,
and delivering premium penetration
slickline, TCP, coiled tubing, tractor,
in tight formations. Perforation per-
and permanent completions.
formance has been verified through
stressed-rock test shots.
PowerJet Omega deep
penetrating perforating PowerFlow slug-free big
shaped charge hole shaped charge
PowerJet Omega* shaped charges PowerFlow* slug-free big hole shaped
increase penetration depth on average charges are designed deliver the largest
by 20% compared with the performance possible area open to flow. Perforating
of previous-generation shaped charges. debris can be further limited by
With performance verified through API employing INsidr* perforating shock
RP 19B, this deeper penetration trans- and debris reduction technology, which
lates to increased well productivity or restricts the charge case from breaking
injectivity. Because PowerJet Omega when the gun is fired. This debris is too
shaped charges maintain deep pen- large to exit the gun body, which is highly
etration at high shot density, more practical for perforating operations in
natural fractures can be intersected. horizontal or highly deviated wells.

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Perforating Explosives

The explosives used for well perforating Temperature Rating of Explosive Systems
are designed mainly for different ranges Hollow Carrier Systems Only
of well temperatures. Cyclotrimethylene 700 371
trinitramine (RDX) explosives are used
for standard applications, whereas 600 315
hexanitrostilbene (HNS) explosives may
500 260
be used in environments up to 500 degF SX2

[260 degC]. The temperature rating of Temperature, 400 Temperature,


HNS 204
an explosive is also dependent on the degF degC
time of exposure to that temperature. 300 149
HMX
Explosives must be selected on the
basis of the well temperature and the 200 93
RDX
expected duration of exposure.
100 37
1 10 100 1,000 10,000
Time, h 90 days
Contact your Schlumberger representative for high-temperature
and long-duration operations falling in the shaded area.
Exceeding the temperature rating leads to reduced performance
followed by burning (all explosives) and possible autodetonation
(RDX and HMX explosives).

Perforating Services and Accessories 213

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Gun Systems and Charges

Modern perforating technology has have a selectivity option that allows


evolved from simple holes in the cas- shooting more than one zone per run.
ing to engineered, objective-oriented Deployment is on electric wireline
services adapted to achieve sophisti- cable, although some systems can also
cated and versatile completion designs. be run on slickline.
Perforating is now used to optimize per-
manent completions, temporary com-
pletions such as DSTs, and workovers. Enerjet expendable strip
Along with services such as hydrau- gun system
lic fracturing, sand management, The Enerjet* expendable strip gun sys-
extended-reach and horizontal wells, tem provides deep penetrating charges
completion fluids engineering, and well in either nonphased or various phasing
testing, perforating has become indis- configurations. The gun systems are
pensable for improving productivity. available as retrievable or expendable
Gun systems and charges must meet and in sizes from 1.63 to 2.5 in [4.14 to
the demand for the increased hole 6.35 cm].
size and penetration required to opti-
mize productivity. The key to improved
perforating performance is synergy Pivot Gun through-tubing
between the gun and charge designs. perforating gun system
Schlumberger provides a wide range The high-performance Pivot Gun*
of perforating charges, gun systems, wireline through-tubing gun systems
and detonating techniques to address are ideal for workover reperforating or
a comprehensive range of applications. shooting past deep formation damage.
Gun and charge performance in The running-in-hole gun diameter
the downhole environment is critical is only 11116 in [4.29 cm], but once
to the success of well completion. the gun is below the tubing, the
Schlumberger perforation equipment charges are rotated outward to
is qualified to American Petroleum produce an effective gun diameter of
Institute (API) Recommended Prac 3.79 in [9.63 cm]. The penetration
Pivot Gun tice (RP) 19B Section 1. produced by the Pivot Gun system
is deeper than that of other
similar-sized guns.
Capsule gun systems An important Pivot Gun feature is
Capsule guns are exposed gun systems, its Safe Arming/Deployment Verifi
with the individual charges packed into cation Circuit. This circuit prevents
pressure-tight capsules that are exposed the gun from being armed and fired
to the well environment. Capsule guns until the charges are fully rotated
are typically used in through-tubing outward from the gun carrier by the
perforation applications. deployment head and rods. Another
The two types of capsule gun sys- key feature is that an unfired deployed
tems are expendable (the charges and gun can be retrieved. The charges
mounting assembly are left as debris rotate back into the carrier as the gun
Enerjet after firing) and retrievable (debris is enters the tubing muleshoe (wireline
left, but the mounting is recovered for reentry guide).
use where debris is a concern). The
latter design is also called semiex-
pendable. Some capsule gun systems

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PowerSpiral spiral-phased waves during the detonation, which Applications
capsule perforating system reduces charge-to-charge interference Through-tubing perforation
The PowerSpiral* spiral-phased and also minimizes shock waves in the
Deep penetration
perforating system is a retrievable wellbore. This reduction is significant
because it increases the performance Rigless perforation or reperforation
capsule perforating gun designed for
through-tubing wireline operations. It of shots across the wellbore. With
is available in 11116-, 218-, and 2-in features including multiple phasing,
[4.29-, 5.40-, and 6.35-cm] sizes. The high shot density, and use of PowerJet*
technological breakthrough provided deep penetrating shaped charges,
by the PowerSpiral guns is a shock- the PowerSpiral system generates
absorbing material between the perforations capable of the highest well
charges. This material attenuates shock productivity for its size.

Capsule (Exposed) Guns Performance and Mechanical Dana Summary


Gun Size, Exposed Gun System Shot Phasing, Charge API RP 19B Section 1 Temperature Maximum Maximum Minimum Debris Fill per Charge Maximum
in Density, Penetration, Entrance Area Rating for Explosive Pressure Restriction, in 412-, 5-, and 7-in Gun Length,
spf in Hole, in Open 1 h, degF Load, g Rating, psi in Casing, in ft
to Flow,
in2/ft
11116-in PowerPivot* 4 180 PP, HMX 28.4 0.35 365 22 12,000 1.78 0.85/0.48/0.33 15
11116-in Retrievable Power 6 0 PE, HMX 21.6 0.2 365 8 20,000 1.78 0.13/0.08/0.06 50
Enerjet
11116-in Biphased Retrievable 6 45 Ph PE, HMX 14.6 0.26 365 8 20,000 1.78 0.16/0.10/0.07 35
Power Enerjet
11116-in PowerSpiral 7.5 45 PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 19.5 0.22 365 8 20,000 1.78 0.15/0.09/0.07 30
218-in PowerSpiral 6 45 PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 27.2 0.32 365 14.5 15,000 2.25 0.18/0.14/0.07 30
218-in Triphased Expendable 6 0, 45 EJ BH, HMX 8.1 0.47 1.04 330 15 15,000 2.25 0.23/0.15/0.10 30
Big Hole
212-in PowerSpiral 5 45 PowerSpiral EJ, HMX 36.6 0.39 365 25.6 15,000 2.62 0.65/0.47/0.28 30
Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative for further information.
Other shot densities and phasings are available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation systems to meet specific needs.
Blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems; unofficial API data is listed for the other systems.

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Hollow carrier perforating Fractal multistage stimulation Frac Gun multistage fracture
gun systems perforating system stimulation perforating
Hollow carrier gun systems are engi- The Fractal* perforating system reen- gunsystem
neered systems in which the shaped gineers the conventional perforating The Frac Gun* perforating system is
charges are housed in a pressure-tight gun to create a fit-for-purpose modu- engineered for slimhole casing opera-
steel tube and are not exposed to well lar design that significantly improves tions in wells requiring fracture stimu-
fluids. For gun ODs of 2in and larger, the safety, reliability, and efficiency of lation. The 2-in [5.08-cm] Frac Gun
hollow carrier guns perform better than multistage perforating operations. The system also has applications in com-
exposed guns because they can use Fractal system is available in multiple pletions where downhole restrictions
larger charges (deep penetrating, big gun sizes and lengths, from 1 to 5 ft [0.3 limit gun size, including through tub-
hole, and good hole), optimized phas- to 1.5 m] with up to 40 guns in a single ing, dual completion, monobore, and
ing, and increased shot density. Hollow descent. extended reach. The 3.12-in [7.93-cm]
carrier guns are also used when debris Electrically prewired at the manu- Frac Gun system has additional appli-
is unacceptable and in hostile condi- facturing center, the Fractal perfo- cations in sand control operations and
tions that preclude the use of exposed rating system requires only minimal CBM wells.
guns. These guns are typically wireline assembly on location. All components, Fracture stimulation requires 60
conveyed and can be fired selectively. including either an RF-safe or conven- (or 120) phased guns that produce a
tional initiation system, are supplied in large entrance hole size. To best execute
plug-and-play subassemblies. fracture designs, the FracGun system
HSD high shot density Because the disposable Fractal can be loaded with either the big hole
perforating gun system system incorporates pressure barriers or deep penetrating charges used with
integrated with the electrical connec- HSD high shot density gun systems.
The HSD high shot density perforating
tions, it does not require redressable The guns are conveyed with wireline
gun system features increased shot
intergun adaptersevery perforat- or slickline. The gun intercarriers
density, optimal phasing patterns, and
ing run uses new components, which feature a push-in connector, allowing
the largest high-performance charges
reduces rig-up height while improving faster operation than comparable
available for natural, stimulated, or
efficiency and reliability. systems. The plug and shoot adapter
sand control completions. Available in
sizes ranging from 1.56 to 7 in [3.96 of the 3.12in FracGun system makes
it possible to set a plug and shoot
to 17.78 cm] for application in all Applications
casing sizes, HSD guns use expendable, multiple guns in the same descent.
Multistage fracture stimulation
retrievable carriers, and they run on
Coalbed methane (CBM) wells
wireline, slickline, tubing, or coiled Applications
tubing. Multiple guns can be aligned Limited-entry acid stimulation
Wells requiring fracture stimulation
with alignment intercarriers.
2-in Frac Gun system: completions
The high shot densities range from
4 spf for the 1.56-in gun up to 27 spf with downhole restrictions
for the 7-in guns. The helical shot pat- 3.12-in Frac Gun system: sand

tern available in all gun sizes provides control operations


the smallest vertical spacing between 3.12-in Frac Gun system: CBM wells
shots and optimizes the phasing
pattern for maximizing productiv-
ity and retaining casing strength.
Shot spacing can be varied on request.

Applications
Deep penetrating perforations
Big hole perforating
Sand control
Perforating for fracturing

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High Shot Density Perforating Systems Performance and Mechanical Data Summary
Gun Size, Shot Phasing, Charge API RP 19B Section 1 Weight of Loaded Maximum Diameter Maximum Diameter
in Density, Penetration, Entrance Maximum 20-ft Gun in Including Burrs, Including Burrs,
spf in Hole, in Explosive Air (without Shot in Liquid, in Shot in Gas, in
Load, g adapters), lbm
Deep Penetration Shaped Charges
1.56-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 1606, HMX 11.3 0.17 3.5 76 1.72 1.75
2-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet Omega 2006, HMX 21.8 0.22 7.3 123 2.29 2.31
2-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2006, HNS 15.3 0.22 8 123 2.16 2.21
2-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2006, HMX 18.7 0.23 6.5 123 2.16 2.21
214-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2306, HMX 17.7 0.3 8.7 155 2.46 2.48
214-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2306, HNS 15.7 0.27 9.5 155 2.46 2.48
212-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet Omega 2506, HMX 30.6 0.32 12 171 2.78
212-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2506, HNS 16.7 0.3 13.5 174 2.66 2.75
212-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2506, HMX 24.4 0.31 10.5 176 2.66 2.75
278-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet Omega 2906, HMX 36.0 0.34 16 246 3.16 3.32
278-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet Omega 2906, HNS 24.3 0.31 17.6 249 3.16 3.32
278-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2906, HMX 25.3 0.38 15 245 2.98 3.08
278-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 2906, HNS 21.0 0.31 19.5 239 2.96 3.08
318-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet Omega 3106, HMX 36.9 0.34 20 301 3.57
318-in Frac Gun 6 60 PowerJet Omega 3104, HMX 37.5 0.38 17.9 280 3.50
338-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 3406, HMX 36.5 0.37 22.7 334 3.66
338-in HSD 6 60 PowerJet 3406, HNS 28.8 0.31 25 335 3.66
338-in OrientXact* 5 10 PowerJet OX 3505, HMX 37.7 0.34 22.5 564 na 3.78
312-in HSD 6 72 PowerJet Omega 3506, HMX 44.2 0.44 27 370 3.72
312-in HSD 6 72 PowerJet Omega 3506, HNS 33.7 0.32 28 374 3.72
4-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet Omega 4005, HMX 51.7 0.48 38.8 496 4.44
4-in HSD 5 0/180 PowerJet 4006, HMX 36.5 0.46 26.0 425 na 4.37
412-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet Omega 4505, HMX 59.2 0.43 38.8 504 4.74
412-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet 4505, HMX 46.4 0.47 38.6 504 4.74
412-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet Omega 4512, HMX 34.0 0.35 22 495 4.91
412-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet 4512, HMX 30.2 0.34 22 495 4.91
412-in OrientXact 4 10 PowerJet OX 4504, HMX 43.8 0.29 38.8 568 4.74 4.77
4.72-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet Omega 4705, HNS 44.4 0.36 38.8 606 4.95 5.16
4.72-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet 4505, HMX 48.3 0.51 38.6 606 4.95 5.16
4.72-in HSD 5 72 PowerJet 4505, HNS 34.4 0.4 38 623 4.95 5.16
4.72-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet 4512, HNS 22.8 0.31 22.5 610 4.99 5.16
4.72-in HSD 21 120/60 PowerJet 4521, HMX 21.0 0.32 15 665 4.93
7-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet Omega 4505, HMX 62.0 0.46 38.8 1,168 7.28
7-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerJet 4505, HMX 43.6 0.44 38.6 1,169 7.05
7-in HSD 27 120/60 PowerJet Omega 7027, HMX 35.5 0.29 20 1,110 7.05
Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of na = not available Available in 338-, 312-, and 3.67-in perforating systems

the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative Blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems; unofficial API data Available in 312-in perforating systems
for further information. Other shot densities and phasings are is listed for the other systems. Available in 412-, 458-, 4.72-, and 5-in perforating systems
available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation Available in 4.72-in perforating systems rated for high pressure
systems to meet specific needs.

Perforating Services and Accessories 217

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Performance and Mechanical Data Summary
Gun Size, Shot Phasing, Charge API RP 19B Section 1 Weight of Loaded Maximum Diameter Maximum Diameter
in Density, Penetration, Entrance Maximum 20-ft Gun in Air Including Burrs, Shot Including Burrs,
spf in Hole, in Explosive (without adapters), in Liquid, in Shot in Gas, in
Load, g lbm
Good Hole Shaped Charges
2-in HSD 6 60 UltraJet* 2006, RDX 14.7 0.28 6.5 123 2.17 2.23
2-in HSD 6 60 HyperJet* 2006, RDX 9.6 0.33 6.5 122 2.16 2.21
212-in HSD 6 60 HyperJet 2506, RDX 13.1 0.43 10.5 176 2.66 2.75
278-in HSD 6 60 UltraJet 2906, HMX 22.1 0.36 15 245 2.98 3.08
278-in HSD 6 60 HyperJet 2906, RDX 15.0 0.39 15 245 2.98 3.08
318-in Frac Gun 6 60 PFrac Omega* 3106, RDX 32.7 0.40 22.5 280 3.50
318-in Frac Gun 6 60 PFrac 3106, RDX 24.9 0.44 22.5 280 3.50
318-in HSD 6 60 34JL UltraJet, HMX 24.0 0.41 22.7 286 3.57
318-in HSD 4 90 UltraPack* 3106, RDX 16.2 0.4 9.2 185 3.14 3.22
338-in HSD 6 60 UltraJet 3406, HMX 31.4 0.44 22.7 335 3.66 3.7
338-in HSD 6 60 HyperJet 3406, RDX 22.5 0.49 22.7 335 3.66 3.7
4-in HSD 4 90 UltraPack 4004, RDX 18.7 0.43 12.4 265 4.09 4.37
412-in HSD 5 72 UltraJet 4505, HMX 42.6 0.46 38.3 485 4.74
412-in HSD 5 72 HyperJet 4505, RDX 37.0 0.57 38.8 487 4.74
5-in HSD 8 135/45 UltraJet 5008, RDX 20.2 0.54 24 620 5.19 5.22
7-in HSD 12 135/45 UltraJet 4505, HMX 39.9 0.45 38.3 1,123 7.05
7-in HSD 12 135/45 HyperJet 4505, RDX 37.0 0.57 37 1,128 7.05
Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of the Blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems; unofficial API data
data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative for further is listed for the other systems.
information. Other shot densities and phasings are available; Schlumberger Available in 338-, 312-, and 3.67-in perforating systems
also custom designs perforation systems to meet specific needs. Available in 412-, 458-, and 4.72-in systems

Performance and Mechanical Data Summary


Gun Size, Shot Phasing, Charge API RP 19B Section 1 Maximum Weight of Maximum Maximum
in Density, Penetration, Entrance Area Open to Explosive Loaded 20-ft Gun Diameter Diameter
spf in Hole, in Flow, in /ft
2 Load, g in Air (without Including Burrs, Including Burrs,
adapters), lbm Shot in Liquid, in Shot in Gas, in
Big Entrance Hole Shaped Charges
2-in HSD 6 60 PowerFlow 2006, HMX 4.5 0.45 0.95 6.4 119 2.16 2.21
214-in HSD 6 60 PowerFlow 2306, HMX 4.8 0.52 1.27 149 2.46 2.48
212-in HSD 6 60 PowerFlow 2506, HMX 5.2 0.64 1.93 11.2 151 2.66 2.75
278-in HSD 6 60 38C CleanPACK*, HMX 6.6 0.7 2.31 15 231 3.09 3.2
278-in HSD 6 60 38C CleanPACK, RDX 8.4 0.62 1.18 15 231 3.09 3.2
318-in HSD 10 135/45 PowerFlow 3412, HMX 4.7 0.67 3.53 14.2 259 3.34
338-in HSD 12 135/45 PowerFlow 3412, HMX 4.5 0.64 3.86 14.2 339 3.52 3.58
4-in HSD 5 120 PowerFlow 5008, RDX 6.3 0.95 3.55 30 414 4.19
412-in HSD 6 120 PowerFlow 5008, RDX 6 0.93 4.08 30 437 4.74
458-in HSD Bigshot 21* 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4621, RDX 5.9 0.83 11.3 19 555 4.82
458-in HSD Bigshot 21 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4621, HMX 6.1 0.83 11.3 19.4 555 4.82
4.72-in HSD Bigshot 21 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4621, RDX 5.4 0.73 8.8 19 596 na
4.72-in HSD Bigshot 21 21 120/60 PowerFlow 4721 Zinc, RDX 5.4 0.73 8.79 19 596 4.82
4.72-in HP HSD 20 120/60 PowerFlow 4621 Extreme, HMX 5.38 0.60 5.65 18 778 4.90
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow Max* 6618, HMX 7 0.94 12.5 38.8 1,606 6.94
658-in HP HSD, 18 120/60 PowerFlow Max 6618, HMX 6.2 0.86 10.5 38.8 1,606 6.94
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow Max 6618, HMX 7.8 0.96 13 38.8 1,352 6.89
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow Max 6618, HMX 7.3 0.9 11.5 38.8 1,352 6.89
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 CleanPack Max* 6618, HMX 7.4 0.87 10.7 37.8 1,290 6.87
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 CleanPack Max 6618, HMX 6.5 0.73 7.5 37.8 1,290 6.87
658-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow 6618, HMX 6.8 0.91 11.7 34 1,426 6.73
7-in HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow 7018, RDX 7.4 1.15 18.7 45 1,236 7.13
7-in HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow 7018, HMX 7.1 1.14 18.53 49.5 1,236 7.13
7-in HSD 14 140/20 58C UltraPack, RDX 12.2 0.95 9.92 61 1,234 7.27
7-in HSD 12 135/45 64C CleanPACK, RDX 10.1 1.13 11.41 59 1,184 7.75
7-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow 6618, HMX 6.0 0.66 6.16 34 1,441 7.10
7-in HP HSD 18 120/60 PowerFlow Max 6618, HMX 7.8 0.93 12.22 38.8 1,735 7.20
Notes: Every attempt has been made to verify the accuracy of na = not available 7.0-in 38-lbm/ft Q125 heavy-wall casing

the data tabulated; contact your Schlumberger representative HP = high pressure INsidr technology for gun shock control and low-debris applications

for further information. Other shot densities and phasings Blue type identifies API 19B Registered Perforation Systems; unofficial API data 978-in 62.8-lbm/ft Q125 heavy-wall casing
are available; Schlumberger also custom designs perforation is listed for the other systems. 1018-in 79.22-lbm/ft Q125 heavy-wall casing
systems to meet specific needs. Available in 338-, 312-, and 3.67-in perforating systems

Available in 458- and 4.72-in perforating systems

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PURE
Clean Perforations System
The job design basis of the PURE the deepest penetrating charge in
clean perforations system for clean the industry. Exclusively designed to
perforations minimizes or eliminates penetrate reservoir rock, PowerJet
perforation damage by optimizing the Nova charges deliver significant pen-
wells dynamic underbalance, which etration increases that translate into
is the transient underbalance that up to 50% more formation contact
occurs immediately after creation than the performance of previous-
of the perforation cavity. Whereas generation deep penetrating shaped
conventional perforating design fails charges. The result is superior pen-
to account for the dynamic period etration performance and minimized
immediately following detonation, charge debris exiting the gun.
the PURE system incorporates Additional PURE system features are
consideration of the gun design and independent placement of the charge,
completion characteristics unique flexible loading options, and size range
to the job to achieve and control from 2 to 7 in [5.08 to 17.78 cm].
the desired condition of dynamic
underbalance at the time the guns
fire. Dynamic underbalance cleans Applications
perforations much more effectively Perforated completions in consoli-
than conventional underbalanced or dated reservoirs with permeability
overbalanced perforating methods. greater than 0.5 mD or reservoir
The PURE system also accounts pressure greater than 1,200 psi
for impacts on perforation tunnel [8,270 kPa].
permeability from the time of Operational efficiency through
perforating until either injection less underbalance required and
or production begins. The resulting reduced wellbore shock
clean, permeable perforations enable Potential elimination of the need
better injectivity or productivity than for secondary perforation cleanup
in wells completed with traditional operations
techniques.
The PURE clean perforations sys-
tem uses the Schlumberger premier
family of PowerJet deep penetrating
shaped charge technology, including
the newest PowerJetNova extradeep
penetrating shaped charge, which is

Perforating Services and Accessories 219

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PURE Clean Perforations System Mechanical Data Summary
Outside Diameter 2 in [5.08 cm] 2 in [6.35 cm] 2 in [7.30 cm] 3 in [8.57 cm] 3 in [8.89 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm] 4 in [11.43 cm] 7 in [17.78 cm]
Shot density 5.5 spf, 60 5.5 spf, 60 5.5 spf, 60 5.5 spf, 60 5.5 spf, 72 11.5 spf, 135/45 4.5 spf, 72 11.5 spf, 135/45
Shot spacing 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 2 in 1 in 2 in 1 in
Temperature rating 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 400 degF [204 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi 25,000 psi 25,000 psi 20,000 psi 25,000 psi 12,000 psi 12,000 psi 10,000 psi
Min. casing size 2 in 3 4 in 4 in 5 in 6 in 6 in 9 in
Max. diameter including burrs 2.26 in 2.592.78 in 3.07 in 3.75 in 3.72 in 4.87 in 4.83 in 7.28 in
Interval missed between guns 13 in 12.5 in 12 in 12 in 12 in 12 in 12 in 12 in
Weight of loaded 20-ft gun in air 119 lbm 179 lbm 237 lbm 332 lbm 292 lbm 501 lbm 446 lbm 1,245 lbm
Max. tensile load 63,000 lbf 81,000 lbf 105,000 lbf 150,000 lbf 200,000 lbf 150,000 lbf 150,000 lbf 500,000 lbf
Shot in liquid

PURE Clean Perforations System Performance Summary


Gun Shot Density, spf Charge Penetration, in Entrance
Phasing, Hole, in
2-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet 18.6 0.20
2-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet Omega 21.8 0.22
2-in PURE 5.5. 60 PowerJet 18.7 0.34
2-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet Omega 30.6 0.32
2-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet 25.3 0.38
2-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet Omega 36.0 0.34
3-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet 36.5 0.37
3-in PURE 5.5, 60 PowerJet Omega 44.2 0.44
4-in PURE 11.5, 135/45 PowerJet 30.2 0.34
4-in PURE 11.5, 135/45 PowerJet Omega 34.0 0.35
4-in PURE 4.5, 72 PowerJet 46.4 0.47
4-in PURE 4.5, 72 PowerJet Omega 59.2 0.43
7-in PURE 11.5, 135/45 PowerJet 43.6 0.44
7-in PURE 11.5, 135/45 PowerJet Omega 53.2 0.43
Unofficial API RP 43 5th edition or API 19B Section 1; area open to flow available on request, specific per job design

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Detonation Systems

The majority of wireline-conveyed wide since 1988, this latest iteration S.A.F.E. slapper-actuated
perforating operations are performed provides a step change in performance
using standard detonators that employ reliability. The reliability of the Secure2
firing equipment
primary high explosives. This situation detonator is comparable with that of S.A.F.E. equipments detonating sys-
necessitates following rigorous safety a traditional resistor-based detona- tem is RF safe for electric potential
policies and procedures to ensure that tor, with an efficiency of 99.82%, while differences created by RF radiation,
stray electrical effects caused by radio maintaining the safety benefits of a impressed current for cathodic protec-
signals, electric arc welding operations, high-power initiator. The Secure2 deto- tion, and welding in appropriate loca-
or cathodic protection systems do not nator is radio frequency (RF) safe, with tions. The technology eliminates the
accidentally set off the detonator. In certification by an independent third- need to shut down radio communica-
environments where it is not feasible party assessor, which improves over- tion and other vital rig equipment dur-
to eliminate all sources of interference, all operational efficiency by allowing ing perforating jobs.
detonation systems that incorporate radio transmitters to stay on and critical The EFI detonating mechanism
additional safety features are required. wellsite operations, such as helicopters, used in S.A.F.E. equipment has proved
boats, cathodic protection, and welding resistant to stray voltages because it
in appropriate locations, to continue requires a high current for detonation.
Secure2 RF-safe during the perforating operation. The S.A.F.E. equipment contains no
electronicdetonator No primary explosives are used within primary high explosives.
the Secure2 detonator, which reduces When shooting power is applied,
The Secure2* RF-safe electronic deto-
sensitivity to shock and burn detonation. a section of metal foil is instantly
nator uses exploding foil initiator (EFI)
Secure2 detonators are available vaporized, which causes a neighboring
technology to provide industry-leading
for hollow carrier and exposed gun sys- (secondary) high-explosives pellet to
safety and reliability during perforat-
tems, plug setting, and pipe recovery detonate and shear a small aluminum
ing operations.
applications. flyer. The flyer travels across a fluid
As the fourth generation of S.A.F.E.*
desensitization gap in the EFI housing
slapper-actuated firing equipment ini-
and strikes a booster that initiates the
tiators, which have been in use world-
detonation of the gun.

Wireline input EFI Electronics


Applications
Hollow carrier and exposed
perforating gun systems
Secondary explosive Punchers
pellet Plug setting
Detonating cord Booster Aluminum flyer
Pipe recovery

Mechanical Specifications
Secure2 High-Temperature Secure2 Exposed Secure2 Secure2 Detonator
Detonator Detonator Detonator Igniter
Temperature rating 340 degF [171 degC] 400 degF [204 degC] 340 degF [171 degC] 340 degF [171 degC]
Pressure rating na na 15,000 psi [103 MPa] na
Fluid desensitization Yes Yes No na
Combinability Hollow carrier guns, puncher, Hollow carrier guns, puncher, Exposed guns, backoff, Plug setting
cutter, severing tools cutter, colliding tools string shot
Special applications UN classification code: 1.4S UN classification code: 1.4S UN classification code: 1.4B UN classification code: 1.4S
na = not applicable
For 1 h

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ASFS
Addressable-Switch Firing System
The ASFS* addressable-switch firing Available for all hollow carrier per-
system is run within explosive devices. forating gun systems and explosive
The system is a series of microproces- plug-setting systems, the ASFS system
sors attached to the initiators. Digital is compatible with conventional and
communication is used to operation- Secure2 detonators. Up to 40 guns
ally check and arm the switches. Each per descent can be run to efficiently
microprocessor has a unique address perforate long intervals or multiple
Addressable arming
protection switch
to individually identify the associated stages in one trip.
explosive device.
All circuits, gun wiring, and
connections can be checked at surface Applications
with the Integrated Perforating Device Selective perforating
Tester (IPDT); while running in hole, Multistage perforating
checking is done with the perforation Tractor-conveyed perforating
acquisition system. Positive shot
Pumpdown perforating
indication is achieved through the
switch requerying feature. In the case Combined plug setting
of a misfire or failed pressure switch, andperforating
that explosive device can be skipped
Addressable switch over. For critical operations, backup
devices can be run as a contingency.

Mechanical Specifications
ASFS System
Temperature rating 340 degF [171 degC]

Addressable switch

Plug-and-shoot
addressable switch

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Perforating Accessories

Casing collar locator pulse that is recorded in conjunction


with the gamma ray. The dual record-
The casing collar locator (CCL) is the
ing establishes the position of the cas-
universal positioning device used to
ing collar with reference to the casing
correlate between cased hole services
gamma ray log to the SP or gamma ray
(e.g., gamma rayCCL to perforating
of an openhole log.
CCL or other cased hole services that
CCL tools are available in a wide
do not necessarily require a gamma ray
range of sizes and specifications to
for correlation). The CCL run in com-
address different casing and tubing
bination with a cased hole gamma ray
sizes, well pressure and temperature
establishes the link between the open-
conditions, and logging cables as well
hole gamma ray measurement and the
as combinability with other services.
cased hole CCL.
The magnetic field of the perma-
nent magnets in the CCL tool becomes Application
distorted as the device passes a cas- Correlation of cased hole logs
ing collar. The distortion is amplified to perforating or other cased
within the tool and sent up hole as a holeservices

Measurement Specifications
CCL
Output Casing and tubing collar location
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Requires monocable, coaxial cable, or hepta-cable
Combinable with perforating guns of different sizes,
plug and packer setting tools, cutters, punchers,
cased hole logging tools
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
CCL
Temperature rating 500 degF [260 degC]
Pressure rating 25,000 psi [172 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 1 in [3.81 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outside diameter 1.375 to 3.375 in [3.49 to 8.57 cm]
CCL-AG
Length 1.48 to 3.5 ft [0.45 to 1.07 m]
Weight 6 to 81.5 lbm [2.7 kg to 37 kg]

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UPCT universal perforating Applications
and correlation tool Gamma rayCCL correlation
The UPCT* universal perforating and During perforating runs for
correlation tool is a gamma rayCCL single-trip efficiency
depth correlation tool for perforating Through tubing
operations shooting any type of In tubing and casing
detonator, including radio frequency
(RF-) safe detonator systems on both At extreme depth and
polarities (addressable switch). The temperature conditions
depth correlation provided by the
1.6875-in [4.29-cm] UPCT tool enables
precise positioning of perforating guns
and other through-tubing explosive
devices. The rugged design and robust
electronics of the UPCT tool enable
running it on the same string as the
perforating guns without requiring a
shock absorber sub.
Gamma
ray detector

Measurement Specifications
UPCT Tool
Output Formation gamma ray, casing and tubing collar location
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability Combinable with all detonator types and perforating
guns without requiring a shock absorber sub
Special applications HS service
Shock qualified to 5,000-g pyro

Mechanical Specifications
UPCT Tool
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC]
1-h excursion: 374 degF [190 degC]
With flask: 500 degF [260 degC]
CCL Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
With flask: 30,000 psi [207 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 1.6875-in tool: 1.82 in [4.62 cm]
Flasked 2.125-in tool: 2.25 in [5.72 cm]
Borehole sizemax. No limit
Outside diameter 1.6875 in [4.29 cm]
With flask: 2.125 in [5.40 cm]
Length Without gun: 4.5 ft [1.37 m]
With flask: 5.94 ft [1.81 m]
Weight 46 lbm [20.9 kg]

UPCT

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PGGT powered gun Applications
gamma tool Accurate positioning of tubing-
The PGGT powered gun gamma tool conveyed perforating (TCP) guns
records naturally occurring gamma Correlation of perforating guns,

rays in the formations near the plugs, and packers in wells without
wellbore. This nuclear measurement previously recorded cased hole logs
indicates the radioactive content Correlation of perforating guns,
of the formations. Effective in any plugs, and packers in wells with
environment, the PGGT tool is the uniform casing joints
standard device for the correlation of Correlation of plugs and packers
cased hole logs with openhole logs. in large casing sizes, which may
Perforating guns, tubing punchers, cause the CCL to be centralized
plugs and packers, and core guns can and ineffective
be correlated by using gamma ray, CCL,
Added assurance for correlating
or both techniques simultaneously.
critical perforating or plug and
packer jobs
Reliable openhole gamma ray

correlation for core guns


Correlation services in casing

where CCL signals cannot be


detected

Measurement Specifications
PGGT Tool
Output Naturally occurring gamma ray, casing collar locator
Logging speed 1,800 ft/h [549 m/h]
Range of measurement 0 to 400 gAPI
Vertical resolution 12 in [30.48 cm]
Accuracy 5%
Depth of investigation 24 in [60.96 cm]
Mud type or weight limitations None
Combinability CST chronological sample taker, casing guns,
plugs,packers
Special applications HS service

Mechanical Specifications
PGGT-DA PGGT-DC
Temperature rating 350 degF [177 degC] 350 degF [177 degC]
Pressure rating 20,000 psi [138 MPa] 20,000 psi [138 MPa]
Borehole sizemin. 4 in [11.11 cm] 4 in [10.47 cm]