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5/1/2017 TimelineofhealthcareinIndiaWikipedia

TimelineofhealthcareinIndia
FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

ThisisatimelineofhealthcareinIndia.Majoreventssuchascrises,policiesandorganizationsareincluded.

Contents
1 Bigpicture
2 Fulltimeline
3 Seealso
4 References

Bigpicture
Year/period Keydevelopment
Theknowledgeofthemedicinalvalueofplantsandothersubstancesandtheirusesgoesbackto
Prehistory thetimeoftheearliestsettlers.Medicalknowledgeevolvesthroughtrialanderrorandexchange
ofknowhowbetweendiversecommunitiesandregions.[1]
Traditional Ayurveda,thescienceoflife,hasbeenthetraditionalsystemofhealthcareinIndiaformorethan
medicine 5000years.Thismedicalsystemiswellestablishedaround2500to600BC,whenitevolvesinto
period 2schools:theSchoolofPhysiciansandtheSchoolofSurgeons.[2]
Britishcolonialperiod.EastIndiaCompanyisestablished.ManyBritishphysiciansassume
broaderscholarlyrolesandEuropeanmedicinecomestobelookeduponasthedominant
medicalknowledgesystem.Britishofficialcolonialpolicymarginalizesindigenousmedicineto
16001947
secondarystatus.NotwithstandingEuropeanmedicinebecomestheofficialhealthcaresystem,
Ayurvediccollegesarestillcreated.Ayurvedaeducationbecomesintegratedwithwestern
conceptsofhealthcare.[1]
Postindependenceperiod.ThegovernmentofIndiamakeseffortstorecognizeAyurveda,Siddha
andUnaniasbeingonparwithscientificmedicine.Nevertheless,thegeneraltrendincreasingly
1947onward complieswiththenormsofmodernmedicine.Intraditionalmedicalschoolsthevocabularyand
diagnostictoolsofmodernmedicinereplacetraditionaltermsandtechniques,andstudents
increasinglybecomeunfamiliarwithclassicalreferencesandmethodologies.[1]
Numerousgovernmentsubsidiesallowtheintroductionofprivatehealthproviders.Alsoopening
1980onward upofthemarketinthe90sfurthergivesimpetustothedevelopmentoftheprivatehealthsector
inIndia.[3]Immunizationprogramsincrease.
Today,thehealthstatusofIndiaisstillonadevelopinglevel.Theprivatesectoristhedominant
healthcareprovider.Privatechainsofhealthcareprovidersareinnovatingveryrapidly,offering
21stcentury highqualitytreatmentatverylowcost.AsIndiaincorporatesworldclasstechnologyand
training,andlowcostofservice,atrendofmedicaltourismdevelopsandstrengthensinthe
2010s.[4][5]

Fulltimeline

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EvolutionoflifeexpectancyinIndiaforperiodbetween1881and
2005. [6]

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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
Medicalinterventionssuchasdentistryand
7000BCE Origin Indiansubcontinent
trepanationarepracticedasearlyasthistime.[1]
OriginofAyurvedamedicine,whenitoriginatesasan
5000BCE Development
oraltradition.[7][8]
25001700
BCE
Development OriginofSiddhamedicine.[9] Tamilakam

Ayurvedaisbranchedintointernalmedicine
pediatricspsychiatrysurgeryeye,ear,nose,and
600BCE Development
throattoxicologygeriatricsand
eugenics/aphrodisiacs.
TextscalledNighantusdealingexclusivelywiththe
materiamedicaofAyurvedaarecomposed.Manyof
theseworkshelptoenlargetherepertoireof
medicinalsubstancesbyincorporatingknowledgeof
8thcenturyCE Development localpractitionersandfromforeignsources.Afew
wellknownNighantusareMadanapalaNighantu,
BhavaprakashaNighantu,DhanvantariNighantuand
SodhalaNighantu.[1]
UnanimedicinesystemisintroducedinIndiavia
1200s Development Rome.Itintegrateswithothersystemssuchas
AyurvedaandYoga.[10]
IntroductionofwesternmedicineinIndia.First
1600s Development medicalofficersarrivealongwiththeBritishEast
IndiaCompany'sfirstfleetasship'ssurgeons.[11]
Organization TheMadrasGeneralHospitalisthefirsthospital
1664 Chennai
(hospital) openedinIndia.[11][12]
Organization
1707 ThePresidencyGeneralHospitalisformed.[11][13] Calcutta
(hospital)
Organization ASuperintendentGeneralofVaccinationinIndiais
1802 (government appointedafterthediscoveryofthesmallpox
body) vaccine.[11]
FirstcholerapandemicoriginatesintheGangesRiver
1817 Crisis
Delta.[14]
TheJawaharlalInstituteofPostgraduateMedical
Organization Education&Research(JIPMER)isfounded.It'sthe
1823 (medical oldesttoteachEuropeanmedicineinAsia.Today Pondicherry
school)
consideredanInstituteofNationalImportance.[15][16]
SecondcholerapandemicoriginatesintheGanges
1829 Crisis
RiverDelta.[14]
Organization
1835 (medical TheCalcuttaMedicalCollegeisestablished.[11] Calcutta
school)
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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
ThirdcholerapandemicoriginatesintheGanges
1852 Crisis
RiverDelta.[14]
ThegovernmentofIndiaagreestosupplymedicines
Calcutta,Madras,
andinstrumentstothegrowingnetworkofminor
1854 Development Bombay,MianMir,and
hospitalsanddispensaries.GovernmentStoreDepots
Rangoon.
areestablishedincities.[11]
Organization
1858 Lunateasylumsareestablishedforinsanepersons.[11]
(asylum)
Organization
1860 (medical TheLahoreMedicalSchoolisestablished.[11][17] Lahore(nowinPakistan)
school)
FourthcholerapandemicoriginatesintheGanges
1863 Crisis
RiverDelta.[14]
APublicHealthCommissionerandaStatistical
1869 Development
OfficerareappointedtotheGovernmentofIndia.[11]
Organization
1870 (government Acentralsanitarydepartmentisformed.[11]
body)
1873 Policy TheBirthandDeathRegistrationActispassed.[11]
Anactispassedforthecompulsoryvaccinationof
childreninmunicipalitiesandcantonments.Smallpox
1880 Policy isthemaintargetduringthisperiod,although
vaccinationsarealsocarriedoutforplagueandother
diseases.[11]
1881 Crisis FifthcholerapandemicoriginatesinIndia.[14] Bengal
Organization
1896 (government ThePlagueCommissionisconstituted.[11]
body)
TheBombayplagueepidemicbreaksout.Itspreads
1896 Crisis acrossallofIndiaandkillsatleast2million
people.[11]
TheEpidemicDiseasesActispassed.TheGovernor
GeneralofIndiaconfersspecialpowersuponlocal
1897 Policy
authoritiestoimplementthenecessarymeasuresfor
controlofepidemics.[11]
1899 Crisis SixthcholerapandemicoriginatesinIndia.[14]
TheGovernmentofIndiasanctionstheappointment
Organization
ofDeputySanitaryCommissionersandHealth
1912 (government
Officerswiththelocalbodiesandreleasesfundsfor
body)
sanitation.[11]
1912 Policy TheIndianLunacyActispassed.[18]
Organization
1921 SirGangaRamHospitalisfounded.[19][20] Lahore
(hospital)
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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
Organization TheNationalInstituteofMentalHealthand
1925 (medical Neurosciencesisestablished.Todaylistedasan Bangalore
institution) InstituteofNationalImportance.[21][22][23]
KingEdwardMemorialHospitalandSeth
Organization
1926 GordhandasSunderdasMedicalCollegeis Mumbai
(hospital)
founded.[20][24]
Organization TheAllIndiaInstituteofHygieneandPublicHealth
1930 (health Calcutta
isestablished.[11]
training)
TheMedicalCouncilofIndiaisformed,withthe
1933 Policy purposeofestablishinguniformandhighstandardsof
medicaleducationinIndia.[18]
TheBombayMedicalPractitioner'sActispassed.
1938 Policy Withitcomesthefirstlegalrecognitionand
registrationfortheIndiansystemsofmedicine.[18]
Organization ThefirstRuralHealthTrainingCenterisestablished
1939 (health Singur
training) nearCalcutta.[11]

TheTuberculosisFoundationofIndiais
1939 Organization
established.[11]
TheDrugsActispassedanddrugsaremadeunder
1940 Policy
thecontrolofthegovernmentforthefirsttime.[11]
Organization DarbhangaMedicalCollegeandHospitalis
1946 (medical Bihar
established.[25]
school)
Program TheEmployees'StateInsuranceScheme(ESIS)is
launch launchedwiththeobjectiveofachievinguniversal
1948 healthcoverage.Targetedatemployeeswithincome
(healthcare
coverage) lessthanRs15000/monthanddependents.[26]
TheInsuranceAmendmentActleadstothe
1950 Policy GovernmentofIndiadecidingtonationalizethe
insurancebusiness.[26]
Organization
(hospitalchain, ManipalHospitalsisfoundedasapartoftheManipal
1953 Bangalore
medicalschool EducationandMedicalGroup(MEMG).[27]
chain)
TheDelhiNursingHomeRegistrationActis
1953 Policy Delhi
passed.[18]
Program TheCentralGovernmentHealthScheme(CGHS)is
launch launchedwiththeobjectiveofachievinguniversal
1954
(healthcare healthcoverageingovernmentemployeesand
coverage) families.[26]

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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
TheAllIndiaInstitutesofMedicalSciences(AIIMS)
Organization arefoundedwithafirstcollegeinNewDelhi.These
1956 (medical institutesaredeclaredinstituteofnationalimportance NewDelhi
collegechain)
bytheActofParliament.[21]
Organization ThePostgraduateInstituteofMedicalEducationand
(medicaland Researchisestablished.Todaylistedasaninstituteof Chandigarh
1962
research
nationalimportance.[21][28]
institution)
Organization Agovernmentbodyforsettingnormsforthe
1964 (government manufactureandthecontrolofthequalityof
body) traditionalmedicinalpreparationsisformed.[1]
TheGovernmentofIndialaunchestheBalwadi
Program NutritionProgrammetoprovidefoodsupplementsat
1970 launch Balwadistochildrenoftheagegroup36yearsin
(nutrition)
ruralareas.[29][30]
Organization AnugrahNarayanMagadhMedicalCollegeand
1970 (medical Gaya
school) Hospitalisfounded.[31][32]

ThegovernmentofIndiapassestheIndianMedical
CentralCouncilActtostandardizeAyurvedic
1970 Policy
teachinginstitutions,theircurriculumandtheir
diplomas.[1]
Organization JawaharlalNehruMedicalCollegeandHospitalis
1971 (medical Bhagalpur
founded.[33][34]
school)
Program TheIntegratedChildDevelopmentServices(ICDS)
launch schemeislaunchedwiththepurposeofimproving
1975
(nutrition,
childhealth) nutritionandhealthstatusinchildren.[26]

AravindEyeHospitalschainisopenedbyDr. TamilNadu,Madurai,
GovindappaVenkataswamyasanetworkofeye Theni,Tirunelveli,
Organization hospitals.Havingamajorimpactineradicating Coimbatore,
1976
(hospitalchain) cataractrelatedblindnessinIndia,todaythemodelof Pondicherry,Dindigul,
AravindEyeCarehospitalsishighlyrecognizedand Tirupur,Salem,
haswonmultipleawards.[35][36] Tuticorin,Udumalpet.
Organization LilavatiHospitalandResearchCentreis
1978 Mumbai
(hospital) established.[20][37]
TheNationalHealthPolicyisendorsedbythe
1983 Policy
ParliamentofIndia.[38]
ApolloHospitalsopensitsfirstfacility.Itisthefirst
Organization hospitaltoberegisteredasapubliclylistedcompany
1983 Chennai
(hospitalchain) [27]
inIndia.

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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
ThegovernmentofIndialaunchestheUniversal
ImmunizationProgramme,consistinginmassive
Program vaccinationforninediseases:tuberculosis,diphtheria,
1985 launch
pertussis(whoopingcough),tetanus,poliomyelitis,
(immunization) measles,HepatitisB,Diarrhoea,Japanese
EncephalitisandPneumonia.[39][40]
Organization PharmaceuticalcompanyWockhardtopensitsfirst
1990 Kolkata
(hospital) medicalcenter.[27]
Organization FortisMalarHospitalisestablished.Itisconsidered
1992 Chennai
(hospital) amongthebestinthecountry.[41][42]
1994plague.Bubonicandpneumonicplaguebreak Southcentraland
1994 Crisis
out.[43] southwesternIndia
1994 Crisis PneumonicplagueepidemicinSuratbreaksout.[44] Gujarat
TheDepartmentofAyurveda,YogaandNaturopathy,
Unani,SiddhaandHomoeopathy(AYUSH)iscreated
Organization
asagovernmentalbodyinIndiapurposedwith
1995 (government developingeducationandresearchinayurveda,yoga,
body)
naturopathy,unani,siddha,homeopathy,andother
alternativemedicinesystems.[1]
Program PulsePolioprogramislaunchedbythegovernmentto
1995 launch eradicatepoliomyelitisbyvaccinatingallchildren
(immunization) undertheageoffiveyears.[45]
Organization
1996 FortisHealthcareisfounded.[27] Delhi
(hospitalchain)
TheRevisedNationalTuberculosisControlProgram
Program (RNTCP)islaunchedbythegovernmentwithaimsat
1997 launch achievinguniversalaccesstotuberculosiscontrol
(immunization)
services.[46]
Policy TheInsuranceRegulatoryandDevelopmentAct
2000 (healthcare (IRDA)opensupthemarketwiththeinvitationfor
coverage) registrationapplications.[26]
TheKrishnaHeartInstituteisfoundedasahighend
2000 Organization Ahmedabad,India
medicalfacility,specializinginheartdiseases.[47][48]
TheWorldHealthOrganization'sglobalhealthcare
2000 Report profileranksIndiashealthcaresystem112thoutof
190countries.[26]
Organization TheSreeChitraTirunalInstituteforMedicalSciences
2000 (medical andTechnology(SCTIMST)isestablished.Listedas Thiruvananthapuram
school) anInstituteofNationalImportance[21]

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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
Bengaluru,Ahmedabad,
NarayanaHealthsystemisopenedasamulti Davangere,Dharwad,
specialtyhospitalchainbyDr.DeviShettyunderthe Bellary,Berhampore,
guidanceoftheAsianHeartFoundation.Todayithas Jaipur,Jamshedpur,
Organization 31hospitalsin19locations.ItisoneofIndia'slargest
2000 Katra,Kolar,Kolkata,
(hospitalchain)
andconsideredtheworld'smosteconomical[49] Mahuva,Mysore,
healthcareproviderswithareputationforhigh Palanpur,Raipur,
quality.[50][51] Shimoga,Durgapur,
Guwahati.
TheTobaccocessationclinicprogram(laterrenamed Anand,Bhopal,
asTobaccoCessationCenters)islaunchedbythe Bangalore,Chandigarh,
Program WorldHealthOrganization(WHO)andtheMinistry Chennai,Cuttack,Delhi,
launch ofHealthofIndia.Until2005,18facilitiesare Goa,Jaipur,Lucknow,
20022005 created.Theservicesofferedattheclinicsinclude
(lifestyle Mumbai,andPatna,
diseases) individualinterventionintheformofbehavioral Mizoram,Guwahati,
counseling,medication,andnicotinereplacement Kolkata,Hyderabadand
therapy[52] Trivandrum
Program TheDeenDayalAntyodayUpcharYojnaschemeis
launch launchedbythegovernmentofMadhyaPradeshto
2004 MadhyaPradesh
(healthcare
coverage) providefreehealthcaretopoorfamilies.[53]

Program
launch TheNationalRuralHealthMission(NRHM)is
2005
(healthcare launchedbythegovernmentofIndia.[54]
coverage)
Program AccreditedSocialHealthActivist(ASHAs)is
launch launchedasaprogramofcommunityhealthworkers
2005 institutedbytheMinistryofHealthandFamily
(healthcare
coverage) Welfare.[55]
TheJananiSurakshaYojanaschemeislaunchedby
Program theGovernmentofIndiawithaimsatdecreasingthe
2005 launch(child neonatalandmaternaldeathshappeninginthe
mortality) countrybypromotinginstitutionaldeliveryof
babies.[56]
Program TheGovernmentofAndhraPradeshlaunchesthe
launch Aarogyasriprograminordertoprovidenocost
2007 AndhraPradesh
(healthcare coverageofhospitalizationforallthosebelowthe
coverage) povertyline.[57]
Organization
(hospitaland
2008 FordHospitalandResearchCentreisfounded. Patna
research
center)
HospitalchainColumbiaAsiaestablishesareferral
Organization hospital.Itisconsideredamongthebesthospitalsin
2008 Bangalore
(hospital)
India.[41]

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Typeof
Year/period Event Location
event
Program TheRashtriyaSwasthyaBimaYojana(RSBY)
launch schemeislaunchedwiththeobjectiveofproviding
2009
(healthcare
coverage) affordablehealthcaretothepoor.[26]

Organization KokilabenDhirubhaiAmbaniHospitalis
2010 Mumbai
(hospital) founded.[20][58]
Program TheNationalProgrammefortheHealthCareofthe
launch Elderly(NPHCE)schemeislaunchedwiththe
2011
(healthcare objectiveofprovidingtheelderlyaneasyaccessto
coverage) primaryhealthcare.[26]
Organization AllIndiaInstituteofMedicalSciencesexpandtosix Bhopal,Bhubaneswar,
2012 (medical Jodhpur,Patna,Raipur
locations.[59]
collegechain) andRishikesh.
Odishajaundiceoutbreak.MainlyHepatitisEand Odisha,Bolangirdistrict,
2014 Crisis Cuttack,Khurdaand
alsoHepatitisAkillatleast36people.[60] Jajpur
MissionIndradhanushislaunchedbytheMinistryof
HealthandFamilyWelfarewiththepurposeof
Program immunizingallchildrenagainstsevenvaccine
2014 launch preventablediseases,namelydiphtheria,pertussis,
(immunization) tetanus,polio,tuberculosis,measlesandhepatitisB
by2020.[61]
Program TBMission2020islaunchedbytheGovernmentof
2014 launch Indiawiththepurposeofeliminatingtuberculosis
(immunization) fromthecountryin2020.[62]

Seealso
HealthinIndia
HealthcareinIndia
TimelineofhealthcareinChina
TimelineofhealthcareinJapan

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